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t T. E. PAGE, C.R., LITT.D.
t E. CAPPS, PR.D., LL.D.
t L. A. POST, L.R.D.
. " ~
American ISBN 0-674-99063-3
BritiRh ISBN ° 434 9901;7 4
First printed 1914
Reprinted 1920, 1926, 1929, 1936, 1943, 1950,
1954, 1959, 1964, 1967, 1970, 1974, 1977, 1982
Printed Offset Litho and Bound in Great Britain by
Fletcher & Son Ltd, Norwich
Works and Days
The Divination by Birds
The Astronomy . . . .
The Precepts of Chiron .
The Great Works . . .
The Idaean Dactyls . .
The Theogony . . . .
The Catalogues of Women and the Eoiae
The Shield of HeracIes
The Marriage of Ceyx
The Great Eoiae
The Melampodia
The Aegimius
Fragments of Unknown Position
Doubtful Fragments
I.-To Dionysus
n.-To Demeter.
IlL-To Apollo
Iv.-To Hermes .
v.-To Aphrodite
vL-To Aphrodite
vII.-To Dionysus·
VIII.-To Ares
Ix.-To Artemis .
x.-To Aphrodite
xL-To Athena .
xIl.-To Hera
XIII.-To Demeter.
xlv.-To the Mother of the Gods
xv.-To HeracIes the Lion·hearted
XVI.-To Asclepius . . . . . . .
xVII.-To the Dioscuri
XVIII.-To Hermes . .
xlx.-To Pan
xx.-To Hephaestus
XXI.-To Apollo
xxII.-To Poseidon .
xXIII.-To the Son of Cronus, Most High
xXlv.-To Hestia ..... .
xxv.-To the Muses and Apollo
xxvI.-To Dionysus
xVIl.-To Artemis ..... .
XXVIII.-To Athena . .
xXlx.-To Hestia . , . . . .
xxx.-To Earth the Mother of All .
xxxI.-To Helios
xxxII.-To Selene
XXXIII.-To the Dioscuri
THE EPIC CYCLE . . . . .
The War of the Titans
The Story of Oedipus
The Thebais
The Epigoni
The Cypria .
The Aethiopis .
The Little Iliad
The Sack of Ilium
The Returns
The Telegony
The Expedition of Amphiaraus
The taking of Oechalia
The Phocais . . . . . . . .
The Margites . . . . . . . .
The Cercopes . . . . . . . . .
The Battle of the Frogs and Mice
APpENDIX ..... .
INDEX ....... .
THIS volume contains practically all that remains of
the post-Homeric and pre-academic epic poetry.
I have f&r the most part formed my own text. In
the case of Hesiod I have been able to use indepen-
dent collations of several MSS. by Dr. W. H. D.
Rouse; otherwise I have depended on the apparatus
criticus of the several editions, especially that of
Rzach (1902). The arrangement adopted in this
edition, by which the complete and fragmentary
poems are restored to the order in which they would
probably have appeared had the Hesiodic corpus
survived intact, is unusual, but should not need
apology; the true place for the Catalogues (for
example), fragmentary as they are, is certainly after
the Theogony.
In preparing the text of the Homeric Hymns my
chief debt-and it is a heavy one-is to the edition
of Allen and Sikes (1904) and to the series of articles
in the Journal of Hellenic Studies (vols. xv. sqq.) by
T. W. Allen. To the same scholar and to the
Delegates of the Clarendon Press I am greatly
indebted for permission to use the restorations of
the Hymn to Demeter, lines 387-401 and 462-470,
printed in the Oxford Text of 1912.
Of the fragments of the Epic Cycle I have given
only such as seemed to possess distinct importance or
interest, and in doing so have relied mostly upon
Kinkel's collection and on the fifth volume of the
Oxford Homer (1912).
The texts of the Batrachomyomacltia and of the
Contest of Homer and Hesiod are those of Baumeister
and Flach respectively: where I have diverged from
these, the fact has been noted.
Sopt. 9th, 1914
Mr. D. L. Page, M.A., Student and Tutor of Christ
Church, Oxford, has added a second Appendix to this
edition which contains all the fragments of Hesiod
and the Homerica which have been discovered since
Mr. Evelyn \"'hite revised his work in 1919.
January, 1035.
THE early Greek epic-that is, epic poetry as a
natural and popular, and not (as it became later) an
artificial and academic literary form-passed through
the usual three phases, of development, of maturity,
and of decline.
No fragments which can be identified as belonging
to the first period survive to give us even a
general idea of the history of the earliest epic,
and we are therefore thrown back upon the evidence
of analogy from other forms of literature and of
inference from the two great epics which have come
down to us. So reconstructed, the earliest period
appears to us as a time of slow development in which
the characteristic epic metre, diction, and structure
grew up slowly from crude elements and were
improved until the verge of maturity was reached.
The second period, which produced the Iliad and
the Odyssey, needs no dcscription here: but it is very
important to observe the effect of these poems on
the course of post-Homeric epic. As the supreme
perfection and universality of the Iliad and the
Odyssey cast into oblivion whatever pre-Homeric poets
had essayed, so these same qualities exercised a
paralysing influence over the successors of Homer.
If they continued to sing like their great pl'edecessor
of romantic themes, they were drawn as by R kind of
magnetic attraction into the Homeric style and
manner of treatment, and became mere echoes'of the
Homeric voice: in a word, Homer had so completely
exhausted the epic genre, that after him further
efforts were doomed to be merely conventional.
Only the rare and exceptional genius of Vergil and
Milton could use the Homeric medium without loss
ilf individuality: and this quality none of the later
epic poets seem to have possesse.d: Freedom from
the domination of the great tradItIOn could only be
found by seeking new subjects, and such freedom
was really only illusionary, since romantic subjects
alone are suitable for epic treatment.
In its third period, therefore, epic poetry shows
two divergent tendencies. In Ionia and the islands
the epic poets followed the Homeric tradition,
sin "'ing of romantic subj ects in the now stereotyped
style, and showing originality only in
choice of legends hitherto neglected or summarIly
and imperfectly treated. In continental Greece,1
on the other hand, but especially in Boeotia, a new
form of epic sprang up, which for the romance and
7raiJo, of the Ionian School substituted the practical
and matter-of-fact. It dealt in moral and practical
maxims, in information on technical subjects which
are of service in daily life-agricultul'e, astronomy,
augury, and the calendar-in matters of
and in tracing the genealogies of men. Its attItude
is summed up in the words of the Muses to the
writer of the Theugony: "We can tell many a
tale to look like truth, but we can, when we WIll,
utter the truth" (Theog. 26-27). Such a poetry
• oc. in Boeotia, Locris and Thessaly : elsewhere the move·
ment was forced and unfruitful.
could not be permanently successful, because the
subjects of which it treats-if susceptible of poetic
at all-were certainly not suited for epic
treatment, where unity of action which will sustain
interest, and to which each part should contribute,
is absolutely necessary. While, therefore, an epic
like the Od,yssey is an organism and dramatic in
structure, a work such as the Theogon!J is a merely
artificial collocation of facts, and, at best, a pageant.
I t is not surprising, therefore, to find that from the
first the Boeotian school is forced to season its matter
with romantic episodes, and that later it tends more
and more to revert (as in the Shield of Heracles) to
the Homeric tradition.
The Boeotian School
How did the continental school of epic poetry
arise? There is little definite material for an answer
to this question, but the probability is that there were
at least three contributory causes. First, it is likely
that before the rise of the Ionian epos there existed
in Boeotia a purely popular and indigenous poetry
of a crude form: it comprised, we may suppose,
versified proverbs and precepts relating to life in
general, agricultural maxims, weather-lore, and the
like. In this sense the Boeotian poetry may be
taken to have its germ in maxims similar to our
"Till May be out, ne'er cast a clout,"
" A rainbow in the morning
Is the Shepherd's warning."
Secondly and thirdly we may ascribe the rise of the
new epic to the nature of the Boeotian people and, as
already remarked, to a spirit of revolt against the
old epic. The iloeotians, people of the class of which
Hesiod represents himself to be the type, were
essentially unromantic; their daily needs marked the
general limit of their ideals, and, as a class, they
cared little for works of fancy, for pathos, or for fine
thought as s\lch. To a people of this nature the
Homeric epos would be inacceRtable, and the
Homeric epic, with its conventIOnal atmosphere, Its
trite and hackneyed diction, and its insincere
sentiment would be anathema. We can imagine,
therefore,'that among such folk a settler, of
origin like Hesiod, who clearly was well acquamted
with the Ionian epos, would naturally see that the
only outlet for his gifts lay in. applying epic poetry
to new themes acceptable to IllS hearers.
Though the poems of the Boeotian school
unanimously assigned to Hesiod down to the age of
Alexandrian criticism, they were clearly neither the
work of one man nor even of one period: some,
doubtless,' were fraudulently fathered on him in
order to gain currency; but it is probable that most
came to be regarded as his partly because of their
general character, and partly because the n,,;mes
their real authors were lost. One fact m thIS
attribution is remarkable-the veneration paid to
, I The extant collection of three poems, Works and Days,
'Theogony and Shield of Heracl.s, which alone have come
down to complete, dates at least from. the 4th century
A,D.: the title of the Pari. Papyrus (Bib!. Nat. Suppl.
Gr. 1099) names only the .. three works.
Lffe of llesiod.-Our information respecting Hesiod
is derived in the main from notices and allusions in
the works attributed to him, and to these must
be added certain traditions concerning his death and
burial gathered from later writers.
Hesiod's father (whose name, by a perversion of
Works and Days, 299 IIlpCT7] SLOV to IIlpCT7], A(ov
was thought to have been Dius) was a native of
Cyme in AeoUs, where he was a seafaring trader and,
perhaps, also a farmer. He was forced by poverty to
leave his native place, and returned to continental
Greece, where he settled at Ascra near Thespiae in
Boeotia (Works and Days, 636 1f.). Either in Cyme
or Ascra, two sons, Hesiod and Perses, were born to
the settler, and these, after his death, divided the
farm between them. Perses, however, who is re-
presented as an idler and spendthrift, obtained and
, kept the larger share by bribing the corrupt" lords"
who ruled from Thespiae (Wor/es and Days, 37-39).
While his brother wasted his patrimony and ulti-
mately came to want (Works and Days, 34 ff.)"Hesiod
lived a farmer's life until, according to the very early
tradition preserved by the author of the Theogony
(22-23), the Muses met him as he was tending
sheep on Mt. Helicon and "taught him a glorious
song"-doubtless the Works and Da.ys. The only
other personal reference is to his victory in a poetical
contest at the funeral games 'of Amphidamas at
Chalcis in Enboea, where he won the prize, a tripod,
which he dedicated to the Muses of Helicon (Works
and Days, 651-9).
Before we go on to the story of Hesiod's death, it
will be well to inquire how far the "autobio-
graphical" notices can be treated as historical,
especially as many critics treat some, or all of them,
as spurious. In the first place attempts have been
made to show that "Hesiod" is a significant name
and therefore fictitious: it is only necessary to
mention Goettling's derivation from i",I-" and 68o,
(which would make" Hesiod" mean the" guide"
in virtues and technical arts), and to refer to the
pitiful attempts in the Et!Jmologicum Magnum (a.v.
'Hutooo,), to show how prejudiced and lacking even
in plausibility such efforts are. It seems certain
that" Hesiod" stands as a proper name in the fullest
sense. Secondly, Hcsiod claims that his father-if not
he himself-came from Aeolis and settled in Boeotia.
There is fairly definite evidence to warrant our
acceptance of this: the dialect of the Works and
Da!Js is shown by Rzach 1 to contain distinct
Aeolisms apart from those which formed part of the
general stock of epic poetry. And that this Aeolic
speaking poet was a Boeotian of Ascra seems even
more certain, since the tradition is never once
disputed, insignificant though the place was, even
before its destruction by the Thespians.
Again, Hesiod's story of his relations with his
brother Perses have been treated with scepticism
(see Murray, Anc. Gk. Literatwoe, pp. 53-54): Perses,
it is urged, is clearly a mere dummy, set up to be the
target for the poet's exhortations. On such a matter
precise· evidence is naturally not forthcoming; but
all probability is against the sceptical view. For (1)
if the quarrel b e t ~ e e n the brothers were a fiction,
we should expect it to be detailed at length and not
noticed allusively and rather obscurely-as we find
I Dtr Dialekt de. HtsiodoB, p. 464: examples are ar'1/I"
(W. and D. 683) and &'''1'''''' (ib. 22).
it; (2) as MM. Croiset remark, if the poet needed
a lay-figure the ordinary practice was to introduce
some mythological person-as, in fact, is done in
the Precepts of Chimn. In a word, there is no more
solid ground for treating Perses and his quarrel with
H esiod as fictitious than there would be for treating
Cyrnus, the friend of Theognis, as mythical.
Thirdly, there is the passage in the Theogon!J
relating to Hesiod lind the Muses. It is surely an
error to suppose that lines 22-35 all refer to Hesiod:
rather, the author of the Theogon!J tells the story of
his own inspiration by the same Muses who once
taught Hesiod glorious song. The lines 22-3 are
therefore a very early piece of tradition about
Hesiod, and though the appearance of Muses must
be treated as a graceful fiction, we find that a writer,
later than the Works and Da!Js by perhaps no more
than three-quarters of a century, believed in the
actuality of Hesiod and in his life as a farmer or
Lastly, there is the famous story of the contest in
song at Chalcis. In later times the modest version
in the Works and Da!Js was elaborated, first by making
Homer the opponent whom Hesiod conquered, while
a later period exercised its ingenuity in working up
the story of the contest into the elaborate form in
which it still survives. Finally the contest, in which
the two poets contended with hymns to Apollo,'
was transferred to Delos; These developments cer-
tainly need no consideration: are we to say the same
) T. W. Allen suggest. that the conjoined DeHan and
Pythian hymns to Apollo (Homerio Hymns III) may have
suggested this version of the story, the Pythian hymn
.howing .troDg oontinental influence.
of the passage in the Works and Days? Critics from
Plutarch downwards have almDst unanimDusly re-
jected the lilies 654-662, Dn the grDund that HesiDd's
:\mphidamas is the hero, Df the Lelantine war
between Chalcis and Eretria, whDse death may be
placed d,y;a 705 B.c.-a date which is DbviDusly tDD
IDW fDr the genuine HesiDd. Nevertheless, there is
much to, be said in defence Df the passage. HesiDd's
claim in the Works and Days is mDdest, since he
neither pretends to, have met HDmer, nDrtD have sung
in any but an impromptu, lDcal festival, so, that the
supPDsed interpolatiDn lacks a sufficient mDtive. And
there is nDthing in the cDntext to, ShDW that HesiDd's
Amphidamas is to, be identified with that Amphi-
damas whDm Plutarch alDne CDnnects with the
Lelantine War: the name may have been bDrne by
an earlier Chalcidian, an apcestor, perhaps, Df the
persDn to, whDm Plutarch refers.
The stDry Df the end Df HesiDd may be tDld
in Dutline. After the cDntest at Chalcis, HesiDd
went to, Delphi and there was wamed that the" issue
Df death shDuld Dvertake him in the fair grDve Df
Nemean Zeus." AVDiding therefDre Nemea Dn the
Isthmus Df Corinth, to, which he suppDsed the Draele
to, refer, HesiDd retired to, OenDe in LDcris where he
was entertained by Amphiphanes and GanyctDr, SDns
Df a certain Phegeus. This place, hDwever, was also,
sacred to, N emean Zeus, and the pDet, suspected by
his hDstS Df having seduced their sister,! was mur-
dered there. His bDdy, cast into, the sea, was
brDught to, shDre by dDlphins and buried at OenDe
(Dr, accDrding to, Plutarch, at Ascra): at a later time
his bDnes were remDved to, OrchDmenus. The whDle
1 She i •• aid to have Kiven birth to tho lyrist StoBiohoruB.
stDry is f,.ll Df miraculous elemen ts, and t.he variau"
authorities disagree Dn numerDUS pDints Df detail.
The traditiDn seems, however, to, be constant in
declaring that Hesiod was murdered and buried at
Oenoe, and in this respect it is at least as old as the
time of Thucydides. In conclusion it may be worth
while to add the graceful epigram of Alcaeus Df
Messene (Palatine Anthology, vii 55).
'0 • ,.. ., 'II '0
OKpt.OOS £v Vf.P,€t uKtEP'P VEKVV O"'LQOOto
"., .I. '0 \. ".1.'
.1' lJj.J.o.rat KpYJVtaOWV I\.ovo-av u;ro (T't'ETfpWV,
, I A.. r: .1, I I \ , ...
Ka.t 'Ta-r0Y V"t'wo-aVTO' YUA.UKTL DE 7rOl.j.J.€Vf.S alywv
;ppavav, fttALTto
I, , ... " "l\if'
TOI.1]V yap Kar. YlJPlJV U1TE7TVHV EVVEa. .... ouQ"'wv
... pla/3Evs KaOapwv yEV<rd.P.EVOS A,{3d.OWV.
"\Vhen in the shady Locrian grove Hesiod
lay dead, the Nymphs washed his body with
water from their own springs, and heaped high
his grave; and thereon the gDat-herds sprinkled
offerings Df milk mingled with yellDw-honey:
such WaS the utterance of the nine 1\1" uses that
he breathed forth, that DId man who had tasted
Df their pure springs."
The llaiodic Poems.-The Hesiodic poems [aJ] into
two groups accDrding as they are didactic (technical
or gnomic) or genealogical: the first group centres
round the W01'ks and Days, the secDnd round the
I. The Worles and Days.-The poem consists of
four main seetiDns (a) After the prelude, which
Pausanias failed to find in the ancient copy engraved
on lead seen by him on Mt. HelicDn, CDmes a
general exhortation to, industry. It begins with the
allegory of the two Strifes, who stnnd for wholesome
Emulation and Quarrelsomeness respectively. Then
by means of the Myth of Pandora the poet shows
how evil and the need for work first arose, and goes
on to describe the Five Ages of thc World, tracing the
gradual increase of evil, and emphasizing the present
miserable condition of the world, a condition in which
struggle is inevitable. N e ~ t , after the Fable of the
Hawk and Nightingale, which serves as a condem-
nation of violence and injustice, the poet passes on to
contrast the blessings which Righteousness brings to
a nation, and the punishment which Heaven sends
down upon the violent, and the section concludes with
a series of precepts on industry and prudent conduct
generally. (b) The second section shows how a man
may escape want and misery by industry and care both
in agriculture and in trading by sea. Neither subject,
it should be carefully noted, is treated in any way com-
prehensively. (0) The third part is occupied with mis-
cellaneous precepts relating mostly to actions of
domestic and everyday life and conduct which have
little 01' no connection with one another. (d) The
final section is taken up with a series of notices on
the days of the month which are favourable or
unfavourable for agl'icultural and other operations.
It is from the second and fourth sections that the
poem takes its name. At first sight such a work
seems to be a miscellany of myths, technical advice,
moral precepts, and folklore maxims without any
unifying principle; and critics have readily taken
the view that the whole is a cento of fragments or
short poems worked up by a redactor. Very
probably Hesiod used much material of " far older
<:late, just as Shakespeare used the Guta Roman-
orum, old chronicles, and old plays; but close
inspection will show that the Works and Dags has a
real unity and that the picturesque title is somewhat
misleading. The poem has properly no technical
object at all, but is moral: its real aim is to show
men how best to live in a difficult world. So viewed
the four seemingly independent sections will be
found to be linked together in a real bond of unity.
Such a connection between the first and second
sections is easily seen, but the links between these
Ilnd the third and fourth are no less real: to make
life go tolerably smoothly it is most important to be
just and to know how to win a livelihood; but
happiness also largely depends on prudence and care
both in social and home life as well, and not least on
avoidance of actions which offend supernatural
powers and bring ill-luck. And finally, if your
industry is to be fruitful, you must know what days
are suitable for various kinds of work. This moral
aim-as opposed to the currently accepted technical
aim of the poem-explains the otherwise puzzling
incompleteness of the instructions on farming and
Of the Hesiodic poems similar in character to the
Works and Dags, only the scantiest fragments survive.
One at least of these, the Divination bg Birds, was, as
we know from Proclus, attached to the end of the
Works until it was rejected by Apollonius Rhodius:
doubtless it continued the same theme of how to live,
showing how man can avoid disasters by attending
to the omens to be drawn from birds. It is possible
that the Astronomg or Astrologg (as Plutarch calls it)
was in turn appended to the lJivination. It certainly
gave some account of the principal constellations, their
dates of rising and setting, and the legends connected
with them, and probably showed how these influenced
human affairs or might be used as guides. The
Precepts of Chiron was a didactic poem made up of
moral and practical precepts, resembling the gnomic
sections of the Works and Da.ys, addressed by the
Centaur Chiron to his pupil Achilles. Even less is
known of the poem called the Great Works: the title
implies that it was similar in subject to the second
section of the It'ol'ks and Days, but longer. Possible
references in Roman writers 1 indicate that among
the subjects dealt with were the cultivation of the
vine ~ d olive and various herbs. The inclusion of
the judgment of Rhadamanthys (frag. 1): "If a man
sow evil, he shall reap evil," indicates a gnomic
element, and the note by Proclus
on Works and Days
126 makes it likely that metals also were dealt with.
It is therefore possible that another lost poem, the
Idaean Dact;yls, which dealt with the discovery of
metals and their working, was appended to, or even
was a part of the Great Works, just as the
Divination by Birds was appended to the WOlks and
II. The Genealogical Poems.-The only complete
poem of the genealogical group is the Theogony,
which traces from the beginning of things the descent
and vicissitudes of the families of the godG. Like
the Works and Days this poem has no dramatic plot;
but its unifying principle is clear and Simple. The
gods are classified chronologicallY: as soon as o n ~
generation is catalogued, the poet goes on to detad
I See Kinkel Npie. GraBe. Frag. i. 158 ff.
• See Groat Workl. frag, 2.
the offspring of each member of that generation. Ex·
ceptions are only made in special cases, as the Sons
of Iapetus (II. 507-616) whose place is accounted for
by their treatment by Zeus. The chief landmarks in
the poem are as follows: after the first 103 lines, which
contain at least three distinct preludes, three pri.
meval beings are introduced, Chaos, Earth and Eros
-here an indefinite reproductive influence. Of these
three, Earth produces Heaven to whom she bears the
Titans, the Cyclopes and the hundred-handed giants,
The Titans, oppressed by their father, revolt at the
instigation of Earth, under the leadership of Cronos,
and as a result Heaven and Earth are separated,! and
Cronos reigns over the universe. Cronos knowing
that he is destined to be overcome by one of his
children, swallows each one of them as they are
born, until Zeus, saved by Rhea, grows up and over-
comes Cronos in some struggle which is not described.
Cronos is forced to vomit up the children he had
swallowed, and these with Zeus divide the universe
between them, like a human estate. Two events
mark the early reign of Zeus, the war with the
Titans and the overthrow of Typhoeus, and as Zeus is
still reigning the poet can only go on to give a list
of gods born to Zeus by various goddesses. After
this he formally bids farewell to the cosmic and
Olympian deities and enumerates the sons born of
goddess to mortals. The pocm closes with an
invocation of the Muses to sing of the" tribe of
This conclusion served to link the TIzeogony to
what must have been a distinct poem, the Catalogues
of Women This work was divided into four (Suidas
1 See note on p. 113.
says five) books, the last one (or two) of which was
known as the Eoiae and may have been again a distinct
poem: the curious title will be explained presently.
The Catalogues proper were a series of genealogies
which traced the Hellenic race (or its more important
peoples and families) from a common ancestor. The
reason why women are so prominent is obvious: since
most families and tribes claimed to be descended
from a god, the only safe clue to their origin was
through tlie mortal woman beloved by that god; and
it has also been pointed out that muUerrecht still left
its traces in northern Greece in historical times.
The following analysis (after Marckscheffel
) will
show the principle of its composition. From Prome-
theus and Pronoia sprang Deucalion and Pyrrha,
the only survivors of the deluge, who had a son
Hellen (frag. 1), the reputed ancestor of the whole
Hellenic race. From the daughters of Deucalion
sprang Magnes and Macedon, ancestors of the
Magnesians and Macedonians, who are thus re-
presented as cousins to the true Hellenic stock.
Hellen had three sons, Dorus, Xuthus and Aeolus,
parents of the Dorian, Ionic and Aeolian races, and
the offspring of these was then detailed. In one
instance a considerable and characteristic section can
be traced from extant fragments and notices: Sal-'
moneus, son of Aeolus, had a daughter Tyro who
bore to Poseidon two sons, Pelias and N eleus; the
latter of these, king of Pylos, refused Herades
purification for the murder of Iphitus, whereupon
Herades attacked and sacked Pylos, killing amongst
the other sons of Neleus Periclymenus, who had the
power of changing himself into all manner of shapes.
1 Huiodi Fragmenta, pp. 119 f.
From this slaughter Neleus alone escaped (frags. 13,
and 10-12). This summary shows the general
principle of arrangement of the Catalogues: each
line seems to have been dealt with in turn, and the
monotony was relieved as far as possible by a brief
relation of famous adventures connected with any
of the personages-as in the case of Atalanta and
Hippomenes (frag. 14). Similarly the story of the
Argonauts appears from the fragments (37-42) to
have been told in some detail.
This tendency to introduce romantic episodes led
to an important development. Several poems are
ascribed to Hesiod, such as the Epithalamium of Peleus
and Thetis, the Descent of Theseus into Hades, or the
Circuit of the Earth (which must have been connected
with the story of Phineus and the Harpies, and so
with the Argonaut-legend), which yet seem to have
belonged to the Catalogufl. It is highly probable
that these poems were interpolations into the Cata-
logues expanded by later poets from more summary
notices in the genuine Hesiodic work and sub-
sequently detached from their contexts and treated as
independent. This is definitely knmyn to be true of
the Shield of Heracles, the first 53 lines of which
belong to the fourth 'book of the Catalogues, and
almost certainly applies to other episodes, such as
the Suitors of Helen,1 the Daugltters of Leucippus, and
the Marriage of Ce!Jx, which last Plutarch mentions
as "interpolated in the works of Hesiod."
To the Catalogues, as we have said, was appended
another work, the Eoiae. The title seems to have
1 Possibly the division of this poem into two books (see
p. 199) is .. division helonging Bolely to this .. developed
poem," which may have incfuded in its second part a
summary of the Tale of Troy.
arisen in the following way 1: the Catalogues probably
ended (cp. Theogon.,! 963 If.) with some such passage
as this: "But now, ye Muses, sing of the tribes of
women with whom the Sons of Heaven were jOined
in love, women pre-eminent above their fellows in
beauty, such (or,!) as was Niobe (?)." Each succeeding
heroine was then introduced by the formula at'! "Or
such as was ..... (cp. frags. 88, 92, etc.). A large
fragment of the Eoiae is extant at the beginning of
the Shield of Heracles, which may be mentioned
here. The" supplement" (II. 57-480) is nominally
devoted to a description of the combat between
Heracles and Cycnus, but the greater part is taken
up with an inferior description of the shield of
Heracles, in imitation of the Homeric shield of
Achilles (Iliad xviii. 478 If.). Nothing shows more
clearly the collapse of the principles of the Hesiodic
school than this ultimate servile dependence upon
Homeric models.
At the close of the Shield Heracles goes on to
Trachis to the house of Ceyx, and this warning
suggests that the Marriage of Ce!lx may have come
immediRtely after the l'; ot1] of Alcmena in the Eoiae:
possibly Halcyone, the wife of Ceyx, was one of
the heroines sung in the poem, and the original
section was" developed" into the l'Ylarriage, although
what form the poem took is unknown.
Next to the Eoiae and the poems which seemed to
have been developed from it, it is natural to place
the Great Eoiae. This, again, as we know from
fragments, was a list of heroines who bare children to
the gods: from the title we must suppose it to Ilave
heen much longer than the simple Eoiae, but its
1 Goettling'. eXI,bnlltion.
extent is unknown. Lehmann, remarking that the
heroines are all Boeotian and Thessalian (while the
heroines of the Catalogues belong to all parts of the
Greek world), believes the author to have been either
a Boeotian or Thessalian.
Two other poems are ascribed to Hesiod. Of
these the Aegimius (also ascribed by Athenaeus to
Cercops of Miletus), is thought by Valckenaer to
deal with the war of Aegimius against the Lapithae
and the aid furnished to him by Heracles, and with
the history of Aegimius and his sons. Otto jl;1iiller
suggests that the introduction of Thetis and of
Phrixus (frags. 1-2) is to be connected with notices of
the allies of the Lapithae from Phthiotis and rolchus,
and that the story of 10 was incidental to a narrative of
Heracles' expedition against Euboea. The remaining
poem, the Melampodia,. was a work in three books,
whose plan it is impossible to recover. Its subject,
however, seems to have been the histories of famous
seers like Mopsus, Calchas, and Teiresias, and it
probably took its name from Melampus, the most
mmous of them all.
Date of the Hesiodic Poems.-There is no doubt
that the Works and Days is the oldest, as it is the
most original, of the Hesiodic poems. It seems to
be earlier than the Theogony, which refers
to It, apparently, as a poem already renowned.
Two considerations help us to fix a relative date for
the. Works. (1) In diction, dialect and style it is
obVIOusly dependent upon Homer, and is therefore
considerably later than the Iliad and 0d.,!ssey:
moreover, as we have seen, it is in revolt against the
romantic school, already grown decadent, and while
the digamma is still living, it is obviously growing
weak, and is by no means uniformly .
(2) On the other hand while trad,tIOll steadlly
puts the Cyclic poets at various dates from 776 ?c.
downwards, it is equally consistent in regardmg
Homer and Hesiod as "prehistoric." Herodotus
indeed puts both poets 400 years before hi.s own
time' that is at about 830-820 B.C., and the eVidence
stated points to the middle of the ninth
century as the probable date for the Works and
Days. The Theogon!J might be tentatively placed
a century later; and the Catalogues and EOlae are
again later, but not greatly later, than the Theo-
gony: the Shield of Heracles may be ascribed to
the later half of the seventh century, but there is .
not evidence enough to show whether the other
" developed" poems are to be regarded as of a date
so low as this.
Literary Value of Hesiod.-Quintilian's 1 Judgment
on Hesiod that" he rarely rises to great heights •..
and to "him is given the palm in the middle-class of
speech" is just, but is liable to give a wrong
impression. Hesiod has nothing that remotely
approaches such scenes as that between Priam and
Achilles, or the pathos of Andromache's preparations
for Hector's return, even as he was falling before
the walls of Troy; but in matters that
the range of ordinary experience, he rarely falls to rise
to the appropriate level. Take, for instance, the
description of the Iron Age (Works and Da.1fs, 182 ff.)
with its catalogue of wrongdoing and violence ever
increasing until Aidos and Nemesis are forced to
1 X. 1. 52.
leave mankind who thenceforward shall have "no
remedy against evil." Such occasions, however,
rarely occur and are perhaps not characteristic of
Hesiod's genius: if we would see Hesiod at his best,
in his most natural vein, we must turn to such a
passage as that which he himself-according to the
compiler of the Contest of Hesiod and Horner-
selected as best in all his work, " When the Pleiades,
Atlas' daughters, begin to rise ••• " (Works and Days,
383 ff.). The value of such a passage cannot be
analysed: it can· only be said that given such a
subject, this alone is the right method of treatment.
Hesiod's diction is in the main Homeric, but one
of his charms is the use of quaint aUusi ve phrases
derived, perhaps, from a pre-Hesiodic peasant poetry:
thus the season when Boreas blows is the time when
"the Boneless One gnaws his foot by his fireless
hearth in his cheerless house"; to cut one's nails is
"to sever the withered from the qUick upon that
which has five branches"; similarly the burglar
is the" day-sleeper,". and the serpent is the" hairless
one." Very similar is his reference to seasons
through what happens or is done in that season:
"when the House·carrier, fleeing the Pleiades, climbs
up the plants from the earth," is the season for
harvesting; or "when the artichoke flowers and the
clicking grass-hopper, seated in a tree, pours down
his shrill song," is the time for rest.
Hesiod's charm lies in his child-like and sincere
naIvete, in his unaffected interest in and picturesque
view of nature and all that happens in nature.
These qualities, it is true, are those pre-eminently of
the Works and Days: the literary virtues of the
Theogon!J are of a more technical character, skill in
ordering and disposing long lists of names, sure
judgment in seasoning a monotonous subject with
marvellous incidents or episodes, and no mean
imaO'ination in depicting the awful, as is shown in
the t> description of Tartarus (11. 736-745). Yet it
remains true that Hesiod's distinctive title to a high
place in Greek literature lies in the very fact of his
freedom from classic form, and his grave, and yet
child-like, outlook upon his ~ o r l d .
The Ionic School
The Ionic School of Epic poetry was, as we have
seen, dominated by the Homeric tradition, and while
the style and method of treatment are Homeric, it is
natural that the Ionic poets refrained from cultivating
the ground tilled by Homer, and chose for tre?'tment
leO'ends which lay beyond the range of the llzad and
Odyssey. Equally natural it is that they should
have particularly selected various phases of the tale
of Troy which preceded or followed the action of
the Iliad and Odyssey. In this way, without any pre-
conceived intention, a body of epic poetry was built
up by various writers which covered the whole
Trojan story. But the entire range of heroic legend
was open to these poets, and other clusters of epics
grew up dealing particularly with the famous story of
Thebes, while othel's dealt with the beginnings of
the world and the wars of heaven. In the end there
existed a kind of epic history of the world, as known
to the Greeks, down to the death of Odysseus, when
the heroic age ended. In the Alexandrian Age
these poems were arranged in chronological order,
apparently by Zenodotus of Ephesus, at the beginning
of the 3rd century B.C. At a latcr time the term
Cycle, 'c round" or "course" was given to this
Of all this mass of epic poctry ouly the scantiest
fragments survive; but happily Photius has preserved
to us an abridgment of the synopsis made of each
poem of the "Trojan Cycle" by Proclus, i.e. Eutychius
Proclus of Sicca.
The pre-Trojan poems of the Cycle may be noticed
first. The Titanomach;'j, ascribed both to Eumelus of
Corinth and to Arctinus of Miletus, began with a kind
of Theogony which told of the union of Heaven and
Earth and of their offspring the Cyclopes and the
Hundred-handed Giants. How the poem proceeded
we have no means of knowing, but we may suppose
that in character it was not unlike the short account
of .the Titan War found in the Hesiodic Theogon;'j
(617 ff.).
What links bound the Tilanomachg to the Theban
Cycle is not clear. This latter group was formed of
three poems, the 8101:; of Oedipus, the Thebal.r, and
the' Epigoni. Of the Oedipodea practically nothing
is known, though on the assurance of Athenaeus
(vii. 277 E) that Sophocles followed the Epic Cycle
closely in the plots of his plays, we may suppose that
in outline the story corresponded closely to tht'
history of Oedipus as it is found in the Oedipus
Tyrannus. The Theba'i.r seems to have begun with
the origin of the fatal quarrel between Eteocles and
Polyneict's in the curse called down upon them by
their father in his misery. The story was thence
carried down to the end of the expedition under
Polyneices, Adrastus and Amphiaraus against Thebes.
The Epigoni (ascribed to Antimachus of Teos) re-
counted the expedition of the" After-Born" against
Thebes, and the sack of the city.
The Trojan CJJcle.-Six epics with the Iliad and
the Odyssey made up the Trojan Cycle-The Cyprian
La.'!s, the Iliad, the Aethiopis, the Little Iliad, the
Sack of Troll> the Returns, the Odyssey, and the
It has been assumed in the foregoing pages that
the poems of the Trojan Cycle are later than the
Homeric poems; but, as the opposite view has been
held, the reason for this assumption must now be given.
(1) Tradition puts Homer and the Homeric poems
proper back in the ages before chronological history
began, and at the same time assigns the purely
Cyclic poems to definite authors who are dated from
the first Olympiad (776 B.C.) downwards. This
tradition cannot be purely arbitrary. (2) The Cyclic
poets (as we can see from the abstracts of Proclus)
were careful not to trespass upon ground already
occupied by Homer. Thus, when we find that in the
Returns all the prominent Greek heroes except
Odysseus are accounted for, we are forced to believe
that the author of this poem knew the Odyssey and
judged it unnecessary to deal in full with that hero's
In a word, the Cyclic poems are
"written round" the Iliad and the Odyssey. (3) The
general structure of these epics is clearly imitative. As
MM. Croiset remark, the abusive Thersites in the Aethi-
opis is clearly copied from the Thersites of the Iliad •
in the same poem Antilochus, slain by Memnon and
avenged by Achilles, is obviously modelled on Patro-
clus. (4) The geographical knowledge of a poem like
1 Odysseus appears to have been mentioned once only_nd
~ h a ~ casU&lly-in tho R.tumi.
the Returns is far wider and more precise than that of
the Odyssey. (5) Moreover, in the Cyclic poems epic is
clearly degenerating morally-if the expression may
be used. The chief greatness of the Iliad is in the
character of the heroes Achilles and Hector rather
than in the actual events which take place: in the
CycliC writers facts rather than character are the
objects of interest, and events are so packed together
as to leave no space for any exhibition of the play of
moral forces. All these reasons justify the view that
the poems with which we now have to deal were
later than the Iliad and Odyssey, and if we must
recognize the possibility of some conventionality in
the received dating, we may feel confident that it
is at least approximately just.
The earliest of the post-Homeric epics of Troy are
apparently the Aethiopis and the Sack of Ilium, both
ascribed to Arctinus of Miletus who is said to have
flourished in the first Olympiad (776 B.C.). He set
himself to finish the tale of Troy, which, so far as
events were concerned, had been left half-told by
Homer, by tracing the course of events after the
close of the Iliad. The Aethiopis thus included the
coming of the Amazon Penthesilea to help the
Trojans after the fall of Hector and her death, the
similar arrival and fall of the Aethiopian Memnon,
the death of Achilles under the arrow of Paris, and
the dispute between Odysseus and Aias for the arms
of Achilles. The Sack of Ilium 1 as analysed by
Proclus was very similar to Vergil's version in
1 MM. Croiset note that the Aethiopis and the Sack were
originally merely parts of One work containing lays (the
Amazonei .. , Aethiopis, Persis, etc.), just as the Iliad
conta.ined various lays such ... the Diomedei ...
Aeneid ii, comprising the episodes of the wooden
horse, of Laocoon, of Sinon, the return of the
Achaeans fmm Tenedos, the actual Sack of Troy, the
division of spoils and the burning of the city.
Lesches or Lescheos (as Pausanias calls him) of
Pyrrha or Mitylene is dated at about 660 B.C.
In his Little Iliad he uhdertook to elaborate the
Sack as related by Arctinus. His work included the
adjudgment of the arms of Achilles to Odysseus,
the madness of Aias, the bringing of Philoctetes
from Lemnos and his cure, the coming to the war of
Neoptolemus who slays Eurypylus, son of Telephus,
the making of the wooden horse, the spying of
Odysseus and his theft, along with Diomedes, of the
Palladium: the analysis concludes with the admission
of the wooden horse into Troy by the Trojans. It is
known, however (Aristotle, Poetics, xxiii; Pausanias,
x, 25-27), that the Little Iliad also contained a
description of the Sack of TrO!J. It is probable that
this and other superfluous incidents disappeared after
the Alexandrian arrangement of the poems in the
Cycle, either as the result of some later recension,
or merely through disuse. Or Proclus may have
thought it unnecessary to give the accounts by
Lcsches and Arctinus of the same incident.
The QJl'rian Lays, ascribed to Stasinus of Cyprus 1
(but also to Hegesinus of Salamis) was designed to do
for the events preceding the action of the Iliad what
Arctinus had done for the later phases of the Trojan
War. The C!Jpria begins with the first causes of the
war, the purpose of Zeus to relieve the overburdened
earth, the apple of discord, the rape of Helen. Then
1 No date is a.signed to him, but it seems likely that he
..... either contemporary or .lightly ... rlier th .. n Lesche ..
follow the incidents conuected with the gathering of
the Achaeans and their ultimate landing in Troy;
and the story of the war is detailed up to the quarrel
between Achilles and Agamemnon with which the
Iliad begins.
These four poems rounded off the story of the
Iliad, and it only remained to connect this enlarged
version with the Odysse!J. This was done by means of
the Returns, a poem in five books ascribed to Agias
or Hegias of 'froezen, which begins where the Sack
of Troy ends. It told of the dispute between
Agamemnon and Menelaus, the departure from Troy
of Menelaus, the fortunes of the lesser heroes, the
return and tragic death of Agamemnon, and the
vengeance of Orestes on Aegisthus. The story ends
with the return home of Menelaus, which brings the
general narrative up to the beginning of the
But the Od!Jssey itself left much untold: what,
for example, happened in Ithaca after the slaying of
the suitors, and what was the ultimate fate of
Odysseus? The answer to these questions was
supplied by the Telego"!J, a poem in two books by
Eugammon of Cyrene (fl. 568 B.C.). It told of
the adventures of Odysseus in Thesprotis after the
killing of the Suitors, of his return to Ithaca, and his
death at the hands of Telegonus, his son by
Circe. The epic ended by' disposing of the
surviving personages in a double marriage, Telema-
chus wedding Circe, and Tclegonus Penelope.
The end of the Cycle marks also the end of the
Heroic Age.
The Homenc Hymns.
The collection of thirty-three Hymns, ascribeJ to
Homer, is the last considerable work of the
Epic School, and seems, on the whole, to be later
than the Cyclic poems. It cannot be definitely
assigned either to the Ionian or Continental schools,
for while the romantic element is very strong,
there is a distinct genealogical interest; and in
matters of diction and style the influences of both
Hesiod and Homer are well-marked. The date
of the formation of the collection as such is unknown.
Diodorus Siculus (temp. Augnstus) is the first to
mention such a body of poetry, and it is likely enough
that this is, .at least substantially, the one which has
come down to us. Thucydides quotes the Delian
Hymn to Apollo, and it is possible that the Homeric
corpus of his day also contained other of the more
important hymns. Conceivably the collection was
arranged in the Alexandrine period.
Thucydides, in quoting the Hymn to Apollo, calls
it 7rPOO{P.WlI, which ordinarily means a "prelude"
chanted by a rhapsode before recitation of a lay from
Homer, and such hymns as Nos. vi, x, xxxi, xxxii,
are clearly preludes in the strict sense; in No. xxxi,
for example, after celebrating Helios, the poet
declares he will next sing of the "race of mortal
men, the demi-gods." But it may fairly be doubted
whether such Hymns as those to Demeter (ii), Apollo
(iii), Hermes (iv), Aphrodite (v), can have been real
preludes, in spite of the closing formula" and now I
will pass on to another hymn." The view taken by
Allen and Sikes, amongst other scholars, is doubtless
right, that these longer hymns are only technically
preludes and show to what disproportionate lenO'ths
a simple literary form can be developed. "'rhe
Hymns to Pan (xix), to Dionysus (xxvi), to Hestia and
Hermes (xxix), seem to have been designed for use
at definite religious festivals, apart from recitations.
With the exception perhaps of the Hymn to Ares
(viii), no item in the collection can be regarded as
either devotional or liturgical.
The Hymn is doubtless a very ancient form; but
if no examples of extreme antiquity survive this
must be put down to the fact that until the age of
literary consciousness, such things are not preserved.
Fi.rst, in the collection stood the Hymn
to Dzonysus, of wInch only two fragments now survive.
While it appears to have been a hymn of the longer
type,! we have no evidence to show either its scope
or date.
The Hymn to Demeter, extant only in the MS.
discovered by Matthiae at Moscow, describes the
seizure of Persephone by Hades, 1(he grief of
Demeter, her stay at Eleusis, and her vengeance on
gods and men by causing famine. In the end Zeus
is forced to bring Persephone back from the lower
world; but the goddess, by the contriving of Hades,
still remains partly a deity of the lower world. In
memory of her sorrows Demeter establishes the
Eleusinian mysteries (which, however, were purely
agrarian in origin). .
This hymn, as a literary work, is one of the finest
1 Cp. Allen and Sikes, Homeric Hymn. p. xv. In the
text I have followed the arrangement of these scbolars
numbering tbe Hymns to Dionysus and to Demeter, I and Ii:
respectively: to place Demeter after HormeB, and the Hymn
to Dionysus at the end of the collection seems to be merely
in the collection. It is surely Attic or Eleusinian in
origin. Can we in any way fix its. ? Firstl!, it
is certainly not later than the begmnlng of the sixth
century, for it makes no mention of and the
Dionysiac element was introduced at Eleusls at about
that period. Further, the
and Eumolpus point to considerable antlq.Ulty, .and
the digamma is still active. All these consideratIOns
point to the seventh century as the probable date
of the hymn.
The H!Jmn to Apollo consists of two parts, which
beyond any doubt were originally distinct, a Delian
hymn and a Pythian hymn. The Delian hymn
describes how Leto, in travail with Apollo, sought
out a place in which to bear her son, and how Apollo,
born in Delos, at once claimed for himself the lyre,
the bow, and prophecy. This part of the existing
hymn ends with an encominm of the Delian festival
of Apollo and of the Delian choirs. The second part
celebrates the founding of Pytho (Delphi) as the
oracular seat of Apollo. After various wanderings
the god comes to Telphusa, near Haliartus, but is
dissuaded by the nymph of the place from settling
there and urged to go on to Pytho where, after slaying
the she-dragon who nursed Typhaon, he builds his
temple. After the punishment of Te.lphusa for her
deceit in giving him no warning of the dragoness at
Pytho, Apollo, in the form of a dolphin,
certain Cretan shipmen to Delphi to be his prlCsts ;
and the hymn ends with a charge to these men to
behave orde.-Iy and righteously.
The Delian part is exclusively Ionian and insular
both in style and sympathy; Delos and no other is
Apollo's chosen seat: but the second part is a5
definitely continental; Delos is ignored and Delphi
alonc is the important centre of Apollo's worship.
From this it is clear that the two parts need not be
of one date-The first, indeed, is ascribed (Scholiast
on Pindar Nem. ii, 2) to Cynaethus of Chios (.fl. 504
B.C.), a date which is obviously far too low; general
considerations point rather to the eighth century.
The second part is not later than 600 B.C.; for (1) the
chariot-races at Pytho, which commenced in 586 B.C.,
are unknown to the writer of the hymn, (2) the temple
built by Trophonius and Agamedes for Apollo (11.
294-299) seems to have been still standing when the
hymn was written, and this temple was burned in
548. We may at least be sure that the first part is
a Chian work, and that the second was composed by a
continental poet familial' with Delphi.
The H!Jmn to Helmes differs from others in its
burlesque, quasi-comic character, and it is also the
best-known of the Hymns to English readers in
consequence of Shelley's translation.
After a brief narrative of the birth of Hermes,
the author goes on to show how he won a place
among the gods. First the new-born child found a
tortoise and from its shell contrived the lyre; next,
with much cunuing circumstance, he stole Apollo's
cattle and, when charged with the theft by Apollo,
forced that god to appear in undignified guise before
the tribunal of Zeus. Zeus seeks to reconcile the pair,
and Hermes by the gift of the lyre wins Apollo's
friendship and pmchases various prerogatives, a share
in divination, the lordship of herds and animals,
and the office of messenger from the gods to Hades.
The hymn is hard to date. Hermes' lyre has
seven strings and the invention of the seven-stringed
lyre is ascribed to Terpander (flor. 676 B.C.). The
hymn must therefore be later than that date, though
Terpander, according to Weir Smyth,! may have only
modified the scale of the lyre; yet while the burlesque
character precludes an early date, this feature is far
removed, as Allen and Sikes remark, from the silliness
of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice, so that a date in
the earlier part of the sixth century is most probable.
The Hymn to Aphrodite is not the least remarkable,
from a literary point of view, of the whole collection,
exhibiting as it does in a masterly manner a divine
being as the unwilling victim of an irresistible force.
It tells how aU creatures, and even the gods them-
selves, are subject to the will of Aphrodite, savIng .mly
Artemis, Athena, and Hestia; how Zeus to humble her
pride of power caused her to love a mortal, Anchises ;
and how the goddess visited the hero upon Mt. Ida.
A comparison ofthis work with the Lay of Demodocus
(Odyssey viii, 266 If.), which is superficially similar, will
show how far superior is the former in which the
goddess is but a victim to forces stronger than herself.
The lines (247-255) in which Aphrodite tells of her
humiliation and grief are specially noteworthy.
There are only general indications of date. The
influence of Hesiod is clear, and the hymn has almost
certainly been used by the author of the Hymn to
Demeter, so that the date must lie between these two
periods, and the seventh century seems to be the
latest date possible.
The Hymn to Dionysus relates how the god was
seized by pirates and how with many manifestations
of power he avenged himself on them by turning them
into dolphins. The date is widely disputed. for while
I Greek M elic Poet" p. 166.
Ludwich believes it to be a work of the fourth or
third century, Allen and Sikes consider a sixth or
seventh century date to be possible. The story is
figured in a different form on the reliefs from the
choragic monument of Lysicrates, now in the British
Very different in character is the Hymn to Ares,
which is Orphic in character. The writer, after
lauding the god by detailing his attributes, prays to
be delivered from feebleness and weakness of soul,
as also from impulses to wanton and brutal violence,
The only other considerable hymn is that to Pan,
which describes how he roams hunting among the
mountains and thickets and streams, how he makes
music at dusk while returning from the chase, and
how he joins in dancing with the nymphs who sing
the story of his birth. This, beyond most works of
Greek literature, is remarkable for its fresh and
spontaneous love of wild natural scenes.
The remaining hymns are mostly of the briefest
compass, merely hailing the god to be celebrated and
mentioning his chief attributes. The Hymns to
Hermes (xvii) to the Dioscltri (xvii) and to Demeter
(xiii) are mere abstracts of the longer hymns iv,
xxxiii, and ii.
The Epigrams of Homer
The Epigrams of Homer are derived from the
pseudo-Herodotean Life of Homer, but many of them
occur in other documents such as the Contest of
Homer and Hesiod, or are quoted by various ancient
authors. These poetic fragments clearly antedate
the" Life" itself, which seems to have been so written
rouud them as to supply appropriate occasions for
their composition. Epigram iii. on Midas of Larissa
was otherwise attributed to Cleobulus of Lindus, one
of the Seven Sages; the address to Glaucus (xi) is
purely Hesiodic; xiii, according to MM. Croiset, is a
fragment from a gnomic poem. Epigram xiv is a
curious poem attributed on no very obvious grounds
to Hesiod by Julius Pollux. In it the poet invokes
Athena to protect certain potters and their craft, if
they will, according to promise, give him a reward for
his song; if they prove false, malignant gnomes are
invoked to wreck the kiln and hurt the potters.
The Burlesque Poems
To Homer were popularly ascribed certain bur-
lesque poems in which Aristotle (Poetics iv) saw
the germ of comedy. Most interesting of these,
were it extant, would be the niargites. The hero of
the epic is at once sciolist and simpleton, "knowing
many things, but knowing them all badly." It is
unfortunately impossible to trace the plan of the
poem, which presumably detailed the ad\>"entures of
this unheroic character: the metre used was a
curious mixture of hexametric and iambic lines.
The date of such a work cannot be high: Croiset
thinks it may belong to the period of Archilochus
(c. 650 B.C.), but it may well be somewhat later.
Another poem, of which we know even less, is the
Cercopes. These Cercopes C" Monkey-Men ") were a
pair of malignant dwarfs who went about the world
mischief-making. Their punishment by Heracles
is represented on one of the earlier metopes from
Selinus. It would be idle t" speculate as to the date
of this work.
Finally there is the Battle of the Frogs and llLice.
Here is told the story of the quarrel which arose
between the two tribes, and how they fought, until
Zeus sent crabs to break up the battle. It is a
parody of the warlike epic, but has little in it that is
r.eally comi.c or of literary merit, except perhaps the
hst of quamt arms assumed by the warriors. The
text of the poem is in a chaotic condition, and there
are many interpolations, some of Byzantine date.
Though popularly ascribed to Homer, its real
author is said by Suidas to have been Pigres, a
Carian, brother of Artemisia, "wife of Mausolus,"
who distinguished herself at the battle of Salamis.
Suidas is confusing the two Artemisias, but he may
be right in attributing the poem to about 480 B.C.
The Contest of Homer and Hesiod
This curious work dates in its present form from
the lifetime or shortly after the death of Hadrian,
but seems to be based in part on an earlier versioD
by sophist Alcidamas (c. 400 B.C.). Plutarch
(Convzv. Sept. Sap., 40) uses an earlier (or at least a
shorter) version than that which we possess.
extant Contest, however, has clearly combined with
the original document much other ill-digested matter
on the life and descent of Homer, probably drawing
on the same general sources as does the Herodotean
Life of Homer. Its scope is as follows: (1) the descent
(as variously reported) and relative dates of Homer
1 Cp. Marckscheffel, He.iodi fragmenta, p. 35. The papyrus
fragment recovered by Petrie (Petrie Papyri, ed. Mahaffy
p. 70,. No. :,xv.) agrees with the extant document;
but dIffer. In numcrou.t mmor textual points.
and Hesiod; (2) their poetical contest at Chalcis;
(3) the death of Hesiod; (4) the wanderings and
fortunes of Homer, with brief notices of the circum-
stances under which his reputed works were com-
posed, down to the time of his death.
The whole tract is, of course, mere romance; its
only values are (1) the insight it gives into ancient
speculations about Homer; (2) a certain amount of
definite information about the Cyclic poems; and
(3) the epic fragments included in the stichomythia
of the Contest proper, many of which-did we possess
the clue-would have to be referred to poems of the
Epic Cycle.
RXSIOD.-The classification and nnmeration of MSS. here
followed is that of Rzach (1913). It is only necessary to add
that on the whole the recovery of Hesiodic papyri goes to
confirm the authority of the mediaeval MSS. At the same
time these fragments have produced much that is interesting
and valuable, such a9 the new lines, Worles and Days
169 a-d, and the improved readings ib. 278, Theo(Jony
91, 93. Our chief gains from the papyri arc the numerOUB
and excellent fragments of the Catalogues which have been
Work. and Day. :-
8 OxyrhynchuB Papyri 1090. .
A Vienna, Rainer Papyri L.P_ 21-9 (4th cent.).
B Geneva, N aville Papyri P,.p. 94 (6th cent. I.
e Pans, Bibl. Nat. 2771 (11th cent.).
D Florence, Laur. xxxi 39 (12th cent.).
E MeBsina, Univ. Lib. PreexistenB 11 (12th-13th cent.).
FRome, Vatican3S (14th cent.).
G Venice, Marc. ix 6 (14th cent.).
H Florence, Laur. xxxi 37 (14th cent.).
I " "xxxii 16 (13th cent.).
K " "xxxii 2 (14th cent.).
L Milan, Ambros. G 32 sup. (14th cent.).
M Florence, Bib!. Riccardiana 7l (15th cent.).
N Milan, Ambros. J 15 sup. (15th cent.).
o Paris, Bib!. Nat. 2773 (14th cent.).
P Cambridge, Trinity College (Gale MS.), O. 9.27 (13th-14th
cent. ).
Q Rome, Vatican 1332 (14th cent.).
These MSS. are di vided by Rzach into the following
families, issuing from It, common original :-
n .. =O 'I'a=D ", .. =E
nb:; FGR 'I'b = IKLM tb,. NOPQ
Thoeagony :-
N Manchester, Rylands GK. Papyri No. 54 (1st cent. B.O.-
1st cent. A. D.).
o Oxyrhyllchus Papyri 873 (3rd cent.).
A Paris, Bib!. Nat. Suppl. Graec. (papyrus) 10n9 (4tl1-
5th cent.).
B London, British Museum clix (4th cent.).
R Vienna, Rainer Papyri L.P. 21-9 (4th cent.).
C Paris, Bib!. Nat. Suppl. Omec. 663 (12th cent.).
D Florence, Laur. xxxii 16 (13th cent.).
E " " , Cony. suppr. 158 (14th cent.).
F P"ris, Bib!. Nat. 2833 (15th cent.).
G Rome, Vatican 915 (14th cent.).
H Pari., Bibl. Nat. 2772 (14th cent.).
I l!'lorence, Laur. xxxi 32 (15th cent.).
K Venice, Marc. ix 6 (15th cent.).
L Paris, Bib!. Nat. 2708 (15th cent.).
These MSS. divided into two families I
na = CD nb = EF no = GHI 'i' = KL
Shield oj H eraeles:-
P Oxyrhynchus Papyri 689 (2nd cent.).
A Vienna, Rainer Papyri L.P. 21-29 (4th cent.).
Q Berlin Papyri, 9774 (lBt cent.). •
B Paris, Bibl. Nat., Supp!. Grace. 663 (12th cent.).
C " " "" " " (12th cent.).
D Milan, Ambros. C 222 (13th ceut.).
E Florence, Laur. xxxii 16 (13th cent.).
F Paris, Bibl. Nat. 2773 (14th cent.).
G " .. .. 2772 (14th cent.).
H Florence, Laur. xxxi 32 (15th cent. I.
I London, British MUBeum Harleianus (14th
K Rome, Bib!. CaBanat. 356 (14th cent.).
L Florence, Laur. Conv. suppr. 158 (14th cent.).
M PariB, Bib!. Nat. 2R33 (15th cent.).
These MSS belong to two families:
nO. = BCDF nb = GHI '1'& = E 'i'b = 1\ L M
To these must be .. dded two M88. of mixed family:
N Venice, Maro. ix 6 (14th cent.).
o Paris, Bibl. Nat. 2708 (15th cento),
Editions of Heatod :-
9haleondyles, Milan (1) 1493 (1) (editio princeps,
however, only the Works and Days).
AlduB ManutlllB (Aldine edition), Venice, 1495 (complete
Juntine Editi0I1B, 1515 and 1540.
Trincavelli, Venice, 1537 (with scholia).
Of modern editions the following may be noticed :-
Gaisford, Oxford, 1814-1820; Leipzig, 182.1 (with Bcholia:
in. Poett. Graec. Minn II).
G?ettlmg! ?otha, 1831 (3rd edition. Leil)2iIl1878).
Didot EdltlOn, Paris, 1840.
Schomann, 1869.
Koechlyand Kinkel, Leipzig, 1870.
Flach, Leipzig, 187'1-8.
Rzach, Leipzig, 1902 (larger edition), 1913 (smaller edition).
On HeBiodic poems generally the ordinary HiBtories of
Greek may he consulted, but especially the Hist.
de la L.tterature Ot'ecque I pp. 459 If. of MM. Croiset. The
au.mmary account iJ? Prof. Murray's Ano. Ok. Lit. is written
WIth a BceJ;'tlCal bias. Very valuable is the appendix
to s translatlOn (Oxford, 1908) on The Ji'armer'. Year in
Heszod. Recent work on the Hesiodio poems is reviewed in
full' by Rzach in Bursiall'B Jal",e8berichte vols. 100 (1899) and
152 (1911).
]'or the Ji'ragments of Hesiodic poems the work of
Hesiodi Ji'raqmen;ta (Leipzig, 1840), is most
valuable: 1mportant also IS Kmkel's Epicorum Oraecorum
Ji'ragmenta I (Leipzig, 1877) and the editions of Rzach
noticed. above.. For recently discovered papyrus fragments
Be? Wliamow1tz, Nwe Bruch.Wcke d. Hesiod Katalog
(S1tzu,:'gsb. der. k. preusB. Akad: fiir Wissen,chaft, 1900, pp.
839-80 l.) A hst of the papyr1 belonging to lost Hesiodic
workB may here be added: all are from the Catalogue •.
(1) Berlin Papyri 7497
(2nd oent.). }
(2) Oxyrhynchus Papyri 421 (2nd cent.). Frag. 7.
1 Schubart, Berl. Kla8Bikerlexte v. 1. 22 If.; the other
papyr1 may be found in the publioations whose name they
(3) Petrie Papyri iii 3. } Fra&
(4) Papiri grec; • latin •. No. 130 (2nd to 3rd ceut.) 14.
(5) Strassburg Papyri, 55 (2nd cent.) Frag. 58.
(6) Berlin Papyri 9739
(2nd cent.) }F g 58
(7).. .. 10560 1 (3rd cent.) ra. •
(8).. .. 9777
(4th cent.) Frag. 98.
(9) Papiri greci • latin., No. 131 (2nd-3rd cent.) Frag. 99.
(10) Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1358-9.
Th. Homeric Hymns text of the Homeric hymns is
distinctly bad in condition, a fact which may be attributed
to the general neglect under which they seem to have
laboured at all periods previously to the Revival of Learning,
Very many defects have been corrected by the various
editions of the Hymns, bnt a considerable number still defy
all efforts; and especially an abnormal nnmber of undoubted
lacunae disfignre the text. Unfortunately no papyrus frag.
ment of the Hymns has yet emerged, though one such frag·
ment (Berl. Kla'Bikertexte v. 1. pp. 7 ff.) contains a paraphrase
of a poem very closely parallel to the Hymn to Demeter. '
The mediaeval MSS.' are thus ennmerated by Dr. T. W.
Allen :-
A Paris, Bib!. N Bt. 2763.
At Athas, Vatopedi 587.
B Paris, Bib!. Nat. 2765.
o Paris, Bib!. Nat. )!833.
r Brussels, Bib!. Royale 11377-11380 (16th cent.).
D Milan, Ambros. B 98 sup.
E Moden .. , Estenae iii E 11.
G Rome, Vatico.n, Regina 91 (16th ceut.).
H Londen, British Mus. Harley 1752.
J Modena, Estense, ii B 14.
K Florence, Lanr. 31, 32.
L .. .. 32,45.
L, .. ,,70, 35.
La " ,,32, 4.
M Leyden (the Moscow MS,) 33 H (14th cent.).
Mon. Munich, Royal Lib. 333 c.
N Leyden, 74 c.
o Milan, Am bros. C 10 info
I See note on page xl v.
• Unless otherwise noted, all thele MSS. are of the 15th
P Rome, V .. tican Pa!' graec. 179.
n Paris, Bib!. Nat. Supp!. graec. 1095.
Q Milan, Ambros. S 31 sup.
Rl Florence, Bib!. Riccard. 53 K ii 13.
" " " 52Kii14.
S Rome, Vatican, graec. 1880.
T Madrid, Public Library 24.
V Venice, Marc. 456.
The same scholar has traced all the 1I1GS. baok to a
common parent from which three main families derived
(M had a separate descent and is not included in any
family) :-
Xl = ET.
x' = LTI (and more remotely) AtDSHJK.
y = ELpT (marginal readings).
Editions of the Homeric Hymns, &0.
Demetrius Chalcondyles, Florence, 1488 (with the Epigram.
and the battle of the Frogs and Mice in the .d. pro of
Aldine Edition, Venice, 1504.
Juntine Edition, 1537.
Stephanus, Paris, 1566 and 1588.
More modern editions or critical works of value are!-
Martin (Variarum Lcctionum libb. iv), Paris, 1605.
Barne., Cambridge, l7l!.
Rnhnken, Leyden, 1782 (Epist. Crit. and Hymn to Demete>
TIgen, Halle, 1796 (with Epigrams and the Battle of Frogs
and Mice).
Matthio-e, Leipzig, 1806 (withlhe Battle of Frog. and Mice).
Hermann, Berlin, 1806 (with Epigrams).
Franke, Leipzig, 1828 (with Epigrams and the Battle of the
Frogs and Mice). .
Dindorff (Didot edit ion), Paris, 1837.
Baumeister (Battle of the Frogs and Mice), Gottingen, 1852,
" (Hymns), Leipzig, 1860.
Gemoll, Leipzig, 1886.
Goodwin, Oxford, 1893.
l.ndwich (Battle of the Frogs and Mice), 1896.
Allen and Sikes, London, 1904.
Allen (Homeri Opera v), Oxford, 1912.
Of these editions that of Messrs Allen and Sikes i. by far
the best: not only is tbe text purged of the load of con·
jectures for which the frequent obscurities of the Hymns
olfer a special opening. but the Introduction and the Note.
throughout are of the highest value. For" full discussion of
the MSS. and textual problems, reference must be made to
this edition, ... also to Dr. T. W. Allen's series of articles
in the Journal of Hellenic Studi" vol •. xv If. Among
translations those of J. Edgar (Edinburgh, 1891) and of
Andrew Lang (London, 1899) may be mentioned.
The Epic Oyele. The fragments of the Epic Cycle being
drawn from .. variety of authors, no list of MSS. can be
given. The following collections and edition. may b.
mentioned :-
Muller, Leipzig, 1829.
Dindorlf (Didot edition of Homer), Paris, 1837-156.
Kinkel (Epicorum Graecornm Fragmenta i, Leipzig, 1877.
Allen (Homeri Opera v), Oxford, 1 g12. .
The fullest discussion of the problem. and fragments of
the epic cycle i. F. G. Welcker'. der epi.ehe OyclU8 (Bonn,
vol. i, 1835: vol. ii, 1849 : vol i, 2nd edition, 1865). The
Appendix to Monro's Homer'. Ody8sey xii-xxiv (pp. 340 If.)
deals with the Cylic poets in relation to Homer, and a. clear
and reasonable discussion of the .ubject is to be fonnd in
Croiset'. H i8t. de la Litt6rature Grec'lut vol. L
On Hcsiod, the Hesiodio poems and the problems which
these olfer Bee Rzach's most important article Hesiodos in
Pauly.Wissowa, ReaZ·EncyeZopiidie xv (1912).
A discussion of the evidence for the date of Hesiod i. to be
fonnd in Jour". Hell. Stud. xxxv, 85 If. (T. W. Allen).
Of translations of Hesiod the following may be noticed :-
The Georgieks <if Hesiod, by George Chapman, London, 1618;
The Works 0/ Hesiod translated from the Greek, by Thoma.
Cooke, London, 1728; The Remain. of He.iod tmnslated from
tho Greek into English Verse, by Charles Abraham Elton; Th,
Works of Hesiod, Gallimachus and Theognis, by the Rev. J
Banks,. M .. A. l Huiod. by Prof. James Mair, Oxford, 1908

