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Error Detection English Language and Comprehension 257

Chapter 22

Error Detection
Introduction Explanation:
We are prone to commit mistakes. It is because of The subjunctive mood is use d in English
our ignorance of the fundamental rules of grammar specifically in two situations: (i) with the expression
and curre nt usage . On occasions e ve n the of a wish and (ii) to express a condition contrary to
knowledgeable, in their weaker moments. It is in fact actual fact. The present subjunctive is conjugated as
slippery spot which demands of us a cautious approach. follows: I were; We were; You were; He were; They
The following are some of the mistakes commonly were.
made in the use of English language. You will do well 5. (a) He is working hard with a view to win this
to study them together with the clear explanations of match. (Incorrect)
how to correct these errors. He is working hard with a view to winning
1. One of my friends are a doctor. (Incorrect) this match. (Correct)
One of my friends is a doctor. (Correct) (b) I look forward to meet my old friend next
month. (Incorrect)
Explanation I look forward to meeting my old friend next
One of is followed by a plural noun phrase. It month. (Correct)
means one of them. It takes a singular verb because Explanation:
the subject is one. The verb that follows the phrase with a view to or
2. (a) I dont know nothing about him. (Incorrect) look forward to is to be always in the -ing form.

K KUNDAN
I dont know anything about him. (Correct) with a view to V1 (ing) + ......
(b) I couldnt find him nowhere. (Incorrect) look forward to + V1 (ing) + ......
I couldnt find him anywhere. (Correct) 6. (a) He prides on his wealth. (Incorrect)
(c) He doe s not want no ne of that cake . He prides himself on his wealth. (Correct)
(Incorrect) (b) She absented from her class. (Incorrect)
He does not want any of that cake. (Correct) She ab sent ed her self from he r class.
Explanation: (Correct)
The use of two negatives to express a single (c) I availed of this opportunity. (Incorrect)
negative idea is wrong. Two negatives lead to a positive I availed mysel f of this op portunity.
meaning. One negative word should, therefore, be used (Correct)
for the expression of a negative idea. (d) I enjoyed during the holidays. (Incorrect)
3. (a) I always like to closely ex amine e ve ry I enj oyed mysel f during the holidays.
proposal. (Incorrect) (Correct)
I always like to ex amine closely e ve ry Or, I enjoyed the holidays. (Correct)
proposal. (Correct) (e) He resigned to the will of God. (Incorrect)
(b) He plans to hurriedly complete this work. He resigned himself to the will of God.
(Incorrect) (Correct)
He plans to complete this work hurriedly. Explanation:
(Correct) When verbs like absent, apply, acquit, enjoy, over-
Explanation: reach, resign, and pride are used reflectively (that is,
Both the sentences are examples of split infinitive. when the subject of the verb is also the receiver of
The infinitive is the to form of the verb, for example, the action, the action is reflected) a reflexive pronoun
to sing, to dance, to finish. If a word is placed (Imyself; youyourself; Weourselves; The y
between the two words (eg, to closely examine), the themselves; Hehimself; Sheherself; Oneoneself)
infinitive is said to be split. Such splittings are to is used after it.
be avoided. 7. (a) I cut me shaving this morning. (Incorrect)
4. (a) I wish I was as tall as my father. (Incorrect) I cut myself shaving this morning. (Correct)
I wish I were as tall as my father. (Correct) (b) We got out of the swimming pool and dried
(b) If he was alive he would help me. (Incorrect) us. (Incorrect)
If he were alive he would help me. (Correct) We got out of the swimming pool and dried
ourselves. (Correct)
258 English Language and Comprehension Error Detection