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MUSES of Pieria who give glory through song,
come hither, tell of Zeus your father and chant his
praise. Through him mortal men are famed or un-
famed, sung or unsung alike, as great Zeus wills.
For easily he makes strong, and easily he brings
the strong man low; easily he humbles the proud
and raises the obscure, and easily he straightens the
crooked and blasts the proud, - Zeus who thunders
aloft and has his dwelling most high. Attend thou
with eye and ear, and make judgements straight
with righteousness. would tell of
true things.
So after all, there was not one kind of Strife
. '
alone, but allover the earth there are two. As for
the one, a man would praise her when he came to
understand her; but the other is blameworthy: and
they are wholly different in nature .. For one fosters
evil war and battle, being cruel: her no man loves;
but perforce, through the will of the deathless gods,
men pay harsh Strife her honour due. But the other
is the elder daughter of dark Night, and the son of
Cronos who sits above and dwells in the aether, set
her in the roots of the emth : and she is far kinder to
men. She stirs up even the shiftless to toil; for a
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man grows eager to work when he considers his
neighbour, a rich man who hastens to plough and
plant and put his house in good order; and neigh bam
vies with his neighbour as he hurries after wealth.
This Strife is wholesome for men. And potter is angry
with potter, and craftsman with craftsman, and beggar
is jealous of beggar, and minstrel of minstrel.
Perses, lay up these things in your heart, and do
not let that Strife who delights in mischief hold your
heart back from work, while you peep and peer and
listen to the wrangles of the court-house. Little con-
cern has he with quarrels and courts who has not a
year's victuals laid up betimes, even that which the
earth bears, Demeter's grain. When you have got
plenty of that, you can raise disputes and strive to
get another's goods. But you shall have no second
chance to deal so again: nay, let us settle our dis-
pute here with true judgement which is of Zeus and
is perfect. For we had already divided our inherit-
ance, but you seized the greater share and carried
it off, great! y swelling the glory of our bribe-swalluw-
ing lords who love to judge such a cause as this.
Fools! They know not how much more the half is
than the whole, nor what great advantage there is
in mallow and asphodeJ.1
For the gods keep hidden from men the menns of
life. Else you would easily do work enough in a day to
supply you for a full year even without working; soon
would you put away your rudder over the smoke,
and the fields worked by ox and sturdy mule would
run to waste. But Zeus in the anger of his heart
hid it, because Prometheus the crafty deceived him;
therefore he planned sorrow and mischief against
\ Th .. t i., the poor map'. fare, like" bread and cheese."
men. He hid fire; but that the noble son of
Iapetus stole again for men from Zeus the counsellor
in a hollow fennel-stalk, so that Zeus who delights
in thunder did not see it. But afterwards Zeus who
gathers the clouds said to him in anger:
"Son of Iapetus, surpassing all in cunning, you
are glad that you 'have outwitted me and stolen fire
-a great plague to you yourself and to men that
shall be. But I will give men as the price for fire
an evil thing in which they may all be glad of heart
while they embrace their own destruction."
So said the father of men and gods, and laughed
aloud. And he bade famous Hephaestus make haste
and mix earth with water and to put in it the voice
and strength of human kind, and fashion a sweet,
lovely maiden-shape, like to the immortal goddesses
in face; and Athene to teach her needlework and
the weaving of the varied web; and golden Aphro-
dite to shed grace upon her head and cruel longing
and cares that weary the limbs. And he charged
Hermes the guide, the Slayer of Argus, to put in
her a shameless mind and a deceitful nature.
So he ordered. And they obeyed the lord Zeus
the son of Cronos. Forthwith the famous Lame God
moulded clay in the likeness of a modest maid, as the
son of Cronos purposed. And the, goddess bright-
eyed Athene girded and clothed her, and the divine
Graces and queenly Persuasion put necklaces of gold
upon her, and the rich-haired Hours crowned her
head with spring flowers. And Pallas Athene
bedecked her form with all manner of finery. Also
the Guide, the Slayer of Argus, contrived within her
lies and crafty words and a deceitful nature at the
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1 CRK and Plutaroh : .,""a{Jr, DFIL: ..
will of loud thundering Zeus, and the Herald of the
gods put speech in her. And he called this woman
Pandora,! because all they who dwelt on Olympus
gave each a gift, a plague to men who eat bread.
But when he had finished the sheer, hopeless
snare, the Father sent glorious Argus-Slayer, the
swift messenger of the gods, to take it to Epimetheus
as a gift. And Epimetheus did not think on what
Prometheus had said to him, bidding him never take
a gift of Olympian Zeus, but to send it back fer
fear it might prove to be somethillg harmful to men.
But he took the gift, and afterwards, when the evil
thing was already his, he understood.
For ere this the tribes of men lived on earth
remote and free from ills and hard toil and heavy
sicknesses which bring the Fates upon men; for in
misery men grow old quickly. But the woman took
otf the great lid of the jar 2 with her hands and
scattered all these and her thought caused sorrow
and mischief to men. Only Hope remained there
in an unbreakable home within under the rim of the
great jar, and did not fly out at the door; for ere
that: the lid of the jar stopped her, by the will of
Aeg1s-holding Zeus who gathers the clouds. But
the rest, countless plagues
,vander alnongst men;
for earth is full of evils and the sea is full. Of
themselves diseases come upon men continually by
d.ay and by night, bringing mischief to mortals
for wise Zeus took away speech fro111 them.
SO 1S there no way to escape the will of Zeus.
1 The AlI.endowed.
• The jar or casket contained the gifts of the god. men.
in 1. 82.
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1 &"vol, KGllfOPTBl, Plato (Cratylus) , AristeideB, Olympio.
dorus, Theodoret. l11'1XOJVloi Plato (Repub.), Olymp., Theod.:
MSS. read ';0'1 410' 1'."dAou flouAd •.
• Plato, Aristeides, Themistiu8 and otherl: ir,x6&vlol, MSS.
Or if you will, I will sum you up another tale
well and skilfully-and do you lay it up in your
heart,-how the gods and mortal men sprang from
one Source.
First of all the deathless gods who dwell on
Olympus made a golden race of mortal men who
lived in the time of Cronos when he was reigning in
heaven. And they lived like gods without sorrow
of heart, remote and free from toil and grief:
miserable age rested not on them; but with legs and
arms never failing they made merry with feasting
beyond the reach of all evils. When they died, it was
as though they were overcome with sleep, and they
had all good things; for the fruitful earth unforced
bare them fruit abundantly and without stint. They
dwelt in ease and peace upon their lands with
many good things, rich in flocks and loved by the
blessed gods.
But after the eal·th had covered this generation-
they are called pure spirits dwelling on the earth, and
are kindly, delivering from harm, and guardians of
mortal men; for they roam everywhere over the earth,
clothed in mist and keep watch on judgements and
cruel deeds, givers of wealth; for this royal right
also they received ;-then they who dwell on
Olympus made a second generation which was
of silver and less noble by far. It was like the
golden race neither in body nor in spirit. __
brought up at his good
years, an-uttersiin pleton''Pla..1mgchildishl y, in his
own home. But when they were full grown and
were come to the full measure of their prime, they
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EIC f.l,E"taV, OEtIIOV TE /Cat O!-'ptf.l,OIl· DtO"tII P'l}D<;" 145
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lived only a little time and that in sorrow because of
their foolishness, for they could not keep from
sinning and from wronging one another, nor would
they serve the immortals, nor sacrifice on the holy
altars of the blessed ones as it is right for men to do
wherever they dwell. Then Zeus the son of Cronos
was angry and put them away, because they would
not give honour to the blessed gods who live on
But when earth had covered this generation also
-they are called blessed spirits of the underworld
by men, and, though they are of second order, yet
honour attends them also-Zeus the Father made a
third generation of mortal men, a brazen race, sprung
from ash-trees 1; and it was in no way equal to the
silver age, but was terrible and strong. They loved
the lamentable works of Ares and deeds of violence;
they ate no bread, but were hard of heart like
adamant, fearful men. Great was their strength
and unconquerable the arms which grew from their
shoulders on their strong limbs. Their armour was
of bronze, and their houses of bronze, and of bronze
were their implements: there was no black iron.
These were destroyed by their own hands and passed
to the dank house of chill Hades, and left no name:
terrible though they were, black Death seized them,
and they left the bright light of the sun.
But when earth had covered this· generation also,
Zeus the son of Cronos made yet another, the fourth,
upon the fruitful earth, which was nobler and more
1 Eu.tathius refers to Hesiod as stating that men sprung
H from oaks and stones and ash trees. " Pl'oclul!I believed that
the Nymphs called Melia. (Theogony, 187) are intended.
Goettling would render: .. A race terrible beoou"" of their
(uhen) speart."
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1 Preserved only by Proclu., from whom some inferior
MSS. have copied the verse. The four following lines occur
only in Geneva Papyri No. 94. For the restoration of
ll. 169 b-c see ClaB.'. Quart. vii. 219---220-
I B: .. "6 ........... MSS.
righteous, a god-like race of hero-men who are called
demi-gods, the race before our own, throughout the
boundless earth. Grim war and dread battle des-
troyed a part of them, some in the land of Cadmus
at seven-gated Thebe when they fought for the
flocks of Oedipus, and some, when it had brought
them in ships over the great sea gulf to Troy for
rich-haired Helen's sake: there death's end en-
shrouded a part of them. But to the others father Zeus
the son of Cronos gave a living and an abode apart
from men, and made them dwell at the ends of
earth. And they live untouched by sorrow in the
islands of the blessed along the shore of deep swirl-
ing Ocean, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving
earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a
year, ·far from the deathless gods, and Cronos rules
over them; for the father of men and gods released
him from his bonds. And these last equally have
honour and glory.
And again far-seeing Zeus made yet another gene-
ration, the fifth, of men who are upon the bounteous
earth .
fhereafter, would that I were not among the men
of the fifth generation, but either had died before or
been born afterwards. For now truly is a race of iron,
and men never rest from labour and sorrow by day,
and from perishing by night; and the gods shall lay
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sore trouble upon them. But, notwithstanding, even
these shall have some good mingled with their evils.
And Zeus will destroy this race of mortal men also
when they come to have grey hair on the temples at
their birth.l The father will not agree with his child-
ren, nor the children with their father, nor guest
with his host, nor comrade with comrade; nor will
brother be dear to brother as aforetime. Men will
dishonour their parents as they grow quickly old, and
will carp at them, chiding them with bitter words,
hard-hearted they, not knowing the fear of the gods.
They will not repay their aged parents the cost of
their nurture, for might shall be their right: and
one man will sack another's city. There will be no
favour for the man who keeps his oath or for the
Just or for the good; but rather men will praise the
evil-doer and his violent dealing. Strength will be
right and reverence will cease to be; and the
wicked will hurt the worthy man, speaking false
words against him, and will swear an oath upon
them. Envy, foul-mouthed, delighting in evil, with
scowling face, will go along with wretched men one
and all. And then Aidos and Nemesis,2 with their
sweet forms wrapped in white robes, will go from
the wide-pathed earth and forsake mankind to join
the company of the deathless gods: and bitter
sorrows will be left for mortal men, and there will
be no help against evil.
I •. e. the race will so degenerate that at the last even
.. new·born child will show the marks of old age.
• Aidils, a. a quality, i. that feeling of reverence or shame
which restrains men from wrong: Nemesis is the feeling of
righteous indignation aronsed especially by the sight of the
wicked in undOlerved prosperity (if. P.alm., lxxii. 1-19).
Nvv l)' alvov {Ja(TlA.€vaw epew cppoveov(Tl KaL
, "

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And now I will tell a fable for princes who
themselves understand. Thus said the hawk to the
nightingale with speckled neck, while he carried her
high up among the clouds, gripped fast in his talons,
and she, pierced by his crooked talons, cried pitifully.
To her he spoke disdainfully: " Miserable thing, why
do you cry out? One far stronger than you now
holds you fast, and you must go wherever I take
you, songstress as you are. And if I please I will
make my meal of you, or let you-go. He is a fool who
tries to withstand the stronger, for he does not get
the mastery and suffers pain besides his shame." So
said the swiftly flying hawk, the long-winged bird.
But you, Perses, listen to right and do not foster
Violence; for violence is bad for a poor man. Even
the prosperous cannot easily bear its burden, but is
weighed down under it when he has fallen into
delusion. The better path is to go by on the other
side towards justice; for Justice beats Outrage when
she comes at length to the end of the race. But onlv
when he has suffered dr:es the fool learn this. FO'r
Oath keeps pace with wrong judgements. There is
a noise when Justice is being dragged in the way
where those who devour bribes and give sentence
with crooked judgements, take her. And she,
wrapped in mist, follows to the city and haunts of
the people, weeping, and bringing mischief to men,
even to such as have driven her forth in that they
did not deal straightly with her.
But they who give straight judgements to strangers
and to the men of the land, and go not aside from
what is just, their city flourishes. and the people
" to" a ... 'rS.. 'to' "
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prosper in it: Peace, the nurse of children, is abroad
in their land, and all-seeing Zeus never decrees
cruel war against them. N either famine nor disaster
ever haunt men who do true justice; but light-
heartedly they tend the fields which are all their
care. The earth bears them victual in plenty, and
on the mountains the oak bears acorns upon the
top and bees in the midst. Their woolly sheep
are laden with fleeces; their wumen bear children
like their parents. They flourish continually with
good things, and do not travel on ships, for the
grain-giving earth bears them fruit.
But for those who practise violence and cruel
deeds far-seeing Zeus, the son of Cronos, ordains
a punishment. Often even a whole city suffers
for a bad man who sins and devises presumptuous
deeds, and the son of Cronos lays great trouble upon
the people, famine and plague together, so that
the men perish away, and their women do not bear
children, and their houses become few, through the
contriving of Olympian Zeus. And again, at another
time, the son of Cronos either destroys their wide
army, or their walls, or else makes an end of their
ships on the sea.
You princes, mark well this punishment you also;
for the deathless gods are near among men and
mark all those who oppress their fellows with crooked
judgements, and reck not the anger of the gods.
For upon the bounteous earth Zeus has thrice ten
thousand spirits, watchers of mortal men, and these
keep watch on judgements and deeds of wrong as
they roam, clothed in mist, all over the earth. And
there is virgin Justice, the daughter of Zeus, who is
honoured and reverenced among the gods who
dwell on Olympus, and whenever anyone hurts her
with lying slander, she sits beside her father, Zeus
the son of Cronos, and tells him of men's wicked
heart, until the people pay for the mad folly of
their princes who, evilly minded, pervert judgement
and give sentence crookedly. Keep watch against
this, you princes, and make straight your judge-
ments, you who devour bribes j put crooked judge-
ments altogether from your thoughts.
He does mischief to himself who does miEchief to
another, and evil planned harms the plotter most.
The eye of Zeus, seeing all and understanding all,
beholds these things too, if so he will, and fails not
to mark what sort of justice is this that the city
keeps within it. Now, therefore, may neither I
myself be righteous among men, nor my son-for
then it is a bad thing to be righteous-if indeed thp
unrighteous shall have the greater right. Rut I think
that all-wise Zens will not yet bring that to pass.
But you, Perses, lay up these things within your
heart and listen now to right, ceasing altogether to
think of violence. For the son of Cronos has or-
dained this law for men, that fishes and beasts and
winged fowls should devour one another, for right is
not in them j but to mankind he gave right which
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proves far the best. For whoever knows the right
and is ready to speak it, far-seeing Zeus gives him
prosperity; but whoever deliberately lies in his wit-
ness and forswears himself, and so hurts Justice and
sins beyond repair, that man's generation is left
obscure thereafter. But the generation of the man
who swears truly is better thenceforward.
To you, foolish Perses, I will speak good sense.
Badness can be got easily and in shoals: the road to
her is smooth, and she lives very near us, But be-
tween us and Goodness the gods have placed the
sweat of our brows: long and steep is the path that
leads to her, and it is rough at the first; but when a
man has reached the top, then is she easy to reach,
though before that slle was hard,
That man is altogether best who considers all
things himself and marks what will be better after-
wards and at the end; and he, again, is good who
listens to a good adviser; but whoever neither thinks
for himself nor keeps in mind what another tells him,
he is an unprofitable man, But do you at any rate,
always remembering my charge, work, high-born
Perses, that Hunger may hate you, and venerable
Demeter richly crowned may love you and fill your
barn with food; for Hunger is altogether a meet
comrade for the sluggard. Both 'gods and men are
angry with a man who lives idle, for in nature he is
like the stingless drones who waste the labour of the
bees, eating without working; but let it be your care
to order your work properly, that in the right season
your barns may be full of victual. Through wOl'k men
grow rich in flocks and substance, and working they
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1 CFH: Ipya("I'EYos • •• <pIATEpos, other MSS, Line 310,
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ACD .. nd Stobaeus.
are much better loved by the immortals.
Work is
no disgrace: it is idleness which is a disgrace. But
if you work, the idle will soon envy you as you grow
rich, for fame and renown attend on wealth. And
whatever be your lot, work is best for you, if you
turn your misguided mind away from other men's
property to your work and attend to your livelihood
as I bid you. An evil shame is the needy man's
companion, shame which both greatly harms and
prospers men: shame is with poverty, but confidence
with wealth.
Wealth should not be seized: god-given wealth
is much better; for if a man take great wealth
violently and perforce, or if he steal it through his
tongue, as often happens when gain deceives men's
and dishonour tramples down honour, the
gods soon blot him out and make that man's
house low, and wealth attends him only for a little
time. Alike with him who does wrong to a sup-
pliant or a guest, 01' who goes up to his brother's bed
and commits unnatural sin in lying with his wife, or
who infatnately offends against fatherless children,
or who abuses his old father at the cheerless thres-
hold of old age and attacks him with harsh words,
truly Zens himself is angry, and at the last lays on
him a heavy requittal for his evil doing. But do you
turn your foolish heart altogether away from these
things, and,as f.'l1' as you are able, sacrifice to the death-
1 The alternative version is: "and, working, you will be
much better loved both by gods and men l for they greatly
dislike the idle."
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1 100a &,-uO't, ACDE, eto .
• Paley: «aI, A and all MSS.
• Line 363 leema to be misplaced in the MSS.
less gods purely and cleanly, and burn rich meats also,
and at other times propitiate them with libations and
incense, both when you go to bed and when the holy
light has come back, that they may be gracious to
you in heart and spirit, and so you may buy another's
holding and not another yours.
Call your fl'iend to a feast; but leave your enemy
alone; and especially call him who lives near you:
for if any mischief happen in the place, neighbours
come ungirt, but kinsmen stay to gird themselves. I
A bad neighbour is as great a plague as a good one
is a great blessing; he who enjoys a good neighbour
has a precious possession. Not even an ox would die
but for a bad neighbour. Take fair measure from
your neighbour and pay him back fairly with the
same measure, or better, if you can; so that if you
are in need afterwards, you may find him sure.
Do not get base gain: base gain is as bad as
ruin. Be friends with the friendly, and visit him
who visits you. Give to one who gives, but do not
give to one who does not give. A man gives
to the free-handed, but no one gives to the close-
fisted. Give is a good girl, but Take is bad and she
brings death. For the man who gives willingly,
even though he gives a great thing, rejoices in his
gift and is glad in heart; but whoever gives way to
shamelessness and takes something himself, even
though it be a small thing, it freezes his heart. He
who adds to what he has, will keep off bright-eyed
hunger; for if you add only a little to a little and do
this often, soon that little will become great. Wbat
1 i.t. neighbours come at once and without making
preparations, but kinsmen by marriage (who live at a
di.tance) have to prepare, and so are long in ooming.
'to' , " "
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I Bentley: G.
a man has by him at home does not trouble him: it
is better to have your stuff at home, for whatever is
abroad may mean loss. It is a good thing to draw
on what you have; but it grieves your heart to need
something and not to have it, and I bid you mark
this. Take your fill when the cask is first opened and
when it is nearly spent, but midways be sparing: it
is poor saving when you come to the lees.
Let the wage promised to a friend be fixed; even
with your brother smile-and get a witness; for trust
and mistrust, alike ruin men.
Do not let a flaunting woman coax and cozen and
deceive you: she is after your barn. The man who
trusts womankind trusts deceivers.
There should be an only son, to feed his father's
house, for so wealth will increase in the home; but
if you leave a second son you should die old. Yet
Zeus can easily give great wealth to a greater
number. More hands mean more work and more
If your heart within you desires wealth, do these
things and work with work upon work.
When the Pleiades, daughters of Atlas, are rising,l
begin your harvest, and your ploughing when they are
going to set.
Forty nights and days they are hidden
and appear again as the year moves round, when first
you sharpen your sickle. This is the law of the plains,
and of those who live near the sea, and who inhabit
rich country, the glens and dingles far from the
tossing sea,-strip to sow and strip to plough and
strip to reap, if you wish to get in all Demeter's
fruits in due season, and that each kind may grow in
I Early iD May.
• In November.
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1 Herodian: MSS.
its season. Else, afterwards, you may chance to be
in want, and go begging to other men's houses, but
without avail; as you have already come to me.
But I will give you no more nor give you further
measure. Foolish Perses! Work the work which
the gods ordained for men, lest in bitter anguish of
spirit you with your wife and children seek your
livelihood amongst your neighbours, and they do not
heed you. Two or three times, may be, you will
succeed, but if you trouble them further, it will not
avail you, and all your talk will be in vain, and your
word-play unprofitable. Nay, I bid you find a way to
pay your debts and avoid hunger.
First of all, get a house, and a woman and an ox
for the plough-a slave woman and not a wife, to
follow the oxen as well-and make everything ready
at home, so that you may not have to ask of another,
and he refuse you, and so, because you are in lack,
the season pass by and your work come to nothing.
Do not put your work off till to-morrow and the day
after; for a sluggish worker does not fill his barn,
nor one who puts off his work: industry makes work
go well, but a man who puts off work is always at
hand-grips with ruin.
When the piercing power and sultry heat of the sun
abate, and almighty Zeus sends the autumn rains,!
and men's flesh comes to feel far easier,-for then
the star Sirius passes over the heads of men, who
are born to misery, a little while by day and
takes greater share of night-, then, when it
showers its leaves to the ground and stops sprouting,
1 In October.
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, I
the wood you cut with your axe is least liable to
worm. Then remember to hew your timber: it is
the season for that work. Cut a mortar 1 three feet
wide and a pestle three eu hits long, and an axle of
seven feet, for it will do very well so; but if you
make it eight feet long, you can cut a beetle 2 from
it as well. Cut a felloe three spans across for a
waggon of ten palms' width. Hew also many bent
timbers, and bring home a plough-tree when you have
found it, and look out on the mountain or in the
field for one of holm-oak; for this is the strongest
for oxen to plough with when one of Athena's hand-
men has fixed in the share-beam and fastened it to
the pole with dowels. Get two ploughs ready and
work on them at home, one all of a piece, and the
other jointed. It is far better to do this, for if you
should break one of them, you can put the oxen to
the other. Poles of laurel or elm are most free from
worms, and a share-beam of oak and a plough-tree of '
holm-oak. Get two oxen, bulls of nine years; for
their strength is unspent and they are in the prime
of their age: they are best for work. They will not
fight in the furrow and break the plough and then
leave the work undone. Let a brisk fellow of forty
years follow them, with a loaf of four quarters 8 and
eight slices' for his dinner, one who will attend to his
work and drive a straight furrow and is past the age
for gaping after his fellows, but will keep his mind
1 For pounding corn.
, A mallet for breaking clods after ploughing.
• The loaf is a flattish cake with two intersecting lines
Reared on its upper surface which divide it into four equal part •.
, The meaning is obscure. A scholiast renders "giving
eight mouthfulH"; but the elder Philostratus U8es the word
in to II leavened. "
' " ... , ",,\ "\ , ,
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on his work. No younger man will be better than
he at scattering the seed and avoiding double-sow-
ing; for a man less staid gets disturbed, hankering
after his fellows.
Mark, when you hear the voice of the crane 1 who
cries year by year from the clouds above, for she
gives the signal for ploughing and shows the season
of rainy winter; but she vexes the heart of the
man who has no oxen. Then is the time to feed up
your horned oxen in the byre; for it is easy to say:
"Give me a yoke of oxen and a waggon," and it is
easy to refuse: "I have work for my oxen." The
man who is rich in fancy thinks his waggon as good as
built already-the fool! he does not know that there
are a hundred timbers to a waggon. Take care to
lay these up beforehand at home.
So soon as the time for ploughing is proclaimed to
men, then make haste, you and your slaves alike, in
wet and in dry, to plough in the seaSOn for plough-
ing, and bestir yourself early in the morning so that
your fields may be full. Plough in the spring; but
fallow broken up in the summer will not belie
your hopes. Sow fallow land when the soil is still
getting light: fallow land is a defender from harm
and a soother of children.
Pray to Zeus of the Earth and to pure Demeter to
make Demeter's holy grain sound and heavy, when
first you begin ploughing, when you hold in your
hand the end of the plough-tail and bring down your
stick on the backs of the oxen as they draw on the
pole-bar by the yoke-straps. Let a slave follow a
little behind with a mattock and make trouble for
the birds by hiding the seed; for good management
1 About the middle of November.
is the best for mortal men as bad management is the
worst. In this way your corn-ears will bow to the
ground with fullness if the Olympian himself gives a
good result at the last, and you will sweep the
cobwebs from your bins and you will be glad, I ween,
as you take of' your garnered substance. And so you
will have plenty till you come to grey 1 springtime,
and will not look wistfully to others, but another
shall be in need of your help.
But if you plough the good grouud at the solstice,2
you will reap sitting, grasping a thin crop in your
hand, binding the sheaves awry, dust-covered, not
glad at all; so you will bring all home in a basket
and not many will admire you. Yet the will of Zeus
who holds the aegis is different at different times;
and it is hard for mortal men to tell it; for if you
should plough late, you may find this remedy-when
the cuckoo first calls 8 in the leaves of the oak and
makes men glad all over the boundless earth, if Zeus
should send rain on the third day and not cease until
it rises neither above an ox's hoof nor falls short of it,
then the late-plougher will vie with the early. Keep
all this well in mind, and fail not to mark grey spring
as it comes and the season of rain.
Pass by the smithy and its crowded lounge in winter
time when the cold keeps men from field work,-for
then an industrious man can greatly prosper his
bouse-lest bitter winter catch you helpless and
poor and you chafe a swollen foot with a shrunk
hall(l. The idle man who waits on empty hope,
lacking a livelihood, lays to heart mischief-making;
I Spring is so described because the buds have not yet cast
their iron-grey husks.
• In December. 8 In March.
1 Herm&nn I .b "/rJ.p .1, MSS.
it is not an wholesome hope that accompanies a
needy man who lolls at ease while he has no sure
While it is yet midsummer command your slaves:
"It will not always be summer, build barns."
Avoid the month Lenaeon,l wretched days, all of
them fit to skin an ox, and the frosts which are cruel
when Boreas blows over the earth. He blows across
horse-breeding Thrace upon the wide sea and stirs it
up, while earth and the forest howl. On many a
high-leafed oak and thick pine he falls and brings
them to the bounteous earth in mountain glens:
then all the immense wood roars and the beasts
shudder and put their tails between their legs, even
those whose hide is covered with fur; for with his
bitter blast he blows even through them although
they are shaggy-breasted. He goes even through
an ox's hide; it does not stop him. Also he blows
through the goat's fine hair. But through the
fleeces of sheep, because their wool is abundant, the
keen wind Boreas pierces not at all ; but it makes the
old man curved .as a wheel. And it does not blow
through the tender maiden who stays indoors with her
dear mother, unlearned as yet in the works of golden
Aphrodite, and who washes her soft body and anoints
herself with oil and lies down in an inner room
within the house, on a winter's day when the Boneless
gnaws his foot in his fireless house and wretched
home; for the sun shows him no pastures to make
1 The latter part of January and earlier part of February.
• i.t. the octopus or cuttle.
.... "\ •• I I. ."' ' ...
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<T'Tpwcpa'Tat, (3pJ,8tov IIaveAA>1vE<T<Tt cpaetvet.
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, ','
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I Pcppmuile.r: .1 •.• • X ..... , MSS.
for, but goes to and fro over the land and city of
dusky men,l and shines more sluggishly upon the
whole race of the Hellenes. Then the horned and
un horned denizens of the wood, with teeth chattering
pitifully, flee through the copses and glades, and all,
as they seek shelter, have this one care, to gain
thick coverts or some hollow rock. Then, like the
Three-legged One 2 whose back is broken and whose
head looks down upon the ground, like him, I say,
they wander to escape the white snow.
Then put on, as I bid you, a soft coat and a tunic
to the feet to shield your body,-and you should
weave thick woof on thin warp. In this clothe your-
self so that your hair may keep still and not bristle
and stand upon end all over your body. Lace on your
feet close-fitting boots of the hide of a slaughtered
ox, thickly lined with felt inside. And when the
season of frost comes on, stitch together skins of
firstling kids with ox-sinew, to put over your back
and to keep off the rain. On your head above wear
a shaped cap of felt to keep your ears from getting
wet, for the dawn is chill when Boreas has once made
his onslaught, and at dawn a fruitful mist is spread
over the earth from starry heaven upon the fields of
blessed men: it is drawn from the ever flowing
rivers and is raised high above the earth by wind-
storm, and sometimes it turns. to rain towards
evening, and sometimes to wind when Thraeian
Boreas huddles the thick clouds. Finish your work
and return home ahead of him, and do not let the
1 ;.e. the dark·skinned people of Africa, the Egyptians or
• i.e. an old man walking with" staff (the" third leg "_
•• in the riddle of the Sphinx).
.... 3
'Tf'OTE u· otJpav68ev ct/coT66V ap,</>UCaAv-rV' 655
" 8 ' , 8'" ,
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... , I \' "
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I Gerhard: l/iO, MSS.
dark cloud from heaven wrap round you and make
your body clammy and soak your, clothes. Avoid it;
forthis is the hardest month, wintry ,hard for sheep and
hard for men. In this season let your oxen have half
their usual food, but let your man have more; for the
helpful nights are long. Observe all this until the
year is ended and you have nights and days of equal
length, and Earth, the mother of all, bears again her
various fruit.
When Zeus has finished sixty wintry days after
the solstice, then the star Arcturus 1 leaves the holy
stream of Ocean and first rises brilliant at dusk.
After him the shrilly wailing daughter of Pandion,
the swallow, appears to men when spring is just
beginning. Before she comes, prune the vines, for
it is best so.
But when the House-carrier 2 climbs up the plants
from the earth to escape the Pleiades, then it
is no longer the season for digging vineyards, but
to whet your sickles and rouse up your slaves.
Avoid shady seats and sleeping until dawn in the
harvest season, when the sun scorches the body.
Then be busy, and bring home your fruits, getting up
early to make your livelihood sure.. For dawn takes
away a third part of your work, dawn advances a man
on his journey and advances him in his work,-dawn
which appears and sets many men on their road, and
puts yokes on many oxen.
1 February to March.
i i.Co tho snail. The •• ason i. the middle of May.
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But when the artichoke flowers,l and the chirping
grass-hopper sits in a tree and pours down his shrill
song continually from under his wings in the season
of wearisome heat, then goats are plumpest and wine
sweetest; women are most wanton, but men are
feeblest, because Sirius parches head and knees and
the skin is dry through heat. But at that time let
me have a shady rock and wine of Biblis, a clot of
curds and milk of drained goats with the flesh of an
heifer fed in the woods, that has never calved, and
of firstling kids; then also let me drink bright wine
sitting in the shade, when my heart is satisfied
food, and so, turning my head to face the fresh
Zephyr, from the everflowing spring which pours
down unfouled thrice pour an offering of water, but
make a fourth libation of wine.
Set your slaves to winnow Demeter's holy grain,
when strong Orion 2 first appears, on a smooth
threshing-floor in an airy place. Then measure it
and store it in jars. And so soon as you have safely
stored all your stuff indoors, I bid you put your
bondman out of doors and look out a servant-girl
with no children ;-for a servant, with a child to
?urse is troublesome. And look after the dog with
Jagged teeth; do not grudge him his food or some
, '
time the Day-sleeper 3 may take your stuff. Bring
in fodder and litter so as to have enough for your
oxen and mules. After that, let your men rest their
poor knees and unyoke your pair of oxen.
1 In June. II July. I i.e. " robber.

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But when Orion and Sirius are come into mid-
heaven, and rosy-fingered Dawn sees Arcturus,! then
cut off all the grape-clusters, Perses, and bring them
home. Show them to the sun ten days and ten
nights: then cover them over for five, and on the
sixth day draw off into vessels the gifts of joyfnl
Dionysus. But when the Pleiades and Hyades and
strung Orion begin to set? then remember to plough
in season: and so the completed year B will fit! y pass
beneath the earth.
But if desire for uncomfortable sea-faring seize
you; when the Pleiades plunge into the misty sea 4
to escape Orion's rude strength, then truly gales of
all kinds rage. Then keep ships no longer on the
sparkling sea, but bethink you to till the land as I
bid you. Haul up your ship upon the land and pack
it closely with stones all round to keep off the
power of the winds which blow damply, and draw
out the bilge-plug so that the rain of heaven may
not rot it. Put away all the tackle and fittings in
your house, and stow the wings of the sea-goiug
ship neatly, and hang up the well-shaped rudder
over the smoke. You yourself wait until the season
for sailing is come, and then haul your swift ship
down to the sea and stow a convenient cargo in it,
so that you may bring home profit, even as your
father and mine, foolish Perses, used to sail on ship-
board because he lacked sufficient livelihood. And
one day he came to this very place crossing over a
great stretch of sea; he left Aeolian Cyme and fled,
not from riches and substance, but from wretched
I September. ' The end of October.
I That is, the ouccession of stars which make up the full year.
• The end of October or beginuing of November. .
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poverty which Zeus lays upon men, and he settled
near Helicon in a miserable hamlet, Ascra, which is
bad in winter, sultry in summer, and good at no
But you, Perses, remember all works in .heit season
but sailing especially. Admire a small ship, but put
your freight in a large one; for the greater the
lading, the greater will be your piled gain, if only
the winds will keep back their harmful gales.
If ever you turn your misguided heart to trading
and wish to escape from debt and joyless hunger, I
will show you the measures of the loud.roaring sea,
though I have no skill in sea-faring nor in ships; for
never yet have I sailed by ship over the wide sea,
but only to Euboea from Aulis where the Achaeans
once stayed through much storm when they had
gathered a great host from divine Hellas for Troy,
the land of fair women. Then I crossed over to
Chalcis, to the games of wise Amphidamas where
the sons of the great-hearted hero proclaimed and
appointed prizes. And there I boast that I gained
the victory with a song and carried off an handled
tripod which I dedicated to the Muses of Helicon, in
the place where they first set me in the way of clear
song. Such is all my experience of many-pegged
ships; nevertheless I will tell you the will of Zeus
who holds the aegis; for the Muses have taught me
to sing in marvellous song.
Fifty days after the solstice,! when the season of
wearisome heat is come to an end, is the right time
for men to go sailing. Then you will not wreck your
ship, nor will tbe sea destroy the sailors, unless
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Poseidon the Earth-Shaker be set upon it, or Zeus,
the king of the deathless gods, wish to slay them;
for the issues of good and evil alike are with them.
At that time the winds are steady, and the sea is
harmless. Then trust in the winds without care,
and haul your swift ship down to the sea and put
all the freight on board; but make all haste you
can to return home again and do not wait till the
time of the new wine and autumn rain and oncoming
storms with the fierce gales of Notus who accom·
panies the heavy autumn rain of Zeus and stirs up
the sea and makes the deep dangerous.
Another time for men to go sailing is in spring
when a man first sees leaves on the topmost shoot of
a fig-tree as large as the foot-print that a crow makes;
then the sea is passable, and this is the spring sailing
time. For my part I do not praise it, for my heart
does not like it. Such a sailing is snatched, and you
will hardly avoid mischief. Yet in their ignorance
men do even this, for wealth means life to poor mor-
tals; but it is fearful to die among the waves. But
I bid you consider all these things in your heart as I
say. Do not put all your goods in hollow ships;
leave the greater part behind, and put the lesser
part on board; for it is a bad business to meet with
disaster among the waves of the sea, as it is bad if
you put too great a load on your waggon and break
the axle, and your goods are spoiled. Observe due
measure: and proportion is best in all things.
Bring home a wife to your house when you are of
the right age, while you are not far short of thirty
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I Heyne: RI'<ph 1M., MSS.
, Another recension has aaAOV "cd EV wJ.l.ti 8ijlCfV: HO
AENOPQ, Plutarch, Stabaeu ..
years nor much above; this is the right age for
marnage. Let your wife have been grown up foul'
years, and marry her in the fifth. Marry a maiden,
so that you can teach her careful ways, and especially
marry one who lives near you, but look well about
you and see that your marriage will not be a joke to
your neighbours. For a man wins nothing better
than a good wife, and, again, nothing worse than a
bad one, a greedy soul who roasts her man without
fire, strong though he may be, and brings him to a
raw laId age.
Be careful to avoid the anger of the deathless
gods. Do not make a friend equal to a brother; but
if you do, do not wrong him first, and do not lie to
please the tongue. But if he wrong you first, offend-
ing either in word or in deed, remember to repay
him double; but if he ask you to be his friend
again and be ready to give you satisfaction, welcome
him. He is a worthless man who makes now one
and now another his friend; but as for you, do not
let your face put your heart to shame.
Do not get a name either as lavish or as churlish;
as a friend of rogues or as a slanderer of good men.
Never dare to taunt a man with deadly poverty
which eats out the heart; it is sent by the deathless
gods. The best treasUJ'e a man can have is a sparing
tongue, and the greatest pleasure, one that moves
orderly; for if you speak evil, you yourself will soon
be worse spoken of.
I i.e. untimely, premature. Juvenal similarly speaks of
.. crud .. senectu." (caused by gluttony).
'The thought is parallel to that of "0, what a goodly
outside falsehood hath."
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Do not be boorish at a common feast where there
are many guests; the pleasure is greatest and the
expense is least.
Never pour a libation of sparkling wine to Zeus
after dawn with unwashen hands, nor to others of the
deathless gods; else they do not hear your prayers
but spit them back.
Do not stand upright facing the sun when you
make water, but remember to do this when he has
set and towards his rising. And do not make water
as you go, whether on the road or off the road, and
do not uncover yourself: the nights belong to the
blessed gods. A scrupulous man who has a wise heart
sits down or goes to the wall of an enclosed court.
Do not expose yourself befouled by the fireside in
your house, but avoid this. Do not beget children
when you are come back from ill-omened burial, but
after a festival of the gods.
Never cross the sweet-flowing water of ever-rolling
rivers afoot until you have prayed, gazing into the
soft flood, and washed your hands in the clear, lovely
water. Whoever crosses a river with hands unwashed
of wickedness, the gods are angry with him and
bring trouble upon him afterwards.
At a cheerful festival of the gods do not cut the
withered from the quick upon that which has five
branches 2' with bright steel. '
Never put the ladle upon the mixing-bowl at a wine
party, fOI' malignant ill-luck is attached to that.
1 The" common feast" is one to which all present Rub-
.cribe. Theognis (line 495) says that one of the chief pleasuI'!?S
of .. banquet is the general conversation. Hence the present
passage means that such a feast naturally costs !itMe, while
the many present will make pleasurahle convers .. tion.
i.e. "dQ not cut your finger-na.i.lIS."
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When you are building a house,do not leave it rough-
hewn, or a cawing crow may settle on it and croak.
Take nothing to eat or to wash with from
uncharmed pots, for in them there is mischief.
Do not let a boy of twelve years sit on things
which may not be moved,! for that is bad, and makes
a man unmanly; nor a child of twelve months, for
that has the same effect. A man should not clean
his body with water in which a woman has washed,
for there is bitter mischief in that also for a time.
When you come upon a burning sacrifice, do not
make a mock of mysteries, for Heaven is angry at
this also. Never make water in the mouths of rivers
which flow to the sea, nor yet in springs; but be
careful to avoid this. And do not ease yourself in
them: it is not well to do this. .
So do: and avoid the talk of men. For Talk is
;nischievous, light, and easily raised, but hard to
bear and difficult to be rid of. Talk never wholly
dies away when many people voice her: even Talk
is in some ways divine.
Mark the days which come from Zeus, duly
telling your slaves of them, and that the thirtieth
day of the month is best for one to look over the
work and to deal out supplies.
For these are days which come from Zeus the all-
wise, when men discern aright.
To begin with, the first, the fourth, and the
seventh-on which Leta bare Apollo with the
blade of gold-each is a holy day, The eighth and
1 i.e. things which it would he sacrilege to disturb, Buch aB
"t •• t (3 " e
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• A: .. ,1<.1., or </>,1<.10, 6l Kf, MSS.
the ninth, two days at least of the waxing month,l
are specially good for the works of man. Also the
eleventh and twelfth are both excellent, alike for
shearing sheep and for reaping the kindly fruits; but
the twelfth is much better than the eleventh, for on
it the airy-swinging spider spins its web in full day,
and then the Wise One,2 gathers her pile. On that
day a woman should set up her loom and get forward
with her work.
Avoid the thirteenth of the waxing month for
beginning to sow: yet it is the best day for setting
The sixth of the mid-month is very unfavourable
for plants, but is good for the birth of males, though
unfavourable for a girl either to be bom at all or to
be married. N or is the first sixth a fit day for a girl
to be bom, but a kindly for gelding kids and sheep
and for fencing in a sheep-cote. It is favourable for
the hirth of a boy, but such will be fond of sharp
speech, lies, and cunning words, and stealthy
On the eighth of the month geld the boar and
loud-bellowing bull, but hard-working mules on the
On the great twentieth, in full day, a wise man
should be born. Such an one is very sound-witted.
The tenth is favourable for a male to be born; but,
for a girl, the fourth day of the mid-month. On that
day tame sheep and shambling, horned oxen, and
the sharp-fanged dog and hardy mules to the touch
of the hand. But take care to avoid troubles which
I The month is divided into three periods, the waxing, the
mid-month, and the waning, which answer to the phases of
the moon. I i.c. the ant.
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I Guyet: 'uI-'0{Jop".' MSS.
• Sitt!: .... e' <lr. MBS.
• A : TOI, MBS.
I AM , •. mORt MSS.
eat out the heart on the fourth of the beginning and
ending ofthe month; it is a day very fraught with fate .
On the fourth of the month bring home your
bride, but choose the omens which are best for this
Avoid fifth days: they are unkindly and terrible.
On a fifth, they say, the Erinyes assisted at the birth
of Rorcus (Oath) whom Eris (Strife) bare to trouble
the forsworn.
Look about you very carefully and throw out
Demeter's holy grain upon the well-rolled 1 threshing
floor on the seventh of the mid·month. Let the
woodman cut beams for house building and plenty of
ships' timbers, such as are suitable for ships. On the
fourth day begin to build narrow ships.
The ninth of the mid·month improves towards
evening; but the first ninth of all is quite harmless
for men. It is a good day on which to beget or to
be born both for a male and a female: it is never an
wholly evil day.
Again, few know that the twenty-seventh of the
month is best for opening a wine-jar, and putting
yokes on the necks of oxen and mules and swift-
footed horses, and for hauling a swift ship of many
thwarts down to the sparkling sea; few call it by its
right name.
On the fourth day open a jar. The fourth of the
mid-month is a day holy above all. And again, few
men know that the fourth day after the twentieth
is best while it is morning: towards evening it is
less good.
I Such seema to be the meaning here, though the epithet
i. otherwise rendered "well·rounded." Corn was threBhed
by means of ... leigh with two runner. having three or four
roller. between them, like the modem Egyptian nura".

....., ,., (}' l • "
WE p.." "IIJ,EpLLt eHnv E7rtX P.€"f OVELap,
,,"'\ "\ ' t' " )/ I
at 0 a",,,,at f'ETaOOU7rOL, alCTlptOL, OU n ¢€POUlFO,L.
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0 a;,"'OL'T]V aLV€t, 7raVpOL DE LlFaa-LV.
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\ ",.., , I '(}'
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"(} I \. Q ' " '
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Proclus on Works and Days, 828. oe
'" \ '0 (J 'd 'A
€7ra"fovO"£ € T'T]V pVL op.aVT€taVanva 7rO)..·
, , • p '0 '0 •
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These days are a great blessing to men on earth;
but the rest are changeable, luckless, and bring
nothing. Everyone praises a different day but few
know their nature. Sometimes a day is a step,
mother, sometimes a mother. That man is happy
and lucky in them who knows all these things and
does his work without offending the deathless gods,
who discerns the omens of birds and avoids
Some make the Divinatitl1l b!l Birds, which
Apollonius of Rhodes rejects as spurious, follow
this verse (Works and Dall', 828).
. 491 d ,., "R I.,
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!Cal 7rtlAW'
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a7ro!CpV7rTOVO"t ••••
Scholiast on Pindar, Hem. ii. 16. IIAEta8M •••
.,. 11', l '"
- l '" , 'R' "
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'A' , 'A ' .' K .,. ,
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""M' , I ,/, I.
ata TE !Cat EP07r,}. 'YEtVaTO

• •

I ,
ScholiaBl on .A mtw

2 5 4. Of
AND the author of the Astronomy, which is attri-
buted forsooth to Hesiod, always calls them (the
Pleiades) Peleiades: "but mortals call them
Peleiades"; and again, "the stormy Peleiades go
down"; and again, "then the Peleiades hide
away ••••
The Pleiades ... whose stars are these:-"Lovely
Teygeta, and dark-faced Electra, and Alcyone, and
bright Asterope, and Celaeno, and Maia, and Merope,
whom glorious Atlas begot.. . In the mountains
of Cyllene she (Maia) bare Hermes, the herald of
the gods."
But Zeus made them (the
into the stars which are called
sisters of H yas)
Hyades. Hesiod
I 'T .. \" f
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Pseudo-Emlos/henes Galast. frag. 1.
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ou B' "' 'A '" " 'I' OWTOV TOV !Ca, P!c'J'0't'V"UKO<;. 7TEpt 'J'OVTOV
1 This h"lt verse i. added by the Soholiast on Aratus 172
• .The CatruteriBmi (" Placing. among the Stan") i. col:
laction of legencla relating to the VIlriouI constellations.
in his Book about Stars tells us their names as
follows: " Nymphs like the Graces, Phaesyle and
Coronis and rich-crowned Cleeia and lovely Phaeo
and long-robed Eudora, whom the tribes of men
upon the earth call Hyades."
The Great Bear.]-Hesiod says she (Callisto) was
the daughter of Lycaon and lived in Arcadia. She
chose to occupy herself with wild-beasts in the
mountains together with Artemis, and, when she
was seduced by Zeus, continued some time un-
detected by the goddess, but afterwards, when she
was already with child, was seen by her bathing
and so discovered. Upon this, the goddess was
enraged and changed her into a beast. Thus she
became a bear and gave birth to a son called Arcas.
But while she was in the mountain, she was hunted
by some goat-herds and given up with her babe to
Lycaon. Some while after, she thought fit to go
into the forbidden precinct of Zeus, not knowing
the law, and being pursued by her own son and
the Arcadians, was abou.t to be killed because of the
said law; but Zeus delivered her because of her
connection with him and put her among the stars,
giving her the name Bear because of the misfortune
which had befallen her.
Of Bootes, also called the Bear-warden. The
story goes that he is Arcas the son of Callisto and
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Zeus, and he lived in the country about Lycaeum.
After Zeus had seduced Callisto, Lycaon, pretend-
ing not to know of the matter, entertained Zeus, as
Hesiod says, and set before him on the table the
babe which he had cut up.
Orion.]-Hesiod says that he was the son of
Em'yale, the daughter of Minos, and of Poseidon,
and that there was given him as a gift the power
of walking upon the waves as though upon land.
When he was come to Chios, he outraged Merope,
the daughter of Oenopion, being drunken j but
Oenopion when he learned of it was greatly vexed
at the outrage and blinded him and cast him out of
the country. Then he came to Lemnos as a beggar
and there met Hephaestus who took pity on him
and gave him Cedalion his own servant to guide
him. So Orion took Cedalion upon his shoulders
and used to carry him about while he pointed out the.
roads. Then he came to the east and appears to have
met Helius (the Sun) and to have been healed, and
so returned back again to Oenopion to punish him j
but Oenopion was hidden away byhis people under-
ground. Being disappointed, then, in his search for
the king, Orion went away to Crete and spent his
time hunting in company with Artemis and Leto.
I t seems that he threatened to kill every beast there
was on earth; whereupon, in her anger, Earth sent
up against him a scorpion of very great size by which
he was stung and so perished. After this Zeus, at
me prayer of Artemis and Leto, put him among the
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stars, because of his manliness, and the scorpion also
as a memorial of him and of what had occurred.
Some say that great earthquakes occurred, which
broke through the neck of land and formed the
the sea parting the mainland from the island.
But Hesiod, the poet, says just the opposite: that
the sea was open, but Orion piled up the promontory
by Peloris, and founded the close of Poseidon which
is especially esteemed by the people thereabouts.
When he had finished this, he went away to Euboea
and settled there, and because of his renown was
taken into the number of the stars in heaven, and
won undying remembrance.
"AND now, pray, mark all these things well in
a wise heart. First, whenever you come to your
house, offer good sacrifices to the eternal gods."
(( Decide no suit until you have heard both sides
k " "pea.
1 Th. Strloits of Me •• in ...
Plutarch ck Orac. defoctu ii. 415 o.
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Quintilian, i. l. 15. Quidam litteris instituendos,
qui minores septem annis essent, non putaverunt
... in qua sententia Hesiodum esse plurimi tradunt,
qui ante Grammaticum Aristophanem fuerunt, nam
is primus in quo libro scriptum hoc
invenitur, negavit esse huius poetas.
Comm. on Aristoele, Nicomachean Ethics. v. 8.
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" A chattering crow lives out nine generations of
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and a raven's life makes three stags old, while the
phoenix outlives nine ravens, but we, the rich-haired
Nymphs, daughters of Zeus the aegis-holder, outlive
ten phoenixes."
Some consider that children under the age of
seven should not receive a literary education ...
That Hesiod waS of this opinion very many writers
affirm who were earlier than the critic Aristophanes ;
for he was the first to reject the Precepts, in which
book this maxim occurs, as a work of that poet.
THE verse, however (the saying of Rhadamanthys),
is in Hesiod in the Great "Vorks and is as follows:
" If a man sow evil, he shall reap evil increase; if
men do to him as he has done, it will be true
justice. "
Some beHeve that the Silver Race (is to be attri-
buted to) the earth, declaring that in the Great
Works Besiod makes silver to "oe of family of