Explanation: Explanation:
When the same person is the subject and the When a pronoun is the object of a verb or a
object, it is necessary to use the reflexive pronouns: preposition it should be in objective case.
myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, 12. (a) He is taller then me. (Incorrect)
themselves, oneself. He is taller than I (am). (Correct)
8. (a) I, you and he are neighbours. (Incorrect) (b) I love you more than him. (Incorrect)
You, he and I are neighbours. (Correct) I love you more than he (loves you). (Correct)
(b) You, they and we must work togethe r. (c) I love you more than he (Incorrect)
(Incorrect) I love you more than (I love) him. (Correct)
We, you and they must work toge ther. Explanation:
(Correct) The case of the pronoun following than and as is
Explanation: decided by mentally supplying the verb and completing
When first, second and third person singular the sentence.
pronouns (I, You and He) are used together, they are 13. (a) The Climate of Patna is better than Delhi.
placed in this order: Second person (You), third person (Incorrect)
(he) and then first person (I). In the case of plural The Climate of Patna is better than that of
pronouns we comes first, then you and then they. Delhi (Correct)
9. (a) I have read Shakespeares works who was a (b) The roads of Delhi are wider than Mumbai.
great dramatist (Incorrect) (Incorrect)
I have read the works of shakespeare who The roads of Delhi are wider than those of
was a great dramatist. (Correct) Mumbai. (Correct)
(b) Ravis dog who was my frie nd has died. Explanation:
(Incorrect) The objects of comparison are the climate of Patna
The dog of Ravi, who is my friend, has died. and the climate of Delhi; the roads of Delhi and the
(Correct) roads of Patna. To avoid the repetition of a noun in a
Explanation: sentence we use that for singular noun and those
Relative pronoun should be placed as close to its for plural noun.

K KUNDAN
antecedent as possible. 14. (a) One of them has already given up ones
10. (a) Let he do whatever he likes to do. (Incorrect) studies. (Incorrect)
Let him do whatever he likes to do (Correct) One of them has already given up his studies.
(b) Let you and I solve this riddle. (Incorrect) (Correct)
Let you and me solve this riddle. (Correct) (b) One should not waste his time. (Incorrect)
Explanation: One should not waste ones time. (Correct)
Pronouns following Let must be in the objective Explanation:
case, and not in the nominative case. When one means one in number, the pronoun for
Always keep in mind these forms of Personal it is third person singular pronoun (he, she, it). The
Pronouns: possessive formed from them can be his or her or its.
In the first sentence the meaning is one taken out of
them. Hence the possessive should be his. In the
second sentence One is an indefinite pronoun,
meaning anyone. The possessive of one is ones.
Hence the use of ones in place of his.
15. (a) Eithe r the Chief Minister or his Cabinet
colleagues have submitted his resignation.
(Incorrect)
Eithe r the Chief Ministe r or his cabine t
colleagues have submitted their resignation.
When the pronoun is the subject of a sentence, (Correct)
the nominative case is used. When the pronoun is (b) Neither the officer nor the clerks could get
the object of a sentence, the objective case is used. his salary. (Incorrect)
And whe n the pronoun shows posse ssion, the Neither the officer nor the clerks could get
possessive case is used. their salary. (Correct)
11. (a) These books are for you and I. (Incorrect) Explanation:
These books are for you and me. (Correct) Whe n two nouns joine d by Either....or or
(b) Between he and I there is an understanding. Neither....nor differ in number, the pronoun must
(Incorrect) agree with the plural noun which comes after or/
Between him and me there is an understand- nor.
ing. (Correct)
Error Detection English Language and Comprehension 259

16. (a) The mother and the daughter love one (b) He is the most wisest of all. (Incorrect)
another. (Incorrect) He is the wisest of all. (Correct)
The mother and the daughter love each Explanation:
other. (Correct) Double comparatives and double superlatives must
(b) Those thre e boys love each o ther. not be used.
(Incorrect) 21. (a) He is more wiser than brave. (Incorrect)
Those thre e boys love on e an other. He is more wise than brave. (Correct)
(Correct) (b) He is the more intelligent and wiser than
Explanation: his brother. (Incorrect)
Each other is used in speaking of two persons or He is wiser and more intelligent than his
things, one another in speaking of more than two. brother. (Correct)
17. (a) Neither of the three boys came. (Incorrect) Explanation:
None of the three boys came. (Correct) When two adjectives in the comparative or the
(b) None of the two boys came. (Incorrect) superlative degree are used together, the one formed
Neither of the two boys came. (Correct)
by adding more or most must follow the other
(c) Either of the four boys has done this work.
adjective.
(Incorrect)
22. (a) You are wiser than old. (Incorrect)
Anyone of the four boys has done this work.
You are more wise than old. (Correct)
(Correct)
(b) He is braver than wise. (Incorrect)
(d) Anyone of the two candidates is fit for this
He is more brave than wise. (Correct)
post. (Incorrect)
Either of the two candidates is fit for this Explanation:
post. (Correct) When we compare two qualities in the same
Explanation: person or thing, the comparative ending er is not
Either or Neither is used in reference to two only. used. In all such cases we should use more before
Anyone or None is used for more than two. the adjective.
18. (a) Each boy and each girl was in their best 23. (a) He is as wise, if not wiser than his brother.
dress. (Incorrect) (Incorrect)
He is as wise as, if not wiser than his