Pliny, Natural History vii. 56, 197 .•.. Ferrum
conflare et temperare Hesiodus in Creta eos (mon-
strasse) qui vocati Bunt Dactyli Idaei.
Clement, Stromateis i. 16. 7 5. T6 av
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HESIOD says that those who are called the Idaean
Dactyls taught the smelting and tempering of iron in
Celmis, again, and Damnameneus, the first of the
Idaean Dactyls, discovered iron in Cyprus; but
bronze-smelting was discovered by Delas, another
ldaean, though Hesiod calls him Scythes.
1 Or perhaps " .. Scythian."
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FROM the let us begin to sing,
who hold the great and holy mount of Helicon, and
dance on soft feet about the deep-blue spring and
the altar of the almighty son of Cronos, and, when
they have washed their tender bodies in Permessus
in the Horse's Spring or Olmeius, make their fair,
lovely dances upon highest Helicon and move with
vigorous feet. Thence they arise and go abroad by
uight, veiled in thick mist, and utter their song with
lovely voice, praising Zeus the aegis-holder and
queenly Hera of Argos who walks on golden sandals
and the daughter of Zeus the aegis-holder bright-
eyed Athene, and Phoebus Apollo, and Artemis who
delights in arrows, and Poseidon the earth-holder who
shakes the earth, and reverend Themis and quick-
Aphrodite, and Hebe with the crown of gold,
and fair Dione, Leto, Iapetus, and Cronos the crafty
counsellor, Eos and great Helius and bright Selene,
Earth too, and great Oceanus, and dark Night, and
the holy race of all the other deathless ones that are
for ever. And one day they taught Hesiod glorious
song while he was shepherding his lambs under holy
I The epithet probably indioates ooquettishness.
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Helicon, and this word lirst the goddesses said to
me-the Muses of Olympus, daughters of Zeus who
holds the aegis:
" Shepherds of the wilderness, wretched things of
shame, mere bellies, we know how to speak many
false things as though they were true; but we know,
when we will, to utter true things."
So said the ready-voiced daughters of great Zeus,
and they plucked and gave me a rod, a shoot of
sturdy laurel, a marvellous thing, and breathed into
me a divine voice to celebrate things that shall be and
things that were aforetime; and they bade me sing
of the race of the blessed gods that' are eternally,
but ever to sing of themselves both first and last. But
why all this about oak or stone? 1
Corne thou, let us begin with the Muses who gladden
the great spirit of their father Zeus in Olympus with
their songs, telling of things that are and that shall
be and that were aforetill1e with consenting voice.
Unwearjing flows the sweet sound from their lips,
and the house of their father Zeus the loud-thunderer
is glad at the lily-like voice of the goddesses as it
spreads abroad, and the peaks of snowy Olympus
resound, and the homes of the immortals. And they
uttering their immortal voice, celebrate in song first
of all the reverend race of the gods from the
beginning, those whom Earth and wide Heaven
begot, and the gods sprung of these, givers of good
things.. Then, next, the goddesses sing of Zeus, the
father of gods and men, as they begin and end their
strain, how much he is the most excellent among the
1 A proverbi,,1 saying meaning, .. why enlarge on irrele·
vont topica !"
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gods and supreme in power. And again, they chant
the race of men and strong giants, and gladden the
heart of Zeus within Olympus,-the Olympian
Muses, daughters of Zeus the aegis-holder.
Them in Pieria did (Memory), who
reigns over the hills of Eleuther, bear of union with
the father, the son of Cronos, a forgetting of ills and
a rest from sorrow. For nine nights did wise Zeus lie
Wilth her, entering her holy bed remote from the im-
mortals. And when a year was passed and the
seasons came round as the months waned, and many
days were accomplished, she bare nine daughters,
all of one mind, whose hearts are set upon song and
their spirit free from care, a little way from the top-
most peak of snowy Olympus. There are their bright
dancing-places and beautiful homes, and beside them
the Graces and Himerus (Desire) live in delight.
And they, uttering through their lips a lovely voice,
sing the laws of all and the goodly ways of the
immortals, uttering their lovely voice. Then went
they to Olympus, delighting in their sweet voice,
with heavenly song, and the dark earth resounded
about them as they chanted. and a lovely sound rose
up beneath their feet as they went to their father.
And he was reigning in heaven, himself holding the
lightning and glowing thunderbolt, when he had
overcome by might his father Cronos; and he distri-
buted fairly to the immortals their portions and
declared their privileges.
These things, then, the Muses sang who dwell
on Olympus, nine daughters begotten by great
Zeus, Cleio and Euterpe, Thaleia, Melpomene and
Terpsichore, and Erato and Polyhymnia and Urania
,,' 0" A, " \, ,
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1 Themistiu8, StobaeuB: or
or brtBwcn,
• A: TE, MSS. • A and Scholitt.ts: &v« MSS.
• A: .r .. 'Tt, MSS. • N a.uck: KAt''', MSS.
and Calliope,l who is the chiefest of them all, for
she attends on worshipful princes: whomsoever
of heaven-nourished prin<:es the daughters of great
Zeus honour, and behold him at his birth, they
pour sweet dew upon his tongue, and from his lips
flow gracious words. All the people look towards
him while he settles causes with true judgements:
and he, speaking surely, would soon make wise end
even of a great quarrel; for therefore are there princes
wise in heart, because when the people are being
misguided in their assembly, they set right the matter
again with ease, persuading them with gentle words.
And when he passes through a gathering, they greet
him as a god with gentle reverence, and he is con-
spicuous amongst the assembled: such is the holy
gift of the Muses to men. For it is through the
Muses and far-shooting Apollo that there are singers
and harpers upon the earth; but princes are of
Zeus, and happy is he whom the Muses love: sweet
flows speech from his mouth. For though a man
have sorrow and grief in his newly-troubled soul and
live in dread because his heart is distressed, yet,
when a singer, the servant of the Muses, chants the
glorious deeds of men of old and the blessed gods
who inhabit Olympus, at once he forgets his heavi-
ness and remembers not his sorrows at all; but the
gifts of the goddesses soon turn him away from these.
Hail, children of Zeus! Grant lovely song and
• .. Sloe of the noble voice": Calliope i. queen of Epic
, t'o"8 If, I
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1 Rzach (cf. 1. 131) : 9(,.,,,, MSS.
• Omit,ted by A, Theophilus, Hippolytul.
• TheophiluB, Hippolytus, and all MSS. Plato, Aristotle
and others do not know the line, which is clearly spuriowo-
• MSS. : lCd.Tj, A. Theophilus.
celebrate the holy race of the deathless gods who
are for ever, those that were born of Earth and starry
Heaven and gloomy Night and them that briny Sea
did rear. Tell how at the first gods and earth came
to be, and rivers, and the boundless sea with its
raging swell, and the gleaming stars, and the wide
heaven above, and the gods who were born of them,
givers of good things, and how they divided their
wealth, and how they shared their honours amongst
them, and also how at the first they took many-
folded Olympus. These things declare to me from
the beginning, ye Muses who dwell in the house of
Olympus, and tell me which of them first came to
Verily at the first CQi\PS came to be, but next
wide-bosomed Earth, the ever-sure foundation of all 1
the deathless ones who hold the peaks of snowy
Olympus, and dim Tartarns in the depth of the wide-
pathed Earth, and Eros (Love), fairest among the
deathless gods, who unnerves the limbs and over-
comes the mind and wise counsels of all gods and all
men within them. From Chaos came forth Erebus
and black Night; but of Night were born Aether 2
and Day, whom she conceived and bare from union
in love with Erebus. And Earth first bare starry
Heaven, equal to herself, to cover her on every
1 Earth, in the cosmology of Hesiod, is "disk surrounded
by the river Oceanus and floating upon a waste of waters. It i.
called the foundation of all (the qualification" the deathless
one8 ... " etc. is an interpolation), because not only trees,
men, and animals, but even the hills and seas (II. 129, 131)
are supported by it.
S Aether is the bright, nntainted upper atmosphere, as
diBtinguished from Aer, the lower of tho earth.
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8up,ov, 140
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1 A: 9liov, MSS.
• In place of this line Crates read-
at a;' &'9a.",&'.,.",,, 8v77,-ol rpdcpev
side, and to be an eVer-sure abiding-place for the
blessed gods. And she brought forth long Hills,
graceful haunts of the goddess-Nymphs who dwell
amongst the glens of the hills. She bare also the
fruitless deep with his raging swell, Pontus, without
sweet union of love. But afterwards she lay with
Heaven and bare deep-swirling Oceanus, Coeus and
Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea ..
Themis and Muemosyne and gold-crowned Phoebe
and lovely Tethys. After them was born Cronos
the wily, youngest and most terrible of her childreu,
and he hated his lusty sire.
And again, she bare the Cyclopes, overbearing in
spirit, Brontes, and Steropes and stubborn-hearted
Arges,1 who gave Zeus the thunder and made the
thunderbolt: in all else they were like the gods,
but one eye only was set in the midst of their fore-
heads. And they were surnamed Cyclopes (Orb-eyed)
because one orbed eye was set in their foreheads.
Strength and might and craft were in their works.
Aud again, three other sons were born of Earth
and Heaven, great and doughty beyond telling,
Cottus and Briareos and Gyes, presumptuous
children. From their shoulders sprang an hundred
arms, not to be approached, and each had fifty heads
upon his shoulders on their strong limbs, and
1 Brontee is the Thunderer; Steropes, tho Lightener: ILnd
Arges, the Vivid One.
, , '" t \
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I 1:',' " '...I. I
uTetv0fL€IJ'YJ' oe ICaIC'YJv T e-rpauuaTO
'T€XV1]V. 160
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E7rEU)),61"O "at p e1"aVU<F 'T)
irresistible was the stubborn strength that was in
their great forms. For of all the children that were
born of Earth and Heaven, these were the most
terrible, and they were hated by their own father
from the first. And he used to hide them all away
in a secret place of Earth so soon as each was
born, and would not suffer them to come up into the
light: and Heaven rejoiced in his evil doing. But
vast Earth groaned within, being straitened, and she
thought a crafty and an evil wile. Forthwith she
made the element of grey flint and shaped a great
sickle, and told her plan to her dear sons. And she
spoke, cheering them, while she was vexed in her
dear heart:
"My children, gotten of a sinful father, if you will
obey me, we should punish the vile outrage of your
father; for he first thought of doing shameful things."
So she said; but fear seized them all, and none
of them uttered a word. But great Cronos the wily
took courage and answered his dear mother:
"Mother, I will undertake to do this deed, for I
reverence not our father of evil name, for he first
thought of doing shameful things."
So he said: and vast Earth rejoiced greatly in
spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush, and put in
his hands a jagged sickle, and revealed to him the
whole plot.
And Heaven came, bringmg on night and longing
for love, and he Jay about Earth spreading himself full
I The line possibly belong. to another recension: it was
rejected by Heyne u.. interrupting the Ben •••
upon her.l Then the son from his ambush stretched
forth his left hand and in his right took the great
long sickle with jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped of!
his own father's members and cast them away to faE
behind him. And not vainly did they fall from his
hand; for all the bloody drops that gushed forth
Earth received, and as the seasons moved round sh,.
bare the strong Erinyes and the great Giants witl
gleaming armour, holding long spears in their hand,
and the Nymphs whom they call Meliae 2 all over th.
boundless earth. And so soon as he had cut of.
the members with flint and cast them from the land
into the surging sea, they were swept away over the
main a long time: and a white foam spread around
them from the immortal flesh, and in it there grew
a maiden. First she drew neal' holy Cythera, and
from there, afterwards, she came to sea-girt Cyprus,
and came forth an awful and lovely goddess, and gras,
grew up about her beneath her shapely feet. Her
gods and men call A phrodite, and the foam-born
goddess and rich-crowned Cytherea, because she
grew amid the foam, and Cytherea because she
reached Cythera, and Cyprogenes because she was
born in billowy Cyprus, and Philomrnedes 3 because
I The myth accounts for the separation of Heaven and
Earth. In Egyptian cosmology Nut (the t)ky) i. thrust and
held apu.rt from her brother Geb (the Earth) by their father
Shu, who corresponds to tbe Greek Atlas.
2 Nymphs of the ash-trees (!"Alal), a. Dryads are nymphs
of the oak-trees. Cpo note on Work. and Days,!. 145.
I "Member.loving": the title i. perhaps only a perversion
of the regular .pIA.!,,,/j'l' (laughter. loving).
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I Schoemann'B order.
• Rzach: .r., MSS,
she sprang from the members. And with her went
Eros, and comely Desire followed her at her birth at
the first and as she went into the assembly of the gods.
This honour she has from the beginning, and this is
the portion allotted to her amongst men and undying
gods,-the whisperings of maidens and smiles and
deceits with sweet delight and love and graciousness.
But these sons whom he begot himself great
Heaven used to call Titans (Strainers) in reproach,
for he said that they strained and did presumptuously
a fearful deed, and that vengeance for it would come
And Night bare hateful Doom and black Fate and
Death, and she bare Sleep and the tribe of Dreams.
And again the goddess murky Night, though she
lay with none, bare Blame and painful Woe, and the
Hesperides who guard the rich, golden apples and
the trees bearing fruit beyond glorious Ocean.
Also she bare the Destinies and ruthless avenging
Fates, Clotho and Lachesis and Atropos,! who give
men at their birth both evil and good to have, and
they pursue the transgressions of men and of gods:
and these goddesses never cease from their dread
anger until they punish the sinner with a sore
penalty. Also deadly Night bare Nemesis (Indig-
nation) to afflict mortal men, and after her, Deceit
and Friendship and hateful Age and hard-hearted
1 Clotho (the Spinner) is she who spins the thread of
man's life; Lachesis (the Disposer of Lots) assigns to each
man his destiny; Atropos (She who cannot be turned) i. the
" Fury with the abhorred shears."
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1 Rzach:
• Hermann: nay,,,'I, MBa.
But ahhorred Strife bare painful Toil and
Forgetfulness and Famine and tearful Sorrows,
Fightings ,also, Battles, Murders, Manslaughters,
Quarrels, Lying Words, Disputes, Lawlessness and
Ruin, all of one nature, and Oath who most troubles
men upon earth when anyone wilfully swears a false
And Sea begat N ereus, the eldest of his children,
who is true and lies not: and men call him the Old
Man becanse he is trusty and gentle and does not
forget the laws of righteousness, but thinks just and
kindly thoughts. And yet again he got great Thaumas
and proud Phorcys, being mated with Earth, and
fair-cheeked Ceto and Eurybia who has a heart of
flint within her.
And of N ereus and rich-haired Doris, daughter
of Ooean the perfect river, were born children,l
passing lovely amongst goddesses, Ploto, Eucrante,
Sao, and Amphitrite, and Eudora, and Thetis, Galene
and Glalice, Cymothoe, Speo, Thoe and lovely Halie,
and Pasithea, and Erato, and rosy-armed Eunice, and
gracious Melite, and Eulimene, and Agaue, Doto,
Proto, Pherusa, and Dynamene; and Nisaea, and
Actaea, and Protomedea, Doris, Panopea, and comely
Galatea, and lovely Hippothoe, and rosy-armed
1 Many of the names which follow express various qualities
or aspects of the sea: thus Galene is "Calm," Cymothoe is
the" Wave·swift," Pherusa and Dynamene are ,I She who
'peeds (ships)" and" She who h .. s power."
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Hippolloe, and Cymodoee who with Cymatolege
Amphitrite easily calms the waves upon the misty
sea and the blasts of raging winds, and Cymo, and
Elone, and rich-crowned Alimede, and Glauconome,
fond of laughter, and Pontoporea, Leagore, Euagore,
and Laomedea, and Polynoe, and Autonoe, and
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blemish of form, and Psamathe of charming figure
and divine Menippe, Neso, Eupompe, Themisto,
Pronoe, and Nemertes
who has the nature of her
deathless father. These fifty daughters sprang from
blameless Nereus, skilled in excellent crafts.
And Thaumas wedded Electra the daughter of
deep-flowing Ocean, and she bare him swift Iris and
the long-haired Harpies, Aello (Storm-swift) and
Ocypetes (Swift-flier) who on their swift wings keep
pace with the blasts of the winds and the birds; for
quick as time they dart along.
And again, Ceto bare to Phorcys the fair-cheeked
Graiae, sisters grey from their birth: and both
deathless gods and men who walk on earth call
them Graiae, Pemphredo well-clad, and saffron-robed
Enyo, and the Gorgons who dwell beyond glorious
Ocean in the frontier land towards Night where are
the clear-voiced Hesperides, Sthenno, and Euryale,
and Medusa who suffered a woeful fate: she was
mortal, but the two were undying and grew not old.
With her lay the Dark-haired Ones in a soft meadow
amid spring flowers, And when Perseus cut off her
I The"" and the H Wave-stiller."
• .. The Unerring" or " Truthful"; cpo 1. 235.
• i .•. Poseidon,
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heat!, there sprang forth great Chrysaor and the horse
Pegasus who is so called because he was born near
the springs (pegae) of Ocean; and that other, because
he held a golden blade (aor) in his hands. Now
Pegasus flew away and left the earth, the mother of
flocks, and came to the deathless gods: and he
dwells in the house of Zeus and brings to wise Zeus
the thunder and lightning. But Chrysaor was joiued
in love to Callirrhoe, the daughter of glorious Ocean,
and begot three-headed Geryones. Him mighty
Heracles slew in sea-girt Erythea by his shambling
oxen on that day when he drove the wide-browed
oxen to holy Tiryns, and had crossed the ford of
Ocean and killed Orthus and Eurytion the herdsman
in the dim stead out beyond glorious Ocean.
And in a hollow cave she bare another monster,
irresistible, in no wise like either to mortal men" or
to the undying gods, even the goddess fierce Echidna
who is half a nymph with glancing eyes and fair
cheeks, and half again a huge snake, great and
awful, with speckled skin, eating raw flesh beneath
the secret parts of the holy earth. And there she has
a cave deep down under a hollow rock far from the
deathless gods and mortal men. There, then, did the
gods appoint her a glorious house to dwell in: and she
keeps guard in Arima beneath the earth, grim Echid-
ua, a nymph who dies not nor grows old all her days.
Men say that Typhaon the terrible, outrageous and
lawless, was joined in love to her, the maid with
glancing eyes. So she conceived and brought forth
fierce offspring; first she bare Orthus the hound of
Geryones, and then again she bare a second, a
monster not to be overcome and that may not be
described, Cerberus who eats taw flesh, the brazen-
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Homer, Iliad vi. 181-2.
voiced hound ot Hades, fifty-headed, relentless and
strong. And again she bore a third, the evil-minded
Hydra of Lerna, whom the goddess, white-armed
Hera nourished, being angry beyond measure with
the mighty Heracles. And her Heracles, the son of
Zeus, of the house of Amphitryon, together with
warlike lolaus, destroyed with the unpitying sword
through the plans of Athene the spoil-driver. She
was the mother of Chimaera who breathed raging
fire, a creature fearful, great, swift-footed and strong,
who had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, an-
other of a goat, and another of a snake, a fierce
dragon; in her forepart she was a lion; in her
hinderpart, a dragon; and in her middle, a goat,
breathing forth a fearful blast of blazing fire. Her
did Pegasus and noble Bellerophon slay; but Echid-
na was subject in love to Orthu!> and brought forth
the deadly Sphinx which destroyed the Cadmeans,
and the Nemean lion, which Hera, the good wife of
Zeus, brought up and made to haunt the hills of
Nemea, a plague to men. There he preyed upon
the tribes of her own people and had power over
Tretus of Nemea and Apesas: yet the strength of
stout Heracles overcame him.
And Ceto was joined in love to Phorcys and bare
her youngest, the awful snake who guards the apples
all of gold in the secret places of the dark earth at
its great bounds. This is the offspring of Ceto and
And Tethys bare to Ocean eddying rivers, Nilus,
.'md Alpheus, and deep-swirling Eridanus, Strymon,
and Meander, and the fair stream of Ister, and
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Phasis, and Rhesus, and the silver eddies of
Achelous, Nessus, and Rhodius, Haliacmon, and
Heptaporus, Granicus, and Aesepus, and holy Simols,
and Peneiis, and Hermus, and Caicus' fair stream,
and great Sangarius, Ladon, Parthenius, Euenus,
Ardescus, and divine Scamander.
Also she brought forth a holy company of
daughters 1 who with the lord Apollo and the
Rivers have youths in their keeping-to this chal'ge
Zeus appointed them-Peitho, and Admete, and
Ianthe, and Electra, and Doris, and Prymno, and
Urania divine in form, Hippo, Clymene, Rhodea,
and Callirrhoe, Zeuxo and Clytie, and Idyia, and
Pasithoe, Plexaura, and Galaxaura, and lovely Dione,
Melobosis and Thoe and handsome Polydora, Cercels
lovely of form, and soft eyed Pluto, Persels, Ianeira,
Acaste, Xanthe, Petraea the fair, Menestho, and
Europa, Metis, and Eurynome, and Telesto saffron-
clad, ChryseiS and Asia and charming Calypso,
Eudora, and Tyche, Amphirho, and Ocyrrhoe, and
Styx who is the chiefest of them all. These are the
eldest daughters that sprang from Ocean and Tethys;
but there are many besides. For there are three
thousand neat-ankled daughters of Ocean who are
dispersed far and wide, and in every alike
serve the earth and the deep waters, children who
I Goettling notes that of these nymphs derive
names from Jande over wInch they preslde, as Europa, ASla,
Doris Ianeira (U Lady of the IOllians "), but that most are
called after Bome quality which their streams possessed: thus
Xanthe is _ the "Brown" or U Turbid," is the
"Surrounding" river, Iant.he is Ie She who delIghts," and
Ocyrrhoe i. the .. tlwift-llowing."
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are glorions among goddesses. And as many other
rivers are there, babbling as they flow, sons of Ocean,
whom queenly Tethys bare, but their names it is hard
for a mortal man to tell, but people know those by
which they severally dwell.
And Theia was subject in love to Hyperion and
bare great Helius (Sun) and clear Selene (Moon) and
Eos (Dawn) who shines upon all that are on earth
aud upon the deathless Gods who live in the wide
And Eurybia, bright goddess, was joined in love to
Crius and bare great Astraeus, and Pallas, and
Perses who also was eminent among all men in
And Eos bare to Astraeus the strong-hearted
wiI'ds, brightening Zephyrus, and Boreas, headlong
in his course, and N otus,-a goddess mating in love
with a god. And after these Erigeneia 1 bare the star
Eosphorus (Dawn-bringer), and the gleaming stars
with which heaven is crowned.
And Styx the daughter of Ocean was joined to
Pallas and bare Zelus (Emulation) and trim"ankled
Nike (Victory) in the house. Also she brought
forth Cratos (Strength) and Bia (Force), wonderful
children. These have no house apart from Zeus,
nor any dwelling nor path except that wherein God
leads them, but they dwell always with Zeus the
loud-thunderer. For so did Styx the deathless
daughter of Ocean plan on that day when the
Olympian Lightener called all the deathless gods to
great Olympus, and said that whosoever of the gods
would fight with him against the Titans, he would
I i.e. Eos, the " born."
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not cast him out from his rights, but each should
ha\'e the office which he had before amongst the
deathless gods. Ann he declared that he who was
without office or right under Cronos, should be raised
to both office and righ ts as is just. So deathless
Styx came first to Olympus with her children through
the wit of her dear father. And Zeus honoured her,
and gave her very great gifts, for her he appointed
to be the great oath of the gods, and her children to
live with him always. Aud as he promised, so he
performed fully unto them all. But he himself
mightily reigns and rules.
Again, Phoebe came to the desired embrace of
Cae us. Then the goddess through the love of the
god conceived and brought forth dark-gowned Leta,
always mild, kind to men and to the deathless gods,
mild from the beginning, gentlest in all Olympus.
Also she bare Asteria of happy name, whom Perses
once led to his great house to be called his dear wife.
And she conceived and bare Hecate whom Zeus the
son of Cronos honoured above all. He gave her
splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the un·
fruitful sea. She received honour also in starry heaven,
and is honoured exceedingly by the deathless gods.
"For to this day, whenever anyone of men au earth
offers rich sacrifices and prays for favour according to
custom, he calls upon Hecate. Great honour comes
full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives
favourably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for
the power surely is with her. For as many as were
born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has
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I Goettling'. order. • Schoemann·. order.
• Koochly: &'Y'"" 1.",..6 .. """ DGHI: """.6 .. "w, other MSEI.
her due portion. The son of Cronos did her no
wrong nor took anything away of all that was her
portion among the former Titan gods: bnt she holds,
as the division was at the first from the beginning,
privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea,
Also, because she is an only child, the goddess
receives not less honour, but much more still, for
Zeus honours her. Whom she will she greatly aids
and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judge-
ment, and in the assembly whom she will is distin-
guished among the people. And when men arm
themselves for the battle that destroys men, then
the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant
glory readily to whom she will. Good is she also
when men contend at the games, for there too the
goddess is with them and profits them: and he who
by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich
prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents.
And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she
will: and to those whose business is in the grey
discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hecate and the
loud-crashing Earth,Shaker, easily the glorious god-
dess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away
as soon as seen, if so she wilL She is good in the
byre with Hermes to increase the stock. The droves
of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy
sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or
makes many to be less. So, then, albeit her mother's
only child,! she is honoured amongst all the deathless
I Van Lennep explains that Hecate, having no brother. to
,upport her claim, might have been Blighted.
1 E (later hand) GHI and a Scholiast read 7raTp6s.
gods. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of
the young who after that day saw with their eyes tIle
light of all-seeing Dawn. So from the beginning
she is a nurse of the young, and these are her
But Rhea was subject in love to Cronos and bare
splendid children, Hestia,1 Demeter, and gold-shod
Hera and strong Hades, pitiless in heart, who dwells
under the earth, and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker,
and wise Zeus, father of gods and men, by whose
thunder the wide earth is shaken. These great Cronos
swallowed as each came forth from the womb to his
mother's knees with this intent, that no other of the
proud sons of Heaven should hold the kingly office
amongst the deathless gods. For he learned from
Earth and starry Heaven that he was destined to
be overcome by his own son, strong though he was,
through the contriving of great Zeus.
he kept no blind outlook, but watched and swallowed
down his children: and unceasing grief seized Rhea.
But when she was about to bear Zeus, the father of
gods and men, then she besought her own dear
parents, Earth and starry Heaven, to devise some plan
with her that the birth of her dear child might be
concealed, and that retribution might overtake great,
crafty Cronos for his own father and also for the
I The goddess of the hearth (the B.oman Vesta), and 80 of
the honse. Cpo HomerIC Hymm v. 22 if.; xxix. 1 ff.
• The variant reading "of his father" (8C. Heaven) rests
on inferior MS. authority and i. 'probably an alteration due
to the difficulty stated by a Scholiast: .. How could Zeus,
being not yet begotten, plot against hi. father I" The
phrase is, however, part of the prophecy. The whole line
may -well be spurious, ·and i. rejected by Heyne, Wolf,
Gaiaford RDd Guyet.
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I Rejected by Heyne a. interrupting and disagreeing with
the c{Jutext.
• Peppmiiller, (or 1o.lIov, ""Ta'
",{vow, MSS.
children whom he had swallowed down. And they
readily heard and obeyed their dear daughter, and told
her all that was destined to happen touching Cronos
the king and his stout-hearted son. So they sent her
to Lyctus, to the rich land of Crete, when she was
ready to bear great Zeus, the youngest of her children.
Him did vast Earth receive from Rhea in wide Crete
to nourish and to bring up. Thither came Earth carry-
ing him swiftly through the black night to Lyctus first,
and took him in her arms and hid him in a remote
cave beneath the secret places of the holy earth on
thick-wooded Mount Aegeum; but to the mightily
ruling son of Heaven, the earlier king of the gods,
she gave a great stone wrapped in swaddling clothes.
Then he took it in his hands and thrust it down into
his belly: wretch! he knew not in his heart that in
place of the stone his son was left behind, un-
conquered and untroubled, and that he was soon to
overcome him by force and might and drive him
from his honours, himself to reign over the deathless
After that, the strength and glorious limbs of the
prince increased quickly, and as the years rolled on,
great Cronos the wily was beguiled by the deep
suggestions of Earth, and brought up again his
offspring, vanquished by the arts and might of his
own son, and he vomited up first the stone which he
had swallowed last. And Zeus set it fast in the
wide-pathed earth at goodly Pytho under the glens
of Parnassus, to be a sign thenceforth and a marvel
to mortal men.
And he set free from their deadly
1 Pausanias (x. 24. 6) saw near the tomb of Neoptolemue
"a stone of no great size," which the Delphians anointed
every day with oil, .. nd which he aay. wal IUppOSed to be
the .tene given te Orono •.
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bonds the brothers of his father, sons of H ea"en
whom his father in his foolishness had bound. And
they remembered to be grateful to him for his kind-
ness, and gave him thunder and the glowing thunder-
bolt and lightning: for before that, huge Earth had
hidden these. In them he trusts and rules over
mortals and immortals.
Now Iapetus took to wife the neat-ankled maid
Clymene, daughter of Ocean, and went up with her
iuto one bed. And she bare him a stout-hearted
son, Atlas: also she bare very glorious MeRoetius
and clever Prometheus, full of various wiles, and
scatter-brained Epimetheus who from the first was a
mischief to men who eat bread; for it was he who
first took of Zeus the woman, the maiden whom he
had formed. But Menoetius was outrageous, and far-
seeing Zeus struck him with a lurid thunderbolt
and sent him down to Erebus because of his mad
presumption and exceeding pride. And Atlas through
hard constraint upholds the wide heaven with un-
wearying head and arms, standing at the borders of
the earth before the clear-voiced Hesperides; for
this lot wise Zeus assigned to him. And ready-witted
Prometheus he bound with inextricable bonds, cruel
chains, and drove a shltft; through his middle, and
set on him a long-winged eagle, which used to eat
his immortal liver; but by ni,;ht the liver grew as
much again everyway as the long-winged bird de-
voured in the whole day. That bird Heracles, the
valiant son of shapely-ankled Alcmene, slew; and
delivered the son of Iapetus from the cruel plague,
and released him from· his afflictiou-not without
the will of Olympian Zeus wh') reigns on high, that
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the glory of Heracles the Theban-born might be yet
than it was before over the plenteous earth.
This, then, he regarded, and honoured his famous
son; though he was angry, he ceased from the wrath
which he had before because Prometheus matched
himself in wit with the almighty son of Cronos.
For when the gods and mortallflen had a dispute at
Mecone, even then Prometheus was forward to cut
up a great ox and set portions before them, trying
to befool the mind of Zeus. Before the rest he set
flesh and inner parts thick with fat upon the hide,
covering them with an ox paunch; but for Zeus he
put the white bones dressed up with cunning art and
covered with shining fat. Then the father of men
and of gods said to him :
"Son of Iapetus, most glorious of all lords, good
sir, how unfairly you have divided the portions!"
So said Zeus whose wisdom is everlasting, rebuking
him. But wily Prometheus answered him, smiling
softly and not forgetting his cunning trick:
" Zeus, most glorious and greatest of the eternal
gods, take which ever of these portions your heart
within you bids." So he said, thinking trickery.
But Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting, saw and
failed not to perceive the trick, and in his heart he
thought mischief against mortal men which also was
to be fulfilled. With both hands he took up the
white fat and was angry at heart, and wrath came to
his spirit when he saw the white ox-bones craftily
tricked out: and because of this the tribes of men
upon earth burn white bones to the deathless gods
upon fragrant altars. But Zeus who drives the clouds
was greatly vexed and said to him:
1 Bergk (after scholiast): "'Arp,n, DEGHI: "'Alo",I,
• 11. 576-7 appe!!r to be!QlIg to a different recension.
"Son of Iapetus, clever above alll So, sir, you
have not yet forgotten your cunning arts l"
So spake Zeus in anger, whose wisdom is cver-
lasting; and from that time he was always mindful
of the trick, and would not give the power of
un wearying fire to the Melian 1 race of mortal men
who live on the earth. \ But the noble son of
Iapetus outwitted him and stole the far-seen gleam
of unwearying fire in a hollow fennel stalk. And
Zeus who thunders on high was stung in spirit, and
his dear heart was angered when he saw amongst
men the far-seen ray of fire. Forthwith he made
an evil thing for men as the price of fire; for the
very famous Limping God formed of earth the
likeness of a shy maiden as the son of Cronos
willed. And the goddess bright-eyed Athene girded
and clothed her with silvery raiment, and down
from her head she spread with her hands a broidered
veil, a wonder to see; and she, Pallas Athene, put
about her head lovely garlands, flowers of new-grown
herbs. Also she put upon her head a crown of gold
which the very famous Limping God made himself
and worked with his own hands as a favour to Zeus
his father. On it was much curious work, wonderful
to see; for of the many creatures which the land
and sea rear up, he put most upon it, wonderful
things, like living beings with voices: and great
beauty shone out from it.
1 A Scholiast explains: " Either because they (men) sprang
[rom the Melian nymph. (cp. I. 187); or because, when they
were born ( ~ ) , they caRt themselves nnder the ash-trees
(1IIAlal), that is, the tree •. " The reference may be to the
origin of men from ash-trees: cpo Works and Days, 145 and
not ..
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But when he had made the beautiful evil to be the
price for the blessing, he brought her out, delighting
in the finery which the bright-eyed daughter of a
mighty father had given her, to the place where the
other gods and men were. And wonder took hold of
the deathless gods and mortal men when they saw that
which was sheer guile, not to be withstood by men.
For from her is the race of women and female
kind: of her is the deadly race and tribe of women
'who live amongst mortal men to their great trouble,
no helpmeets in hateful poverty, but only in wealth.
And as in thatched hives bees feed the drones whose
nature is to do mischief-by day and throughout
the day the sun goes down the bees are busy
and lay the white combs, while the drones stay at
home in the covered skeps and reap the toil of others
into their own bellies-even so Zeus who thunders
on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with
a nature to do evil. And he gave them a second evil
to be the price for the good they had: whoever avoids
marriage and the sorrows that women cause, and will
not wed, reaches· deadly old age without anyone to
tend his years, and though he at least has no lack of
livelihood while he lives, yet, when he is dead, his
kinsfolk divide his possessions amongst them. And
as for the man who chooses the lot of marriage and
takes a good wife suited to his mind, evil continually
contends with good; for whoever happens to have
mischievous children, lives always with unceasing
grief in his spirit and heart within him; and this
evil cannot be healed.
So it is not possible to deceive or go beyond the
will of Zeus: for not even the son of Iapetus, kindly
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Prometheus, escaped his heavy anger, but of neces-
,ity strong bands confined him, although he knew
many a wile.
But when first their father was vexed in his heart
with Obriareus and Cottus and Gyes, he bound
them in cruel bonds, because he was jealous of their
exceeding manhood and comeliness and great size:
and he made them live beneath the wide-pathed
earth, where they were afflicted, being set to dwell
under the ground, at the end of the earth, at its
great borders, in bitter anguish for a long time and
with great grief at heart. But the son of Cronos
and the other deathless gods whom rich-haired Rhea
bare from union with Cronos, brought them np again
to the light at Earth's advising. For she herself
recounted all things to the gods fully, how that with
these they would gain victory and a glorious cause
to vaunt themselves. For the Titan gods and as
many as sprang from Cronos had long been fighting
together in stubbol"ll war with heart-grieving toil,
the lordly Titans from high Othrys, but the gods,
givers of good, whom rich-haired Ithea bare in union
with Cronos, from Olympus. So they, with bitter
wrath, were fighting continually with one another at
that time for ten full years, and the hard strife had
no close or end for either side, and the issue of the
war hung evenly balanced. But when he had pro-
vided those three with all things fitting, nectar and
ambrosia which the gods themselves eat, and when
their proud spirit revived within them all after they
nad fed on nectar and delicious ambrosia, then it
was that the father of men and spoke amongst
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" Hear me, bright children of Earth and Heaven,
that I may say what my heart within me bids. A
long while now have we, who are sprung from
Cronos and the Titan gods, fought with each other
every day to get victory and to prevail. But do you
show your great might and unconquerable strength,
and face the Titans in bitter strife j for remember
our friendly kindness, and from what sufferings you
are come back to the light from your cruel bondage
under misty gloom through our counsels,"
So he said. And blameless Cottus answered him
again: "Divine one, you speak that which we know
well: nay, even of ourselves we know that your
wisdom and understanding is exceeding. and that
you became a defender of the deathless ones from
chill doom. And through your devising we are
come back again from the murky gloom and from
our merciless bonds, enjoying what we looked not
for, 0 lord, son of Cronos. And so now with fixed
purpose and deliberate counsel we will aid your
power in dreadful strife and will fight against the
Titans in hard battle."
So he said: and the gods, givers of good things,
applauded when they heard his word, and their spirit
longed for war even more than before, and they all,
both male and female, stirred up hated battle tliat
day, the Titan gods, and all that were born of
Cronos together with those dread, mighty ones of
overwhelming strength whom Zeus brought up to
the light from Erebus beneath the earth. An
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I Naber: MPA, MSS.
hundred arms sprang from the shoulders of all alike,
and each had fifty heads growing upon his shoulders
upon stout limbs. These, then, stood against the
Titans in grim strife, holding huge rocks in their
strong hands. And on the other pa,·t the Titans
eagerly strengthened their ranks, and both sides at
one time showed the work of their hands and their
might. The boundless sea rang terribly around, and
the earth crashed loudly: wide Heaven was shaken
and groaned, and high Olympus reeled from its
foundation under the charge of the undying gods,
and a heavy quaking reached dim Tartarus and the
deep sound of their feet in the fearful onset and of
their hard missiles. So, then, they launched their
grievous shafts upon one another, and the cry of
both armies as they shouted reached to starry heaven;
and they met together with a great battle-cry.
Then Zeus no longer held back his might; but
straight his heart was filled with fury and he showed
forth all his strength. From Heaven and from
Olympus he came forthwith, hurling his lightning:
the bolts flew thick and fast from his strong hand
together with thunder and lightning, whirling an
awesome flame. The life-giving earth crashed around
In burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire
all about. All the land seethed, and Ocean's streams
and the unfruitful sea. The hot vapour lapped round
the earth born Titans: flame unspeakable rose to the
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bright upper air: the flashing glare of the thunder-
stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that
they were strong. Astounding heat seized Chaos:
and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears
it seemed even as if Earth and wide Heaven above
came together; for such a mighty crash would have
arisen if Earth were being hurled to ruin, and
Heaven from on high were hurling her down; so
great a crash was there while the gods were meeting
together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling
earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning
and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of
great Zeus, and carried the clangour and the warcry
into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar
of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown
and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept
at one another and fought continually in cruel war.
And amongst the foremost Cottus and Briareos and
Gyes insatiate for war raised fierce fighting: three
hundred rocks, one upon another, they launched
from their strong hands and overshadowed the Titans
with their missiles, and hurled them beneath the
wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains
when they had conquered them by their strength for
all their great spirit, as far beneath the earth
as heaven is above earth; for so far is it from earth
to Tartarus. For a brazen anvil falling down from
heaven nine nights and days would reach the earth
upon the tenth: and again, a brazen anvil falling
from earth nine nights and days would reach
Tartarus upon the tenth. Round it runs a fence of
bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it
; ii
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like a neck-circlet, while above grow the roots of
the earth and unfruitful sea. There by the counsel
of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods are
hidden under misty gloom, in a dank place where
are the ends of the huge earth. And they may not
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the deathless gods.
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heaven upon his head and unwearying hands, where
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holds them both within; but always one is without
the house passing over the earth, while the other stays
at home and waits until the time for her journeying
come; and the one holds all-seeing light for them on
earth, but the other holds in her arms Sleep the
1 8e. Atlas, the Shu of Egyptian mythology: cpo note on
line 177.
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I This line (a repetition of 768) is not found in the better
brother of Death, even evil Night, wrapped in a
vaporous cloud.
And there the children of dark Night have their
dwellings, Sleep and Death, awful gods. The
glowing Sun never looks upon them with his beams,
neither as he goes up into heaven, nor as he comes
down from heaven. And the former of them roams
peacefully over the earth and the sea's broad back
and is kindly to men; but the other has a heart of
iron, and his spirit within him is pitiless as bronze:
whomsoever of men he has once seized he holds
fast: and he is hateful even to the deathless gods.
There, in front, stand the echoing halls of the god
of the lower-world, strong Hades, and of awful
Persephone. A fearful hound guards the house in
front, pitiless, and he has a cruel trick. On those
who go in he fawns with his tail and both his ears,
but suffers them not to go out back again, but keeps
watch and devours whomsoever he catches going out
of the gates of strong Hades and awful Persephone.
And there dwells the goddess loathed by the
deathless gods, terrible Styx, eldest daughter of back-
flowing 1 Ocean. She lives apart from the gods in
her glorious house vaulted over with great rocks and
propped up to heaven all round with silver pillars.
Rarely does the daughter of Thaumasj swift-footed
Iris, come to her with a message over the sea's wide
back. But when strife and quarrel arise among the
deathless gods, and when anyone of them who live
in the house of Olympus lies, then Zeus sends Iris
to bring in a golden jug the great oath of the gods
1 Ocea.nus is here regarded as a continuou8 stream enclosinO'
the earth and the seas, and so as flOWing back upon
from far away, the famous cold water which trickles
down from a high and beetling rock. Far under the
wide-pathed earth a branch of Oceanus flows through
the dark night out of the holy stream, and a tenth
part of his water is allotted to her. With nine silver-
swirling streams he winds about the earth and the
sea's wide back, and then falls into the main 1; but
the tenth flows out from a rock, a sore trou ble to the
gods. For whoever of the deathless gods that hold
the peaks of snowy OJ ympus POUl'S a libation of her
water and is forsworn, lies breathless until a full year
is completed, and never comes near to taste ambrosia
and nectar, but lies spiritless and voiceless on a
strewn bed: and a heavy trance overshadows him.
But when he has spent a long year in his sickness,
another penance and an harder follows after the
first. For nine years he is cut off from the eternal
gods and never joins their councils or their feasts,
nine full years. But in the tenth year he comes again
to join the assemblies of the deathless gods who live
in the house of Olympus. Such an oath, then, did
the gods appoint the eternal and primaeval water of
Styx to be: and it spouts through a rugged place.
And there, all in their order, are the sources and
ends of the dark earth and misty Tartarus and the
unfruitful sea and starry heaven, loathsome and
dank, which even the gods abhor. And there lire
shining gates and an immoveable threshold of bronze
having unending roots and it is gl'own of itself.2 And
1 The conception of Oceanus is here different: he has nine
streamB which encircle the earth and the flow out into the
"main" which appears to be the waste of waters On which,
.ccording to early Greek and Hebrew cosmology, the disk·
like eart,h floated.
• i,e. the threshold i. of "native" metal, and not artificial.
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beyond, away from all the gods, live the Titans,
beyond gloomy Chaos. But the glorious allies of
loud-crashing Zeus have their dwelling upon Ocean's
foundations, even CoUus and Gyes; but Briareos,
being goodly, the deep-roaring Eal·th-Shaker made
his son-in-law, giving him Cymopolea his daughter
to wed.
But when Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven,
huge Earth bare her youngest child Typhoeus of
the love of Tartarus, by the aid of golden Aphrodite.
Strength was with his hands in all that he did and
the feet of the strong god were untiring. From his
shoulders grew an hundred heads of a snake, a
fearful dragon, with dark, flickering tongues, and
from under the brows of his eyes in his marvellous
heads flashed fire, and fire burned from his heads as
he glared. And there were voices in all his dreadful
heads which uttered every kind of sound unspeak-
able; for at one time they made sounds such that the
gods understood, but at ar.other, the noise of a bull
bellowing aloud in proud ungovernable fury; and at
another, the sound of a lion, relentless of heart; and
at another, sounds like whelps, wonderful to hear;
and again, at another, he would hiss, so that the
high mountains re-echoed. And truly a thing past
help would have happened on that day, and he
would have come to reign over mortals and immortals,
had not the father of men and gods been quick to
perceive it. But he thundered hard and mightily:
and the earth around resounded terribly and the
wide heaven above, and the sea and Ocean's streams
and the nether parts of the earth. Great Olympus
" ,I
"'" ,
, I;"
I R: 8v., MSS.
• Schol.: ' l ' P ~ " " " MSS.
• MSS. and lobol.: • 1t,''I'"lI', TzetzeL
reeled beneath the divine feet of the king as he arose
and earth groaned thereat. And through the two
of them heat took hold on the dark-blue sea, through
the thunder and lightning, and through the fire from
the monster, and the scorching winds and blazing
thunderbolt;. The whole earth seethed, and sky
and sea: and the long waves raged along the
beaches round and about, at the rush of the death-
less gods: and there arose an endless shaking.
Hades trembled where he rules over the dead
below, and the Titans under Tartarus who live
with Cronos, because of the unending clamour and
the fearful strife. So when Zeus had raised ·up his
might and seized his arms, thunder and lightning
and lurid thunderbolt, he leaped from Olympus
and struck him, and burned all the marvellous heads
of the monster about him. But when Zeus had con-
quered him and lashed him with strokes, Typhoeus was
hurled down, a maimed wreck, so that the huge earth
groaned. And Aarne shot forth from the thunder-
stricken lord in the dim rugged glens of the mount,!
when he was smitten. A great part of huge earth was
scorched by the terrible vapour and melted as tin
melts when heated by men's art in channelled 2
crucibles; or as iron, which is hardest of all things,
is sOItened by glowing fire in mountain glens and
I According to Homer TyphoeuB was overwhelmed byZeuB
amongst the Arimi in Oilicia. Pindar represents him as
buried under Aetna, and Tzetzcs read Aetna in this passage,
• The epithet (which means literally well-bored) leemB to
refer to the .pout of the crucible.
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melts in the divine earth through the strength of
Even so, then, the earth melted in
the glow of the blazing fire. And in the bitterneso
of his anger Zeus cast him into wide Tartarus.
And from Typhoeus come boisterous winds which
blow damply, except Notus and Boreas and clear
Zephyr. These are a god-sent kind, and a great
blessing to men; but the others blow fitfully upon the
sea. Some rush upon the misty sea and work great
havoc among men with their evil, raging blasts; for
varying with the season they blow, scattering ships
and destroying sailors. And men who meet these
upon the sea have no help against the mischief.
Others again over the boundless, flowering earth
spoil the fair fields of men who dwell below, filling
them·with dust and cruel uproar.
But when the blessed gods had finished their toil,
and settled by force their struggle for honours with
the Titans, they pressed far-seeing Olympian Zeus
to reign and to rule over them, by Earth's prompting.
So he divided their dignities amongst them.
Now Zeus, king of the gods, made Metis his wife
first, and she was wisest among gods and mortal men.
But when she was about to bring forth the goddess
bright-eyed Athene, Zeus craftily deceived her with
cunning words and put her in his own belly, as Earth
and starry Heaven advised. For they advised him
I The fire god. There is no reference to volcanic action:
iron WIlo8 smelted on Mount Ida; cp. Epigram. of H omtr,
ix. 2-4..
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so, to the end that no other should hold royal sway
over the etemal gods in place of Zeus; for very wise
children were destined to be born of her, first the
maiden bright-eyed Tritogeneia, equal to her father
in strength and in wise understanding; but after-
wards she was to bear a son of overbearing spirit.
king of gods and men. But Zeus put her into his
own belly first, that the goddess might devise for
him both good and evil.
Next he married bright Themis who bare the
Horae (Hours), and Eunomia (Order), Dike (Justice),
and blooming Eirene (Peace), who mind the works
of mortal men, and the Moerae (Fates) to whom wise
Zeus gave the greatest honour, Clotho, and Lachesis,
and Atropos who give mortal men evil and good to
And Eurynome, the daughter of Ocean, beautiful
in form, bare him three fair-cheeked Charites
(Graces), Aglaea, and Euphrosyne, and lovely
Thaleia, from whose eyes as they glanced flowed love
that unnerves the limbs: and beautiful is their glance
beneath their brows.
Also he came' to the bed of all-nourishing
Demeter, and she bare white-armed Persephone
whom Aldoneus carried off from her mother; but
wise Zeus gave her to him.
And again, he loved Mnemosyne with the
beautiful hair: and of her the nine gold-crowned
Muses were born who delight in feasts and the
pleasures of song.
And Leto was joined in love with Zeus who
holds the aegis, and bare Apollo and Artemis
delighting in arrows, children lovely above all the
sons of Heaven.
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1 Restored by Peppmiiller. The nineteen following line.
from another recension of lines 889-900, 92<l-9 are quoted
by Chry.ippus (in Galen).
• Rz.ach: ... 1I •• v, MBB.
• Hermann: .. "'pI7l.u .... 81,. .. , MBS,
Lastly, he made Hera his blooming wife: and she
was joined in love with the king of gods and men,
and brought forth Hebe aud Ares and EiIeithyia.
But Zeus himself gave birth from his own head to
bright-eyed Tritogeneia,l the awful, the strife-stirring,
the host-leader, the unwearying, the queen, who
delights in tumults and wars and battles. But Hera
without union with Zeus-for she was very angry and
quarrelled with her mate-bare famous Hephaestus,
who is skilled in crafts more than all the sons of
But Hera was very angry and quarrelled with her
mate. And because of this strife she bare without
union with Zeus who holds the aegis a glorious son,
Hephaestus, who excelled all the sons of Heaven
in crafts. But Zeus lay with the fair-cheeked
daughter of Ocean and Tethys apart from Hera .•.
deceiving Metis (Thought) although she was full wise.
But he seized her with his hands and put her in his
belly, for fear that she might bring forth something
stronger than his thunderbolt: therefore did Zeus,
who sits on high and dwells in the·aether, swallow
her down suddenly. But she straightway conceived
Pallas Athene: and the father of men and gods gave
her birth by way of his head on the banks of the
river Trito. And she remaiued hidden beneath the
inward parts of Zeus, even Metis, Athena's mother,
worker of righteousness, who was wiser than gods and
mortal men. There the goddess (Athena) received
that 2 whereby she excelled in strength all the death-
1 i... Athena, who was hom .. on the bank. of the river
Trii;o" (cp. 1. 929
• .c. the aegis. Line 929' is probably spurious, since it
disagrees with 929q .. nd contains a suspioiou. reference to
, ,
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less ones who dwell in Olympus, she who made the
host-scaring weapon of Athena. And with it (Zeus)
gave her birth, arrayed in arms of war.
And of Amphitrite and the loud-roaring Earth-
Shaker was born great, wide-ruling Triton, and he
owns the depths of the sea, living with his dear
mother and the lord his father in their golden house,
an awful god.
Also Cytherea bare to Ares the shield-piercer
Panic and Fear, terrible gods who drive in disorder
the close ranks of men in numbing war, with the
help of Ares, sacker of towns; and Harmonia whom
high-spirited Cadmus made his wife.
And Maia, the daughter of Atlas, bare to Zeus
glorious Hermes, the herald of the deathless gods,
for she went up into his holy bed.
And Semele, daughter of Cadmus was joined with
him in love and bare him a splendid son, joyous
Dionysus,-a mortal woman an immortal son. And
now they both are gods.
And Alcmena was joined in love with Zeus who
drives the clouds and bare mighty Heracles.
And Hephaestus, the famous Lame One, made
Aglaea, youngest of the Graces, his buxom wife.
And golden-haired Dionysus made brown-haired
Ariadne, the daughter of Minos, his bnxom wife:
and the son of Cronos made her deathless and
unageing for him.
And mighty Heracles, the valiant son of neat-
ankled Alcmena, when he had finished his grievous
toils, made Hebe the child of great Zeus and gold-
shod Hera his shy wife in snowy Olympus. Happy
he I For he has finished his great work and lives
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amongst the undying gods, untroubled and unaging
all his days.
And PerseYs, the daughter of Ocean, bare to
unwearying Helios Circe and Aeetes the king. And
Aeetes, the son of Helios who shows light to men,
took to wife fair-cheeked Idyia, daughter of Ocean
the perfect stream, by the will of the gods: and she
was subject to him in love through golden Aphrodite
and bare him neat-ankled Medea.
And now farewell, you dwellers on Olympus and
you islands and continents and thou briny sea within.
Now sing the company of goddesses, sweet-voiced
Muses of Olympus, daughter of Zeus who holds the
aegis,-even those deathless ones who lay with mortal
men and bare children like unto gods.
Demeter, bright goddess, was joined in sweet
love with the hero !asion in a thrice-ploughed fallow
in the rich land of Crete, and bare Plutus, a kindly
god who goes everywhere over land and the sea's
wide back, and him who finds him and into whose
hands he comes he makes rich, bestowing great
wealth upon him.
And Harmonia, the daughter ot golden Aphrodite,
bare to Cadmus Ino and Semele and fair-cheeked
Agave and Autonoe whom long haired Aristaeus
wedded, and Polydorus also in rich-crowned Thebe.
And the daughter of Ocean, Callirrhoe was joined
in the love of rich Aphrodite with stout hearted
Chrysaor and bare a son who was the strongest of all
men, Geryones, whom mighty Heracles killed in sea-
girt Erythea for the sake of his shambling oxen.
And Eos bare to Tithonus brazen-crested Memnon,
king of the Ethiopians, and the Lord Emathion.
And to Cephalus she bare a splendid son, strong
Phaethon, a man like the gods, whom, when he was
a young boy in the tender flower of glorious youth
with childish thoughts, laughter-loving Aphrodite
seized and caught up and made a keeper of her
shrine by night, a divine spirit.
And the son of Aeson by the will of the gods led
away from AeHes the daughter of AeHes the
heaven-nurtured king, when he had finished the
many grievous labours which the great king, over-
bearing Pelias, that olltrageous and presumptuous doer
of violence, put upon him. But when the Son of
Aeson had finished them, he came to Iolcus after
long toil bringing the coy-eyed girl with him on his
swift ship, and made her his buxom wife. And she
was subject to Iason, shepherd of the people, and
bare a son Medeus whom Cheiron the son of Philyra
brought up in the mountains. And the will of great
Zeus was fulfilled.
But of the daughters of Nereus, the Old man of the
Sea, Psamathe the fair goddess, was loved by Aeacus
through golden Aphrodite and bare Phocus. And
the silver-shod goddess Thetis was subject to Peleus
and brought forth lion-hearted Achilles, the destroyer
of men.
And Cytherea with the beautiful crown was
joined in sweet love with the hero Anchises and bare
Aeneas on the peaks of Ida with its many wooded
And Circe the daughter of Helius, Hyperion's son,
loved steadfast Odysseus and bare Agrius and Latinus
who was faultless and strong: also she brought fortb
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• • •

Scholias! on Apolloniu8 Rhodiu8 Arg. iii. 1086.
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I Omitted by D, EUBt .. thiuB, .. nd Laurentian Scholiast on
Apollonius Rhodius iii. 200. • Sittl: na.MpaJ. scholiast.
3 An antiquarian writer of Byzantium, c. 490-570 A.D.
Telegonus by the will of golden Aphrodite. And
they ruled over the famous Tyrsenians, very far off
in a recess of the holy islands.
And the bright goddess Calypso was joined to
Odysseus in sweet love, and bare him Nausithoiis and
These are the immortal goddesses who lay with
mortal men and bare them children like unto gods.
But now, sweet-voiced Muses of Olympus, daughters
of Zeus who holds the aegis, sing of the company of
women .
That Deucalion was the son of Prometheus and
Pronoea, Hesiod states in the first Catalogue, as also
that Hellen was the son of Deuealiou aud Pyrrha.
They came to call those who followed local
manners Latins, but those who followed Hellenic
customs Greeks, after the brothers Latinus and
Graecus; as H esiod says:
I A catalogue of heroines each of whom was intronuced
with the word. "Or like her."
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" And in the pabee Pandora the daughter of noble
Deucalion was joined in love with father Zeus, leader
of all the gods, and bare Graecus, staunch in battle."
The district Macedonia took its name from
Macedon the son of Zeus and Thyia, Deucalion's
daughter, as Hesiod says:
" And she conceived and hare to Zeus who delights
in the thunderbolt two sons, Magnes and Macedon,
rejoicing in horses, who dwell round about Pieria
and Olympus .... And Magnes again (begot) Dictys
and godlike Polydectes."
"And from Hellen the war-loving king sprang
Dorns and Xuthus and Aeolus delighting in horses.
And the sons of Aeo\ug, kings dealing justice, were
Cretheus, and Athamas, and clever Sisyphus, and
wicked Salmoneus and overbold Perieres."
Those who were descended from Deucalion used
to rule over Thessaly as Hecataeus and Hesiod say.
Aloladae. Hesiod said they were sons of Aloeus,
-called so after him,-and of Iphimedea, but in
1 Constantine VII ... Born in the Porphyry Chamber,"
gOS--g59 .... D.
€ € Kat l¢1J, Kat' AXOl1
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I Berlin Papyri, 7497 (left-hand fragment) and Oxy.
rhynch1t8 Par,yri, 421 (right-hand fragment). For tIie
restoration see vii. 217-8.
2 olg]E : In, nx. Pflp. I' Pap.
, rAG.VICCiI *r (not FT), Berl. Pap. .
reality, sons of Poseidon and Iphimedea, and that
Alus a city of Aetolia was founded by their father.
" .•. Eurynome the daughter of Nisus, Pandion's
son, to whom Pallas Athena taught all her art, both
wit and wisdom too; for she was as wise as the
gods. A marvellous scent rose from her silvern
raiment as she moved, and beauty was wafted from
her eyes. Her, then, GJaucus sought to win by
Athena's advising, and he drove oxen 1 for her. But
he knew not at all the intent of Zeus who holds the
aegis. So Glaucus came seeking her to wife with
gifts; but cloud-driving Zeus, king of the deathless
gods, bent his head in oath that the ... son of Sisy-
phus should never have children born of one father.2
So she lay in the arms of Poseidon and bare in the
house of Glaucus blameless Bellerophon, surpassing
all men in ... over the boundless sea. And when
he began to roam, his father gave him Pegasus who
would bear him most swiftly on his wings, and flew
unwearying everywhere over the earth, for like the
gales he would course along. With him Bellerophon
caught and slew the fire-breathing Chimera. And
he wedded the dear child of the great-hearted
Iobates, the worshipful king .•. lord (of) ••. and
she bare ..•• "
1 As the price to be given to her father for her: 80 in
fliad xviii. 593 maidens are called" earners of oxen." Possibly
Glaucus, like Aias (fr. 68, II. 55 If.), raided (.a.,,, ixtl."a,) the
cattle of others.
, i.t. Glaucus should rather the children of others. The
curse of Aphrodite on the daughters of Tyndareus (fr. 67)
may be compared
Schoriast on Apolloni1bs Rlwdi1LS AT!!. iv. 57. TOJI
'Evou/1-[wva 'AeB"A,lou TO!)
Kal 7rapa elA')tP0m TO 8wpov
., , "e' '"', , ',' B
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Scholiast Ven. on j[omeT, fl. xi. 750. 'A.KTOp{"'V€
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., i'
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H esiod says that End ymion was the son of
Aeth Iius the son of Zeus and Cal yee, and received
the gift from Zeus: "(To he) keeper of death for his
own self when he was ready to die."
The two sons of Actor and Molione ..•• Hesiod
has given their descent by calling them after Actor
and Molione.; but their father was Poseidon.
But Aristarchus is informed that they were twins,
not ... such as were the Dioscuri, but, on Hesiod's
testimony, double in form and with two bodies and
joined to one another.
Bnt Hesiod says that he changed himself in onc
of his wonted shapes and perched on the yoke-boss
of Heracles' horses, meaning to fight with the hero;
but that Heracles, secretly instructed by Athena,
wounded him mortally with an arrow. And he says
as follows:
" ... and lordly Periclymenus. Happy he! For
earth-shaking Poseidon gave him all manner of
gifts. At one time he would appear among birds,
an eagle; and again at another he would be an ant,
a marvel to see; and then a shining swarm of bees;
and again at another time a dread relentless snake.
StephanU8 of Byzantium, •• .,. rep'Y/vta.
.. ' N ... " ... I", ", 0'" ,
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• • • *
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Eustathius, Hom. 1796. 39.
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Scholiast on Homer, Od. xii. 69. Tvpcl>.f] :'SaA.-
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, ... ] " "
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rupal'Y/ 71'ep eovu' a7T ]avalvll'l'o cf>VA.OV op,o;;ov
avSpwv fJoVA.op,tlV"l cf>66ry6]W y&,lJJ)v aMP'Y/u'l'awv.
And he possessed all manner of gifts which cannot
be told, and these then ensnared him through the
devising of A thene,"
"(Heracles) slew the noble sons of steadfast Neleus,
eleven of them; but the twelfth, the horseman
Gerenian Nestor chanced to be staying with the
horse-taming Gel'enians. . Nestor alone escaped in
flowery Gerenon."
"So well-girded Polycaste, the youngest daughter
of Nestor, N eleus' son, was joined in love with
Telemachus through golden Aphrodite and bare
Persepolis. "
Tyro the daughter of Salmoneus, having two sons
by Poseidon, N eleus and Pelias, married Cretheus,
and had by him three sons, Aeson, Pheres and
Amythaon. And of Aeson and Polymede, according
to Hesiod, lason was born.
" Aeson, who begot a son lason, shepherd of the
people, whom Chiron brought up in woody Pelion."
.. • • • of the glorious lord • • • fair Atalanta,
swift of foot, the daughter of Schoeneus, who had
the beaming eyes of the Graces, though she was
ripe for wedlock rejected the company of her equals
and songht to avoid marriage with men who eat
Scholiast on Homer, Iliad xxiii. 683.
, 'H ' c:- ..." (1 " ¥'
ovv O/VfWOV E<<Ta'YWII 7r7rO!-"EV1] a'Ywvt."o-
Papiri greci e latini, ii. No. 130 (2nd-3rd
century). .
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'* '* '*
1 Slight remains of five lines precede line 1 in the original:
after line 20 an unknown number of lines have been lost
and traces of a, verse preceding line 21 are here omitted.
Between lines 29 and 30 are fragments of six TOrses which
do not suggest any definite restoration. The numbering of
the original publication is given in brackets.
Hesiod is therefore later in date than Homer since
he represents Hippomenes as stripped when con-
tending with Atalanta.
"Then straightway there rose up against him the
trim-ankled maiden (Atalanta), peerless in beauty:
a great throng stood round about her as she gazed
fiercely, and wonder held all men as they looked
upon her. As she moved, the breath of the west
wind stirred the shining garment about her tender
bosom; but Hippomenes stood where he was: and
much people was gathered together. All these kept
silence; but Schoeneus cried and said:
'" Hear me all, both young and old, while I speak
as my spirit within my breast bids me. Hippomenes
seeks my coy-eyed daughter to wife; but let him
now hear my wholesome speech. He shall not win
her without contest; yet, if he be victorious and
escape death, and if the deathless gods who dwell
on Olympus grant him to win renown, verily he shall
return to his dear native land, and I will give him
my dear child and strong, swift-footed horses besides
which he shall lead home to he cherished possessions;
and may he rejoice in heart possessing these, and
ever remember with gladness the painful contest.
May the father of men and of gods (grant that
splendid children may be born to him 2) ,

* * *
I. In the earliest times a loin·cloth was worn by athletes,
but Wt\l! discarded after the 14th Olympiad.
, The end of Schoeneus' speech, the preparations and the
beginn i ng of tho r .. ce are lost.
DEEtT€PY • • • • • • • • • • •
"Jat J.£tV E1TaluCTruv • • • • • • •
h' [£71"'] UptCTTepa. 0' UfLJ'YaPTOII
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EustathiuB, Hom. 461. 2.
"A ".. "A , , ". alluopoll eOll 7I"O£'YJCT€II EIIUOpOV.
Hecataeus 1 in Scholiast on Euripides, Orestes, 872.
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I Of Miletus. flourished about 520 B.O. Hi. work ... mix·
ture of hiatory ILnd geography. was used by Herodotus.
"on the right • • . and he, rushing upon her, • • •
drawing back slightly towards the left. And on
them was laid an unenviable struggle: for she, even
fair, swift-footed Atalanta, ran scorning the gifts of
golden Aphrodite; but with him the race was for
his life, either to find his doom, or to escape it.
Therefore with thoughts of guile he said to her:
'" 0 daughter of Schoeneus, pitiless in heart, re-
ceive these glorious gifts of the goddess, golden
Aphrodite .• :
* * * •
" But he, following lightly on his feet, cast the first
apple 1: and, swiftly as a Harpy, she turned back and
snatched it. Then he cast the second to the ground
with his hand. And now fair, swift-footed Atalanta
had two apples and was near the goal; but Hippo-
menes cast the third apple to the ground, and
therewith escaped death and black fate. And he
stood panting and . • ."
"And the daughter of Arabus, whom worthy
Hermaon begat with Thronia, daughter of the lord
"Argos which was waterless Danaus made well-
Aegyptus himself did not go to Argos, but sent
his sons. fifty in number, as Hesiod represented.
I Of the three which Aphrodite gave him to enable him to
overcome Atalanta.
Sflraho,l viii. p.370. Kal' A7roXX6orupo<; ••• f,"lutv
.•• 'HIT[ooov ft€VTO£ Kal 'ApX'£Xoxov ryO"l Ino€va!
Kal € TOV, Kal
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Apollodoru3, ii. 2. 1. 4. ' AKp[IT£O, • Ap'Yov<;
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lin Tcts AwvvITov TeXeTa, ou KaTEO€XOVTO•
Probus 2 on Vergil, Eclogue vi. 48. Has, quod
Iunonis contempserant numen, insania. extflrritas,
quae crederent se boves faetas, patriam. Arg?s
reJiquisse, postea. a. Melampode Amythaoms fiho
Suidas s.v. ftaxXouvv"l'
€7V€Ka . ftaXXo<TVV"l<;

Eustathius, Hom. 1746. 7.
I ... \'".,.
KaL 'Yap ITcplV K€cpaX?J<Ti KaTa alVOV "X€V€v'
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'Yap xpoa 7raVTa KaTeuxe ev, EK DE VlJ
iiK K€cpaXeruv, '1/I'£Xoiho De KaXa tULp"lIla.
1 The geographer; fl. c. 24 B.D •
• Fl. 56-88 ..... D.: he i. best known for his work on Vergil.
And Apollodorus says that Hesiod already knew
that the whole people were called both Hellenes and
Panhellenes, as when he says of the daughters of
Proetus that the Panhellenes sought them in
Acrisius was king of Argos and Proetus of Tiryns.
And Acrisius had by Eurydice the daughter of
Lacedemon, Danae; and Proetus by Stheneboea
"Lysippe and Iphinoe and Iphianassa." And these
fell mad, as Hesiod states, because they would not
receive the rites of Dionysus.
These (the daughters of Proetus), because they
had scorned the divinity of Juno, were overcome
with madness, such that they believed they had been
tUl'lled into cows, and left Argos their own country.
Afterwards they were cured by Melampus, the son
of AlUythaon.
"Because of their hideous wantonness they lost
their tender beauty ... For he shed upon their
heads a fearful itch: and leprosy covered all their
flesh, and their hair dropped from their heads, and
their fair scalps were made bare."
1 The Hesiodio story of the daughters of ProetuB can b.
reconstructed from these notices. They were sought in
marriage by all the Greeks (Panhellenes), but having offended
Dionysus (or, according to Servius, Juno), were afHicted with
a. disease deBt,rayed their beauty (or were turned into
cowo). They were finally healed by MclampuB.
8choliast on Homer, Il. xii. 292. EvprJnr","
€ g." 'TtVt AE£pJ;JV£ p,eTtt
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Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodiu8, Arg. ii. 178.
oe CP1]fItll, 'Toil
Apollodorus,1 iii. 14. 4. 1. 06 aVToII
(Aoruvtv) Kal A€'Yet,
Porphyrius,! Quae8t. Hom. ad Iliad. pert. p. 189.
, , 'H '''' , r "K" ' ""
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p'II1]fITEVOII Kat 7ro",,,,a Kat a'Y",aa orup o"op,'TJ"av
rcpOtp,ot a7rEtP€tTtoll KaTtt
I Apollodorus of Athens (fl. 144 B.C.) w ... a pupil of Ads·
tarohus. He wrote a Handbook of Mythology, from which
the extant work bearing his name is derived .
• Porphyry, scholar, mathematician, philosopher and hili·
torian, liI'ed 233-305(?) A.D. He Will a pupil of the neo·
Platonist Plotinu ••
Zeus saw Europa the daughter of Phoenix gather-
ing flowers in a meadow with some nymphs and fell
in love with her. So he came down and changed
himself into a bull and breathed from his mouth
a crocus.
In this way he deceived Europa, carried
her off and crossed the sea to Crete where he had
intercourse with her. Then in this condition he
made her live with Asterion the king of the Cretans.
There she conceived and bore three sons, Minos,
Sarpedon and Rhadamanthys. The tale is in Hesiod
and Bacchylides.
But according to Hesiod (Phineus) was the son of
Phoenix, Agenor's son and Cassiopea.
But Hesiod says that he (Adonis) was the Bon of
Phoenix and Alphesiboea.
As it is said in Hesiod in the Catalogue of Women
concerning Demodoce the daughter of Agenor :
"Demodoce whom very many of men on earth,
nrighty princes, wooed, promising splendid gifts,
because of her exceeding beauty."
1 The crocus was to attract Europa, as in the very similar
story of Persephone: cpo Homeric Hymns ii. lines 8 fr.
Apollodaru8, iii. 5. 6. 2. BE BEKa f'EV
BEKa Be NtofJ'1<;)'
Aelian,l Far. Hist. xii. 36. 'HlTlooo<; BE (A,J'Y€t)
, )'.' (' ) , \" ,
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KaTeteuCTTa£ aiJ7·ov.
Scholiast on Homer, Il. xxiii. 679. Kat
oJ <P'IlTtv €V aUTov (Olol7rooo,) a7r08avov-
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E7Tt K,,/oElav 'TOV OlOl7rooor;.
llerodian Z in Etymologicu,m Magnum, p. 60, 40.
Eli\aplo,,/v Tt'Tvov.
Argument: Pindm', Ol. xiv. K'I<ptCTO<; oe
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Schol. on Homer, n. ii. 522.
i5CT'T€ Ati\at"l8€v 7rpotEt Kai\i\{,ppoov iJowp.
Strabo, ix. 424.
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Scholiast on Homer, fl. vii. 9. 0 'Yap 'TOV MEV€-
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Hesiod says that (the children of Amphion and
Niobe) were ten sons and ten daughters.
But Hesiod says they were nine boys and ten
girls i-unless after all the verses are not Hesiod'
but are falsely ascribed to him as are many others,
And Hesiod says that when Oedipus had died at
Thebes, Argea the daughter of Adrastus came with
others to the funeral of Oedipus.
Tityos the son of Elara.
Cephisus is a river in Orchomenus where also the
Graces are worshipped. Eteoclus the son of the
river Cephisus first sacrificed to them, as Hesiod
says: "which from Lilaea spouts forth its sweet·
flowing water , .. And which flows on by Panopeus
and through fenced Glechon and through Orcho-
menus, winding like a snake."
For the father of Menesthius, Arelthoils was a
Boeotian living at Arnae; and this is in Boeotia, as
also Hesiod says.
1 Priest at Praeneste. He lived c. 170-230 A, D,
I Son of apolloniuB DyscoluB, lived in Rome under Mareu.
Aureliu. Hia chief work was on accentuation.
Stephantts of Byzantium.