K KUNDAN
Each boy and each girl was in her best dress.
(Correct) brother. (Correct)
(b) Every soldier and every sailor is in their (b) This book is as good, if not better than that
place. (Incorrect) book. (Incorrect)
Every soldier and every sailor is in his This book is as good as, if not better than
place. (Correct) that book. (Correct)
(c) Every night and every day brings their own Explanation:
responsibility. (Incorrect) When two adjectives with differing degrees of
Every night and every day brings its own comparison are used they should be complete in
responsibility. (Correct) themselves. We should complete the first comparison
Explanation: before taking up the second.
When two singular nouns are joined by and and 24. (a) It is the best of the two books. (Incorrect)
preceded by each or every, the pronoun is always It is the better of the two books. (Correct)
singular. (b) He is the bett er of the thre e boys.
19. (a) It is not such a good book which I expected. (Incorrect)
(Incorrect) He is the best of the three boys. (Correct)
It is not such a good book as I expected. (c) Which is the bes t; bre ad or butte r?
(Correct) (Incorrect)
(b) This is the same be ggar who came Which is better; bread or butter? (Correct)
yesterday. (Incorrect) (d) Which is betterbread, butter or fruit?
This the same beggar that came yesterday. (Incorrect)
(Correct) Which is the bestbread, butter or fruit?
(c) My problem is the same which yours. (Correct)
(Incorrect)
(e) Out of these two watches this is the best.
My problem is the same as yours. (Correct)
(Incorrect)
Explanation:
Out of these two watches this is better.
The relative pronoun as or that should be used
(Correct)
after same or such. Never use who or which after
Explanation:
same or such.
20. (a) He is mor e wis er than his brothe r. We should use comparative degree in comparing
(Incorrect) two things or persons and the superlative degree in
He is wiser than his brother. (Correct) comparing more than two things or persons.
260 English Language and Comprehension Error Detection

25. (a) There are no less than twenty boys in this Explanation:
class. (Incorrect) The comparative adjectives, senior, junior, superior,
There are no fewer than twenty boys in this inferior, posterior, anterior, prior are followed by to
class. (Correct) instead of than.
(b) He takes no fewer than one kilo of milk. 30. (a) It is the most unique book. (Incorrect)
(Incorrect) It is a unique book. (Correct)
He takes no less than one kilo of milk. (b) It is the most ideal place. (Incorrect)
(Correct) It is an ideal place. (Correct)
Explanation: (c) It is the most perfect answer. (Incorrect)
Less refers to quantity only, whereas fewer It is a perfect answer. (Correct)
de note s numbe r. One is use d in the case of Explanation:
uncountable things and the other in the case of Some adjectives are not compared because they
countable things; asfewer people, fewer houses, fewer denote meanings which do not admit of variation of
boxes but less milk, less sunshine, less rice. degree or qualities already possessed by them to the
26. (a) It is a ten-miles walk. (Incorrect) utmost possible extent. Such adjectives are: unique,
It is a ten-mile walk. (Correct) ideal, perfect, extreme, chief, complete, round, square,
(b) It is a four-men committee. (Incorrect) universal, impossible, golden, infinite, perpetual.
It is a four-man committee. (Correct) 31. (a) The higher you go, the cool you feel.
(c) It is a two-hours journey. (Incorrect) (Incorrect)
It is a two-hour journey. (Correct) The higher you go the cooler you feel.
Explanation: (Correct)
When expressions of measurement, amount and The older you get, the wise you grow.
quantity are used as adjectives, they are usually (Incorrect)
singular. The noun occurring after the hyphen is always The older you get, the wiser you grow.
singular notwithstanding the fact that the preceding (Correct)
word indicates plurality. Explanation:
27. (a) It took us one and a half hour. (Incorrect) When two changes happen together, that is, there