" ." "'Ai\. ' , ••• K€ITa, O€ ev Tn tapnwv xwpq" wpv ev De
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'" ., , " K' "R'
t'Yatov 7r€otOV O"VVa7rTOV T'[l tppq" 00" O"toooS'.
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l\oaO"'Yov aVTOX ova 't''1O"tV €IVat.
Stmbo, v. p. 221. Trp 0' TOU
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Stephanu, of Byzantium.
'ApKaUa<;, a'Tro TIaAAavTo",
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fva, Trull AVICaOVO,
fPeAAoV € € € M€AlfJota.
Herodian, On Peculiar Diction, p. 18.
'RO"tootp ;11 OWTeptp (KaTaA6'Ytp)
"'8ri-.'" 8"8 o. 'TrpOU € 't'a"'1" €IITOU fl.II €IC€V Oil.
I Author of a geographical lexicon, produoed
400 A.D., and abridged under Justinian.
Onchestus: a grove.
It is situate in the country
of Haliartus and was founded by Onchestus the
Boeotian, as Hesiod says.
There is also a plain of Aega bordering on Cirrha,
according to H esiod.
30 •
But Hesiod says that Pelasgus was autochthonous.
That this tribe (the Pelasgi) were from Arcadia,
Ephorus states on the authority of Hesiod; for he
" Sons were born to god-like Lycaon whom
Pelasgus once begot."
Pallantium. A city of Arcadia, so named after
Pallas, one of Lycaon's sons, according to Hesiod.
"Famous Meliboea bare Phellus the good spear-
In Hesiod in the second Catalogue:
"Who once hid the torch 2 within."
I Sacred to Poseidon. For the oustom observed there, op.
By""" iii. 231 If. • Th. allusion is obooure.
I i
Herodian, On Peculiar Diction, p. 42.
Ell Tp[Up (KaTaAb'Y'i')
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ApolloniuB Dyscolus,1 On the Pronoun, p. 125.
cnptv 0' fLlola 7rijfLa.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 45. oihe
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Scholiast on Apolloniu8 Rhodius, Arg. ii. 181.
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1 Apollonius "the Crabbed " was a grarmnarian of Ale..c-
andria under Hadrian. He wrote largely on Grammar &ud
Hesiod in the third Catalogue writes:
" And a resounding thud of feet rose up."
" And a great trouble to themselves."
Neither Homer nor Hesiod speak of Iphiclus as
amongst the Argonauts.
The Ram. This it was that transported Phrixus
and Helle. It was immortal and was given them by
their mother N ephele, and had a golden fleece, as
Hesiod and Pherecydes say.
Hesiod in the Great Eoiae says that Phineus was
blinded because he revealed to Phrixus the road; but
in the third Catalogue, because he preferred long
life to sight.
Hesiod says he had two sons, Thynus and
• 275-195 (?) B.a., mathematician, astronomer, Bcholar, and
head. of the Libr&ry &i Alexandria.
in Strabo, vii. 302. 'HO'tocov 13' TV
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Strabo, vii. p. 300.
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Soholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 297, 296.
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71'€pl A.€ry€t, 'HO'toco<; 'EpfLijV.
1 Of Cyme. He wrote a universal history covering the
period between tbe Dorian Migration and 340 B.a.
Hesiod, in the so-called Journey round the Earth,
says that Phineus was brought by the Harpies" to
the land of milk-feeders 1 who have waggons for
" The Aethiopians and Ligurians and mare-milk-
i ng Scythians."
As they were being pursued, one of the Harpies
fell into the river Tigres, in Peloponnesus which is
now called Harpys after her. Some call this one
Nicothoe, and otht'rs Aellopus. The other who was
called Ocypete, or as some say Ocythoe (though
Hesiod calls her Ocypus), lied down the Propontis
and reached as far as to the Echinades islands which
are now called because of her, Strophades (Turning
Hesiod also says that those with Zetes 2 turned
and prayed to Zeus:
"There they prayed to the lord of Aenos who
reigns on high."
Apollonius indeed says it was Iris who made Zetes
and his following turn away, but Hesiod says Hermes.
Others say (the islands) were called Strophades,
because they turned there and prayed Zeus to seize
1 i.t. the nomad Scythian., who are described by Herodo.
tus as feeding on mares' milk and living in caravans.
51 Zetes and Calais, sons of Boreas, who were amongst the
Argonauts, delivered Phineus from the Harpies. The Stro-
phades (" Islands of Turning ") are here supposed to have
been 80 called because the son8 of Boreas were there turned by !ria from pursuing the Harpies.
Philodemu8,1 On Ptely, 10. 'H<T£oo<p
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Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodiu8, Arg. iv. 284.
OLd, 'Apryo-
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!d. iv. 259. oe ••• OLd, TOU '!1K€aVOV
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!d. iii., 311. cp1]<Tl oE • 'H<T£oo<p
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Scholiast on Apolloniu8 Rhodiu8, Arg. iv. 892.
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I An EpicureaD philoRopher, II. IiO "0.
the Harpies. But according to Hesiod ••• they
not killed.
Nor let anyone mock at Hesiod who mentions
... or even the Troglodytes and the Pygmies.
No one would accuse Hesiod of ignorance though
he speaks of the Half-dog people and the Great-
Headed people and the Pygmies.
But Hesiod says they (the Argonauts) had sailed
in through the Phasis.
But Hesiod (says) .• they came through the
Ocean to Libya, and so, carrying the Argo, reached
our sea.
Apollonius, following Hesiod, says that Circe came
to the island over against Tyrrhenia on the chariot
of the Sun. And he called it Hesperian, because
it lies towards the west.
He (Apollonius) followed Hesiod who thus names
the island of the Sirens:
"To the island Anthemoessa (Flowery) which the
son of Cronos gave them."
And their names are Thelxiope or Thelxinoe,
Molpe and Aglaophonus.
1 .. Charmmg-with-her-voice" (or" Charming-the-mind")
"Song," a.nd "Lovely-sounding." ,
Scholiast on Homer, Od. xii. 168. 'HO'lo-
\ \ , I (J 'i\ ' , w'"
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Scholiaston Homer, Od. i. 86. -r1]11 P.EII 'Yap 'n'Yv -
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!d. Od. vii. 54. 8E € ' Ai\fC£VOOV
' V7r€i\afllill.
Schol. on Pindar, Ol. x. 46.
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I Diodorus Sien!us, fl. 8 B.O., author of an universal histol1
ending with Caesar's Gallic Wars.
Hence Hesiod said that they charmed even the
Hesiod says that Ogygia is within towards the
west, but Ogylia lies over against Crete: ff. , , the
Ogylian sea and the island Ogylia."
Hesiod regarded Arete as the sister of Alcinous.
Her Hippostratus (did wed), a scion of Ares, the
splendid son of Phyctes, of the line of Amarynces,
leader of the Epeians.
When Althea was dead, Oeneus married Periboea,
the daughter of Hipponoiis. Hesiod says that she
was seduced by Hippostratus the son of Amarynces
and that her father Hipponoiis sent her from Olenus
in Achaea to Oeneus because he was far away from
Hellas, bidding him kill her.
"She used to dwell on the cliff of Olenus by the
banks of wide Peirus."
Macareus was a son of Crinacus the son of Zeus as
Hesiod says ••• and dwelt in Olenus in the country
then called Ionian, but now Achaean.
Sohol. on Pindar, Nem. iv. 95.
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Voll. llerculan. (Papyri from Herculaneum), 2nd
Collection, viii. 105. 0 Ttl KV7rp£a
Concerning the Myrmidons Hesiod speaks thus:
"And she conceived and bare Aeacus,delighting in
horses. Now when he came to the full measnre of
desired youth, he chafed at being alone. And the
father of men and gods made all the ants that were
in the lovely isle into men and wide-girdled women.
These were the first who fitted with thwarts ships
with curved sides, and the first who used sails, the
wings of a sea-going ship."
"The sons of Aeacus who rejoiced in battle as
though a feast."
He has indicated the shameful deed briefly by the
phrase "to lie with her against her will," and not
like Hesiod who recounts at length the story of
Peleus and the wife of Acastus.
"And this seemed to him (Acastus) in his mind
the best plan; to keep back himself, but to hide be-
yond guessing the beautiful knife which the very
famous Lame One had made for him, that in seeking
it alone over steep Pelion, he (Peleus) qlight be slain
forthwith by the mountain-bred Centaurs.
The author of the Cypria 1 says that Thetis avoided
1 The first epic in the "Trojan Cycle": like all ancient
epics it was ascribed to Homer, bnt also, with more pro-
bability. to Stasinul of Cyprus.
(EMnv) cpE,J'YE£V alJ7'ou Tal
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1 Tzetzes: ElcravCt./3«tpfA'V, Strassburg papyrus.
• Archbishop of The.salonica 1175-1192 (1) A.D., author of
commentari •• on Findar and on the Iliad and OdJ/88eJ/.
wedlock with Zeus to please Hera; but that Zeus
was angry and swore that she should mate with a
mortal. Hesiod also has the like account.
"Peleus the son of Aeacus, dear to the deathless
gods, came to Phthia the mother of flocks, bringing
great possessions from spacious Iolcus. And all the
people envied him in their hearts seeing how he had
sacked the well-built city, and accomplished his
joyous marriage; and they all spake this word:
'Thrice, yea, four times blessed son of Aeacus, happy
Peleus ! For far-seeing Olympian Zeus has given
you a wife with many gifts and the blessed gods
have brought your marriage fully to pass, and in
these halls you go up to the holy bed of a daughter
of Nereus. Truly the father, the son of Cronos,
made you very pre-eminent among heroes and
honoured above other men who eat bread and con-
sume the fruit of the ground.' ..
"For in common then were the banquets, and
in common the seats of deathless gods and mortal
•.• whereas Hesiod and the rest call her (Pelelis'
daughter) Polydora.
It should be observed that the ancient narrative
1 This fragment is placed by Spohn after Worka and DaJ/ .•
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, "A"\ " r, , I' 'tz
HKT UK,,')7TtOV UtDV ap,vp,ova TE Kpa'1"EpOV '1"E.
I A Greek of Asia Minor, author of the Description of
Greece (on which he was still engaged in 173 A.D.).
• Wilamowitz thinks one or other cf these citations belongs
to the Catalogue.
hanus down the account that Patroclus was even a
kinsman of Achilles; for Hesiod says that Menoetius
the father of Patroclus, was a brother of Peleus, so
that in that case they were first cousins.
Some write "Serus the son of Halirrhothius,"
whom Hesiod mentions: "He (begot) Serus and
Alazygus, goodly sons." And Serus was the son
of Halirrhothius Perieres' son, and of Alcyone.
This oracle most clearly proves that Asclepius was
not the son of Arsinoe, but that Hesiod or one of
Hesiod's interpolators composed the verses to please
the Messenians.
Some say (Asclepius) was the son of Arsinoe,
others of Coronis. But Asclepiades says that
Arsinoe was the daughter of Leucippus, Perieres'
son, and that to her and Apollo Asclepius and a
daughter, Eriopis, were born:
"And she bare in the palace Asclepius, leader of
men, and Eriopis with the lovely hair, being subject
in love to Phoebus"
And of Arsinoe likewise:
"And Arsinoe was joined with the son of Zeus
and Leto and bare a son Asclepius, blameless and
Scholiast on Hestod, Theogony, 142. ryap
'TOUr; aV'Tour; € €1'aA.LryiClovr; A.JryEL
\, • • A ' ,\
ICaL Ev 'T'fJ 'TroV €VICL7r7rWWV aTa",ory'l' V7T'O
'A7T'oA.A.wvor; aVrJpfja8at 7T'Ot€'i;
Scholiast on Pindar, 01. xi. 79.

"E 8'"
tf£avop'l)v x,ef£or; a",ep'1v 7T'ot'1U"a'T aICOL'TtP.
Scholiast on Pindar, Hem. x. 150. 0 'H<T[ooor;
€ (Ka<T'Topa ICa£ IIoA.vo€ulC'1) ElvaL
ryovea A.o'Y€ 'i.
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NEf£e<TJwr; OLOW<TL T1IV 'E;>'.€v'1V, aA.A.d. 8v'Ya'Tpor;
'n"eavoii /Cal tl.tot:;.
For how does he say that the same persons (the
Cyclopes) were like the gods, and yet represent them
as being destroyed by Apollo in the Catalogue oj
the Daughters oj Leucippus ?
" Echemus made Timandra his buxom wife."
Hesiod in giving their descent makes them (Castor
and Polydeuces) both sons of Zeus.
Hesiod, however, makes Helen the child neither
of Leda nor Nemesis, bnt of a daughter of Ocean
and Zeus.
Stesichorus says that while sacrificing to the gods
Tyndareus forgot Aphrodite and that the goddess
was angry and made his daughters twice and thrice
wed and deserters of their husbands. • • . . And
Hesiod also says:
" And laughter-loving Aphrodite felt jealous when
she looked on them and cast them into evil report.
Then Timandra deserted Echemus and went and
came to Phyleus, dear to the deathless gods; and
even so Clytaemnestra deserted god-like Agamemnon
and lay with Aegisthus and chose a worse mate;
and even so Helen dishonoured the couch of golden-
haired Menelaus."
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". • • • Philoctetes sought her, a leader of spear-
men, ••• , most famous of all men at shooting
from afar and with the sharp spear. And he came
to Tyndareus' bright city for the sake of the Argive
maid who had the beauty of golden Aphrodite, and
the sparkling eyes of the Graces; and the dark-
faced daughter of Ocean, very lovely of form, bare
her when she had shared the embraces of Zeus and
the king Tyndareus in the bright palace •.•...
(And •••. sought her to wife offering as gifts)
••• and as many woman skilled in blameless arts,
each holding a golden bowl in her hands. And
truly Castor and strong Polydeuces would have made
him 2 their brother perforce, but Agamemnon, being
son-in-law to Tyndareus, wooed her for his brother
And the two sons of Amphiaraus the lord, Oecleus'
son, sought her to wife from Argos very near at hand;
yet •.. fear of the blessed gods. and the indig-
nation of men caused them also to fail.
* * •
but there was no deceitful dealing in the sons of
1 Lines 1-51 are from Berlin Papyri, 9739; lines 52-106
with B. 1-50 (and following fragments) are from Berlin Papyri
10550. A reference by Pausanins (iii. 24. 10) to 11. 100 If.
proves that the two fragments together come from the
Catalogue of Women. 'fhe second book (the beginning of
which is indicated after I. 106) can hardly be the second
book of the Catalog"e proper: possibly it should be assigned
to the 'Holat, which were sometimes treated as part of th£l
Catalogue, and sometimes s9parated from it.
'l'he remains of the thirty-seven lines following B. 50 in
the Papyrus are too slight to admit of restoration.
t Be. the Suitor whose name is lost.
And from Ithaca the sacred might of Odysseus,
Laertes' son, who knew mauy-fashioned wiles, sought
her to wife. He never sent gifts for the sake of the
neat-aqkled maid, for he knew in his heart that
golden-haired Menelaus would win, since he was
greatest of the Achaeans in possessions and was ever
sending messages 1 to horse-taming Castor and prize·
winning Polydeuces.
And ., on's son sought her to wife (and
brought) • • . bridal-gifts . . . cauldrons .••
* * * *
to horse-taming Castor and prize-winning Polydeuces,
desiring to be the husband of rich-haired Helen,
though he had never seen her beauty, but because he
heard the report of others.
And from Phylace two men of exceeding worth
sought her to wife, Podarces son of Iphiclus, Phylacus'
son, and Actor's noble son, overbearing Protesilaus.
Both of them kept sending messages to Lacedaemon,
to the house of wise Tyndareus, Oebalus' son, and
they offered many bridal-gifts, for great was the girl's
renown, brazen ... golden .••
* * * *
(desiring) to be the husband of rich-haired Helen.
From Athens the son of Peteous, Menestheus,
sought her to wife, and offered many bridal-gifts;
for he possessed very many stored treasures, gold and
I Wooing was by proxy; so Agamemnon wooed Hulen for
nis brother Menelaus (ll. 14-15), and ldomeneus, who came
in person and sent no deputy, is specially mentioned as an
exception, and the reason for this-if the restoration printed
in the text be right-is stated (II. 6Ilff.).
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cauldrons and tripods, fine things which lay hid in
the house of the lord Peteous, and with them his
heart urged him to win his bride by giving more
gifts than any other; for he thought that no one
of all the heroes would surpass him in possessions and
There came also by ship from Crete to the bouse of
the son of Oebalus strong Lycomedes for rich-haired
Helen's sake. * * *
* * * *
sought her to wife. And after golden-haired Menelaus
he offered the greatest gifts of all the suitors, and
very much he desired in his heart to be the husband
of Argive Helen with the rich hair.
And from Salamis Aias, blameless warrior, sought
her to wife, and offered fitting gifts, even wonderful
deeds; for he said that he would drive together and
give the shambling oxen and strong sheep of all
those who lived in Troezen and Epidallrus near the
sea, and in the island of Aegina and in Mases, sons of
the Achaeans, and shadowy Megara and frowning
Corinth us, and Hermione and Asine which lie along
the sea: for he was famous with the long spear.
But from Euboea. Elephenor, leader of men, the
son of prmce of the bold Abantes, sought
her to wIfe. And he offered very many gifts and
greatly he desired in his heart to be the of
rich-haired Helen.
And from Crete the mighty Idomeneus sought her
to wife, Deucalion's son, offspring of renowned Minos.
He sent no one to woo her in his place, but came
himself in his black ship of many thwarts over the
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Ogylian sea across the dark wave to the home of
wise Tyndareus, to see Argive Helen and that no
one else should bring back for him the girl whose
renown spread all over the holy earth.
And at the prompting of Zeus the all-wise came.
*, * * *
But of all who came for the maid's sake, the lord
Tyndareus sent none away, nor yet received the gift
of any, but asked of all the suitors sure oaths, and bade
them swear and vow with unmixed libations that no
one else henceforth should do aught apart from him as
touching the marriage of the maid with shapely arms;
but if any man should cast off fear and reverence and
take her by force, he bade all the others together
follow after and make him pay the penalty. And
of hoping accomplish his marriage,
obeyed hIm WIthout wavermg. But warlike Mene-
laus, the son of Atreus, prevailed against them all
together, because he gave the greatest gifts.
But Chiron was tending the son of Peleus, swift-
Achilles, pre-eminent among men, on woody
Pehon; for he was still a boy. For neither warlike
Menelaus nor any other of men on earth would have
prevailed in suit tor Helen, if fleet Achilles had
found her unwed. But, as it was, warlike Menelaus
won her before.
And she (Helen) bare neat-ankled Hermione in
the palace, a child unlooked for.
Now all the gods were divided through strife; for
I The Papyrus here marks the begiuning of a second book
possibly of the Eoia.. The passage (II. 2-50) probably led
up to .. n account of the Trojan (alld Theban 1) war, in which,
at that very time Zeus who thunders on high was
meditating marvellous deeds, even to mingle storm
and tempest over the boundless earth, and already
he was hastening to make an utter end of the
race of mortal men, declaring that he would
destroy the lives of the demi-gods, that the children
of the gods should not mate with wretched mortals,
seeing their fate with their own eyes; but that the
blessed gods henceforth even as aforetime should have
their living and their habitations apart from men.
But on those who were born of immortals and of man-
kind verily Zeus laid toil and sorrow upon sorrow.
... ... ... ...
nor anyone of men . . . should go upon black
ships ..• to be strongest in the might of his
hands • . . of mortal men declaring to all those
things that were, and those that are, and those that
shall be, he brings to pass and glorifies the counsels
of his father Zeus who drives the clouds. For no
one, either of the blessed gods or of mortal men,
knew surely that he would contrive through the
sword to send to Hades full many a one of heroes
fallen in strife. But at that time he knew not as
yet the intent of his father's mind,and how men
delight in protecting their children from doom. And
he delighted in the desire of his mighty father's heart
who rules powerfully over men.
From stately trees the fair leaves fell in abun-
aooording to Work/! and Day. 161-166, the Race of Herno.
periBhed. The opening of the Gypria i8 somewhat similar.
Somewhere in the fragmentary lines 13-19 a 80n of Zens-
almost certainly Apollo-was intro(lnced, though for what
purpose is not clear. With I. 31 the dest,ruction of man (cp.
lL ~ 5 ) by storms which spoil his crops begins: the remain-
ing verses parenthetic&l, describing the snake U which
bear,g it·fi young in the spring season."
(Traces of 37 following lines.)
Tzetus,I Exeg. fliad. 68. 19 H. o· A'Yap'€/LVruV,
tea£ M /CaB' 'HutoSov /Ca£ ' A,-
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1 c. 1l1()-1180 A.D. His chief work Wall & poem, Ohiliadu,
in accentual verse of nearly 13,000 linea.
dance fluttering down to the ground, and the fruit
fell to the ground because Boreas blew very fiercely
at the behest of Zeus; the deep seethed and all
things trembled at his blast: the strength of
mankind consumed away and the fruit failed in
the season of spring, at that time when the Hairless
One I in a secret place in the mountains gets three
young every three years. In spring he dwells upon
the mountain among tangled thickets and brushwood,
keeping afar from and hating the path of men, in
the glens and wooded glades. But when winter
comes on, he lies, in a close cave beneath the earth
and covers himself with piles of luxuriant leaves,
a dread serpent whose back is speckled with awful
But when he becomes violent and fierce
unspeakably, the arrows of Zeus lay him low.
Only his soul is left on the holy earth, and that
flits gibbering about a small unformed den. And
it comes enfeebled to sacrifices beneath the broad-
pathed earth • • • • and it lies • • • ."
Agamemnon and Menelaus likewise according to
Hesiod and Aeschylus are regarded as the sons of
Pleisthenes, Atreus' son. And according to Hesiod,
Pleisthenes was a son of Atreus and Aerope, and
Agamemnon, Menelaus and Anaxibia were the
children of Pleisthenes and Cleolla the daughter of
1 i.e. the snake; as in Wark. and Datl8 524. the "Bonele ••
OliO OJ is the cuttle·fish.
Lt:I'Urentian Scholiast on Sophocles' Electra /iSI/.
fJ T6/cff}' 'Epj-ttov7jv OOVPt/cAftTrp MfV€Aa'P'
(J7rXOTaTOII 0' Nt/couTpaTolI 81:011· Ap"lo,.
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"II " "H' 'K ' '
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Pausamas, ii. 6. 5. . .. 'Hulooo, ••• E'7J'ot7jUfV
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Plato, Minos, p. 320. D.
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I Of Alexandria. He lived in the 5th century, and com·
piled a Greek Lexicon.
"And she (Helen) bare to Menelans, famous with
the spear, Hermione and her youngest·born, Nico-
stratus, a scion of Ares."
I know that Hesiod in the Catalogue of Women
represented that I phigeneia was not killed but, by
the will of Artemis, became Hecate.
Eutes, it is said, was a son ot Poseidon: so Hesiod
in the Catalogue.
Hesiod represented Sicyon as the son of Erech·
"(Minos) who was most kingly of mortal kings
and reigned over very many people dwelling round
about, holding the sceptre of Zeus wherewith he ruled
The athletic contest in memory of Euryg-yes
Melesagoras says that Andl"Ogeos the son of Minos
was called Eurygyes, and that a contest in his honour
is held near his tomb at Athens in the Ceramicus.
And Hesiod writes:
"And Eurygyes,2 while yet a lad in holy
Athens. ..
1 According t.o this account Iphigeneia was carried by
Artemi.s to the Tauric Ohersollnese (the Crimea). The Tanri
(Herodotus iv. 103) identified their maiden.goddess with
Iphigeneia; but Euripides (Iph. in Taw';s) makes her
merely priestess of the goddess.
I For his murder Minos exacted a yearly tribute of boys alld
girls, to be devoured by the Minotaur, from the Athenians.
Argument 1. to the Shield 0/ Heracles. 'A7rOA-
oe 0 • •• tP"1O'lv aVTOV (,HO't60ov)
"''' ... .. " ... I"\. '
Ewat EIC T6 TOV ICat EIC TOV 7ra",w TOV
'I ' '" K ' , , t ' "
Schol. on Soph. Trach. 266.
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1 Of N aucratis. His Deipnosophistae (" Dons at Dinner")
is an encyclopredia of miscellaneous topics in the form of a
dialogue. His date i. C. 230 A. D.
There are many tales ... 3bout Ariadne. 0 OJ how
that she was deserted by Theseus for love of another
"For strong love for Aegle the daughter of
Panopeus overpowered him."
For Hereas of Megara says that Peisistratus reo
moved this verse from the works of Hesiod.
But Hesiod says that Theseus wedded both Hippe
and Aegle lawfully.
The snake of Cychreus: Hesiod says that it was
brought up by Cychreus, and was driven out by
Eurylochus as defiling the island, but that Demeter
received it into Eleusis, and that it became her
But Apollonius of Rhodes says that it (the Shield
of Hemeles) is Hesiod's both from the general
character of the work and from the fact that in the
Catalogue we again find lolaus as charioteer of
"And fair-girdled Stratonica conceived and bare
in the palace Eurytus her well-loved son. Of him
sprang sons, Didaeon and Clytius and god-like
Toxeus and Iphitus, a scion of Ares. And after
these Antiope the queen, daughter Of the aged
son of Naubolus, bare her youngest child, golden.
haired lolea."
• , , • " , rh' ' , , ' '. '
'1 -eICev "-VTO,,,VICOV Te '!!,,,,upp,,ova Te IC",VTOV allo'iv
Etyrnologicum j}fagnurn.
1'iTT' ICe Xepul, A.a(3euICev, aeU5€A.u 7raVTa T£eea-ICGV.
Apollonius, Hom. Lexicon.
A" .' '1" ' II'8 ' ' 7 r V T O ~ au T€ICETO "''1cyrjvopa eip, oov Te.
1 Heyne: !tAtar, Villebrun: &Xlovs, Strabo. Line 4
(quoted by SchoHa.t on Pindar, 01. ix. 68) wa. added by
Berik to Str ... bo'. ClitatioD.
"Who bare Autolycus and Philammon, famous in
speech. .. All things that he (Autolycus) took
in his hands, he made to disappear."
"Aepytus again, begot Tlesenor and Peirithous."
"For Locrus truly was leader of the Lelegian
people, whom Zeus the Son of Cronos, whose wis-
dom is unfailing, gave to Deucalion, stones gathered
out of the earth. So out of stones mortal men
were made, and they were called: people." 1
" . . • Ileus whom the lord Apollo, son of
Zeus, loved. And he named him by this name,
because he found a nymph complaisant 2 and was
joined with her in sweet love, on that day when
Poseidon and Apollo raised high the wall of the
well-built city."
Clymene the daughter of Minyas the SOn of
Poseidon and of Euryanassa, Hyperphas' daughter,
was wedded to Phylacus the son of Delon, and bare
Iphiclus, a boy fleet of foot. It is said of him that
1 There is a fancied connection between J.aas (stone) and
J..&, (people). The reference is to the stones which Deucalion
and Pyrrha transformed into men and women after the Flood.
• EustathiUB identifies Ileus with OileuB, father of Aias.
Here again there is fanciful etymology, 'lJ. •• , being similar
10 1" ... , (complaisant, gracioul).
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through his power of running he could race the
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corn 1 ••• The tale is in Hesiod :
"He would run over the fruit of the asphodel and
not break it; nay, he would run with his feet upon
wheaten ears and not hurt the fruit."
" And she bare a son Thoas."
Maro,! whose father, it is said, Hesiod relates to
have been Euanthes the son of Oenopion, the son of
"Such gifts as Dionysus gave to men, a joy and a
sorrow both. Who ever drinks to fullness, in him
wine becomes violent and binds together his hands
and feet, his tongue also and his wits with fetters
unspeakable: and soft sleep embraces him."
"Or like her (Coronis) who lived by the holy Twin
Hills in the plain of Dotium over against Amyrus
rich in grapes, and washed her feet in the Boebian
lake, a maid unwed."
"To him, then, there came a messenger from the
sacred feast to goodly Pytho, a crow,s and he told
I Imitated by Vergil, Aen. vii. 808, describing Camilla.
• Priest of Apollo, and, according to Homer, discoverer of
wine. Maronea in Thrace is said to have been called after him .
• The crow was originally white, but was turned black by
Apollo in hi. anger at the neWI brought by the bird.
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voeat, id est, Apollinis et Cyrenes
Hesiodus dicit Apollinem pastoral em.
Scholiast on Vergil, Georg. iv. 361.
Aristaeum in
filium, quen:
at ilium
Curvata in montis faeiem cireumstetit unda.
Hune versum ex Hesiodi Gynaecon transtulit.
1 A philosopher of Athens under Hadrian and Antoninu8.
He became a Chri.tian and wrote .. defence of the Chri.tiaDli
addressed to AntoninUi l'iUl.
unshorn Phoebus of secret deeds, that Ischys son of
Elatus had wedded Coronis the daughter of Phlegyas
of birth divine.
Concerning Asclepius Hesiod says: "And the
father of men and gods was wrath, and from Olympus
he smote the son of Leto with a lurid thunder-
bolt and killed him, arousing the anger of Phoebus."
But Hesiod (says that Apollo) would have been
cast by Zeus into Tartarus 1 j but Leto interceded for
him, and he became bondman to a mortal.
" Or like her, beautiful Cyrene, who dwelt in Phthia
by the water 6f Peneus and had the beauty of the
He invokes Aristaeus, that is, the son of Apollo
and Cyrene, whom Hesiod calls "the shepherd
Apollo." 2
"But the water stood all round him, bowed into
the semblance of a mountain."
This verse he has taken over from Hesiod',
Catalogue of Women.
• Zeus slew Asclepius (fr. 90) because of his snoceS8 as ..
healer, and Apollo in revenge killed the Cyolop81! (fr. 64).
In punishment Apollo was forced to 86"e Admetus "8 herds-
man. (Op. Euripides, Ale •• tis, 1-8.)
• For Cyrene and AristaeuB, cpo Vergil, GtO'f"gic., iy. 315 0'.
Sahol. on Homer, fliad ii. 469.
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I A writer on mythology of uncertain date.
I The fragment i. part of a leaf from a papyrus book of
the 4th century A. D.
"Or like her (Antiope) whom Boeotian Hyria
nurtured as a maid."
Of Zethus and Amphion.
others relate that they built the
playing on the lyre.
Hesiod and some
walls of Thebes by
" There is a land Ellopia with much glebe and rich
meadows, and rich in flocks and shambling kine ..
There dwell men who have many sheep and many
oxen, and they are in number past telling, tribes of
mortal men. And there upon its border is built a city,
Dodona 1; and Zeus loved it and (appointed) it to be
his oracle, reverenced by men ... And they (the
doves) lived in the hollow of an oak. From them
men of earth carry away all kinds of prophecy,-
whosoever fares to that spot and questions the
deathless god, and comes bringing gifts with good
" ... strife. •• Of mortals who would have dared
to fight him with the spear and charge against him,
save only Heracles, the great-hearted offspring of
Alcaeus? Such an one was (?) strong Meleager
loved of Ares, the golden-haired,dear son of
Oeneus and Althaea. From his fierce eyes there
shone forth portentous fire: and once in high Caly-
don he slew the destroying beast, the fierce wild
I In Epirus. The oracle was first consulted by Deucalion
and Pyrrha after the Flood. Later writers say that the
god responded in the rustling of leaves in tho oaks for which
tho place was famous.
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boar with gleaming tusks. In war and in dread
strife no man of the heroes dared to face him and to
approach and fight with him when he appeared in
the forefront. But he was slain by the hands and
arrows of Apollo,l while he was fighting with the
Curetes for pleasant Calydon. And these others
(Althaea) bare to Oeneus, Porthaon's son; horse-
taming Pheres, and Agelaus surpassing all others,
Toxeus and Clymenus and godlike Periphas, and rich·
haired Gorga and wise Deianeira, who was subject
in love to mighty Heracles and bare him Hyllus and
Glenus and Ctesippus and Odites. These she bare
and in ignorance she did a fearful thing: when
(she had received) ••. the poisoned robe that held
black doom .... "
And yet Hesiod says that after he had died in
Thebes, Argeia the daughter of Adrastus together
with others (cp. frag. 99) came to the lamentation
over Oedipus.
And (Eriphyle) bare in the palace Alcmaon,s
shepherd of the people, to Amphiaraus. Him (Am-
I According to Homer and later writers Meleager wasted
away when his mother Althea burned the brand on which
hi. life depended, becanse he had .I"in her hrothers in the
dispute for the hide of the Calydonian boar. (Cp. Bacchylides,
Ode Y. 136 If.)
• The fragment probably belongs to the Oa/atogue8 proper
rather than to the Eoiae; but, a. its position i. uncertain,
it may conveniently be e.ssoci .. ted with Fraga. 99A and the
Shield of H erael ...
• Alcmaon (who took part in the second of the two heroio
Theban expeditions) i. perhaps mentioned only incidentally
as the son of Amphiarau8, who 8eems to be cle&rly indicated
in U. 7-8, and whoso story occupies 11. 5-10. At 1. 11 the
subject change. and Electryon is introduced a. father of
Alcmen ...
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• For' Bcansion cf. Shield, n. 16, 82.
phiaraus) did the Cadmean (Theban) women with
trailing robes admire when they saw face to face his
eyes and well-grown frame, as he was busied about
the burying of Oedipus, the man of many woes.
Once the DanaI, servants of Ares, followed
him to Thebes, to win renown . . . for Polynices.
But, though well he knew from Zeus all things
ordained, the earth yawned and swallowed him up
with his horses and jointed chariot, far from deep-
eddying Alpheus.
But Electryon married the all-beauteous daughter
of Pelops and, going up into one bed with her, the
son of Perses begat ... and Phylonomus and
Celaeneus and Amphimachus and .• _ and Eurybius
and famous... All these the Taphians, famous
shipmen, slew in fight for oxen with shambling hoofs,
... in ships across the sea's wide back. So Alcmena
alone was left to delight her parents .•• and
the daughter of Electryon ••• who was subject
in love to the dark-clouded son of Cronos and bare
(famous Heracles).
The beginning of the Shield as far as the 56th
verse is current in the fourth Catalogue •.

OR like her who left home and country and came
to Thebes, following warlike Amphitryon,-even
Alcmena, the daughter of Electryon, gatherer of the
people. She surpassed the tribe of womankind in
beauty and in height; and in wisdom none vied with
her of those whom mortal women bare of union with
mortal men. Her face and her dark eyes wafted
such charm as comes from golden Aphrodite. And
she so honoured her husband in her heart as none of
womankind did before her. Verily he had slain her
noble father violently when he was angry about
oxen; so he left his own country and came to
Thebes and was suppliant to the shield-carrying men
of Cadmus. There he dwelt with his modest wife
without the joys of love, nor might he go in unto
the neat-ankled daughter of Electryon until he had
avenged the death of his wife's great-hearted
brothers and utterly burned with blazing fire the
villages of the heroes, the Taphians and Teleboans;
for this thing was laid upon him, and the gods were
witnesses to it. And he feared their anger, and
hastened to perform the great task to which Zeus had
bound him. With him went the horse-driving
Boeotians, breathing above their shields, and the
Locrians who fight hand to hand, and the gallant
Phocians eager for war and battle. And the noble
son of Alcaeus led them, rejoicing in his host.
But the father of men and gods lVas forming
I II. ....... J.,. K L ~ l .
another scheme in his heart, to beget one to defend
against destruction gods and men who eat bread. So
he arose from Olympus by night pondering guile in
the deep of his heart, and yearned for the love of the
well-girded woman. Quickly he came to Typhao-
nium, and from there again wise Zeus went on and
trod the highest peak of Phicium 1: there he sat and
planned marvellous things in his heart. So in one
night Zeus shared the bed and love of the neat-ankled
daughter of EIectryon and fulfilled his desire;
and in the same night Amphitryon, gatherer of the
people, the glorious hero, came to his house when he
had ended his great task. He hastened not to go
to his bondmen and shepherds afield, but first went
in unto his wife: such desire took hold on the
shepherd of the people. And as a man who has
escaped joyfully from misery, whether of sore disease
or cruel bondage, so then did Amphitryon, when he
had wound up all his heavy task, come glad and wel-
come to his home. And all night long he lay with
his modest wife, delighting in the gifts of golden
Aphrodite. And she, being subject in love to a god
and to a man exceeding goodly, bronght forth twin
sons in seven-gated Thebe. Though they were
brothers, these were not of one spirit; for one was
weaker but the other a far better man, one terrible
and strong, the mighty Heracles. Him she bare
through the embrace of the son of Cronos lord of dark
clouds and the other, Iphicles, of Amphitryon the
spear-wielder-off'spring distinct, this one of union
with a mortal man, but that other of union with
Zeus, leader of all the gods.
I A mountain peak near Thebes which took its name from
the Sphinx (ca!lea in Th.OIl. 326 . ' ~ ) .
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And he slew Cycnus, the gallant son of Ares.
For he found him in the close of far-shooting Apollo,
him and his father Ares, never sated with war.
Their armour shone like a flame of blazing fire as
they two stood in their car: their swift horses struck
the earth and pawed it with their hoofs, and the
dust rose like smoke about them, pounded by the
chariot wheels and the horses' hoofs, while the
well-made chariot and its rails rattled around them
as the horses plunged. And blameless Cycnus was
glad, for he looked to slay the warlike son of Zeus
and bis charioteer with the sword, and to strip off
their splendid armour. But Phoebus Apollo would
not listen to his vaunts, for he himself had stirred
up mighty Heracles against him. And all the grove
and altar of Pagasaean Apollo flamed because of the
dread god and because of his arms; for his eyes
flashed as with fire. What mortal man would have
dared to meet him face, to face save Heracles and
. glorious lolaus? For great Was their strength and
unconquerable were the arms which grew from their
shoulders on their strong limbs. Then Heracles
spake to his charioteer strong lolaus :
"0 hero Iolaus, best beloved of all men, truly
Amphitryon sinned deeply against the blessed gods
who dwell on Olympus when he came to sweet-
crowned Thebe and left Tiryns, the well-built citadel,
because he slew Electryon for the sake of his wide-
browed oxen. Then he came to Creon and long-
robed Eniocha, who received him kindly and gave
him all fitting things, as is due to suppliants, and
honoured him in their hearts even more. And he
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I BCDl!': .. X ..... other MSS.
lived joyfully with his wife the neat.ankled daughter
of Electryon : and presently, while the years rolled
on, we were born, unlike in body as in mind, even
your father and r. From him Zeus took away sense,
so that he J"ft his home and his parents and went to
do honour to the wicked Eurystheus-unhappy man!
Deeply indeed did he grieve afterwards in bearing
the burden of his own mad folly; but that cannot be
taken back.. But on me fate laid heavy tasks.
"Yet, come, friend, quickly take the red-dyed
reins of the swift horses and raise high courage in
your heart and guide the swift chariot and strong
fleet-footed horses straight on. Have no secret fear
at the noise of man-slaying Ares who now rages
shouting about the holy grove of Phoebus Apollo,
the lord who shoots from afar. Surely, strong
though he be, he shall have enough of war."
And blameless lolaus answered him again : "Good
friend, truly the father of men and gods greatly
honours your head and the bull-like Earth-Sbaker
also, who keeps Thebe's veil of walls and guards
the city,-so great and strong is this fellow they
bring into your hands that you may win great
glory. But come, put on your arms of war that
with all speed we may bring the car of Ares and our
own together and fight; for he shall not frighten
the dauntless son of Zeus, nor yet the son of
Iphiclus: rather I think he will flee before the two
sons of blameless Alcides who are near him and eager
to raise the War cry for battle j for this they love
better than a feast."
So he said. And mighty Heracles was glad in
heart and Smiled, for the other's words pleased him
well, and he answered him with winged words:
" 0 hero lolaus, heaven-sprung, now is rough battle
hard at hand. But, as you have shown your skill at
other times, so now also wheel the great black-maned
horse Arion about every way, and help me as you
may be able."
he said, and put upon his legs greaves of
shmmg bronze, the splendid gift of Hephaestus.
Next he fastened about his breast a fine golden
breast-plate, curiously wrought, which Pallas Athene
the daughter of Zeus had given him when first he
was about to set out upon his grievous labours. Over
his shoulders the fierce warrior put the steel that
from doom, across his breast he slung
hIm a hollow qUIver. Within it were many
chIllIng arrows, dealers of death which makes speech
forgotten: in front they had death and trickled
with tea:s; their shafts were smooth 'and very long,'
and theIr butts were covered with feathers of a
And he took his strong spear, pointed
WIth shmmg bronze, and on his valiant head set a
well-made helm of adamant, cunningly wrought,
which fitted closely on the temples; and that guarded
the head of god-like Heracles.
In his hands he took his shield, all glittering: no
one ever broke it with a blow or crushed it. And
a wonder it was to see; for its whole orb was
a-shimmer with enamel and white ivory and electrum
and it glowed with shining gold; and there
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I Sohol.: 3! 3pd.o..,.OS, MSS.
I (=I(<<!T4KIOJl: cp .. L 254), Tr.: a.bni'v, 1:188.
zones of cyanus 1 dtawn upon it. In the centre was
Fear worked in adamant, unspeakable, staring
backwards with eyes that glowed with fire. His
mouth was full of teeth in a white row, fearful and
daunting, and upon his grim brow hovered frightful
Strife who arrays the throng of men: pitiless she,
for she took away the mind and senses of poor
wretches who made war against the son of Zeus.
Their souls passed beneath the earth and went down
into the house of Hades; but their bones, when the
skin is rotted about them, crumble away on the dark
earth under parching Sirius.
Upon the shield Pursuit and Flight were wrought,
and Tumult, and Panic, and Slaughter. Strife
also, and Uproar were hurrying about, and deadly
Fate was there holding one man newly wounded,
and another unwounded; and one, who was dead,
she was dragging by the feet through the tumult.
She had on her shoulders a garment red with the
blood of men, and terribly she glared and gnashed
her teeth .
And there were heads of snakes unspeakably
frightful, twelve of them; and they used to frighten
the tribes of men on earth whosoever made war
against the son of Zeus; for they would clash their
teeth when Amphitryon's son was fighting: and
brightly shone these wonderful works. And it was
as though were spots upon the frightful
snakes: and theIr backs were dark blue and their
jaws were black.
1 CyanuB was a glass-paste of doep blue colour: the "zones"
were concentrio bands in which were the Rcenes described by
the poet_ The figure of Fear (1- 44) ocoupied the centre of
the ehield, and Oceanus (\. aU) enclosed the whole.
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Also there were upon the shield droves of boars
and lions who glared at each other, being furious
. and eager: the rows of them moved on together,
and neither side trembled but both bristled up their
manes. For already a great lion lay between them
aud two boars, one on either side, bereft of life, and
their dark blood was dripping down upon the ground;
they lay dead with necks outstretched beneath the
grim lions. And both sides were roused still more
to fight becllllse they were angry, the fierce boars
and the bright-eyed lions.
And there was the strife of the Lapith spearmen
gathered round the prince Caeneus and Dryas and
Peirithous, with Hopleus, Exadius, Phalereus, and
Prolochus, Mopsus the son of Ampyce of Titaresia, a
scion of Ares, and Theseus, the son of Aegeus, like
unto the deathless gods. These were of silver, and
had armour of gold upon their bodies. And the Cen·
taurs were gathered against them on the other side
with Petraeus and Asbolus the diviner, Arctus, and
Ureus, and black-haired Mimas, and the two sons of
Peuceus, Perimedes and Dryalus: these were of
silver, and they had pinetrees of gold in their hands,
and they were rushing together as thougb they were
alive and striking at one another hand to hand with
spears and with pines.
And on the shield stood the fleet-footed horses
of grim Ares made of gold, and deadly Ares the spoil-
winner himself. He held a spear in his hands and
was urging on the footmen: he was red with blood
as if he were slaying living men, and he stood in his
chariot. Beside him stood Fear and Flight, eager to
plunge amidst the fighting men.
There, too, was the daughter of Zeus, Tritogeneia
I 11. 203-5 are clearly intrusive and are rejocted by
• 11. 209-11 are not found in Q. and are rejected by Pepp.
muller. They appear to .be an alternative version of 11. 211-
I Ranke: ~ . p . I ••• r. Q: l.po'/lo •• F: 1,.1 ...... other MSS.
who drives the spoil,1 She was like as if she would
array a battle, with a spear in her hand, and a
golden helmet, and the aegis about her shoulders.
And she was going towards the awful strife.
And there was the holy company of the deathless
gods: and in the midst the son of Zeus and Leto
played sweetly on a golden lyre. There also was
the abode of the gods, pure Olympus, and their
assembly, and infinite riches were spread around in
the gathering of the deathless gods. Also the
goddesses, the Muses of Pieria were beginning a son"
like clear-voiced singers. '"
And on the shield was a harbour with a saf"
haven from the irresistible sea, made of refined tin
wrought in a circle, and it seemed to heave with
waves. In the middle of it were many dolphins
rushing this way and that, fishing: and they seemed
to be swimming. Two dolphins of silver were
spouting and devouring the mute fishes. And
beneath them fishes of bronze were trembling. And
on the shore sat a fisherman watching: in his hands
he held a casting net for fish, and seemed as if about
to cast it forth.
There, too, was the son of rich-haired Danae, the
horseman Perseus: his feet did not touch the shield
and yet were not far from it-very marvellous to
remark, since he was not supported anywhere; for
so did the famous Lame One fashion him of gold
with his hands. On his feet he had winged sandals,
and his black-sheathed sword was slung across his
shoulders by a cross-belt of bronze. He was flying
1 "She who drives herds," i.e. U The Victorious," ainee
herd. were the chief spoil gained by the victor in ancient
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swift as thought. The head of a dreadful monster,
the Gorgon, covered the broad of his back, and a
bag of silver-a marvel to see-contained it: and
from the bag bright tassels ot gold hung down.
Upon the head of the hero lay the dread cap 1 of
Hades which had the awful gloom of night. Perseus
himself, the son of Danae, was at full stretch, like
one who hurries and shudders with horror, And
after him rushed the Gorgons, unapproachable and
unspeakable, longing to seize him: as they trod
upon the pale adamant, the shield rang sharp and
clear with a loud clanging. Two serpents hung
down at their girdles with heads curved forward;
their tongues were flickering, and their teeth
gnashing with fury, and their eyes glaring fiercely.
And upon the awful heads of the Gorgons great
Fear was quaking.
287 And beyond these there were men fighting in
warlike harness, some defending their own town and
parents from destruction, and others eager to sack
it; many lay dead, but the greater number still
strove and fought. The women on well-built towers
of bronze were crying shrilly and tearing their
cheeks like living beings-the work of famous
Hephaestus. And the men who were elders and on
whom age had laid hold were all together outside
the gates, and were holding up their hands to the
blessed gods, fearing for their own sons; But these
again were engaged in battle: and behind them the
dusky Fates, gnashing their white fangs, lowering,
grim, bloody, and unapproachable, struggled for
those who were falling, for they all were longing to
drink dark blood. So soon as they caught a man
I Th. cap of darkness which mad. it. wellrsr invisible.
I .., , , , ,,.
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overthrown or falling newly wounded, one of them
would clasp her great claws about him, and his soul
would go down to Hades to chilly Tal'tarus. And when
they had satisfied their souls with human blood, they
would cast that one behind them, and rush back
again into the tumult and the fray. Clotho and
Lachesis were over them and Atropos less tall than
they, a goddess of no great frame, yet superior to
the others and the eldest of them. And they all
made a fierce fight over one poor wretch, glaring
evilly at one another with furious eyes and fighting
equally with claws and hands. By them stood Dark.
ness of Death, mournful and fearful, pale, shrivelled,
shrunk with hunger, swollen-kneed. Long nails
tipped her hands, and she dribbled at the nose, and
from her cheeks blood dripped down to the ground.
She stood leering hideously, and much dust sodden
with tears lay upon her shoulders.
270 Next, there was a city of men with goodly
towers'; and seven gates of gold, fitted to the lintels,
guarded it. The men were making merry with festivi-
ties and dances; some were bringing home a bride to
her husband on a well-wheeled car, while the bridal.
song swelled high, and the glow of blazing torches
held by handmaidens rolled in waves afar. And
these maidens went before, delighting in the festival;
and after them came frolicsome choirs, the youths
sin?,ing soft-mouthed to the sound of shrill pipes,
whIle the echo was shivered around them, and the
girls led on the lovely dance to the sound of lyres.
Then again on the other side was a rout of young
men revelling, with fiutes playing; some frolicking
298 'roC ')'E p.b 7raC(orru Inr' ab}..7J'Tijp'
This line, which is perhaps an alternative for 11. 282--3
and may have once .teod .. t the foot of .. MS. P"ie, i.
omitted by many yss,
with dance and song, and others were going forward
in time with a flute player and laughing. The
whole town was filled with mirth and dance and
285 Others again were mounted on horseback and
galloping before the town. And there were plough-
men breaking up the good soil, clothed in tunics girt
up. Also there was a wide cornland and some men
were reaping with sharp hooks the stalks which
bended with the weight of the ears-as if they were
reaping Demeter's grain: others were binding the
sheaves with bands and were spreading the threshing
floor. And some held reaping hooks and were gather-
ing the vintage, while others were taking from the
reapers into baskets white and black clusters from
the long rows of vines which were heavy with leaves
and tendrils of silver. Others again were gathering
them into baskets. Beside them was a row of vines
in gold, the splendid work of cunning Hephaestus:
it had shivering leaves and stakes of silver and was
laden with grapes which turned black.
And there
were men treading out the grapes and others
drawing off the liquor. Also there were men boxing
and wrestling, and huntsmen chasing swift hares
with a leash of sharp-toothed dogs before them, they
eager to catch the hares, and the hares eager to
escape. .
Next to them were horsemen hard set, and they
contended and laboured for a prize. The charioteers
standing on their well-woven cars, urged on their
swift horses with loose rein; the jointed cars flew
1 The existing text of the vineyard scene is .. componnd of
two different version., clnmsily adapted, &nd eked out with
80me m .. keshift additiollB.
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along clattering and the naves of the wheels shrieked
loudly. So they were engaged in an nnending toil
and the end with victory came never to them, and
the contest was ever unwon. And there was set ont
for them the course a great tripod of gold,
the splendId work of cunning Hephaestus.
And round the rim Ocean was flowing, with a full
stream as it seemed, and enclosed all the cunning
of the shield. Over it swans were soaring and
callmg loudly, and many others were swimming
upon the surface of the water; and near them were
shoals of fish.
A wonderful thing the great strong shield was to
see-even for Zeus the loud-thunderer, by whose will
Hephaestus made it and fitted it with his' hands.
This shield the valiant son of Zeus wielded masterly,
and l.eaped upon his horse-chariot like the lightning
of hIS father Zeus who holds the aegis, moving
lithely. And his charioteer, strong lolaus, standing
upon the car, /\,uided the curved chariot.
Then the goddess grey-eyed Athene came near
'hem and spoke winged words, encouraging them:
" Hail, offspring of far-famed Lynceus! Even now
Zeus who reigns over the blessed gods gives you
power to slay Cycnus and to strip off his splendid
armour. Yet I will tell you something besides
mightiest of the people. When you, have robbed
Cyenus of sweet life, then leave him there and his
armour also, and you yourself watch man-slaying
Ares narrowly as he attacks, and wherever you shall
see him uncovered below his cunningly-wrought
shield, there wound him with your sharp spear.
Then draw back; for it is not ordained that you
should take his horses Qr his splendid armour."
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So said the bright-eyed goddess and Swiftly got up
into the car with victory and renown in her hands.
Then heaven-nurtured lolaus called terribly to the
horses, and at his cry they swiftly whirled the fleet
chariot along, raising dust from the plain; for the
goddess bright-eyed Athene put mettle into them
by shaking her aegis. And the earth groaned all
round them. And they, horse-taming Cycnus and
Ares, insatiable in war, came on together like fire
or whirlwind. Then their horses neighed shrilly,
face to face; and the echo was shivered all round
them. And mighty Heracles spoke first and said to
that other:
" Cycnus, good sir! Why, pray, do you set your
swift horses at us, men who are tried in labour and
pain? Nay, guide your fleet car aside and yield and
go out of the path. It is to Trachis I am driving on,
to Ceyx the king, who is the first in Trachis for
power and for honour, and that you yourself know
well, for you have his daughter dark-eyed Themisti-
noe to wife. Fool! For Ares shall not deliver
you from the end of death, if we two meet together
in battle. Another time. ere this I declare he has
made trial of my spear, when he defended sandy
Pylos and stood against me, fiercely longing for
fight. Thrice was he stricken by my spear and
dashed to earth, and his shield was pierced; but
the fourth time I struck his thigh, laying on with all
my strength, and tare deep into his flesh. And he
fell headlong in the dust upon the ground through
the force of my spear-thrust; then truly he would
have been disgraced among the deathless gods,
if by my hands he had left behind his bloody
So said he. But Cycnus the stout spearman cared
not to obey him and to pull up the horses that drew
his chariot. Then it was that from their well-woven
cars they both leaped straight to the ground, the son
of Zeus and the son of the Lord of War. The
charioteers drove near by their horses with beauti-
ful manes, and the wide earth rang with the beat of
their hoofs as they rushed along. As when rocks
leap forth from the high peak of a great mountain,
and fall on one another, and many towering oaks
and pines and long-rooted poplars are broken by
them as they whirl swiftly down until they reach the
plain; so did they fall on one another with a great
shout: and all the town of the Myrmidons, and
famous lolcus, and Arne, and Helice, and grassy
Anthea echoed loudly at the voice of the two. With
an awful cry they closed: and wise Zeus thundered
loudly and rained down drops of blood, giving the
Signal for battle to his dauntless son.
As a tusked boar, that is fearful for a man to see
before him in the glens of a mountain, resolves to
fight with the huntsmen and whets his white tusks,
turning sideways, while foam /lows all round his
mouth as he gnashes, and his eyes are like glowing
fire, and he bristles the hair on his mane and around
his neck-, like him the son of Zeus leaped from his
horse-chariot. And when the dark-winged whirring
grasshopper, perched on a green shoot, begins to
sing of summer to men-his food and drink is the
dainty dew-and all day long from dawn pours forth
his voice in the deadliest heat, when Sirius scorches
the flesh (then the beard grows upon the millet
which men sow in summer), when the crude grapes
which Dionysus gave to men-a joy and a sorrow
both-begin to colour, in that season they fought
and loud rose the clamour.
As two lions
on either side of a slain deer spring
at one another in fury, and there is a fearful snarling
and a clashing also of teeth-, like vultures with
crooked talons and hooked beak that fight and
scream aloud on a high rock over a mountain goat or
fat wild-deer which some active man has shot with
an arrow from the string, and himself has wandered
away elsewhere, not knowing the place; but they
quickly mark it and vehemently do keen battle
about it-, like these they two rushed upon one
another with a shout.
Then Cycnus, eager to kill the son of almighty
Zeus, struck upon his shield with a brazen spear, but
did not break the bronze; and the gift of the
god saved his foe. But the son of Amphitryon,
mighty Heracles, with his long spear struck Cycnus
violently in the neck beneath the chin, where it was
unguarded between helm and shield. And the
deadly spear cut through the two sinews; for the
hero's full strength lighted on his foe. And Cycnus
fell as an oak falls or a lofty pine that is stricken by
the lurid thunderbolt of Zeus; even so he fell,
and his armour adorned with bronze clashed about
him. .
Then the stout hearted son of Zeus let him be,
and himself watched for the onset ofmansJaying Ares:
fiercely he stared, like a lion who has come upon a
1 T h ~ conception i. simn .. r to that of the soulptured group
.t Athenl of Two Lion. devouring .. Bull (Dickeuo, Oat. oj
the Acropol" Museum, No.3).
body and full eagerly rips the hide with his strong
claws and takes away the sweet life with all speed:
his dark heart is filled with rage and his eyes glare
fiercely, while he tears up the earth with his paws
and lashes his flanks and shoulders with his tail so
that no one dares to face him and go near to give
battle. Even so, the son of Amphitryon, unsated
of battle, stood eagerly face to face with Ares,
nursing courage in his heart. And Ares drew near
him with grief in his heart; and they both sprang
at one another with a cry. As it is when a rock
shoots out from a great cliff and whirls down with
long bounds, careering eagerly with a roar, and a
high crag clashes with it and keeps it there where
they strike together; with no less clamour did
deadly Ares, the chariot-borne, rush shouting at
Heracles. And he quickly received the attack.
But Athene the daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus
came to meet Ares, wearing the dark aegis, and she
looked at him with an angry frown and spoke
winged words to him. "Ares, check your fierce anger
and matchless hands; for it is not ordained that you
should kill. Heracles, tlle bold-hearted son of Zeus,
and strip off his rich armour. Come, then, cease
fighting and do not withstand me."
So said she, but did not move the courageous spirit
of Ares. But he uttered a great shout and waving
his spears like fire, he rushed headlong at strong
Heracles, longing to kill him, and hurled a brazen
spear upon the great shield, for he was furiously
Rngry because of his dead son; but bright-eyed
Athene reached out from the car and turned aside
the force of the spear. Then bitter grief seized Ares
Rnd he drew his keen sword and leaped upon bold-
hearted Heracles. But as he came on, the son of
Amphitryon, un sated of fierce battle, shrewdly
wounded his thigh where it was exposed under his
richly-wrought shield, and tare deep into his flesh
with tlle spear-thrust and cast him flat upon the
ground. And Panic and Dread quickly drove his
smooth-wheeled chariot and horses near him and
lifted him from the wide-pathed earth into his richly-
wrought car, and then straight lashed the horses and
came to high Olympus.
But the son of Alcmena and glorious lolaus
stripped the fine armour off Cycnus' shoulders and
went, and their swift horses carried them straight to
the city of Trachis. And bright-eyed Athene went
thence to great Olympus and her father's house.
As for Cycnus, Ceyx buried him and the countless
people who lived near the city of the glorious king,
in Anthe and the city of the Myrmidons, and famous
lolcus, and Arne, and Helice: and much people were
gathered doing honour to Ceyx, the friend of the
blessed gods. But Anaurus, swelled by a rain-storm,
blotted out the grave and memorial of Cycnus; for
so Apollo. Leto's son, commanded him, because he
used to watch for and violently despoil the rich
hecatombs that any might bring to Pytho.
Scholiast on Apolloniu8 Rhodiu8, Arg. i. 128\...
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I A Greek sophist who t .. ught rhetoric .. t Rome in the
time of Hadrian. He i8 the author of a collection of proverb.
in three book ..

HESIOD in the Marriage of Ceyx says that he
(Heracles) landed (from the Argo) to look for water
and was left behind in Magnesia near the place
called Aphetae becanse of his desertion there.
Hesiod used the proverb in the folIowing way:
Heracles is represented as having constantly visited
the house of Ceyx of Trachis and spoken thus:
"Of their own selves the good make for the
feasts of the good."
" And horse-driving Ceyx beholding •••• "
Hesiod in the Marriage of Ceyx-for though
grammar-school boys alienate it from the poet, yet
I consider the poem ancient-calls the tables
"But when they had done with desire for the
equal-shared feast, even then they brought from the
forest the mother of a mother (sc. wood), dry and
parched, to be slain by her own children" (sc. to be
burnt in the flames).
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EPIDAURU8. According to the opinion of the
Argives and the epic poem, the Great Eoiae, Argos
the son of Zeus was father of Epidaurus.
And, they say, Hesiod is sufficient to prove that
the word poneros (bad) has the same sense as
"laborious" or "ill-fated"; for in the Great Eoiae
he represents Alcmene as saying to Heracles:
"My son, truly Zeus your father begot you to
be the most toilful as the most excellent •••• , ;
and again:
"The Fates (made) you the most toilful and the
most excellent •• ."
The story has been taken from the Great Eoiae ;
for there we find Heracles entertained by Telamon,
standing dressed in his lion-skin and praying, and
there also we find the eagle sent by Zeus from which
Aias took his name.
1 When Heracles prayed that a Bon might be born to
Telamon .. nd Eriboea, Zeus Bent forth an eagle in token that
the prayer would be granted. Heracl •• then b&d. the parents
... 11 their BOD Aia. after the eagle (aictol).
Pa'Usania8, iv. 2. 1.. aXXa. "TXXov /Lev TO;'
'H ' 'B ' E' , "II '
paIC"Eovr; V'YaTP' UVVOtIC"Iuat OAV-
, "B'" 'M'.,.··
ICaova VIOV OVTOV ",E'Yovua<; Tar; E'Ya",a<; oloa
Pa'Usanias, ix. 40. 6.
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A£l7rf!CPiX"Iv, Eloor; 'OXv/L7rlaoEO'ulV op.o£"I,
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, X' \'"
'YElvaTo atpwvo<; ICpaTfipOV /LEVO<; 17r7rOoa/Lolo.
Schol. on Pinaar, Pyth. i v. 35.
• H " 'T ' , '" M '
!I Et;'1 7rVICIVO""Pr:>V 'E"IICtOVtIC"I"
'/ TEICEV V.,..'1]ILOV 'Yat"l0X'P vvoul'Yal'P
/LIXBE'iu' EV cptXdT"ITi 7l'oXvxpvuov ' AcppootT"Ir;.
Pa'Usanias, ix. 36. 7.
"T'1]TTO<; oe MdXOVPOV 'Ap[u{3avTo<; cptxov viov
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... 2 3 ' ." 'H' a'Usantas, n. • • 7rE7rOI'1]Tal OE EV Olal<;
ME'YaXat<; Ol{3&'Xov BV'YaTepa Elvat
Pa'U.anias, Ii. 16. 4. TaVT'1]V (MvIC1)v'1]v) Elval
BV'YaTEpa 'Ivaxov, 'Yvlfa';'<1& oe 'ApeuTopo<; Ta. 17T'1/
But I know that the so-called Great Eoiae say
that Polycaon the son of Butes married Euaechme,
daughter of HylIus, Heracles' son.
" And Phylas wedded Leipephile the daughter of
famous Iolaus: and she was like the Olympians in
beauty. She bare him a son Hippotades in the
palace, and comely Thero who was like the beams of
the moon. And Thero lay in the embrace of Apollo
and bare horse-taming Chaeron of hardy strength."
" Or like her in Hyria, careful-minded Mecionice,
who was joined in the love of golden Aphrodite
with the Earth-holder and Earth-Shaker, and bare
"And Hyettus killed Molurus the dear son of
Aristas in his house because he lay with his wife.
Then he left his home and fled from horse-rearing
Argos and came to Minyan Orchomenus. And the
hero received him and gave him a portion of his
goods, as was fitting."
But in the Great Eoiae Peirene is represented to
be the daughter of Oebalus.
The epic poem, which the Greek call the Great
Eoiae, says that she (Mycene) was the daughter of
. 21 0 "8 t'" ,,\ ,.
Pausanias, VI. • 1 sq. a7r€ avov O€ ur.o TOV
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'A '8 'II 8' • ' • ,'" A.Ka ° op € € €7r1 T'l'
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f.£axoS' Til Kat Kp0TaA.oS'. • •• TOV BE a7r08aVOVTa
"'"'A' , A B
€7r aUTOtS' Kplav TfKf.£alpOtTO av aKIl ai-
I I " " "A ... ...
f.£0VIOV Til Ewal Kat OIKtO'T'1V KptwV. E7r1 O€ T'l'
'A ' K' '''' "" 0' , <h Kpta a'Tr€TOV 't'aO'tv U'TrO TOV W0f.£aou r,0VEU-
Oijvat' Kat AVKOVP"{OV AaO'lov T€ Kat XaA.KwBovTa
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"t:)' ",t-' \ "A "
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Til Kat IIplavTa, lin Be II€A.a"{oV'Ta Kat AioA.tov
Til Kat Kpovtov.
Scholias! on .Apolloniu8 Rhodiu8, .Arg. i. 118. Jv
Be Ta'S' MIl,,{aA.alS' 'HolalS' A.J"{€TaI 6JS' Ilpa M€£-
I ." 'A '" .,. '. I I
'TrOUS' q,1A.TaToS' wv T'l' 7rO/\,/\,WVI a7roo'1f.£'1O'aS' KaTIl-
A.VITf! 7raptt IIoA.vq,avT'!l' /30'OS' Be aUT'f TEOVf.£€VOV
€ 7rapa TO BVf.£a Sw..pO€'ipai
Inachus and wife of Arestor: from her, then, it is
said, the city received its name.
According to the poem the Great Eoiae, these
were killed by Oenomiius 1: Alcathiius the son of
Porthaon next after Marmax, and after Alcathiius,
Euryalus, Eurymachus and Crotalus. The man
killed next after them, Acrias, we should judge to
have been a Lacedemonian and founder of Acria.
And after Acrias, they say, Capetus was done to death
by Oenomiius, and Lycurgus, Lasius, Chalcodon and
Tricolonus. . •. And after Tricolonus fate overtook
Aristomachus and Prias on the course, as also Pelagon
and Aeolius and Cronius.
In the Great EOlae it is said that Endymion was
transported by Zeus into heaven, but when he fell in
love with Hera, was befooled with a shape of cloud,
and was cast out and went down into Hades.
In the Great Eoiae it is related that Melampus,
who was very dear to Apollo, went. abroad and
stayed with Polyphantes. But when the king had
sacrificed an ox, a serpent crept up to the sacrifice and
1 Oenomau., king of Pis" in Eli., warned by an oracle that
he ahould b. killed by his son-in-law, offered his daughter
Hippodamia to the man who could defeat him in .. chariot
race, on condition th .. t the defeated suitors should be slain
by him. Ultimately Pelop., through the treachery of the
oh.rioteer of Oenomius, victorious.
Scltoliust on Apollonius Rltodius, Arg. iv. 828.
Ell ME'YUAa£'i' 'Rota£'i' 'E«a-
T'1/'i' l:.dXXa.
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 181.
7rE7r'1/PWcr(}ut ¢wfa cflrw1ll Ell €
'R' "m 't ' , ,
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Scholiust on Apollonius Rhodiu8, Arg. ii. 1122.
"Ap'Yo'i'] El'i' TWV iPpt,ov 7raloOJII OOTO'i'. T01lTOV'i' oE
• • • 'RcrloBo'i' €V Tar'i' M€'YuXat'i' 'Rolat'i' cflacrlv i,
'I A.' - A" \. 'A.
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destroyed his servants. At this the king was angry
and killed the serpent, but Melampus took and
buried it. And its offspring, brought up by him,
used to lick his ears and inspire him with prophecy.
And so, when he was caught while trying to steal
the cows of Iphiclus and taken bound to the city of
Aegina, and when the house, in which Iphiclus was,
was about to fall, he told an old woman, one of the
servants of Iphiclus, and in return was released.
In the Great Eoiae Scylla is the daughter of
Phoebus and Hecate.
Hesiod in the G"eut Eoiae says that Phineus was
blinded because he told Phrixus the way.l
Argus. This is one of the children of Phrixus.
These . . . Hesiod in the Great Eoiae says were
born of Iophossa the daughter of Aeetes. And he
says there were four of them, Argus, Phrontis,
Melas, and Cytisorus.
Battus. H esiod tells the story in the Great
Eoiae. " Magnes was the son of Argus, the son
of Phrixus and Perimele, Admetus' daughter, and
t //C. to ScythiA.
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lived in the region of Thessaly, in the land which
men called after him Magnesia. He had a son of
remarkable beauty, Hymenaeus. And when Apollo
saw the boy, he was seized with love for him, and
would not leave the house of Magnes. Then
Hermes made designs on Apollo's herd of cattle
which were grazing in the same place as the cattle of
Admetus. First he cast upon the dogs which were
guarding them a stupor and strangles, so that the
dogs forgot the cows and lost the power of barking.
Then he drove away twelve heifers and a hundred
cows never yoked, and the bull who mounted the
cows, fastening to the tail of each one brushwood
to wipe out the footmarks of the cows. He drove
them through the country of the Pelasgi, and
Achaea in the land of Phthia, and through Locris,
and Boeotia and Megaris, and thence into Pelo-
ponnesus by way of Corinth and Larissa, until he
brought them to Tegea. From there he went on
by the Lycaean mountains, and past Maenalus and
what are called the watch-posts of Battus. Now
this Battus used to live on the top of the rock and
when he heard the voice of the heifers as they
were being driven past, he came out from his own
place, and knew that the cattle were stolen. So he
asked for a reward to tell nO one -about them.
Hermes promised to give it him on these terms,
and Battus swore to say nothing to anyone about the
cattle. But when Hermes had hidden them in the
cliff by Coryphasium, and had driven them into a
cave facing towards Italy and Sicily, he changed him-
self and came again to Battus and tried whether he
would be true to him as he had vowed. So, offering
lfJeXet. 8£80Vt; p£ufJov xXa'ivav E71'VvfJavETo 71'ap'
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him a robe as a reward, he asked of him whether he
had noticed stolen cattle being driven past. And
Battus took the robe and told him about the cattle.
But Hermes was angry because he was double-
and struck him with his staff and changed
hIm into a rock. And either frost or heat never
leaves him.l
.IT is said .that Calchas the seer returned from Troy
WIth AmphIlochus the son of Amphiaraus and came
on foot to this place.
But happening to find near
Clarus a seer than himself, Mopsus, the son
of Telreslas daughter, he died of vexation,
Hesl?d, mdeed, works up the story in some such form
as thIs: Calchas set Mopsus the following problem'
"I am filled with wonder at the quantity of figs
this wild fig-tree bears though it is so small. Can
you tell their number? "
And Mopsus answered: "Ten thousand is their
nnmber, and their measure is a bushel: one fig is
left over, which you would not be able to put into
the measnre."
So said he; and they found the reckoning of the
measure true. Then did the end of death shroud
I In the Homerio Hymn to Hermes Battus almost dis.
appears from the story, a?d a somewhat different account of
the stealmg of the cattle IS given.
• se. Colophon. Proclus in his abstract of the Returns (.c.
of the heroes from Troy) says Calcha. and hi. party were
at the death of Teiresia. at Colophon, perhaps
mdlC&tmg another veroion of this story.
TZ6tze. on Lycophron, 682. • • • Jliill Ot TOil Tln-
I , to'".. ., t" ,
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Scholia3t on Homer, Odyssey, x. 494. rpau£1I
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But now he is speaking of Teiresias, since it is said
that he lived seven generations-though others say
nine. He lived from the times of Cadmus down to
those of Eteocles and Polyneices, as the author
of Melampodia also says; for he introduces Teiresias
speaking thus;
«Father Zeus, would that you had given me a
shorter span of life to be mine and wisdom of heart
like that of mortal men! But nOw you have
honoured me not even a little, though you ordained
me to have a long span of life, and to live through
seven generations of mortal kind."
They say that Teiresias saw two snakes mating
on Cithaeron and that, when he killed the female,
he changed into a woman, and again, when he
killed the male, took again his own nature. This
same Teiresias was chosen by Zeus and Hera to de-
cide the question whether the male or the female
has most pleasure in intercourse. And he said;
"Of ten parts a man enjoys one only; but a
woman's sense enjoys all ten in full."
For this Hera was angry and blinded him, but Zeus
gave him the seer's power.
" For pleasant it is at a feast and rich banquet to
tell delightful tales, when men have had enough of
feasting; and pleasant also it is to know a clear
token of ill or good amid all the signs that the
deathless ones have given to mortal men."
1 II. 1-2 are quoted by AthenaeuB ii. p. 40; II. 3-4 by
Clement of Alexandria, Stromatoi. vi. 2. 26. Buttwann I!&"
t.h"t the two fragment. shonld be joined.
ithenaeU8, xi. 498. A.
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Clement 01' Alexandria, StromatBis, v. p. 259.
1/ , 8' , 8 '
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Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodiu8, Arg. iii. 587. 0
B6 'TOil Alryl/LwlI Bu}, ['To] Upa" aVToli
aileatpeTro" 7I'POUBEv8ijllal. xJryEI Be ;)'TI
, t' rI
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• 'AI! '... 8 1
"ooa" clT'TEIXcll e" ''1'Tao /LE/\,a pa.
I Restored by SchenkL
., And Mares, swift messenger, came to him
through the house and brought a silver goblet which
he had filled, and gave it to the lord."
f< And then Mantes took in his hands the ox's
halter and Iphiclus lashed him upon the back. And
behind him, with a cup in one hand and a raised
sceptre in the other, walked Phylacus and spake
amongst the bondmen."
Hesiod in the third book of the Melampodia
called Chalcis in Euboea "the land of fair women."
But Hesiod says that Amphilochus was killed by
Apollo at Soli.
"And now there is no seer among mortal men
such as would know the mind of Zeus who holds the
. "
BUT the author of the Aegimius says that he
(Phrixus) was received without intermediary because
of the fleece'! He says that after the sacrifice he
purified the fleece and so
"Holding the fleece he walked into the halls of
1 8e. the golden fleece of the ro.m which carried Phrixus
and Helle away from and Ina. When he reached
Colehis Fhrixuo I&crificed the ram to Zeuo.
Apollodoru8, ii. 1. 3. 1. 8e 'AICovO'£-
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The author of the Aegimius says in the second
book that Thetis used to throw the children she had
by Peleus into a cauldron of water, because she
wished to learn whether they were mortal. .•. And
that after many had perished Peleus was annoyed,
and prevented her from throwing Achilles into the
Hesiod and Acusilaus say that she (10) was the
daughter of Peiren. While she was holding the office
of priestess of Hera, Zeus seduced her, and being
discovered by Hera, touched the girl and changed
her into a white cow, while he swore that he had no
intercourse with her. And so Hesiod says that oaths
touching the matter of love do not draw down anger
from th e gods.
"And thereafter he ordained that an oath con-
cerning the secret deeds of the Cyprian should be
without penalty for men."
"(Zeus changed 10) in the fair island Abantis,
which the gods, who are eternally, used to call
Abantis aforetime, but Zeus then called it Euboea
after the cow." 1
"And (Hera) set a watcher upon her (10), great
and strong Argus, who with four eyes looks every
way. And the goddess stirred in him unwearying
strength: sleep never fell upon his eyes; but he kept
sure watch always."
1 Euboea properly me&WI the "Island of fine Cattle (or
Scholiast on Homer, II. xxiv. 24.
• AP'YEtcp6vT"1V
TOV {Jou/Co'A-ov
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Diogenes Laertiu8, viii. 1. 25.
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Clement 0/ Alexandria, Strom. i. p. 121.
Schor. on Homer, Odyssey, iv. 232. ,
€l 'A 7l"o'A-'A-wv BavaTolO uawual
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"Slayer of Argus." According to Hesiod's tal"
he (Hermes) slew (Argus) the herdsman of 10.
And the author of the Aegimius, whether he is
Hesiod or Cercops of Miletus (says)
"There, some day, shall be my place of refresh-
ment, 0 leader of the people."
H esiod (says they were so called) because they
settled in three groups: "And they all were called
the Three-fold people, because they divided in three
the land far from their country." For (he says) that
three Hellenic tribes settled in Crete, the Pelasgi,
Achaeans and Dorians. And these have been called
Three-fold People.
"So Urania bare Linus, a very lovely son: and him
all men who are singers and harpers do bewail at
feasts and dances, and as they begin and as they end
they call on Linus '" '" '" who was skilled in all
manner of wisdom."
"Unless Phoebus Apollo should save him from
death, or Paean himself who knows the remedies for
all things."
Clement 0/ Alexandria, Protrept, c. vii. p. 21.
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Anecd. Oxon (Cramer), i. p. 148.
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Clement 0/ Alexandria, Strom. i. p. 123.
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Strabo, x. p. 471.
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Schol. on Apoll. Rhod. Arg. i. 824.
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Suidas, 8.V.
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Schol. on Homer, Iliad, xiii. 155.
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Etymologicum Magnum.
" ,\" ,
OU/CETt 0'1) awovO't 7t'OrItV.
Schol. on Homer, Iliad, xxiv. 624.
'" , ,
W71'TYJO'aJl f'€JI 7t'pWTa, 0 epvO'avTo.
"For he alone is king and lord of all the undying
gods, and no other vies with him in power."
" (To cause ?) the gifts of the blessed gods to come
near to earth."
"Of the Muses who make a man very wise,
marvellous in utterance."
"But of them (se. the daughters of Hecaterus)
were born the divine mountain Nymphs and the
tribe of worthless, helpless Satyrs, and the divine
Curetes, sportive dancers."
" Beseeching the offspring of glorious Cleodaeus."
"For the OlympIan gave might to the sons of
Aeacus, and wisdom to the sons of Amythaon, and
wealth to the sons of Atreus."
" For through this lack of wood the timber of the
ships rotted."
" No longer do they walk with delicate feet."
" First of all they roasted (pieces of meat), and
drew them carefully off the spits."
Chry8ippu8, Fragg. ii. 21H. 11.
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Strabo, vii. p. 327.
fl.OJ/lWv'I]v c/)'YI'Yuv Te, l1eAaU"IcdV lilpavov, ?iev.
Anecd. OXIm (Cramer), iii. p. 318. not.
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Schol. on Apoll. Rhod. Arg. i. 757.
Il' tv 71'A1}UJLTlU' 'TroTaJLoFo.
StephanuB 0/ Byzantium,
'J I r fa' 8' •
,.." aKaAa 71'popeOJv afJP'l] 'Trap etuw.
Schol. on Theocritu8, xi. 75.
, .,. \ " Il '
uTo'JLa ",''TredV aveTotJLa 'edKEt.
H arpocration.
gp"la veedv, flouAal JLeUedV, euxal Ill; "IEPOVTfJJV.
Porphyr, On Abstinence, ii. 18. p. 134.
" ,'\. t 'J-". ' Il" ... "
Schol. 1m Nicander, Theriaca, 452.
'Il' , '.,.'
XP'I] E ue 'TraTp' •.. ""n",ov EJLJLEVat.
" For his spirit increased in his dear breast."
" With such heart· grieving anger in her breast."
"He went to Dodona and the oak-grove, the
dwelling place of the Pelasgi."
" With the pitiless smoke of black pitch and of
" But he himself in the swelling tide of the rain-
swollen river."
(The river) Parthenius
" Flowing as softly as a dainty maiden goes."
"Foolish the man who leaves what he has, and
follows after what he has not,"
"The deeds of the young, the counsels of the
middle-aged, and the prayers of the aged."
" Howsoever the city does sacrifice, the ancient
custom is best."
" But you should be gentle towards your father."