K KUNDAN
It took us one and a half hours. (Correct) is parallel increase, it is expressed by: the + comparative
(b) This box weighs one and a half pound. degree + the + comparative degree.
(Incorrect) 32. (a) He r house is be tte r than m y on e.
This box weighs one and a half pounds. (Incorrect)
(Correct) Her house is better than mine. (Correct)
(c) It is 1.5 millimetre in length. (Incorrect) (b) His motor car is more expensive than Ravis
It is 1.5 millimetres in length. (Correct) one. (Incorrect)
Explanation: His motor car is more expe nsive than
Plural nouns are used with fraction and decimal Ravis. (Correct)
over 1. Explanation:
28. (a) Kapil is better than any bowler. (Incorrect) We cannot use one or ones immediately after a
Kapil is better than any other bowler. genitive or possessive adjective. If these words are
(Correct) preceded by an adjective, however, they can come after
(b) He is better than any student. (Incorrect) a genitive or a possessive adjective. For example,
He is be tter than any other stude nt. Her new house is better than my old one.
(Correct) My old watch, is in better condition than his
Explanation: new one.
Whe n comparative de gre e is use d in the 33. (a) The Victoria Memorial is a worth seeing
superlative sense it is followed by any other and not building. (Incorrect)
by any. The Victoria Memorial is a building worth
29. (a) He is senior than me. (Incorrect) seeing. (Correct)
He is senior to me. (Correct) (b) This is a worth seeing sight. (Incorrect)
(b) I am junior than him. (Incorrect) That is a sight worth seeing. (Correct)
I am junior to him. (Correct) Explanation:
(c) This book is supe rior than that book. A compound adjective is sometimes formed by the
(Incorrect) combination of worth with some participle. It is placed
This book is supe rior to that book. after the noun it qualifies.
(Correct) 34. (a) Have they heard the last news? (Incorrect)
(d) That book is infe rior than this book. Have they heard the latest news? (Correct)
(Incorrect) (b) His last nove l is be ing published next
That book is inferior to this book. (Correct) month. (Incorrect)
Error Detection English Language and Comprehension 261

His latest novel is being published next 39. (a) Few politician can be relied on. (Incorrect)
month. (Correct) A f ew p olit icians can be re lie d on.
(c) Edward II was Marlowes latest play. (Correct)
(Incorrect) (b) Litt le le arning is a d ange rous thing.
Edwad II was Marlowe s last play. (Incorrect)
(Correct) A little learning is a dangerous thing.
Explanation: (Correct)
We use latest for things which are new. But last (c) He has few interest in politics. (Incorrect)
means either before this one or at the end of a series. He has little interest in politics. (Correct)
35. (a) I am looking forward to his nearest visit. Explanation:
(Incorrect) We usually use few with plural nouns and little
I am looking forward to his next visit. with uncountable nouns. Little means not much/many.
(Correct) It is rather negative. A little is more positive. It
(b) Excuse me . Where s the nex t railway means some.
station? (Incorrect) 40. (a) He is eno ugh bo ld to take up this
Excuse me. Wheres the nearest railway challenge. (Incorrect)
station? (Correct) He is bol d enough to take up this
Explanation: challenge. (Correct)
We usually use next for time. It means nearest in (b) He hasnt got en ough goo d voice .
the future. It is generally used when we think of things (Incorrect)
coming one after another in a series. Nearest is used He hasnt got a goo d enough voi ce .
for place. It means most near or closest. (Correct)
36. (a) There are not some books on the table. (c) He is not driving enough fast. (Incorrect)
(Incorrect) He is not driving fast enough. (Correct)
There are not any books on the table. Explanation:
(Correct) Enough can qualify an adjective or adverb. It
(b) Has he brought some books? (Incorrect) usually comes after adjectives and adverbs.
Has he brought any books? (Correct) 41. (a) His all books were burnt. (Incorrect)

K KUNDAN
Explanation: All his books were burnt. (Correct)
Some is usually used in affirmative clauses (b) His both hands are skinny. (Incorrect)
whereas any is used in questions and negative. We Both his hands are skinny. (Correct)
can use some in questions if we expect an affirmative (c) Rajus all hopes were gone. (Incorrect)
answer, or when we want to encourage people to say All Rajus hopes were gone. (Correct)
yes. For example, Explanation:
Would you like some more potato chips? The noun of the possessive case (Rajus Sheelas)
Could I have some ripe mangoes, please? or the pronoun of the possessive case (mine, ours,
37. (a) He is not as tall as his brother. (Incorrect) theirs, his, her etc.) comes just before that noun for
He is not as tall as his brother is. (Correct) which it is used.
(b) She is richer than you are. (Incorrect) 42. (a) This is a best book. (Incorrect)
She is richer than you. (Correct) This is good book. (Correct)
Explanation: (b) He is a worst scholar. (Incorrect)
When than or as is followed by third person He is a very bad scholar. (Correct)
pronoun, the verb is repeated. But the verb is omitted Explanation:
if than or as is followed by first and second person. An adjective of superlative degree is used when
38. (a) He is my older brother. (Incorrect) the noun it qualifies shows the possession of a quality
He is my elder brother (Correct) to a higher degree than any other member of the same
(b) She is my oldest sister. (Incorrect) class.
She is my eldest sister. (Correct) 43. (a) He came latter than you. (Incorrect)
(c) He is the eldest man of this place . He came later than you. (Correct)
(Incorrect) (b) If offered red or white shirt Id choose the
He is the oldest man of this place . later. (Incorrect)
(Correct) If offered red or white shirt, I would choose
Explanation: the latter. (Correct)
The words elder and eldest are u se d for (c) I will see you latter. (Incorrect)
comparing the members of the family. They are often I will see you later. (Correct)
used before words brother, sister, son, daughter, Explanation:
grandson, granddaughter. Older and oldest are used Later is the comparative of late. It means more
with regard to age and in connection with human family late in time, after wards. But latter is the opposite of
relationship. former. It means the second of two people or things
262 English Language and Comprehension Error Detection

just mentioned. Later denotes time whereas latter (b) I like very much skating. (Incorrect)
denotes position. I like skating very much.
44. (a) Have you any farther questions to ask? Or, I very much like skating. (Correct)
(Incorrect) Explanation:
Have you any further questions to ask? We should not put adverbs between the verb and
(Correct) its object. These are not generally separated.
(b) He made no farther remarks. (Incorrect) 49. (a) I yesterday met him. (Incorrect)
He made no further remarks. (Correct) I met him yesterday. (Correct)
(c) Delhi is further from Gaya than Allahabad. (b) The yre to mor row le aving for Paris.
(Incorrect) (Incorrect)
Delhi is farther from Gaya than Allahabad. Tom orro w the yre le aving for Paris.
(Correct) (Correct)
(d) Lets not walk any further. (Incorrect) Explanation:
Lets not walk any farther. (Correct) Adverbs of definite time are put at the beginning
Explanation: or end of a clause. They do not go in mid-position.
Farther means at or to a great distance or more 50. (a) You well organise d that function.
distant point. Further means more, additional. (Incorrect)
45. (a) She sings beautiful. (Incorrect) You organised that function well. (Correct)
She sings beautifully. (Correct) (b) She badly dances. (Incorrect)
(b) This flower smells sweetly. (Incorrect) She dances badly. (Correct)
This flower smells sweet. (Correct) Explanation:
Explanation: When we use an adverb to evaluate, it generally
To give more information about the action - to say goes in end-position, not in mid-position.
how, where or when it is done - we use adverbs with 51. (a) She is very slower than Reena. (Incorrect)
verbs. When the quality of the subject rather than She is much slower than Reena. (Correct)
the action of the verb is to be expressed, we use (b) You are very older than me. (Incorrect)
adjective with a verb. It is the smell of the flower that You are much older than me. (Correct)