Plato, Epist. xi. 358.
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Galen, de plac. Hipp. et Plat. i. 266. 'i.
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Behol. on Homer, Od. vii. 104.
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Bellol. on Pindar, Hem. ii. 1.
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Serviu8 on Vergil, Aen. iv. 484. Hesiodus hae
Hesperidas .•• N octis filias ultra Oceanum mala
aurea habuisse dicit.
AZ'YA.'YJ T' 1)13' 'EpVBEta Kat 'E<r7T€p€Bov<ra (:30W7TI').1
1 Ci. Scholion on Clement, Protrept. i. p. 302.
"And if I said this, it would seem a poor thing
.nd hard to understand."
Thus spake the Boeotian, even Hesiod,! servant
of the sweet Muses: "whomsoever the immortals
honour, the good report of mortals also followeth
" AND then it was Zeus took away sense from the
heart of Athamas."
"They grind the yellow grain at the mill."
et Then first in Delos did I and Homer, singers
both, raise our strain-stitching song in new hymns-
Phoebus Apollo with the golden sword, whom Leto
et But starvation on a handful is a cruel thing."
Hesiod says that these Hesperides ... ,daughters
of Night, guarded the golden apples beyond Ocean.
" Aegle and Erythea and ox-eyed Hesperethusa."
1 cpo He.. Theog. 81 If. But Theog:ois 169, "Whomso
tha gons honour, even a. man inolined to blame praiaeth him"
is much nearer. '
Plato, Republic, iii. 390 E.
ooopa r.-el8ft, ooop'
of Alexandria, Strom. v. p. 256.
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Apollonius, Lex. 110m.
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1 This line may once have been read in the text of Works
<lnd Day, after 1. 771.
"Gifts move the gods, gifts move worshipful
. "
"On the seventh day again the bright light of the
sun ....
"He brought pure water and mixed it with
Ocean's streams."
"Aspledon and Clymenus and god-like Amphi-
docus" (sons of Orchomenus).
"Telamon never sated with battle first brought
light to our comrades by slaying blameless Melanippe,
destroyer of men, own sister of the golden-girdled
• • • •
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1 n. 1-9 are preserved by Diodoru8 Sieulus iii. 66. 3;
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* * * *
FOR some say, at Dracanum; and some, on windy
Icarus; and some, in Naxos, 0 Heaven-born,.
Insewn 1; and others by the deep-eddying river
Alpheus that pregnant Semele bare you to Zeus the
thunder-lover. And others yet, lord, say you were
born in Thebes; but all these lie. The Father of
men and gods gave you birth remote from men and
secretly from white-anned Hera. There is a certain
Nysa, a mountain most high and richly grown with
woods, far off in Phoenice, near the streams of
* * .. *
" and men will lay up for her 2 many offerings in her
shrines. And as these th ings are three,S so shall
mortals ever sacrifice perfect hecatombs to you at
your feasts each three years."
The Son of Cronos spoke and nodded with his
dark brows. And the divine locks of the king flowed
forward from his immortal head, and he made great
1 Dionysus, after hi. untimely birth from Semele, was
sewn into the thigh of Zeus.
, BO. Semele. Zeus i. her. speaking.
• The reference i. apparently to something in the body of
the hymn, now lost.
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1 Allen: ir,J\aO&!'f •• " M.
I Tyrrell: k .. M.
Olympus reel. So spake wise Zeus and ordained it
with a nod.
Be favourable, 0 Insewn, Inspirer of frenzied
women! we singers sing of you as we begin and as
we end a strain, and none forgetting you may call
holy song to mind. And so, farewell, Dionysus,
Insewn, with your mother Semele whom men calJ
I BEGIN to sing of rich-haired Demeter, awful god-
dess-of her and her trim-ankled daughter whom
Ardoneus rapt away, given to him by all-seeing Zeus
the loud-thunderer.
Apart from Demeter, lady of the golden sword
and glorious fruits, she was playing with the deep-
bosomcd daughters of Oceanus and gathering flowers
over a soft meadow, roses and crocuses and beautiful
violets, irises also and hyacinths and the narcissus,
which Earth made to grow at the will of Zeus and to
please the Host of Many, to be a snare for the bloom-
like girl-a marvellous, radiant flower. It was a
thing of awe whether for deathless gods or mortal
men to see: from its root grew a hundred blooms
and it smelled most sweetly, so that all wide heaven
above and the whole earth and the sea's salt swell
laughed for joy. And the girl was amazed and
reached out with both hands to take the lovely toy;
but the wide-pathed earth yll.wned there in the plain
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llat,E'TO xepO"i .piA-vO"',
of Nysa, and the lord, Host of Many, with his im-
mortal horses sprang out upon her-the Son of
Cronos, He who has many names.!
He caught her up reluctant on his golden car and
bare her away lamenting. Then she cried out shrilly
with her voice, calling upon her father, the Son of
Cronos, who is most high and excellent. But no one
either of the deathless gods or of mortal men heard
her voice, nor yet the olive-trees bearing rich fruit:
only tender-hearted Hecate, bright-coitfed, the
daughter of Persaeus, heard the girl from her cave,
and the lord Helios, Hyperion's bright son as she
cried to her father, the Son of Cronos. But he was
sitting aloof, apart from the gods, in his temple
where many pray, and receiving sweet offerings from
mortal men. So he, that Son of Cronos, of many
names, who is Ruler of Many and Host of Many
was bearing her away by leave of Zeus on
immortal chariot-his own brother's child and all
And so long as she, the goddess, yet beheld earth
and starry heaven and the strong-flowing sea where
fishes shoal, and the rays of the sun, and still hoped
to see her dear mother and the tribes of the eternal
gods, so long hope calmed her great heart for all her
trouble. . . . and the heights of the mountains and
the depths of the sea rang with her immortal voice:
and her queenly mother heard her. .
Bitter pain seized her heart, and she rent the
covering upon her divine hair with her dear hands:
1 The Greeks feared to name Pluto directly and mentioned
him by one of many descriptive titles, such ..... Host of
Many": compare the Christian use of • a"f./3.JI.., or our
" Evil One.»
her dark cloak she cast down from both her shoulders
and sped, like a wild-bird, over the firm land and
yielding sea, seeking her child. But no one would
tell her the truth, neither god nor mortal man; and
of the birds of omen none came with true news for
her. Then for nine days queenly Deo wandered over
the earth with flaming torches in her hands, so grieved
that she never tasted ambrosia and the sweet
draught of nectar, nor sprinkled her body with
water. But when the tenth enlightening dawn had
come, Hecate, with a torch in her hands, met her,
and spoke to her and told her news:
"Queenly Demeter, bringer of seasons and giver
of good gifts, what god of heaven or what mortal
man has rapt away Persephone and pierced with
sorrow your dear heart? For I heard her voice, yet
saw not with my eyes who it was. But I tell you
truly and shortly all I k n o w . ~ ·
So, then, said Hecate. And the daughter of rich·
haired Rhea answered her not, but sped swiftly with
her, holding flaming torches in her hands. So they
came to Helios, who is watchman of both gods and
men, and stood in front of his horses: and the bright
goddess enquired of him: "Helios, do you at least
regard me, goddess as I am, if ever by word or deed of
mine I have cheered your heart and spirit. Through
the fruitless air I heard the thrilling cry of my
daughter whom I bare, sweet scion of my body and
lovely in form, as of one seized violently; though
with my eyes I saw nothing. But you-for with
your beams you look down from the bright upper air
Over all the earth and sea-tell me truly of my dear
child, if you have seen her anywhere, what god or
mortal man has violently seized her against her will
and mine, and so made off."
So said she. And the Son of Hyperion answered
her.: "Queen Demeter, daughter of rich-haired Rhea,
I will tell you the truth; for I greatly reverence and
pity you in your grief for your trim-ankled daughter.
None other of the deathless gods is to blame, but
only cloud-gathering Zeus who gave her to Hades,
her father's brother, to be called his buxom wife.
And Hades seized her and took her loudly crying in
his chariot down to his realm of mist and gloom.
Yet, goddess, cease your loud lament and keep not
vain anger unrelentingly: Aidoneus, the Ruler of
Many, is no unfitting husband among the deathless
gods for your child, being your own brother and born
of the same stock: also, for honour, he has that third
share which he received when division was made at
the first, and is appointed lord of those among whom
he dwells."
So he spake, and called to his horses: and at his
chiding they quickly whirled the swift chariot along,
like long-winged birds.
But grief yet more terrible and savage came into
the heart of Demeter, and thereafter she was so an-
gered with the dark-clouded Son of Cronos that she
avoided the gathering of the gods and high Olympus,
and went to the towns and rich fields of men, dis-
figuring her form a long while. And no one of men
or deep-bosomed women knew her when they saw
her, until she came to the house of wise Celeus who
then was lord of fragrant Eleusis. Vexed in her dear
heart, she sat near the wayside by the Maiden Well,
from which the women of the place were used to
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n.-TO DEMETER, 100-
water, in a shady place over which grew an
ohve shrub. And she was like an ancient woman
who is cut off from childbearing and the gifts of
garland-loving Aphrodite, like the nurses of king's
children who deal justice, or like the house-keepers
in their echoing halls. There the daughters of
son of Eleusis, saw her, as they were coming
for easy-drawn water, to carry it in pitchers of bronze
to their dear father's house: four were they and like
goddesses in the flower of their girlhood, CaIlidice
and Cleisidice and lovely Demo and CalIithoe who
was the eldest of them all. Thev knew her not
. ,
-for the gods are not easily discerned by mortals-,
but standing near by her spoke winged words :
"Old mother, whence and who are you of folk
born long ago? Why are you gone away from the
city and do not draw near the houses? For there
in the shady halls are women of just such age as
you, and others loungeI'; and they would welcome
you both by wor and by deed."
Thus they said. And she, that queen among
goddesses answered them saying: "Hail, dear chil-
dren, whosoever you are of woman-kind. I will tell
you my story; for it is not unseemly that I should
tell you truly what you ask. Doso is my name, for
my stately mother gave it me. And now I am come
from Crete over the sea's wide back,-. -not willingly;
but pirates brought me thence by force of strength
against my liking. Afterwards they put in with
their swift craft to Thoricus, and there the women
landed on the shore in full throng aud the men
likewise, and. they began to make ready a meal
by the stern-cables of the ship But my heart
craved not pleasant food, and I fled secretly across
n.-TO DEMETER" 130-
the dark country and escaped my masters, that
they should not take me unpurchased across the
sea, there to win a price for me. And so I wandered
and am come here: and I know not at all what land
this is or what people are in it. But may all those
who dwell on Olympus give you husbands and birth
of children as parents desire, so you take pity on me,
maidens, and show me this clearly that I may learn,
dear children, to the house of what man and woman
I may go, to work for them cheerfully at such tasks
as belong to a woman of my age. Well could I nurse
a new born child, holding him in my arms, or keep
house, or spread my masters' bed in a recess of
the well-built chamber, or teach the women their
So said the goddess. And straightway the unwed
maiden Callidice, goodliest in form of the daughters
of eeleus, answered her and said:
" Mother, what the gods send us, we mortals bear
perforce, although we suffer; for they are much
stronger than we. But now I will teach you
clearly, telling you the names of men who have
great power and honour here and are chief among
the people, guarding our city's coif of towers by
their wisdom and true judgements: there is wise
Triptolemus and Dioclus and Polyxeinus and blame-
less Eumolpus and Dolichus and our own brave
father. All these have wives who manage in
the house, and no one of them, so soon as she
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n.-TO DEMETER, 158-185
had seen you, would dishonour you and turn you
from the house, but they will welcome you; for
indeed you are godlike. But if you will, stay here;
and we will go to our father's house and tell Metan-
eira, our deep-bosomed mother, all this matter fuliy,
that she may bid you rather come to our home than
search after the houses of others. She has an only
son, late-born, who is being nursed in our well-built
house, a child of many prayers and welcome: if you
could bring him up until he reached the full measure
of youth, anyone of womankind who should see you
would straightway envy you, such gifts would our
mother give for his upbringing."
So she spake: and the goddess bowed her head in
assent. And they filled their shining vessels with
water and carried them off rejoicing. Quickly they
came to their father's great house and straightway
told their mother according as they had heard and
seen. Then she bade them go with all speed and
invite the stranger to come for a measureless hire.
As hinds or heifers in spring time, when sated with
pasture, bound about a meadow, so they, holding up
the folds of their lovely garments, darted down the
hollow path, and their hair like a crocus /lower
streamed about their shoulders. And they found
the good goddess near the wayside where they had
left her before, and led her to the house of theiI
dear father. And she walked behind, distressed hi
her dear heart, with her head veiled and wearing a
dark cloak which waved about the slender feet of the
Soon they came to the house of heaven-nurtured
Celeus and went through the portico to wllere their
queenly mother sat by a pillar of the close-fitted
roof, holding her son, a tender scion, in her bosom.
And the girls ran to her. But the goddess walked
to the threshold: and her head reached the roof and
she filled the doorway with a heavenly radiance.
Then awe and reverence and pale fear took hold of
Metaneira, and she rose up from her couch before
Demeter, and bade her be seated. But Demeter,
bringer of seasons and giver of perfect gifts,
would not sit upon the bright couch, but stayed
silent with lovely eyes cast down until careful Iambe
placed a jointed seat for her and threw over it a
silvery fleece. Then she sat down and held her veil in
her hands before her face. A long time she sat
upon the stool
without speaking because of her
sorrow, and greeted no one by word or by sign, but
rested, never smiling, and tasting neither food nor
drink, bec'luse she pined with longing for her deep-
bosomed daughter, until careful lambe-who pleased
her moods in aftertime also-moved the holy lady
with many a quip and jest to smile and laugh and
cheer her heart. Then Metaneira filled a cnp with
sweet wine and offered it to her; but she refused it,
for she said it was not lawful for her to drink red
wine, but bade them mix meal and water with soft
mint and give her to drink. And Metaneira mixed
the draught and gave it to the goddess as she bade.
So the great queen Deo received it to observe the
sacrament 2 * * * *
1 Demeter chooses the lowlier seat, supposedly a. being
more suitable to her assumed condition, but really because
in her sorrow she refuses all comforts.
• An act of communion-the drinking of the potion ( K . K ' ~ P )
here described-was one of the most important pieces of
ritual in the Elensinia.n mysteries, as commemorating the
BOrroWB of the godde&B.
And of them all, well-girded Metaneira first
began to speak: "Hail, lady! For I think you are
not meanly but nobly born; truly dignity and grace
arc conspicuous upon your eyes as in the eyes of
kings that deal justice. Yet we mortals bear per-
force what the gods send us, though we be grieved;
for a yoke is set upon our necks. But now, since
you are come here, you shall have what I can be-
stow: and nurse me this child whom the gods gave
me in myoId age and beyond my hope, a son much
prayed for. If you should bring him up until he
reach the full measure of youth, anyone of woman-
kind that sees you will straightway envy you, so
great reward would I give for his upbringing."
Then rich-haired Demeter answered her: "And
to you, also, lady, all hail, and may the gods give you
good! Gladly will I take the boy to my breast, as
you bid me, and will nurse him. Never, I ween,
through any heedlessness of his nurse shall witchcraft
hurt him nor yet the Undercutter: 1 for I know a
charm far stronger than the Woodcutter, and I know
an excellent safeguard against woeful witchcraft."
When she had so spoken, she took the child in
her fragrant bosom with her divine hands: and his
mother was glad in her heart. So the goddess
nursed in the palace Demophoiin, wise Celeus'
goodly son whom well-girded Metaneira bare. And
the child grew like some immortal being, not fed
with food nor nourished at the breast: for by day
rich-crowned Demeter would anoint him with
1 Undercutter and vVoodcutter are probably popular names
(after the style of Hesiod' ... Boneless One ") for the worm
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ambrosia as if he were the offspring of a god and
breathe sweetly upon him as she held him in her
bosom. But at night she would hide him like a
brand in the heart of the fire, unknown to his dear
parents. And it wrought great wonder in these that
he grew beyond his age; for he was like the gods face
to face. And she would have made him deathless
and unageing, had not well-girded Metaneira in her
heedl,essness kept watch by night from her sweet-
smellmg chamber and spied. But she wailed
and smote her two hips, because she feared for her
son and was greatly distraught in her heart; so she
lamented and uttered winged words:
" Demophoon, my son, the strange woman buries
you deep in fire and works grief and bitter sorrow
for me. "
Thus she spoke, mourning. And the bright
goddess, lovely-crowned Demeter, heard her and
was wroth with her. So with her divine hands she
snatched from the fire the dear son whom Metaneira
had born unhoped-for in the palace, and cast him
:rom her to the for she was terribly angry
m her heart. ForthWIth she said to well-girded
"Witless are you mortals and dull to foresee your
lot, whether of good or evil, that comes upon you.
For now in yo?-r heedlessness you have wrought
folly past healmg; for-be witness the oath of
the gods, the relentless water of Styx-I would
have. made your dear son deathless and unaging
all his days and would have bestowed on him ever-
lasting honour, but now he can in no way escape
death and the fates. Yet shall unfailing honour
n.-TO DEMETER, 264-291
always rest upon him, because he lay upon my knees
and slept in my arms. But, as the years move round
and when he is in his prime, the sons of the Eleusi-
nians shall ever wage war and dread strife with one
another continually. Lo! I am that Demeter wh"
has share of honour and is the greatest help and
cause of joy to the undying gods and mortal men.
But now, let all the people build me a great temple
and an altar below it and beneath the city and its
sheer wall upon a rising hillock above Callichorus.
And I myself will teach my rites, that hereafter you
may reverently perform them and so win the favour
of my heart."
When she had so said, the goddess changed her
stature and her looks, thrusting old age away from
her: beauty spread round about her and a lovely
fragrance was wafted from her sweet-smelling robes,
and from the divine body of the goddess a light
shone afar, while golden tresses spread down over her
shoulders, so that the strong house was filled with
brightness as with Jightning. And so she went out
from the palace.
And straightway Metaneira's knees were loosed
and she remained speechless for a long while and
did not remember to take up her late-born son from
the ground. But his sisters heard his pitifu I wailing
and sprang down from their well-spread beds: one of
them took up the child in her arms and laid him in
her bosom, while another revived the fire, and a third
rushed with soft feet to bring their mother from her
fragrant chamber. And they gathered about the
struggling child and washed him, embracing him lov-
ingly; but he was not comforted, because nurses and
handmaids much less skilful were holding him now.
H.-TO DEMETER, 292-320
All night long they sought to appease the glorious
goddess, quaking with fear. But, as soon as dawn
began to show, they told powerful Celeus all things
without fail, as the lovely-crowned goddess Demeter
charged them. So Celeus called the countless
people to an assembly and bade them make a goodly
temple for rich-haired Demeter and an altar upon
the rising hillock. And they obeyed him right
speedily and harkened to his voice, doing as he
commanded. As for the child, he grew like an
immortal being.
Now when they had finished building and had
drawn back from their toil, they went every man to
his house. But golden-haired Demeter sat there
apart from all the blessed gods and stayed, wasting
with yearning for her deep- bosomed daughter.
Then she caused a most dreadful and cruel year for
mankind over the all-nourishing earth: the ground
would not make the seed sprout, for rich-crowned
Demeter kept it hid. In the fields the oxen dre"
many a curved plough in vain, and much white barley
was cast upon the land without avail. So she
would have destroyed the whole race of man with
cruel famine and have robbed them who dwell on
Olympus of their glorious right of gifts and sacrifices,
had not Zeus perceived and marked this in his
heart. First he sent golden-winged Iris to call rich-
haired Demeter, lovely in form. So he commanded.
And she obeyed the dark-clouded Son of Cronos,
and sped with swift feet across the space between.
She came to the stronghold of fragrant Eleusis, and
there finding dark-cloaked Demeter in her temple,
spake to her and uttered winged words:
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1 Ilgen: J,,' M. 2 Voss: .so.AV, M.
" Demeter, father Zeus, whose wisdom is everlast-
ing, calls you to come join the tribes of the eternal
gods: come therefore, and let not the message I
bring from Zeus pass unobeyed."
Thus said Iris imploring her. But Demeter's
heart was not moved. Then again the father sent
forth all the blesBed and eternal gods besides: and
they came, one after the other, and kept calling her
and offering many very beautiful gifts and whatever
rights she might be pleased to choose among the
deathless gods. Yet no one was able to persuade
her mind and will, so wrath was she in her heart;
but she stubbornly rejected all their words: for she
vowed that she would never set foot on fragrant
Olympus nor let fruit spring out of the gl"Ound,
until she beheld with her eyes her own fair-faced
Now when all-seeing Zeus the loud-thunderer
heard this, he sent the Slayer of Argus whose wand
is of gold to Erebus, so that having won over
Hades with soft words, he might lead forth chaste
Persephone to the light from the misty gloom to
join the gods, and t.hat her mother might see her
with her eyes and cease from her anger. And
Hermes obeyed, and leaving the house of Olympus,
straightway sprang down with speed to the hidden
places of the earth. And he found the lord Hades
in his house seated upon a couch, and his shy mate
with him, much reluctant, because she yearned for
her mother. But she was afar off, brooding on her
fell design because of the deeds of the bJessefl
gods. And the strong Slayer of Argus drew near
and said:
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n.-TO DEMETER, 347-376
"Dark-haired Hades, ruler over the departed
father Zeus bids me bring noble Persephone fortI;
from Erebus unto the gods, that her mother may
see her with her eyes and cease from her dread
anger with the immortals; for now she plans an
awful deed, to destroy the weakly tribes of earth-
born men by keeping seed hidden beneath the earth
and so she makes an end of the honours of
undying gods. For she keeps fearful anger and does
not consort with the gods, but sits aloof in her
fragrant temple, dwelling in the rocky hold of
So he said. Aud Ardoneus, ruler over the dead
smiled ;md obeyed behest of Zeus the king:
he straIghtway urged WIse Persephone, saying:
Go now, Persephone, to your ,dark-robed
mother, go, and feel kindly in your heart towards
me; be not. so exceedingly cast down; for I shall
be no unfittmg husband for you among the deathless
gods, that am own brother to father Zeus. And
while you are here, you shall rule all that lives
and moves and shall have the greatest rights among
the deathless gods: those who defraud you and
do not your power with offerings, reverently
performmg rites and paying fit gifts, shall be punished
for evermore."
\Vhen he said this, wise Persephone was filled
with joy and hastily sprang up for gladness. But he
on his part secretly gave her sweet pomegranate
seed to eat, taking care for himself that she might
not remain continually with grave, dark-robed
Demeter. Then Ardoneus the Ruler of Many
openly got ready his deathless horses beneath the
golden chariot And she mounted on the chariot,
n.-TO DEMETER, 377-404
and the strong Slayer of Argus took reins and whip
in his dear hands and drove forth from the hall, the
horses speeding readily. Swiftly they traversed their
long course, and neither the sea nor river-waters nor
grassy glens nor mountain-peaks checked the career
of the immortal horses, but they clave the deep air
above them as they went. And Hermes brought
them to the place where rich-crowned Demeter was
staying and checked them before her fragrant temple.
And when Demeter saw them, she rushed forth
as does a Maenad down some thick-wooded mountain,
while Persephone on the other side, when she saw her
mother's sweet eyes, left the chariot and horses, and
leaped down to run to her, and falling upon her
neck, embraced her. But while Demeter was still
holding her dear child in her arms, her heart
suddenly misgave her for some snare, so that she
feared greatly and ceased fondling her daughter
and asked of her at once: "My child, tell me, surely
you have not tasted any food while you were below?
Speak out and llide nothing, but let us both know.
For if you have not, you shall come back from
loathly Hades and live with me and your father, the
dark-clouded Son of Cronos and be honoured by
all the deathless gods; but if you have tasted food,
you must go back again beneath the secret places of
the earth, there to dwell a third part of the seasons
every year: yet for the two parts you shall be with
me and the other deathless gods. But when the earth
shall bloom with the fragrant flowers of spring in
every kind, then from the realm of darkness and
gloom thou shalt come up once more to be a wonder
for gods and mortal men. And now tell me how he
rapt you away to the realm of darkness and gloom,
and by what trick did the strong Host of Many
beguile you?"
,I, , .,..,.' " ·0' 405
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'.' • e "', , , , 425
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fl.-TO DEMETER, 405-433
Then beautiful Persephone answered her thus:
" Mother, I will tell you all without error. When
luck-bringing Hermes came, swift messenger from
my father the Son of Cronos and the other Sons of
Heaven, bidding me come back from Erebus that
you might see me with your eyes and so cease from
your anger and fearful wrath against the gods, I
sprang up at once for joy; but he secretly put in my
mouth sweet food, a pomegranate seed, and forced
me to taste against my will. Also I will tell how he
rapt me away by the deep plan of my father the
Son of Cronos and carried me off beneath the depths
of the earth, and will relate the whole matter as
you ask. All we were playing in a lovely meadow,
Leucippe 1 and Phaeno and Electra and Ianthe,
Melita also and Iache with Rhodea and Callirhoe
and Melobosis and Tyche and Ocyrhoe, fair as a
flower, ChryseIS, laneira, Acaste and Admete and
Rhodope and Pluto and charming Calypso; Styx
too was there and Urania and lovely Galaxaura with
Pallas who rouses battles and Artemis delighting in
arrows: we were playing and gathering sweet flowers
in our hands, soft crocuses mingled with irises and
hyacinths, and rose-blooms and lilies, marvellous to
see, and the narcissus which the wide earth caused
to grow yellow as a crocus. That I plucked in my
joy; but the earth parted beneath, and there the
strong lord, the Host of Many, sprang forth and in
his golden chariot he bore me away, all unwilling,
beneath the earth: then I cried with a shrill cry.
All this is true, sore though it grieves me to tell
the tale."
1 The list of names is taken-with five additions-from
Hesiod, Theogony 349 11: : for their general significance see
DQte on th .. t p&as&ge.
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II.-TO DEMETER, 434-461
So did they then, with hearts at one, greatly cheer
each the other's soul and spirit with many an
embrace: their hearts had relief from their griefs
while each took and gave back joyousness.
Then bright-coitfed Hecate came near to them,
and often did she embrace the daughter of holy
Demeter: and from that time the lady Hecate was
minister and companion to Persephone.
And all-seeing Zeus sent a messenger to them,
rich-haired Rhea, to bring dark-cloaked Demeter to
join the families of the gods: and he promised to
give her what rights she should choose among the
deathless gods and agreed that her daughter should
go down for the third part of the circling year to
darkness and gloom, but for the two parts should
live with her mother and the other deathless gods.
Thus he commanded. And the goddess did not dis-
obey the message of Zeus; swiftly she rushed down
from the peaks of Olympus and came to the plain of
Rharus, rich, fertile corn-land once, but then in
nowise fruitful, for it lay idle and utterly leafless,
because the white grain waS hidden by design of
trim-ankled. Demeter. But afterwards, as spring-
time waxed, it was soon to be waving with long ears
of corn,·.and its rich furrows to be loaded with grain
upon the ground, while others would already be
bound in sheaves. There first she landed from the
fruitless upper· air: and glad were the goddesses to
see each other and cheered in heart. Then bright-
coitfed Rhea said to Demeter:
" Corne, my daughter; for far-seeing Zeus the lou:d-
thunderer calls you to join the families of the gods,
and has promised to give you what rights you please
1 The restoration. of this and the following linea are thoaa
printed in the Oxford (11111) text.
H.-TO DEMETER, 462- .. 89
among the deathless gods, and has agreed that for a
third part of the circling year your daughter shall go
down to darkness and gloom, but for the two parts
shall be with you and the other deathless gods: so
has he declared it shall be and has bowed his head
in token. But come, my child, obey, and be not too
angry unrelentingly with the dark-clouded Son of
Cronos; but rather increase forthwith for men the
fruit that gives them life."
So spake Rhea. And rich-crowned Demeter did
not refuse straightway made fruit to spring up
from the rICh lands, so that the whole wide earth
was laden with leaves and flowers. Then she went
to the kings who deal justice, Triptolemus and
DlOcles, the horse-driver, and to doughty Eumol pus
and Celeus, leader of the people, she showed the con-
of her rites and tau$'ht them all her mysteries, to
Trlptolemus and Polyxemus and Diocles also -awful
mysteries which no one may in any way or
pry into or utter, for deep awe of the gods checks
the voice. Happy is he among men upon earth who
has seen these mysteries; but he who is uninitiate
and who has no part in them, never has lot of like
good things once he is dead, down in the darkness
and gloom.
But when the bright goddess had taught them all,
they went to Olympus to the gathering of the other
gods. And there they - dwell beside Zeus who
delights in thunder, awful and reverend goddesses.
Right blessed is he among mcn on earth whom they
love: soon they do send Plutus as guest to
hIS great house, Flutus who gives wealth to mortal
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And now, queen of the land of sweet Eleusis and
sea-girt Paras and rocky Antron, lady, giver of good
gifts, bringer of seasons, queen Deo, be gracions, you
and your daughter all beauteous Persephone, and
for my song grant me heart-cheering substance.
And now I will remember you and another song
I WILL remember and not be unmindful of Apollo
who shoots afar. As he goes through the house of
Zeus, the gods tremble before him and all spring up
from their seats when he draws near, as he bends his
bright bow. But Leta alone stays by the side of Zeus
who delights in thunder; and then she unstrings his
bow, and closes his quiver, and takes his archery from
his strong shoulders in her hands and hangs them on
a golden peg against a pillar of his father's house.
Then she leads him to a seat and makes him sit: and
the Father gives him nectar in a golden cup wel-
coming his dear son, while the other gods make
him sit down there, and qneenly Leta rejoices
because she bare a mighty son and an archer.
Rejoice, blessed Leta, for you bare glorious chil-
dren, the lord Apollo and Artemis who delights
in arrows; her in Ortygia, and him in rocky
Delos, as you rested against the great mass of the
Cynthian hill hard by a palm-tree by the streams
of Inopus.
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How, then, shall I sing of you who in all ways are
a worthy theme of song? For everywhere, 0 Phoebus,
the whole range of song is fallen to you, both over
the mainland that rears heifers and over the isles.
All mountain-peaks and high headlands of lofty hills
and rivers /lowing out to the deep and beaches
sloping sea wards and havens of the sea· are your
delight. Shall I sing how at the first Leto bare you
to be the joy of men, as she rested against Mount
Cynthus in that rocky isle, in sea-girt Delos-while
on either hand a dark wave rolled on land wards
driven by shrill winds-whence arising you rule over
all mortal men?
Among those who are in Crete, and in the township
of Athens, and in the isle of Aegina and Euboea,
famous for ships, in Aegae and Eiresiae and Pepare-
thus near the sea, in Thracian Athos and Pelion's
towering heights and Thracian Samos and the shady
hills of Ida, in Scyros and Phocaea and the high hill
of Autocane and fair-lying Imbros and smouldering
Lemnos and rich Lesbos, home of MacaI', the son of
Aeolus, and Chios, brightest of all the isles that lie
in the sea, and craggy Mimas and the heights of
Corycus and gleaming Claros and the sheer hill of
Aesagea and watered Samos and the steep heights of
Mycale, in Miletus and Cos, the· city of Meropian
men, and steep Cnidos and windy Carpathos, in Naxos
and Paros and rocky Rhenaea-so far roamed Leto
in travail with the god who shoots afar, to see if any
land would be willing to make a dwelling for her
son. But they greatly trembled and feared, and
none, not even the richest of them, dared receive
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Phoebus, until queenly Leto set foot on Delos and
uttered winged words And asked her:
" Delos, if you would be willing to be the abode
of my son Phoebus Apollo and make him a rich
temple-; for no other will touch you, as you will
find: and I think you will never be rich in oxen and
sheep, nor bear vintage nor yet produce plants
abundantly. But if you have the temple of far-
shooting Apollo, all men will bring you hecatombs
and gather here, and incessant savour of rich sacrifice
will always arise, and you will feed those who dwell
in you from the hand of strangers; for truly your
own soil is not rich."
So spake Leto. And Delos rejoiced and answered
and said: "Leto, most glorious daughter of great
Coeu;;, joyfully would I receive your child the far-
shooting lord; for it is all too true that I am ill-
spoken of among men, whereas thus I should become
very greatly honoured. But this saying I fear, and
I will not hide it from you, Leto. They say that
Apollo will be one that is very haughty and will
greatly lord it among gods and men all over the
fruitful earth. Therefore, I greatly fear in heart
and spirit that as soon as he sees the light of the
sun, he will scorn this island- for truly I have but a
hard, rocky soil-and overturn me and thrust me
down with his feet in the depths of the sea; then
will the great ocean wash deep above my head for
ever, and he will go to another Jand such as will
please him, there to make his temple and wooded
groves. So, many-footed creatures of the sea will
make their lairs in me and hlack seals their dwel.
lings undisturbed, because I lack people. Yet if
you will but dare to sware a great oath, goddess, that
here first he will build a glorious temple to be an
oracle for men, then let him afterwards make tem-
ples and wooded groves amongst all men; for surely
he will be greatly renowned.
So said Delos. And Leto sware the great oath of
the gods: "Now hear this, Earth and wide Heaven
above, and dropping water of Styx (this is the
strongest and most awful oath for the blessed gods),
surely Phoebus shall have here his fragrant altar
and precinct, and you he shall honour above all."
Now when Leto had sworn and ended her oath,
Delos was very glad at the birth of the far-shooting
lord. But Leto was racked nine days and nine
nights with pangs beyond wont. And there were
with her all the chiefest of the goddesses, Dione
and Rhea and Ichnaea and Themis and loud-moaning
Amphitrite and the other deathless goddesses save
white-armed Hera, who sat in the halls of cloud·
gathering Zeus. Only Eilithyia, goddess of sore
travail, had not heard of Leto's trouble, for she sat
on the top of Olympus beneath golden clouds by
white-armed Hera's contriving, who kept her close
through envy, because Leto with the lovely tresses
was soon to bear a son faultless and strong.
But the goddesses sent out Iris from the well-set
isle to bring Eilithyia, promising her a great neck·
lace strung with golden threads, nine cubits long.
And they bade Iris call her aside from white-armed
Hera, lest she m i ~ h t afterwards turn her from coming
with her words. When swift Iris, fleet of foot as
the wind, had heard all this, she set to run; and
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quickly finishing all the distance she came to the
home of the gods, sheer Olympus, and forthwith
called Eilithyia out from the hall to the door and
spoke winged words to her, telling her all as the
goddesses who dwell on Olympus had bidden her.
So she moved the heart of Eilithyia in her deal'
breast; and they went their way, like shy wild-doves
in their going.
And as soon as Eilithyia the goddess of sore
travail. set foot on Delos, the pains of birth seized
Leto, and she longed to bring forth; so she cast
her arms about a palm tree and kneeled on the soft
meadow while the earth laughed for joy beneath.
Then the child leaped forth to the light, and all the
goddesses raised a cry. Straightway, great Phoebus,
the goddesses washed you purely and cleanly with
sweet ,water, and swathed you in a white garment of
fine texture, new-woven, and fastened a golden band
about you.
Now Leta did not give Apollo, bearer of the
golden blade, her breast; but Themis duly poured
nectar and ambrosia with her divine hands: and
Leta was glad because she had borne a strong son
and an archer. But as soon as you had tasted that
divine heavenly food, 0 Phoebus, you could no
longer then be held by golden cords nor confined
with bands, but all their ends were undone. Forth-
with Phoebus Apollo spoke out among the deathless
" The lyre and the curved bow shall ever be dear
to me, and I will declare to men the unfailing will
of Zeus."
So said Phoebus, the long-haired god who shoots
afar and began to walk upon the wide-pathed earth;
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1 11. 136-8 are intru8iTe, being alternative for I. 139.
They are found in n and the edition of Stephanu. (in text)
and in the margin of ETL (with the note .. in another copy
the.e verses ,,180 are ext&nt "). In D they are added by "
.econd hand.
and all the goddesses were amazed at him. Then
with gold all Delos [was laden, beholding the child
of Zeus and Leto, for joy because the god chose her
above the islands and shore to make his dwell in 0' in
her: and she loved him yet more in her heart.]
blossomed as does a mountain-top with woodland
And you, 0 lord Apollo, god of the silver bow
shooting afar, now walked on craggy Cynthus, and
now kept wandering about the islands and the
people in them. Many are your temples and wooded
groves, and all peaks and towering bluffs of lofty
mountains and rivers flowing to the sea are dear to
you, Phoebus, yet in Delos do you most delight your
heart; for there the long robed Ionians gather in
your honour with their children and shy wives:
mindful, they delight you with boxing and dancing
and song, so often as they hold their gathering. A
man' would say that they were deathless and un-
ageing if he should then come upon the Ionians so
met together. For he would see the graces of them
all, and would be pleased in heart gazing at the men
and well-girded women with their swift ships and
great wealth. And there is this great wonder
besides-and its renown shall never perish-, the
girls of Delos, hand-maidens of the Far·shooter; for
when they have praised A pallo first, and also Leto
and Artemis who delights in arrows, they sing a
strain telling of men and women of past days, and
charm the tribes of men. Also they can imitate the
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1 ETLrr: <p</tfj"J\.IaI1T/'., other MSS. ,The former word i.
connected >yith fjv./tfj,,/v<w .. to chatter with the teeth, and i.e
uluany taken to mean""; but linea imit ...
tongues of all men and their clattering speech:
each would say that he himself were singing, so
close to truth is their sweet song.
And now may Apollo be favourable and Artemis;
and farewell all you maidens. Remember me in after
time whenever anyone of men on earth, a stranger
who has seen and suffered much, comes here and asks
of you : "Whom thinkye,girls,is the sweetest singer
that comes here, and in whom do you most delight?"
Then answer, each and all, with one voice: "He is
a blind man, and dwells in rocky Chios: his lays are
evermore supreme." As for me, I will carry your
renown as far as I roam over the earth to the well"
placed cities of man, and they will believe also; for
indeed this thing is true. And I wiIl never cease to
praise far-shooting A polIo, god of the silver bow,
whom rich-haired Leto bare.
o LORD, Lycia is yours and lovely Maeonia and
Miletus, charming city by the sea, but over wave"
girt Delos you greatly reign your own self.
Leto's all-glorious son goes to rocky Pytho, playing
upon his hollow lyre, clad in divine, perfumed
garments; and at the touch of the golden key his
lyre sings sweet. Thence, swift as thought, he
speeds from earth to Olympus, to the house of Zeus, to
join the gathering of the other gods: then straightway
tion of castanet playing would hardly be worthy of mention
as .. feat of skill, it 8eems more likely that the stammering or
harsh dental pronunciation of foreigue .. i. to be understood.
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I Allen.Sikes: Tp.& .... , Tp ...... and TP'."&", MSS.
the undying gods think only of the lyre and song,
and all the Muses together, voice sweetly answering
voice, hymn the unending gifts the gods enjoy and
the sufferings of men, all that they endure at the
hands of the deathless gods, and how they live
witless and helpless and cannot find healing for
death or defence against old age. Meanwhile the
rich-tressed Graces and cheerful Seasons dance with
Harmonia and Hebe and Aphrodite, daughter of
Zeus, holding each other by the wrist. And among
them sings one, not mean nor puny, but tall to
look upon and enviable in mien, Artemis who
delights in arrows, sister of Apollo. Among them
sport Ares and the keen-eyed Slayer of Argus, while
Apollo plays his lyre stepping high and featly and a
radiance shines around him, the gleaming of his
feet and close-woven vest. And they, even gold-
tressed Leto and wise Zeus, rejoice in their great
hearts as they watch their dear son playing among
the undying gods.
How then shall I sing of you-thoug-h in all ways
you are a worthy theme for song? Shall I sing of
you as wooer and in the fields of love, how you went
wooing the daughter of Azan along with god-like
Ischys the son of well-horsed Elatins, or with
Phorbas sprung from Triops, or with Ereutheus, or
with Leucippusand the wife of Leucippus . .
you on foot, he with his chariot, yet he fell not
short of Triops. Or shall I sing how at the first
you went about the earth seeking a place of
oracle for men, 0 far-shooting Apollo? To Pieria
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1 M"tthi ... : ·A'Y .. •• r. M.
first you went down from Olympus and passed by
sandy Lectus and Enienae and through the land
of the Perrhaebi. Soon you came to Ioleus and set
foot on Cenaeum in Euboea, famed for ships: you
stood in the Lelantine plain, but it pleased not your
heart to make a temple there and wooded groves.
From there you crossed the Euripus, far-shooting
Apollo, and went up the green, holy hills, going on
to Mycalessus and grassy-bedded Teumessus, and
so came to the wood-clad abode of Thebe; for as
yet no man lived in holy Thebe, nor were there
tracks or ways about Thebe's wheat-bearing plain
as yet.
And further still you went, 0 far-shooting Apollo,
and came to Onchestus, Poseidon's bright grove:
there the new-broken colt distressed with drawing
the trim chariot gets spirit again, and the skilled
driver spI'ings from his car and goes on his way.
Then the horses for a while rattle the empty car,
being rid of guidance; and if they break the chariot
in the woody grove, men look after the horses, but
tilt the chariot and leave it there; for this was the
rite from the very first. And the drivers pray to the
lord of the shrine; but the chariot falls to the lot
of the god.
Further yet you went, 0 far-shooting Apollo, and
reached next Cephissus' sweet stream which pours
forth its sweet-flowing water from Lilaea, and
crossing over it, 0 worker from afar, you passed many-
towered Oealea and reached grassy Haliartus.
Then you went towards Telphusa: and there the
pleasant place seemed fit for making a temple and
wooded grove. You came very near and spoke to
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her: "Telphusa, here I am minded to make a
glorious temple, an oracle for men, and hither they
will always bring perfect hecatombs, both those
who live in rich Peloponnesus and those of Europe
and all the wave-washed isles, coming to seek
oracles. And I will deliver to them all counsel
that cannot fail, giving answer in my rich temple."
So said Phoebus Apollo, and laid out all the
foundations throughout, wide and very long. But
when Telphusa saw this, she was angry in heart and
spoke, saying: "Lord Phoebus, worker from afar, I
will speak a word of counsel to your heart, since you
are minded to make here a glorious temple to be an
oracle for men who will always bring hither perfect
hecatombs for you; yet I will speak out, and do you
lay up my words in your heart. The trampling of
swift horses and the sound of mules watering at my
sacred springs will always irk you, and men will like
better to gaze at the well-made chariots and stamp-
ing, swift-footed horses than at your great temple
and the many treasures that are within. But if you
will be moved by me-for you, lord, are stronger and
mightier than I, and your strength is very great-
build at Crisa below the glades of Parnassus: there
no bright chariot will clash, and there will be no
noise of swift-footed horses . near your well-built
altar. But so the glorious tribes ,of men will bring
gifts to you as Iepaeon C' Hail-Healer'), and you
will receive with delight rich sacrifices from the
people dwelling round about." So said Telphusa,
that she alone, and not the Far-Shooter, should
have renown there; and she persuaded the Far-
Further yet you went, far-shooting Apollo, until
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you came to the town of the presumptuous Phlegyae
who dwell on this earth in a lovely glade near
the Cephisian lake, caring not for Zeus. And
thence you went speeding swiftly to the mountain
ridge, and came to Crisa beneath snowy Parnassus,
a foothill turned towards the west: a cliff hangs
over it from above, and a hollow, rugged glade
runs under. There the lord Phoebus Apollo
resolved to make his lovely temple, and thus he
"In this place I am minded to build a glorious
temple to be an oracle for men, and here they will
always bring perfect hecatombs, both they who
dwell in rich Peloponnesus and the men of Europe
and from all the wave-washed isles, coming to
question me. And I will deliver to them all
counsel that cannot fail, answering them in my rich
When he had said this, Phoebus Apollo laid out
all the foundations throughout, wide and very long;
and upon these the sons of Erginus, Trophonius and
Agamedes, dear to the deathless gods, laid a looting
of stone. And the countless tribes of men built
the whole temple of wrought stones, to be sung of
for ever.
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with his strong bow the lord, the son of Zeus, killed
the bloated, great she-dragon, a fierce monster wont
to do great mischief to men upon earth, to men them-
selves and to their thin-shanked sheep; for she was
a very bloody plague. She it was who once received
from gold-throned Hera and brought up fell, cruel
Typhaon to be a plague to men. Once on a time
Hera bare him because she was angry with father
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, Suggested by Allen·Sikes to fill up the lacuna.
I Matthia. : p', MSS.
t Hermann: 1"7]J\o8eJl ObO'A, MBS.
Zeus, when the Son of Cronos bare all-glorious
Athena in his head. Thereupon queenly Hera was
angry and spoke thus among the assembled gods:
" Hear from me, all gods and goddesses, how cloud-
gathering Zeus begins to dishonour me wantonly,
when he has made me his true-hearted wife. See
now, apart from me he has given birth to bright-eyed
A thena who is foremost among all the blessed gods.
But my son Hephaestus whom I bare was weakly
among all the blessed gods and shrivelled of foot, a
shame and a disgrace to me in heaven, whom I my-
self took in my hands and cast out so that he fell in
the great sea. But silver-shod Thetis the daughter
of Nereus took and cared for him with her sisters:
would that she had done other service to the blessed
gods! 0 wicked one and crafty! What else will
you now devise? How dared you by yourself give
birth to bright-eyed Athena? Would not I have
borne you a child-I, who was at least called your
wife among the undying gods who hold wide heaven.
Beware now lest I devise some evil thing for you
hereafter: yes, now I will contrive that a son be
born me to be foremost among the undying gods-
and that without casting shame on the holy bond of
wedlock between you and me. And I will not come
to your bed, but will consort with the blessed gods
far off from you."
When she had so spoken, she went apart from the
gods, being very angry. Then straightway large-
eyed queenly Hera prayed, striking the ground
fiatwise with her hand, and speaking thus:
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" Hear now, I pray, Earth and wide Heaven above,
and you Titan gods who dwell beneath the earth
about great Tartarus, and from whom are sprung both
gods and men! Harken you now to me, one and
all, and grant that I may bear a child apart from
Zeus, no wit lesser than him in strength-nay, let
him be as much stronger than Zeus as all-seeing Zeus
than Cronos." Thus she cried and lashed the earth
with her strong hand. Then the life-giving earth
was moved: and when Hera saw it she was glad in-
heart, for she thought her prayer would be fulfilled.
And thereafter she never came to the bed of wise
Zeus for a full year, nor to sit in her carved chair as
aforetime to plan wise counsel for him, but stayed in
her temples where many pray, and delighted in her
offerings, large-eyed queenly Hera. But when the
months and days were fulfilled and the seasons duly
came on as the earth moved round. she bare one
neither like the gods nor mortal men, fell, cruel
Typhaon, to be a plague to men. Straightway large-
eyed queenly Hera took him and bringing one evil
thing to another such, gave him to the dragoness;
and she received him. And this Typhaon used to
work great mischief among the famous tribes of
men. Whosoever met the dragoness, the day of
doom would sweep him away, until the lord Apollo,
who deals death from afar, shot a strong arrow at
her. Then she, rent WIth bitter pangs, lay drawing
great gasps for breath and rolling about that place.
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continually this way and that amid the woon: and
so she left her life, breathing it forth in blood. Then
Phoebus Apollo boasted over her:
"Now rot here upon the soil that feeds man I
Y Oli at least shallHve no more to be a fell bane to
men who eat the fruit of the all-nourishing earth,
and who will bring hither perfect hecatombs.
Against cruel death neither Typhoeus shall avail
you nor ill-famed Chimera, but here shall the Earth
and shining Hyperion make you rot."
Thus said Phoebus, exulting over her: and dark-
ness covered her eyes. And the holy strength of
HeHos made her rot away there; wherefore the
place is now called Pytho, and men call the lord
Apollo by another name, Pythian; because on that
spot the power of piercing HeHos made the monster
rot away.
Then Phoebus Apollo saw that the sweet-flowing
spring had beguiled him, and he started out in anger
against Telphusa; and soon coming to her, he stood
close by and spoke to her:
"Telphusa, you were not, after all, to keep to
yourself this lovely place by deceiving my mind, and
pour forth your clear flowing water: here my renown
shall also be and not yours alone r ..
Thus spoke the lord, far-working Apollo, and
pushed over upon her a crag with a shower of rocks,
hiding her streams: and he made himself an altar
in a wooded grove very near the clear-flowing stream.
In that place all men pray to the great one by the
name Telphusian, because he humbled the stream of
holy Telphusa.
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expreBses the natural result of reflectiOn.
• Allen-Sikes'. supplement.
Then Phoebus Apollo pondered in his heart what
men he should bring in to be his ministers in
sacrifice and to serve him in rocky Pytho. And
while he considered this, he of a
swift ship upon the wine-like sea in which were
many men and goodly, Cretans from Cnossos,1 the
city of Minos, they who do sacrifice to the prince
and announce his decrees, whatsoever Phoebus
Apollo, bearer of the golden blade, speaks in
answer from his laurel tree below the dells of Par-
nassus. These men were sailing in their black
ship for traffic and for profit to sandy Pylos and to
the men of Pylos. But Phoebus Apollo met them: in
the open sea he sprang upon their swift ship, like a
dolphin in shape, and lay there, a great and awesome
monster, and none of them gave heed so as to
understand 2; but they sought to cast the dolphin
overboard. But he kept shaking the black ship
every way and making the timbers quiver. So they
sat silent in their craft for fear, and did not loose
the sheets throughout the black, hollow ship, nor
lowered the sail of their dark-prowed vessel, but as
they had set it first of all with oxhide ropes, so they
kept sailing on; for a rushing south wind hurried on
the swift ship from behind. First they passed by
Malea,and then along the Laconian coast they came to
Taenarum, sea-garlanded town and country of Helios
who gladdens men, where the thick-fleeced sheep of
the lord Helios feed continually and occupy a glad-
some country. There they wished to put their ship
, Inscription. show that there was a temple of Apollo
DelphiniuB (cp. 11. 495-6) at Cnossus and a Cretan month
bea.ring the same name.
I.e. that the dolphin was really Apollo.
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to shore, and land and comprehend the great marvel
and see with their eyes whether the monster would
remain upon the deck of the hollow ship, or spring
back into the briny deep where fishes shoal. But
the well-built ship would not obey the helm, but
went on its way all along Peloponnesus: and the lord,
far-working Apollo, guided it easily with the breath of
the breeze. So the ship ran on its course and came to
Arena and lovely Argyphea and Thryon, the ford of
Alpheus, and well-placed Aepy and sandy Pylas and the
men of Pylas; past Cruni it went and Chalcis and past
Dyme and fair Elis, where the Epei rule. And at the
time when she was making for Pherae, exulting in the
breeze from Zeus, there appeared to them below the
clouds the steep mountain of 1 thaca, and Dulichium
and Same and wooded Zacynthus. But when they
were passed by all the coast of Peloponnesus, then,
towards Crisa, that vast gulf began to heave in sight.
which through all its length cuts off' the rich isle
of Pelops. There came on them a strong, clear west-
wind by ordinance of Zeus and blew from heaven
vehemently, that with all speed the ship might finish
coursing over the briny water of the sea. So they
began again to voyage back towards the dawn and
the sun: and the lord Apollo, son of Zeus, led them
on until they reached far-seen Crisa, land of vines,
and into haven: there the sea-coursing ship grounded
on the sands.
Then, like a star at noonday, the lord, far-working
Apollo, leaped from the ship: flashes of fire /lew
from him thick and their brightness reached to
heaven. He entered into his shrine between price-
less tripods, and there made a flame to flare up
bright, showing forth the splendour of his shafts, so
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that their radiance filled all Crisa, and the wives and
well-girded daughters of the Crisaeans raised a cry at
that outburst of Phoebus; for he cast great fear
upon them all. From his shrine he sprang forth
again, swift as a thought, to speed again to the ship,
bearing the form of a man, brisk and sturdy, in the
prime of his youth, while his broad shoulders were
covered with his hair: and he spoke to the Cretans,
uttering winged words:
"Strangers, who are you? Whence come you
sailing along the paths of the sea? Are you for
traffic, or do you wander at random over the sea as
pirates do who put their own lives to hazard and
bring mischief to men of foreign parts as they
roam? Why rest you so and are afraid, and do not
go ashore nor stow the gear of your black ship?
For that is the custom of men who live by bread,
whenever they come to land in their dark ships
from the main, spent with toil: at once desire for
sweet food catches them about the heart."
So speaking, he put courage in their hearts, and
the master of the Cretans answered him and said:
"Stranger-though you are nothing like mortal men
in shape or stature, but are as the deathless gods-
hail and all happiness to you, and may the gods give
you good. Now tell me truly that I may surely know
it: what country is this, and what land, and what
men live herein? As for us, with ·thoughts set other-
wards, we were sailing over the great sea to Pylos
from Crete (for from there we declare that we are
sprung), but now are come on shipboard to this
place by no means willingly-another way and other
paths-and gladly would we return. But one of the
deathless gods brought us here against our will."
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Then far-working Apollo answered them and said:
"Strangers who once dwelt about woaded Cnossos
but now shall return no mare each ta his loved city
and fair house and dear wife; here shall you keep
my rich temple that is honaured by many men.
I am the son of Zeus; Apollo is my name: but
you I brought here over the wide gulf of the sea,
meaning you no hurt; nay, here you shall keep my
rich temple that is greatly honoured among men,
and you shall know the plans of the deathless gods,
and by their will you shall be honoured continually
for all time. And now come, make haste and do
as I say. First loose the sheets and lower the sail,
and then draw the swift ship up upon the land.
Take out your goods and the gear of the straight
ship, and make an altar upon the beach of the sea:
light fire upon it and make an offering of white meal.
Next, stand side by side around the altar and pray:
and in as much as at the first on the hazy sea I
sprang upon the swift ship in the form of a dolphin,
pray to me as Apollo Delphinius; also the altar
itself shall be called Delphinius and overlooking 1
for ever. Afterwards, sup beside your dark ship
and pour an offering to the blessed gods who dwell
on Olympus. Bnt when you have put away craving
for sweet food, come with me singing the hymn
Ie Paean (Hail, Healer I), until you come to the
place where you shall keep my rich temple."
1 Th. epithets are transferred from the god to his altar
.. Overlooking" is especially an epithet of Zeus, al in
Apollonius Rhodius ii. 1124.
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So said Apollo. And they readily harkened to
him and obeyed him. First they unfastened the
sheets and let down the sail and lowered the mast
by the forestays upon the mast-rest. Then, landing
upon the beach of the sea, they hauled up the ship
from the water to dry land and fixed long stays
under it. Also they made an altar upon the beach
of the sea, and when they had lit a fire, made an
offering of white meal, and prayed standing around
the altar as Apollo had bidden them. Then they
took their meal by the swift, black ship, and poured
an offering to the blessed gods who dwell on
Olympus. And when they had put away eraving
for drink and food, they started out with the lord
Apollo, the son of Zeus, to lead them, holding a
lyre in his hands, and playing sweetly as he stepped
high and featly. So the Cretans followed him to
Pytho, marching in time as they chanted the Ie
Paean after the manner of the Cretan paean-singers
and of those in whose hearts the heavenly Muse has
put sweet-voiced song. With tireless feet they
approached the ridge and straightway came to
Parnassus and the lovely place where they were
to dwell honoured by many men. There Apollo
brought them and showed them his most holy
sanctuary and rich temple.
But their spirit was stirred in their dear breasts,
and the master of the Cretans asked him, saying:
" Lord, since you have brought us here far from
our dear ones and our fatherland,-for so it seemed
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good to your heart,-tell us now how we shall live.
That we would know of you. This land is not to be
desired either for vineyards or for pastures so that
we can live well thereon and also minister to
Then Apollo, the son of Zeus, smiled upon them
and said: "Foolish mortals and poor drudges are
you, that you seek cares and hard toils and straits!
Easily will I tell you a word and set it in your
hearts. Though each one of you with knife in
hand should slaughter sheep continually, yet would
you always have abundant store, even all that the
glorious tribes of men bring here for me. But
guard you my temple and receive the tribes of
men that gather to this place, and especially show
mortal men my will, and do you keep righteousness
in your heart. But if any shall be disobedient and
pay no he!!d to my warning, or if there shall be
any idle word or deed and outrage as is common
among mortal men, then other men shall be your
masters and with a strong hand shall make you
subject for ever. All has been told you: do you
keep it in your heart."
And so, farewell, son of Zeus and Leto; but I will
remember you and another hymn also.
MUSE, sing of Hermes, the son of Zeus and Maia,
lord of Cyllene and Arcadia rich in flocks, the luck-
bringing messenger of the immortals whom Maia
bare, the rich-tressed nymph, when she was joined in
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love with Zeus,-a shy goddess, for she avoided
the company of the blessed gods, and lived within a
deep, shady cave. There the son of Cronos used to
lie. with the rich-tressed nymph, unseen by deathless
gods and mortal men, at dead of night while sweet
sleep should hold white-armed Hera fast. And when
the purpose of great Zeus was fulfilled, and the
tenth moon with her was fixed in heaven, she was
delivered and a notable thing was come to pass.
For then she bare a son, of many shifts, blandly cun-
ning, a robber, a cattle driver, a bringer of dreams,
a watcher by night, a thief at the gates, one who
was soon to show forth wonderful deeds among the
deathless gods. Born with the dawning, at mid-day
he played on the lyre, and in the evening he stole
the cattle of far-shooting Apollo on the fourth day
of the month; for on that day queenly Maia bare him.
So soon as he had leaped from his mother's heavenly
womb, he lay not long waiting in his holy cradle, but
he sprang up and sought the oxen of Apollo. But as
he stepped over the threshold of the high-roofed
cave, he found a tortoise there and gained endless
delight. For it was Hermes who first made the
tortoise a singer. The creature fell in his way at
the courtyard gate, where it was feeding on the rich
grass before the dwelling, waddling along. When
he saw it, the luck-bringing son of Zeus laughed
and said:
"An omen of great luck for me so soon' I do
not slight it. Hail, comrade of the feast, lovely
in shape, sounding at the dance! With joy I meet
you! Where got you that rich gaud for covering, that
spangled shell-a tortoise living in the mountains?
But I will take and carry you within: you shall
help me and I will do you no disgrace, though first
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• Guttmann: .pip"" MSa.
IV.-TO HERMES, 36-63
of all you must profit me. It is better to be at home;
harm may come out of doors. Living, you shall be a
spell against mischievous witchcraft 1; but if you die,
then you shall make sweetest song."
Thus speaking, he took up the tortoise in both
hands and went back into the house carrying his
charming toy. Then he cut off its limbs and scooped
out the marrow of the mountain-tortoise with a scoop
of grey iron. As a swift thought darts through the
heart of a man when thronging cares haunt him, or
as bright glances flash from the eye, so glorious
Hermes planned both thought and deed at once.
He cut stalks of reed to measure and fixed them,
fastening their ends across the back and through the
shell of the tortoise, and then stretched ox hide
all over it by his skill. Also he put in the horns
and fitted a cross-piece upon the two of them, and
stretched seven strings of sheep-gut. But when be
had made it he proved each string in turn with
the key, as he held the lovely thing. At the
touch of his hand it sounded marvellously; and,
as he tried it, the god sang sweet random
snatches, even as youths bandy taunts at festivals.
He sang of Zeus the son of Cronos and neat-shod
Maia, the converse which they had before in the
comradeship of love, telling all the glorious tale
of his own begetting. He celebrated, too, the
handmaids of the nymph, and her bright home, and
the tripods all about the house, and the abundant
But while he was singing of all these, his heart
was bent on other matters. And he took the hollow
1 Pliny notices the efficacy of the flesh of a tortoise against
witchcraft. In Geoponica i. 14. 8 the living tortoise i •
prescribed a. " charm to preserve vineyard. from han.
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IV.-TO HERMES, 64-88
lyre and laid it in his sacred cradle, and sprang from
the sweet-smelling hall to a watch-place, pondering
sheer trickery in his heart-deeds such as knavish
folk pursue in the dark night-time; for he longed to
taste fl esh.
The Sun was going down beneath the earth towards
Ocean with his horses and chariot when Hermes
came hurrying to the shadowy mountains of Pieria,
where the divine cattle of the blessed gods had their
steads and grazed the pleasant, unmown meadows.
Of these the Son of Maia, the sharp-eyed slayer of
Argus then cut off from the herd fifty loud-lowing
kine, and drove them straggling-wise across a sandy
place, turning their hoof-prints aside. Also, he
betbought him of a crafty ruse and reversed the
marks of their hoofs, making the front behind and
the hind before, while he himself walked the other
way.! Then he wove sandals with wicker-work by
the sand of the sea, wonderful things, unthought
of, unimagined; for he mixed together tamarisk
and myrtle-twigs, fastening together an armful of
their fresh, young wood, and tied them, leaves and
all securely under his feet as light sandals. That
brushwood the glorious Slayer of Argus plucked in
Pieria as he was preparing for his journey, making
shift 2 as one making haste for a long journey.
But an old man tilliug his flowering vineyard saw
him as he was hurrying down the plain through
1 Hermes makes the cattle walk backwards way, 80 that
they seem to be going towards the meadow instead of leaving
it (cp. 1. 345); he himself walk. in the normal manner,
relying on hi. sandal. as a disguise.
2 Such. Seems to be the meaning indicated by the context,
though the verb is taken by Allen and Sikes to mean, .. to
be like oneself," and so "to be original."
IV.-TO HERMES, 89-114
grassy Onchestus. So the Son of Maia began and
said to him:
" Old man, digging about your vines with bowed
shoulders, surely you shall have much wine when
all these bear fruit, if you obey me and strictly
remember not to have seen what you have seen,
and not to have heard what you have heard, and
to keep silent when nothing of your own is harmed."
When he had said this much, he hurried the strong
cattle on together: through many shadowy mountains
and echoing gorges and flowery plains glorious
Hermes drove them. And now the divine night,
his dark ally, was mostly passed, and dawn that
sets folk to work was quickly coming on, while
bright Selene, daughter of the lord Pallas, Megamedes'
son, had just climbed her watch-post, when the
strong Son of Zeus drove the wide-browed cattle of
Phoebus Apollo to the river Alpheus. And they
came unwearied to the high-roofed byres and the
drinking-troughs that were before the noble meadow.
Then, after he had well-fed the loud-bellowing cattle
with fodder and dl'iven them into the byre, close-
packed and chewing lotus and dewy galingal, he
gathered a pile of wood and began to seek the art
of fire. He chose a stout laurel branch and trimmed
it with the knife ... 1 held firmly in his hand: and
the hot smoke rose up. For it was Hermes who
first invented fire-sticks and fire.N ext he took
many dried sticks and piled them thick and plenty
in a sunken trench: and flame began to glow,
spreading afar the blast of fierce-burning fire.
I Kuhn points out that there is & lacuna here. In 1. 109
the borer is described, but the friction of thi. upon the fire.
block (to which the phra.e .. held firmly" clearly belong.)
must also have been mentioned.
1 The cows being on their sides. on the ground, Hermes
bends tbeir heads back towards the,r flanks and so can reach
their backbones .
• 0 Miiller thinks the .. hides" were a stalactite forma·
tion i ~ the Ie Cave of Nestor" near Messenian Pylos,-though
the cave of Herme. il near the Alpheu. (1. 139). Other.
And while the strength of glorious Hephaestus
was beginning to kindle the fire, he dragged out two
lowing, horned cows close to the fire; for great
strength was with him. He threw them both
panting upon their backs on the ground, and rolled
them on their sides, bending their necks over,' and
pierced their vital chord. Then he went on from
task to task; first he cut up the rich, fatted meat,
and pierced it with wooden spits, and roasted flesh
and the honourable chine and the paunch full of
dark blood all together. He laid them there upon
the ground, and spread out the hides on a rugged
rock; and so they are still there many ages after-
wards, a long, long time after all this, and are
Next glad-hearted Hermes dragged
the rich meats he had prepared and put them on
a smooth, flat stone, and divided them into twelve
portions distributed by lot, making each portion
wholly honourable. Then glorious Hermes longed
for the sacrificial meat, for the sweet savour wearied
him, god though he was; nevertheless his proud
heart was not prevailed upon to devour the flesh,
although he greatly desired.
But he put away
the fat and all the flesh in the high-roofed byre,
placing them high up to be a token of his youthful
theft. And after that he gathered dry sticks and
utterly destroyed with fire all the hoofs and all the
suggest that actual skins were shown as relici before some
cave near Triphylian Pylas.
• Gemoll explains that Hermes, having offered all the
meat as sacrifice to the Twel"e Gods, remembers that he
himself as one of them must be content with the savour
instead .,f the substance of the sacrifice. Can it be that by
eating he would have forfeited the position he claimed as
one of the Twol YO Gods!
IV.-TO HERMES, 138-164
And when the god had duly finished all, he
threw his sandals into deep-eddying Alpheus, and
quenched the embers, covering the black ashes with
sand, and so spent the night while Selene's soft
light shone down. Then the god went straight
back again at dawn to the bright crests of Cyllene,
and no one met him on the long journey either of
the blessed gods or mortal men, nor did any dog
bark. And luck-bringing Hermes, the son of Zeus,
passed edgeways through the key-hole of the hall like
the autumn breeze, even as mist: straight through
the cave he went and came to the rich inner
chamber, walking softly, and making no noise as one
might upon the floor. Then glorious Hermes went
hurriedly to his cradle, wrapping his swaddling
clothes about his shoulders as though he were a
feeble babe, and lay playing with the covering
about his knees; but at his left hand he kept close
his sweet lyre.
But the god did not pass unseen by the goddess
his mother; but she said to him: "How now, you
rogue! Whence come you back so at night-time,
you that wear shamelessness as a garment? And
now I surely believe the son of Leto will soon have
you forth out of doors with unbreakable cords
about your ribs, or you will live a rogue's life in
the glens robbing by whiles. Go to, then; your
father got you to be a great worry to mortal
men and deathless gods."
Then Hermes answered her with crafty words:
"Mother, why do you seek to frighten me like a
ftleble child whose heart knows few words of blame,
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IV.-TO HERMES, 165-193
" fearful that fears its mother's scolding?
Nay, but I Will try whatever plan is best, and so
feed myself and you continually. We will not
be content to remain here, as you bid, alone of all
the gods unfee'd with offerings and prayers. Better
live in. fellowship with the deathless gods con-
tmually, rICh, wealthy, and enjoying stores of grain,
than to sit always in a gloomy cave: and, as regards
honour, I too will enter upon the rite that Apollo has.
If my father will not give it me, I will seek-and I
am able-to be a prince of robbers. And if Leto's
most glorious son shall seek me out, I think another
and a greater loss will befall him. For I will go to
Pytho to break into his great house, and will plunder
therefrom splendid tripods, and cauldrons, and gold,
and plenty of bright iron, and much apparel; and
you shall see it if you will."
With such words they spoke together, the son of
Zeus who holds the aegis, and the lady Maia. Now
Eros the early born was rising from deep-Ilowin<r
Ocean, bringing light to men, when Apollo, as
went, came to Onchestus, the lovely grove and
sacred place of the 100id-roaring Holder of the
Earth. There he found an old man grazing his
beast along the. pathway from his court-yard fence,
and the all-glorIOUS Son of Leto began and said to
"Old man, weeder 1 of grassy Onchestus, I am
come here from Pieria seeking cattle cows all of
them, all with curving horns, from my herd. The
black bull was grazing alone away from the rest,
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IV.-TO HERMES, 194-222
but fierce-.. yed hounds followed the cows, four of
them, all of one mind, like men. These were left
behind, the dogs and the bull-which is a great
marvel; but the cows strayed out of the soft
meadow, away from the pasture when the sun was
just going down. Now tell me this, old man born
long ago: have you seen one passing along behind
those cows?"
Then the old man answered him and said: «My
son, it is hard to tell all that one's eyes see; for
many wayfarers pass to and fro this way, some bent
on much evil, and some on good: it is difficult to know
each one. However, I was digging about my plot
of vineyard all day long until the sun went down,
and I thought, good sir, but I do not know for
certain, that I marked a child, whoever the child
was, that followed long-horned cattle-an infant
who had a staff and kept walking from side to side:
he was driving them backwards way, with their
heads towards him."
So said the old man. And when Apollo heard
this report, he went yet more qUickly on his way,
and presently, seeing a long-winged bird, he knew
at once by that omen thai the thief was the child of
Zeus the son of Cronos. So the lord Apollo, son of
Zeus, hurried on to goodly Pylas seeking his
shambling oxen, and he had his broad shoulders
covered with a dark cloud. But when the Far-
Shooter perceived the tracks, he cried:
"Oh, oh! Truly this is a great marvel that my eyes
behold' These are indeed the tracks of straight-
horned oxen, but they are turned backwards towards
the flowery meadow. But these others are not the
footprints of man or woman or grey wolves or bears
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IV.-TO HERMES, 223-253
or lions, nor do I think they are the tracks of a
rough-maned Centaur-whoever it be that with
swift feet makes such monstrous footprints; won-
derful are the tracks on this side of the way, but
yet more wonderful are those on that."
When he had so said, the lord Apollo, the Son of
Zeus hastened on and came to the forest-clad
mountain of Cyllene and the deep-shadowed cave in
the rock where the divine nymph brought forth the
child of Zeus who is the son of Cronos. A sweet
odour spread over the lovely hill, and many thin-
shanked sheep were grazing on the grass. Then
far-shooting Apollo himself stepped down in haste
over the stone threshold into the dusky cave.
Now when the Son of Zeus and Maia saw Apollo
in a rage about his cattle, he snuggled down in his
fragrant swaddling-clothes; and as wood-ash covers
over the deep embers of tree-stumps, so Hermes
cuddled himself up when he saw the Far-Shooter.
He squeezed head and hands and feet together in a
small space, like a new born child seeking sweet
sleep, though in truth he was wide awake, and he
kept his lyre under his armpit. But the Son of
Leto was aware and failed not to perceive the
beautiful mountain-nymph and her dear son, albeit
a little child and swathed so craftily. He peered
in every corner of the great dwelling and, taking
a bright key, he opened three closets full of nectar
and lovely ambrosia. And much gold and silver was
stored in them, and many garments of the nymph,
some purple and some silvery white, such as are kept
in the sacred houses of the blessed gods. Then,
after the Son of Leta had searched out the recesses
of the great house, he spake to glorious Hermes:
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IV.-TO HERMES, 254-2 79
"Child, lying in the cradle, make haste and tell
me of my cattle, or we two will soon fall out angrily.
For I will take and cast you into dusky Tartarus and
awful hopeless darkness, and neither your mother
nor your father shall free you or bring you up again
to the light, but you will wander under the earth
and be the leader amongst little folk." 1
Then Hermes answered him with crafty words:
" Son of Leta, what harsh words are these you have
spoken? And is it cattle of the field you are come
here to seek? I have not seen them: I have not
heard of them: no one has told me of them. I
cannot give news of them, nor win the reward for
news. Am I like a cattle-lifter, a stalwart person?
This is no task for me: rather I care for other things:
I care for sleep, and milk of my mother's breast, and
wrappings round my shoulders, and warm baths. Let
no one hear the cause of this dispute; for this would
be a great marvel indeed among the deathless gods,
that a child newly born should pass in through the
forepart of the house with cattle of the field: herein
you speak extravagf!ntIy. I was born yesterday, and
my feet are soft and the ground beneath is rough;
nevertheless, if you will have it so, I will swear a great
oath by my father's head and vow that neither am I
guilty myself, neither have I seen any other who
stole your cows-whatever cows may be; for I know
them only by hearsay." .
So, then, said Hermes, shooting quick glances from
his eyes: and he kept raising his brows and looking
I Hermes is ambitious (I. 175), but if he is cast into Hades
he will have to be content with the leadership of mere
babies like himself, since those in Hades retain the state of
growth-whether childhood or manhood-in which they are
at the moment of leaving the upper world.
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IV,-TO HERMES, 280-304
this way and that, whistling long and listening to
Apollo's story as to an idle tale.
But far-working Apollo laughed softly and said to
him: "0 rogue, deceiver, crafty in heart, you talk
so innocently that I most surely believe that you
have broken into many a well-built house and stripped
more than one poor wretch bare this night,I gathering
his goods together all over the house without noise.
You will plague many a lonely herdsman in mountain
glades, when you come on herds and thick-fleeced
sheep, and have a hankering after flesh. But come
now, if you would not sleep your last and latest
sleep, get out of your cradle, you comrade of dark
night. Surely hereafter this shall he your title
amongst the deathless gods, to be called the prince
of robbers continually."
So said Phoebus Apollo, and took the child and
began to carry him. But at that moment the strong
Slayer of Arglls had his plan, and, while Apollo held
him in his hands, sent forth an omen, a hard-worked
helly-serf, a rude messenger, and sneezed' directly
after. And when Apollo heard it, he dropped
glorious Hermes out of his hands on the ground: then
sitting down hefore him, though he was eager to
go on his way, he spoke mockingly to Hermes:
"Fear not, little swaddling haby, son of Zeus and
Maia. I shall find the strong cattle presently by
these omens, and you shall lead the way."
When Apollo had so said, Cyllenian Hermes
1 Literally, "you have made him sit on the floor," i.e.
x you have stolen everything down to hiB last chair."
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1 Allen'. (Oxf. Text) suggestion: .bP.I/>.{'/f, M: Ebp.ull./'/f,
other MSS.
• E and L (in margin): wnl other MSS.
IV.-TO HERMES, 305-33t
sprang up quickly, starting in haste. With both
hands he pushed up to his ears the covering that he
had wrapped about his shoulders, and said:
" Where are you carrying me, Far-Worker, hastiest
of all the gods? Is it because of your cattle that
you are so angry and harass me? 0 dear, would
that all the sort of oxen might perish; for it is not
I who stole your cows, nor did I see another steal
them-whatever cows may be, and of that I have
only heard report. Nay, give right and take it
before Zeus, the Son of Cronos."
So Hermes the shepherd and Leto's glorious son
kept stubbornly disputing each article of their quarrel:
Apollo, speaking truly
not unfairly sought to seize glorious Hermes because
of the cows; but he, the Cyllenian, tried to deceive
the God of the Silver Bow with tricks and cunning
words. But when, though he had many wiles, he
found the other had as many shifts, he began to
walk across the sand, himself in front, while the
Son of Zeus and Leto came behind. Soon they
came, these lovely children of Zeus, to the top of
fragrant Olympus, to their father, the Son of
Cronos; for there were the scales of judgement set
for them both. There was an assembly on snowy
Olympus, and the immol'tals who perish not were
gathering after the hour of gold-throned Dawn.
Then Hermes and Apollo of the Silver Bow stood
at the knees of Zeus: and Zeus who thunders on
high spoke to his glorious son and asked him:
"Phoebus, whence come you driving this great
spoil, a child new born that has the look of a herald?
This is a weighty matter that is come before the
council of the gods."
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IV.-TO HERMES, 333-362
Then the lord, far-working Apollo, answered
him: "0 my father, you shall soon hear no trifling
tale though you reproach me that I alone am
fond of spoil. Here is a child, a burgling robber,
whom I found after a long journey in the hills of
Cyllene: for my part I have never seen one so
pert either among the gods or all men that catch
folk unawares throughout the world. He stole away
my cows from their meadow and drove them off in
the evening along the shore of the loud-roaring sea,
making straight for Pylos. There were double
tracks, and wonderful they were, such as one might
marvel at, the doing of a clever sprite; for as for
the cows, the dark dust kept and showed their foot-
prints leading towards the flowery meadow; but he
himself.-bewildering creature-crossed the sandy
ground outside the path, not on his feet nor yet on
his hands; but, furnished with some other means
he trudged his way-wonder of wonders I-as though
one walked on slender oak-trees. Now while he
followed the cattle across sandy ground, all the
tracks showed quite clearly in the dust; but when
he had finished the long way across the. sand,
presently the cows' track and his own could not
be traced over the hard ground. But a mortal
man noticed him as· he drove the wide-browed
kine straight towards Pylos. And as soon as he
had shut them up quietly, and had· gone home by
crafty turns and twists, he Jay down in his cradle in
the gloom of a dim cave, as still as dark night, so
that not even an eagle keenly gazing would have
spied him. Much he rubbed his eyes with his hands
as he prepared falsehood, and himself straight way
said roundly: 'I have not seen them: I have not
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1 Most MSS.: &1.1.0. I";;OOV Iv &OavdToI"I' ImrEv (0< told
another story among the immortals "), E· and L (in margin).
51 Barnes: i1rL3f6op.C1.', M: other MSS.
I Hermann: 'ft'o.,.', MSS.
IV.-TO HERMES, 363-389
heard of them: no man has told me ot them. I
could not tell you of them, nor win the reward of
telling: "
When he had so spoken, Phoebus Apollo sat down .
But Hermes on his part answered and said, point-
ing at the Son of Cronos, the lord of all the
"Zeus, my father, indeed I will speak truth to
you; for I am truthful and I cannot tell a lie. He
came to our house to-day looking for his shambling
cows, as the sun was newly rising. He brought no
witnesses with him nor any of the blessed gods who
had seen the theft, but with great violence ordered
me to confess, threatening much to throw me into
wide Tartarus. For he has the rich bloom of glorious
youth, while I was born but yesterday-as he too
knows -, nor am I like a cattle-lifter, a sturdy fellow.
Believe my tale (for you claim to be my own father),
that I did not drive his cows, to my house-so may I
prosper -nor crossed the threshold: this I say truly.
I reverence Helios greatly and the other gods, and
you I love and him I dread. You yourself know
that I am not guilty; and I will swear a great oath
upon it :-No ! by these rich-decked porticoes of the
gods. And some day I will punish him, strong as he
is, for this pitiless inquisition; but now do you help
lr. younger.
So spake the Cyllenian, the Slayer of Argus, while
he kept shooting sidelong glances and kept his
swaddling-clothes upon his arm, and did not cast
them away. But Zeus laughed out loud to see his
I Fick: 1iX' ob and ~ x ' . ~ , MSS: gxou, M.
• Allen. I Hymn to Dionysns, 13.
IV.-TO HERMES, 390-4I5
evil-plotting child well and cunningly denying guilt
about the cattle. And he bade them both to be
of one mind and search for the cattle, and guiding
Hermes to lead the way and, without mischievous-
uess of heart, to show the place where now he had
hidden the strong cattle. Then the Son of Cronos
bowed his head: and goodly Hermes obeyed him;
for the will of Zeus who holds the aegis easily
prevailed with him.
Then the two all-glorious children of Zeus
hastened both to sandy Pylos, and reached the ford of
Alpheus, and came to the fields and the high-roofed
byre where the beasts were cherished at night-time.
Now while Hermes went to the cave in the rock and
began to drive out the strong cattle, the son of Leto,
looking aside, saw the cowhides on the sheer rock.
And he asked glorious Hermes at once:
"How were you able, you crafty rogue, to flay
two cows, new-born and babyish as you are? For
my part, I dread the strength that will be yours:
there is no need you should keep growing long,
Cyllenian, son of Maia! ..
So saying, Apollo twisted strong withes with his
hands meaning to bind Hermes with fil'm bands;
but the bands would not hold him, and the withes
of osier fell far from him and began to grow at once
from the ground beneath tbeir feet in that very place.
And intertwining with one another, they quickly
grew and covered all the wild-roving cattle by the
will of thievish Hermes, so that A polio was astonished
as he gazed.
Then the strong slayer of Argus looked furtively
upon the ground with eyes flashing fire . . .
desiring to hide .•. Very eaSily he softened the
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IV.-TO HERMES, 416-446
son of all-glorious Leto as he would, stern though
the Far-shooter was. He took the lyre upon his
left arm and tried each string in turn with the key,
so that it sounded awesomely at his touch. And
Phoebus Apollo laughed for joy; for the sweet throb
of the marvellous music went to his heart, and a soft
longing took hold on his soul as he listened. Then
the son of Maia, harping sweetly upon his lyre, took
courage and stood at the left hand of Phoebus
Apollo; and soon, while he played shrilly on his
lyre, he lifted up his voice and sang, and lovely was
the sound of his voice that followed. He sang the
story of the deathless gods and of the dark earth,
how at the first they came to be, and how each one
received his portion. First among the gods he
honoured Mnemosyne, mother of the Muses, in his
song; for the son of Maia was of her following. And
next the goodly son of Zeus hymned the rest of the
immortals according to their order in age, and told
how each was born, mentioning all in order as he
struck the lyre upon his arm. But Apollo was seized
with a longing not to be allayed, and he opened his
mouth and spoke winged words to Hermes:
"Slayer of oxen, trickster, busy one, comrade of
the feast, this song of yours is worth fifty cows, and
I believe that presently we shall settle our quarrel
peacefully. But come now, tell me this, resourceful
son of Maia: has this marvellous thing been with
you from your birth, or did some god or mortal man
give it you-a noble gift-and teach you heavenly
song? For wonderful is this new-uttered sound I
hear, the like of which I vow that no man nor god
dwelling on Olympus ever yet has known but you, 0
thievish son of Maia. What skill is this? What
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1 Most M88: M with E and L (margin).
• Ruhnken: O"I'D" M. • Tyrrell : M88.
, Translator: t')'tAl'Y. lr.t(:)JfEu5", MSS.
IV.-TO HERMES, 447-474
song for desperate cares? What w"y of song? For
verily here are three things to hand all at once from
which to choose,-mirth, and love, and swcet sleep.
And though I am a follower of the Olympian Muses
who love dances and the bright path of song-the
full-toned chant and ravishing thrill of flutes-yet I
never cared for any of those feats of skill at youn"
men's revels, as I do now for this: I am filled with
wonder, 0 son of Zeus, at your sweet playing. But
now, since you, though little, have such glorious skill"
sit down, dear boy, and respect the words of your
elders For now you shall have renown amont:!' the
deathless gods, you and your mother also. This I
will declare to you exactly: by this shaft of cornel
wood I will surely make you a leader renowned
among, the deathless gods, and fortunate, and will
give you glorious gifts and will not deceive you from
first to last."
Then Hermes answered him with artful words:
"You question me carefully, 0 Far-worker; yet I
an: not jealous that should enter upon my art:
tins day you shall know It. For I seek to be friendly
with you both in thought and word. Now you well
know all things in your heart, since you sit foremost
among the deathless gods, 0 son of Zeus, and are
goodly and strong. And wise Zeus loves you as all
right is, and has given you splendid gifts. And they
say that from the utterance of Zeus you have learned
both the honours due to the gods, 0 Far-worker,
and oracles from Zeus, even all his ordinances. Of
all these I myself have already learned that you have
great wealth. Now, you are free to learn whatever
, "
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I Martin: IX.v, MSa. • M: Il'fp61v, other MSS,
IV.-TO HERMES, 475-504
you please; but since, as it seems, your heart is so
strongly set on playing the lyre, chant, and play
upon it, and give yourself to merriment, taking
this as a gift from me, and do you, my friend,
bestow glory on me. Sing well with this clear-
voiced companion in your hands; for you are skilled
in good, well-ordered utterance, From now on bring
it confidently to the rich feast and lovely dance and
glorious revel, a joy by night and by day, Whoso
with wit and wisdom enquires of it cunningly, him
it teaches through its sound all manner of things
that delight the mind, being easily played with
gentle familiarities, for it abhors toilsome drudgery;
but whoso in ignorance enquires of it violently, to
him it chatters mere vanity and foolishness. But
you are able to learn whatever you please. So then,
I will give you this lyre, glorious son of Zeus, while
I for my part will graze down with wild-roving
cattle the pastures on hill and horse-feeding plain:
so shall the cows covered by the bulls calve· abun-
dantly both males and females. And now there is
no need for you, bargainer though you are, to be
furiously angry."
When Hermes had said this, he held out the lyre:
and Phoebus Apollo took it, and readily put his
sl:lining whip in Hermes' hand, and ordained him
keeper of herds. The son of Maia received it
joyfully, while the glorious son of Leta, the lord
far-working Apollo, took the lyre upon his left
arm and tried each string with the key. A we-
somely it sounded at the touch of the god, while
he sang sweetly to its note.
Afterwards they two, the all-glorious sons of Zeus
turned the cows back towards the sacred meadow,
IV.-TO HERMES, 505-532
but themselves hastened back to snowy Olympus,
delighting in the lyre. Then wise Zeus was glad and
made them both friends. And Hermes loved the
son of Leto continually, even as he does now, when
he had given the lyre as token to the Far-shooter,
who played it skilfully, holding it npon his arm. Bnt
for himself Hermes fonnd out another cunning art
and made himself the pipes whose sound is heard
Then the son of Leto said to Hermes: (C Son of
Maia, guide and cunning one, I fear you may steal
from me the lyre and my curved bow together ~ for
you have an office from Zens, to establish deeds of
barter amongst men throughout the fruitful earth.
Now if you would only swear me the great oath of
the gods, either by nodding your head, or by the
potent water of Styx, you would do all that can
please and ease my heart."
Then Maia's son nodded his head and promised
that he would never steal anything of all the Far-
shooter possessed, and would never go near his
strong house; but A pallo, son of Leto, swore to
be fellow and friend to Hermes, vowing that he
would love no other among the immortals, neither
god nor man sprung from Zeus, better than Hermes:
and the Father sent forth an eagle in confirmation.
And A pallo sware also: (C V eril y I will make you
only to be an omen for the immortals and all alike,
trusted and honoured by my heart. Moreover, I
will give you a splendid staff of riches and wealth:
it is of gold, with three branches, and will keep you
scatheless, accomplishing every task, whether of
words or deeds that are good, which I claim to
know through the utterance of Zeus. But as for
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IV.-TO HERMES, 533-559
sooth-saying, noble, heaven-born child, of which
you ask, it is not lawful for you to learn it, nor
for any other of the deathless gods: only the mind
of Zeus knows that. I am pledged and have vowed
and sworn a strong oath that no other of the eternal
gods save I should know the wise-hearted counsel of
Zeus. And do not you, my brother, bearer of the
golden wand, hid me tell those decrees which all-
seeing Zeus intends. As for men, I will harm one
and profit anothcr, sorely perplexing the tribes of
unenviable men. Whosoever shall come guided by
the call and flight of birds of sure omen, that man
shall have advantage through my voice, and I will
not deceive him. But whoso shall trust to idly-
chattering birds and shall seek to invoke my
prophetic art contrary to my will, and to under-
stand more than the eternal gods, I declare that
he shall come on an idle journey; yet his gifts I
would take.
But I wiIl tell you another thing, Son of a11-
glorious Maia and Zeus who holds the aegis, luck-
bringing genius of the gods. There are certain holy
ones, sisters born-three virgins 1 gifted with wings:
their heads are besprinkled with white meal, and
they dwell under a ridge of Parnassus. These are
teachers of divination apart from me, the art which
I practised while yet a boy following herds, though
my father paid no heed to it. From their home
they fly now here, now there, feeding on honey-comb
1 The Thriae, who practised divination hy means of
pebbles (also called Bp,.I). In this hymn they are repre-
sented as aged maiden. (11. 553-4), but are closely associated
with bee. (11. 559-563) and possibly are here conceived as
having human heads and breast. with the bodies and wings
of bees. See the edition of Allen and Sikes. Appendix Ill.
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I Allen'. supplement.
IV.-TO HERMES, 560-580
and bringing all things to pass. And when they
are inspired through eating yellow honey, they are
willing to speak truth; but if they be deprived of
the gods' sweet food, then they speak falsely, as
they swarm in and out together. These, then, I
give you; enquire of them strictly and delight your
heart: and if you should teach any mortal so to do,
often will he hear your response-if he have good
fortune. Take these, Son of Maia, and tend the
wild roving, horned oxen and horses and patient
So he spake. And from heaven father Zeus
himself gave confirmation to his words, and com-
manded that glorious Hermes should be lord over
all birds of omen and grim-eyed lions, and boars
with gleaming tusks, and over dogs and all flocks
that the wide earth nourishes, and over all sheep;
also that he only should be the appointed messenger
to Hades, who, though he takes no gift, shall give
him no mean prize.
Thus the lord Apollo showed his kindness for the
Son of Maia by all manner of friendship: and the
Son of Cronos gave him grace besides. He consorts
with all mortals and immortals: a little he profits,
uut continually throughout the dark night he ('ozem
the tribes of mortal men.
And so, farewell, Son of Zeus and Maia; but I
will remember you and another song also.
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MUSE, tell me the deeds of golden Aphrodite the
Cyprian, who stirs up sweet passion in the gods and
subdues the tribes of mortal men and birds that fly in
air and all the many creatures that the dry land rears,
aud all that the sea: all these love the deeds of rich-
crowned Cytherea.
Yet there are three hearts that she c,mnot bend
nor yet ensnare. First is the daughter of Zeus
who holds the aegis, bright-eyed Athene; for she
has no pleasure in the deeds of golden Aphrodite,
but delights in wars and in the work of Ares,
in strifes and battles and in preparing famous
crafts. She first taught earthly craftsmen to
make chariots of war and cars variously wrought
with bronze, and she, too, teaches tender maidens
in the house and puts knowledge of goodly arts in
each one's mind. Nor does laughter-loving Aphrodite
ever tame in love Artemis, the huntress with shafts
of gold; for she loves archery and the slaying of wild
beasts in the mountains, the lyre also and dancing
and thrilling cries and shady woods and the cities of
upright men. Nor yet does the pure maiden Hestia
love Aphrodite's works. She was the first-born child
of wily Cronos and youngest too,! by will of Zeus who
holds the aegis,-a queenly maid whom both
1 Cronos .wallowed each of his children the moment that
they were born, but ultimately was forced to disgorge them.
Hestia, being the fir.t to be swallowed, was tbe last to be
diogorged, and so was at once the first and latest born of the
children of Cronos. Cpo H •• iod Theogony, I!. .j,95-7.
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Poseidon and Apollo sought to wed. But she was
wholly unwilling, nay, stubbornly refused; and
touching the head of father Zeus who holds the
aegis, she, that fair goddess, sware a great oath
which has in truth been fulfilled, that she would
be a maiden all her days. So Zeus the Father
gave her an high honour instead of marriage, and
she has her place in the midst of the house and
has the richest portion. In all the temples of the
gods she has a share of honour, and among all
mortal men she is chief of the goddesses.
Of these three Aphrodite cannot bend or ensnare
the hearts. But of all others there is nothing
among the blessed gods or among mortal men that
has escaped Aphrodite. Even the heart of Zeus,
who delights in thunder, is led astray by her;
though he is greatest of all and has the lot of
highest majesty, she beguiles even his wise heart
whensoever she pleases, and mates him with mortal
women, unknown to Hera, his sister and his wife,
the grandest far in beauty among the deathless
goddesses-most glorious is she whom wily Cronos
with her mother Rhea did beget: and Zeus, whose
wisdom is everlasting, made her his chaste and
careful wife.
But upon Aphrodite herself Zeus cast sweet
desire to be joined in love with a mortal man, to
the end that, very soon, not even she should be
innocent of a mortal's love; lest laughter-loving
Aphrodite should one day softly smile and say
mockingly among all the gods that she had joined
the gods in love with mortal women who bare
sons of death to the deathless gods, and had mated
the goddesses with mortal men.
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And so he put in her heart sweet desire for
Anchises who waS tending cattle at that time among
the steep hills of many-fountained Ida, and in shape
was like the immortal gods. Therefore, when
laughter-loving Aphrodite saw him, she loved him,
and terribly desire seized her in her heart, She
went to Cyprus, to Paphos, where her precinct
is and fragrant altar, and passed into her sweet-
smelling temple. There she went in and put to the
glittering doors, and there the Graces bathed her
with heavenly oil such as blooms upon the bodies
of the eternal gods-oil divinely sweet, which she
had by her, filled with fragrance, And laughter-
loving Aphrodite put on all her rich clothes,
and when she had decked herself with gold,
she left sweet-smelling Cyprus and went in haste
towards Troy, swiftly travelling high up among
the clouds. So she came to many-fountained
Ida, the mother of wild creatures and went
straight to the homestead across the mountains.
After her came grey wolves, fawning on her, and
grim-eyed lions, and bears, and fleet leopards,
ravenous for deer: and she was glad in heart to see
them, and put desire in their breasts, so that they all
mated, two together, about the shadowy coombes.
But she herself came to the neat-built shelters,
and him she found left quite alone .in the home-
stead-the hero Anchises who was comely as the
gods. All the others were following the herds over
the grassy pastures, and he, left quite alone in the
homestead, was roaming hither and thi.ther and
playing thrillingly upon the lyre. And Aphrodite,
the daughter of Zeus stood before him, being like a
pure maiden in height and mien, that he should not
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be frightened when he took heed of her with his
eyes. Now when Anchises saw her, he marked
her well and wondered at her mien and height
and shining garments. For she was clad in a robe
out-shining the brightness of fire, a splendid robe of
gold, enriched with all manner of needlework, which
shimmered like the moon over her tender breasts, a
marvel to see. Also she wore twisted brooches and
shining earrings in the form of flowers; and round
her soft throat were lovely necklaces.
And Anchises was seized with love, and said to
her: "Hail, lady, whoever of the blessed ones you
are that are come to this house, whether Artemis,
or Leta, or golden Aphrodite, or high-born Themis,
or bright-eyed Athene. Or, maybe, you are one of
the Graces come hither, who bear the gods company
and are called immortal, or else one of the Nymphs
who haunt the pleasant woods, or of those who
inhabit this lovely mountain and the springs of
rivers and grassy meads. I will make you an altar
upon a high peak in a far seen place, and will sacri-
fice rich offerings to you at all seasons. And do you
feel kindly towards me and grant that I may become
a man very eminent among the Trojans, and give
me strong offspring for the time to come. As for
my own self, let me live long and happily, seeing
the light of the sun, and come to the threshold
of old age, a man prosperous among the people."
Thereupon Aphrodite the daughter of
answered him: "Anchises, most glorious of all men
born on earth, know that I am no goddess: why do
you liken me to the deathless ones? Nay, I am but
a mortal, and a woman was the mother that bare me.
Otreus of famous name is my father, if so be you
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1 MELnT give the alternative vorBe:
d 'rot BEIIC.",l" i'vv.J, ((fO'op.o., Kcd oinri.
(" to see whether I shall be an ill·liking wife for you or no.")
V.-TO APHRODITE, 112-138
have heard of him, and he reigns over all Phrygia
rich in fortresses. But I know your speech well
beside mY'own, for a Trojan nurse brought me up at
home: she took me from my dear mother and
reared me thenceforth when I was a little child. So
comes it, then, that I well know your tongue also.
And now the Slayer of Argus with the golden wand
has caught me up from the dance of huntress
Artemis, her with the golden arrows. For there
were many of us, nymphs and marriageable 1
maidens, playing together; and an innumerable
company encircled us: from these the Slayer of
Argus with the golden wand rapt me away. He
carried me over many fields of mortal men and
over much land untilled and unpossessed, where
savage wild-beasts roam through shady coombes,
until I thought never again to touch the life-
giving earth with my feet. And he said that 1
should be called the wedded wife of Anchises, and
should bear you goodly children. But when he
had told and advised me, he, the strong Slayer of
Argos, went back to the families of the deathless
gods, while I am now come to you: for unbending
necessity is upon me. But I beseech you by Zeus
and by your noble parents-for no base folk could
get such a son as you-take me now, stainless and
unproved in love, and show me to your father and
careful mother and to your brothers sprung from
the same stock. I shall be no ill-liking daughter
for them, but a likely. Moreover, send a messenger
quickly to the swift-horsed Phrygians, to tell my
father and my sorrowing mother; and they will send
1 "Cattle-earning," because an accepted suitor paid for
hi. bride in cattle.
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41 6
you gold in plenty and woven stuffs, many splendid
gifts; take these as bride-piece. So do, and then
prepare the sweet marriage that is honourable in the
eyes of men and deathless gods."
When 8he had so spoken, the goddess put sweet
desire in his heart. And Anchises was seized with
love, so that he opened his mouth and said:
" If you are a mortal and a woman was the mother
who bare you, and Otreus of famous name is your
father as you say, and if you are come here by the
will of Hermes the immortal Guide, and are to be
called my wife always, then neither god nor mortal
man shall here restrain me till I have lain with you
in love right now; no, not even if far-shooting Apollo
himself should launch grievous shafts from his silver
how. Willingly would I go down into the house of
Hades, 0 lady, beautiful as the goddesses, once I
had gone up to your bed."
So speaking, he caught her by the hand. And
laughter-loving Aphrodite, with face turned away and
lovely eyes downcast, crept to the well-spread couch
which was already laid with soft coverings for the
hero; and upon it lay skins of bears and deep-
roaring lions which he himself had slain in the
high mountains. And when they had gone up upon
the well-fitted bed, first Anchises took off her bright
jewelry of pins and twisted brooches and earrings and
necklaces, and loosed her girdle and stripped off her
bright garments and laid them down upon a silver-
studded seat. Then by the will of the gods and
destiny he lay with her, a mortal man with an
immortal goddess, not clearly knowing what he did.
But at the time when the herdsmen drive their
oxen and hardy sheep back to the fold from the
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1 Stepanus: apa, MSS. 2 Sikes.
3 Baumeister: eyyeyaovTm, MSS .
• 1-18
V.-TO APHRODITE, 170-198
flowery pastures, even then Aphrodite poured soft
sleep upon Anchises, but herself put ou her rich
raiment. And when the bright goddess had fully
clothed herself, ehe stood by the couch, and her
head I·eached to the well-hewn roof-tree; from her
cheeks shone unearthly beauty such as belongs to
rich-crowned Cytherea. Then she aroused him from
sleep and opened her mouth and said:
"Up, son of Dardanus I-why sleep you so
heavily?-and consider whether I look as I did
when first you saw me with your eyes."
So she spake. And he awoke in a moment and
obeyed her. But when he saw the neck and lovely
eyes of Aphrodite, he was afraid and turned his
eyes aside another way, hiding his comely face with
his cloak. Then he uttered winged words and
entreated her:
" So soon as ever I saw you with my eyes, goddess,
I knew that you were divine; but you did not tell
me truly, Yet by Zeus who holds the aegis I
beseech you, leave me not to lead a palsied life
among men, but have pity on me; for he who
lies with a deathless goddess is no hale man
Then Aphrodite the daughter of Zeus answered
him: "A nchises, most glorious of mortal men, take
courage and be not too fearful in your heart. You
need fear no harm from me nor from the other
blessed ones, for you are dear to the gods: and you
shall have a dear son who shall reign among the
Trojans, and children's children after him, springing
up continually. His name shall be Aeneas,l because
1 The name Aeneas is here connected with the epithet
<lina. (awful): similarly the name Odyssenl is d"rived
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V -TO APHRODITE, 199-226
I felt awful grief in that I laid me in the bed of a
mortal man: yet are those of your race always the
most like to gods of all mortal men in beauty and
in stature.
Verily wise Zeus carried off golden-haired Gany-
medes because of his beauty, to be amongst the
Deathless Ones and pour drink for the gods in the
house of Zeus-a wonder to see-, honoured by all
the immortals as he draws the red nectar from the
golden bowl. But grief that could not be soothed
filled the heart of Tras; for he knew not whither
the heaven-sent whirlwind had caught up his deal'
son, so that he mourned him always, unceasingly,
until Zeus pitied him and gave him high-stepping
horses such as carry the immortals as recompense for
his son. These he gave him as a gift. And at the
command of Zeus, the Guide, the slayer of Argus,
told him all, and how his son would be deathless
and unageing, even as the gods. So when Tros
heard these tidings from Zeus, he no longer kept
mourning but rejoiced in his heart and rode joyfully
with his storm-footed horses.
So also golden-throned Eos rapt away Tithonus
who was of your race and like the deathless gods.
And she went to ask the dark-clouded Son of Cronos
that he should be deathless and live eternally; and
Zeus bowed his head to her prayer and fulfilled her
desire. Too simple was queenly Eos: she thought
not in her heart to ask youth for him and to strip
him of the slough of deadly age. So while he enjoyed
the sweet flower of life he lived rapturously with
golden-throned Eos, the early-born, by the streams
1 Aphrodite extenuates her disgrace by claiming that the
race of AnchiBea i8 almost divine, as is shown in the persons
of Ganymede. and Tithonus.
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V.-TO APHRODITE, 227-255
of Ocean, at the ends of the earth; but when the
first grey hairs began to ripple from his comely head
and noble chin, queenly Eos kept away from his bed,
though she cherished him in her house and nourished
him with food and ambrosia and gave him rich
clothing. But when loathsome old age pressed full
upon him, and he could not move nor lift his limbs,
this seemed to her in her heart the best counsel:
she laid him in a room and put to the shining
doors. There he babbles endlessly, and no more
has strength at an, such as once he had in his
supple limbs.
I would not have you be deathless among the
deathlpss gods and live continually after such sort.
Yet if you could live on such as now you are in look
and in form, and be called my husband, sorrow
would not then enfold my careful heart. But, as
it is, harsh I old age will soon enshroud you--ruth-
less age which stands someday at the side of every
man, deadly, wearying, dreaded even by the gods.
And now because of you I shall have great shame
among the deathless gods henceforth, continually.
For until now they feared my jibes and the wiles by
which, or soon or late, I mated all the immortals with
mortal women, making them all subject to my will.
But now my mouth shall no more have this power
among the gods; for very great has been my madness,
my miserable and dreadful madness, and I went
astray out of my mind who have gotten a child
beneath my girdle, mating with a mortal man.
I So Christ connecting the word with L. and S.
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I Matthia.: <paut, MSS.
V.-TO APHRODITE, 256-285
As for the child, as soon as he sees the light of the
sun, the deep-breasted mountain Nymphs who inhabit
this great and holy mountain shall bring him up,
They rank neither with mortals nor with immortals:
long indeed do they live, eating heavenly food and
treading the lovely dance among the immortals, and
with them the Sileni and the sharp-eyed Slayer of
Argus mate in the depths of pleasant caves; but at
their birth pines or high-topped oaks spring up with
them upon the fruitful earth, beautiful, flourishing
trees, towering high upon the lofty mountains (and
men call them holy places of the immortals, and never
mortal lops them with the axe); but when the fate'
of death is near at hand, first those lovely trees
wither where they stand, and the bark shrivels away
about them, and the twigs fall down, and at last the
life of the Nymph and of the tree leave the light of
the sun together. These Nymphs shall keep my son
with them and rear him, and as soon as he is come
to lovely boyhood, the goddesses will bring him here
to you and show you your child. But, that I may
tell you all that I have in mind, I will come here
again towards the fifth year and bring you my son.
So soon as ever you have seen him-a scion to
delight the eyes-·, you will rejoice in beholding
him; for he shall be most godlike: then bring him
at once to windy Ilion. And if any mortal man ask
you who got your dear son beneath her girdle,
remember to tell him as I bid you: say he is
the offspring of one of the flower-like Nymphs
who inhabit this forest-clad hill. But if you
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tell all and foolishly boast that you lay with rich-
crowned Aphrodite, Zeus will smite you in his anger
with a smoking thunderbolt. Now I have told you
all. Take heed: refrain and name me not, but have
regard to the anger of the gods."
When the goddess had so spoken, she soared up to
windy heaven.
Hail, goddess, queen of well-builded Cyprus!
with you have I begun; now I will turn me to
another hymn.
I WILL sing of stately Aphrodite, gold-crowned and
beautiful, whose dominion is the walled cities of all
sea-set Cyprus. There the moist breath of the
western wind wafted her over the waves of the loud-
moaning sea in soft foam, and there the gold-
filleted Hours welcomed her joyously. They
clothed her with heavenly garments: on her head
they put a fine, well-wrought crown of gold, and in
her pierced ears they hung ornaments of orichalc
and precious gold, and adorned her with golden
uecklaces over her soft neck and snow-white breasts,
jewels which the gold-filleted HoUl's wear themselves
whenever they go to their father's house to join the
lovely dances of the gods. And when they had
fully decked her, they brought her to the gods, who
welcomed her when they saw her, giving her their
hands. Each one of them prayed that he might
lead her home to be his wedded wife, so greatly
were they amazed at the beauty of violet-crowned
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Hail, sweetly-winning, coy-eyed goddess! Grant
that I may gain the victory in this contest, and order
you my song. And now I will remember you and
another song also.
I WILL tell of Dionysus, the son of glorious Semele,
how he appeared on a jutting headland by the shore
of the fruitless sea, seeming like a stripling in the
first flush of manhood: his rich, dark hair was waving
about him, and on his strong shoulders he wore a
purple robe. Presently there came swiftly over the
sparkling sea Tyrsenian 1 pirates on a well-decked
ship-a miserable doom led them on. When they
saw him they made signs to one another and sprang
out quickly, and seizing him straightway, put him on
board their ship exultingly; for they thought him
the son of heaven-nurtured kings. They sought to
bind him with rude bonds, but the bonds would not
hold him, and the withes fell far away from his hands
and feet: and he sat with a smile in his dark eyes.
Then the helmsman understood all and cried out at
once to his fellows and said:
"Madmen! what god is this whom you have taken
and bind, strong that he is? Not even the well-
built ship can carry him. Surely this is either
Zeus or Apollo who has the silver bow, or Poseidon,
for he looks not like mortal men but like the gods
1 Probably not Etruscans, but the non-Hellenio peoples of
Thrace and (according to Thucydides) of Lemnos and Athens.
Cp. Herodotus i. 57; Thucydides iv. 109.
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who dwell on Olympus. Come, then, let us set him
free upon the dark shore at once: do not lay hands
on him, lest he grow angry and stir up dangerous
winds and heavy squalls."
So said he : but the master chid him with t,mnting
words: " Madman, mark the wind and help hoist sail
on the ship: catch all the sheets. As for this fellow
we men will see to him: I reckon he is bound for
Egypt or for Cyprus or to the Hyperboreans or
further still, But in the end he will speak out and
tell us his friends and all his wealth and his brothers,
now that providence has thrown him in our way."
When he had said this, he had mast and sail
hoisted on the ship, and the wind filled the sail and
the crew hauled taut the sheets on either side. But
soon strange things were seen among them. First
of all sweet, fragrant wine ran streaming throughout
all the black ship and a heavenly smell arose, so that
all the seamen were seized with amazement when
they saw it. And all at once a vine spread out both
ways along the top of the sail with many clusters
hanging down from it, and a dark ivy-plant twined
about the mast, blossoming with flowers, and with
rich berries growing on it; and all the thole-pins wer"
covered with garlands. When the pirates sawall
this, theh at last they bade the helmsman to put the
ship to land. But the god changed into a dreadful
lion there on the ship, in the bows, and roared
loudly: amidships also he showed his wonders and
created a shaggy bear which stood up ravening,
while on the forepeak was the lion glaring fiercely
with scowling brows. And so the sailors fled into the
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