K KUNDAN
has been described in the second sentence. Hence (c) She was walking much slowly. (Incorrect)
the use of the adjective sweet, not the adverb She was walking very slowly. (Correct)
sweetly. Explanation:
46. (a) He hit the ball hardly. (Incorrect) Very is used with adjectives and adverbs in the
He hit the ball hard. (Correct) positive degree and with present participle whereas
(b) You have to work hardly. (Incorrect) much is used with adjectives and adverbs in the
You have to work hard. (Correct) comparative degree, and with past participle.
(c) He has got hard any money. (Incorrect) 52. (a) It is nothing else than pride. (Incorrect)
He has got hardly any money. (Correct) It is nothing else but pride. (Correct)
(d) He is hardly pressed for time. (Incorrect) (b) Call me anything els e than a thie f.
He is hard pressed for time. (Correct) (Incorrect)
Explanation: Call me anything else but a thief. (Correct)
Hard is both an adjective and adverb. Its meaning Explanation:
is quite different from hardly which is also an adverb. We usually use the adverb but (not, than) after
Hardly means almost no or almost not. The correct else.
expression is be hard pressed which means be under 53. (a) He seldom or ever goes to his village home.
pressure strained. (Incorrect)
47. (a) The two first pages of this book are torn. He seldom or never goes to his village
(Incorrect) home. (Correct)
The first two pages of this book are torn. (b) He sel dom o r ev er plays c ricke t.
(Correct) (Incorrect)
(b) The two first chapters of this book are good. He seldom if ever (seldom or never) plays
(Incorrect) cricket. (Correct)
The first two chapters of this book are Explanation:
good. (Correct) Ever usually means at any time. It cannot go with
Explanation: seldom which means not often, rarely. The correct
The two first is a meaningless expression. It expression is seldom or never, or seldom if ever.
implies that two things may be first. It makes no 54. (a) It is no use to ask he r she is not
sense. The correct expression is the first two. interested in it. (Incorrect)
48. (a) He speaks well English. (Incorrect) It is no use asking her she is not
He speaks English well. (Correct) interested in it. (Correct)
Error Detection English Language and Comprehension 263

(b) Is it any use to try to talk to him? Explanation:


(Incorrect) Some verbs are never used in progressive forms.
Is it any use trying to talk to him? Here is the list of some of the most important non-
(Correct) progressive verbs:
Explanation: 1. Relational Verbs : appear, belong to,
In expressions like these, use is followed by an consist of, contain,
-ing form. The correct expression is, it or there is no equal, fit, include, owe,
use + -ing form of verb. require, resemble,
55. (a) His mother kept on to encourage him to seem, suffice
study. (Incorrect) 2. Verbs of Emotion : adore, abhor, care,
His mother kept on encouraging him to detest, dislike, hate,
study. (Correct) like, love, wish
(b) Whate ve r happe ns, keep o n t o tr y. 3. Verbs of Perception : hear, see, smell, taste
(Incorrect) 4. Verbs of Possession : have, own, possess
Whate ve r happe ns, keep on t ryin g. 5. Verbs of Cognition : believe, feel, forget,
(Correct) know, mean, mind,
Explanation: realise, recall, recollect,
remember, suppose,
Keep on is never followed by an infinitive. It is
think, trust,
always followed by the -ing form of verb.
understand
56. (a) She knows to sing and dance. (Incorrect)
Note: Some of the verbs noted above are used in
She kn ows h ow to sing and dance .
progressive form in special cases, as for example,
(Correct)
Appear : (be published) When is your next article on
(b) He kno ws t o pre pare Fre nch toast.
his subject appearing?
(Incorrect)
Hear : (receive information) I have been hearing good
He knows how to prepare French toast.
news about him.
(Correct)
(receive a letter) I have been hearing from him
Explanation:

K KUNDAN
fairly regularly. : (try specially in a legal
Know is never followed directly by an infinitive. sense) The judge has been hearing this case
We generally use the expression know how to. for the last five years.
57. (a) He has finished to mend the puncture. See : (imagine, have hallucinations) She is seeing
(Incorrect) things; there is nothing there.
He has finished mending the puncture. (meet) I will be seeing the Managing Director
(Correct) tomorrow.
(b) I enjoy to travel. (Incorrect) Smell : (inhale the odour of) He was smelling the
I enjoy travelling. (Correct) mango to find out whether it was fresh or
Explanation: stale.
After some verbs we use an -ing form, and not an Feel : (go forward carefully) The blind beggar is
infinitive. Here is the list of verbs which are followed feeling his way.
by an -ing form. Think : (reflect upon, recall) he was thinking about
avoid forgive miss days long gone by.
consider give up practise : (examine the possibility of) Now I am thinking
delay go put off of leaving this place.
dislike (cant) help risk 59. (a) I have not and shall not bear this trouble.
enjoy imagine spend money/time (Incorrect)
excuse keep suggest I have not borne and shall not bear this
feel like mind understand trouble. (Correct)
finish (b) I have never and will never do such a thing.
58. (a) Why is she appearing so sad? (Incorrect) (Incorrect)
Why does she appear so sad? (Correct) I have never done and shall never do such
a thing. (Correct)
(b) I am owing a great deal to my parents.
(Incorrect) Explanation:
I owe a great deal to my parents. (Correct) The present form of a verb cannot be used for
both the present perfect tense and the future indefinite
(c) I am not feeling well today. (Incorrect)
tense. The present perfect tense takes the past
I am not well today. (Correct)
participle form of the verb (bear; bore; borne; do; did;
(d) He is ado ring that political le ade r.
done) and the future indefinite takes the present form
(Incorrect) of the verb.
He adores that political leader. (Correct)
264 English Language and Comprehension Error Detection

60. (a) He hanged the lamp on the wall. (Incorrect) (Correct)


He hung the lamp on the wall. (Correct) (b) I awaited for his arrival (Incorrect)
(b) He was hung for murder. (Incorrect) I awaited (waited for) his arrival. (Correct)
He was hanged for murder. (Correct) (c) He has repaid back his loan. (Incorrect)
Explanation: He has repaid (paid back) his loan.
The word hang has two different meanings: (i) to (Correct)
kill a person by hanging; (ii) to suspend from or attach Explanation:
loosely to some other object. The two different forms To avoid such silly mistakes, it is well to remember
of the verb hang are: that:
V1 V2 V3 return = come back; await = wait for; repay = pay back;
Hang : Hanged : Hanged (for persons) resume = start again
Hang : hung : hung (for things) 63. (a) The boat was dro wned in the rive r.
61. (a) This book costed me half past twelve (Incorrect)
rupees. (Incorrect) The boat was sunk in the river. (Correct)
This book cost me rupees twelve and fifty (b) A boy has be e n sunk in the rive r.
paise. (Correct) (Incorrect)
(b) The he ns have lain no e ggs today. A boy has been drowned in the rive r.
(Incorrect) (Correct)
The hens have laid no eggs today. (Correct) Explanation:
(c) Let me lay on the bed. (Incorrect) A boat capsizes or sinks; a ship sinks; a person is
Let me lie on the bed. (Correct) drowned. To be drowned is used only of living things.
Explanation: 64. (a) Who invented America? (Incorrect)
Half past twelve is a time expression. We say, It Who discovered America? (Correct)
is half past twelve by my watch. It is never used for (b) Marconi dis covered the wir e le ss.
denoting the price of something. We usually say, (Incorrect)
rupees twelve and fifty paise. The use of the verbs in Marconi invented the wireless. (Correct)
the sentences above is wrong. Explanation:

K KUNDAN
The correct past and perfect forms of certain verbs To invent is to make something that did not exist
are as given below: before. To discover is to find something that existed
Present Past Perfect before but was unknown.
lie = rest, be down lay lain 65. (a) If I was you I would not have done so.
lay = place, arrange, deposit, (Incorrect)
put down flat laid laid If I were you I would not have done so.
lie = to tell a lie lied lied (Correct)
leave = go away left left (b) He walks as if he is a king. (Incorrect)
live = be alive, be at home lived lived He walks as if he were a king. (Correct)
hang = to put up hung hung Explanation:
hang = to execute the order When we talk about events which are not certain
of death sentence hanged hanged to happen which we hope will happen, or imagine
flow (water) flowed flowed might happen or want to happen - we use a special
fly (bird) flew flown group of verb-forms called the subjunctive (e.g., I were,
flee = run away (person) fled fled She be, etc.) The subjunctive form were is used
bear = put up with bore borne instead of was after if, as if, and I wish.
bore = to make a hole; to 66. (a) Neither his action was just nor unjust.
make tired or (Incorrect)
uninterested bored bored His action was neither just nor unjust.
find = to discover found found (Correct)
found = to establish founded founded (b) I neither saw him nor her. (Incorrect)
fall fell fallen I saw neither him nor her. (Correct)
fell = to cut down (a tree); (c) Neither it is good nor it is bad. (Incorrect)
to knock down It is neither good nor bad. (Correct)
(a person) felled felled Explanation:
feel felt felt Neither....nor is used to join together two negative
fill filled filled ideas. This structure is balanced, so that the same
awake (intransitive) awoke awoke kind of words follow neither and nor.
awake (transitive) awaked awaked 67. (a) Ten students have passed and one failed.
62. (a) He has returned back from De lhi. (Incorrect)
(Incorrect) Ten students have passed and one has
He has returned (come back) from Delhi. failed. (Correct)
Error Detection English Language and Comprehension 265

(b) One of the thieves escaped and two caught. 72. (a) She knew that I am coming. (Incorrect)
(Incorrect) She knew that I was coming. (Correct)
One of the thieves escaped and two were (b) He said that he want s to go home .
caught. (Correct) (Incorrect)
Explanation: He said that he wanted to go home .
The auxiliary verb is usually repeated if the voice (Correct)
or number of one principal verb is not the same as Explanation:
the voice or number of the other. If there is a past tense in the principal clause,
68. (a) Tell me where are you going. (Incorrect) the dependent clause must also be in the past tense.
Tell me where you are going. (Correct) 73. (a) Both Raju as well as his brother were
(b) He aske d me wh at was y our nam e. present. (Incorrect)
(Incorrect) Both Raju and his brother were present.
He asked me what my name was. (Correct) (Correct)
(c) Tell me when are you leaving for New York. (b) Tigers are both found is Asia and in Africa.
(Incorrect) (Incorrect)
Tell me when you are leaving for New York. Tigers are found both in Asia and in Africa.
(Correct) (Correct)
Explanation: Explanation:
Indirect questions normally have the word-order The correlative of Both is and (Both ...and) and
of affirmative sentences. The auxiliary verb is never not as well as. The same kind of words generally follow
put before the subject. Both and and.
69. (a) She finished her work when I met her. 74. (a) Will I turn the light on? (Incorrect)
(Incorrect) Shall I turn the light on? (Correct)
She had finished her work when I met her. (b) Shall he come tomorrow? (Incorrect)
(Correct) Will he come tomorrow? (Correct)
(b) The train started before he reached the (c) Shall you do me a favour? (Incorrect)
station. (Incorrect) Will you do me a favour? (Correct)
The train had started before he reached (d) Will we attend the party? (Incorrect)

K KUNDAN
the station. (Correct) Shall we attend the party? (Correct)
Explanation: Explanation:
When two actions take place in the past, the one In interrogative sentences shall is used in the
earlier in time is expressed by a verb in the past perfect first person and will in the third person. In the second
tense, while the one later in time by that in the past person shall and will are used in accordance with
simple tense. the answer expected.
70. (a) They will be delighted if you will welcome 75. (a) Please excuse me being late. (Incorrect)
them. (Incorrect) Please excuse my being late. (Correct)
They will be delighted if you welcome (b) She disliked me coming late. (Incorrect)
them. (Correct) She disliked my coming late. (Correct)
(b) I will tell you as soon as I will know about Explanation:
it. (Incorrect) When a noun or pronoun is placed before a gerund,
I will tell you as soon as I know about it. it should be put in the possessive case.
(Correct) 76. (a) Unless you do not work hard, you will cut a
(c) When I shall go to Paris, I shall inform sorry figure. (Incorrect)
you. (Incorrect) Unless you work hard, you will cut a sorry
When I go to Paris, I shall inform you. figure. (Correct)
(Correct) (b) Walk slowly lest you should not fall down.
Explanation: (Incorrect)
We generally use the present instead of the future Walk slowly lest you should fall down.
after if and conjunction of time such as when, as soon (Correct)
as, after, while, until, and before. Explanation:
71. (a) It is time you go to bed. (Incorrect) Unless means if not. It should, therefore, be not
It is time you went to bed. (Correct) used in a sentence or clause which is already negative.
(b) It is time you wash your face. (Incorrect) Lest is here a subordinating conjunction expressing
It is time you washed your face. (Correct) a negative purpose. It should not be followed by not.
Explanation: 77. (a) I thought of attending the party, but could
When we want to say that its time for somebody not. (Incorrect)
else to do something, we generally use the structure: I had thought of attending the party but
Its time + subject + past tense verb. could not. (Correct)
266 English Language and Comprehension Error Detection

(b) We hoped that you woul d solve this and is pronounced as yu, or when a word begins with
problem. (Incorrect) o and is pronounced as wa, it is preceded by the
We had hoped that you would solve this article a and not an. Such words are: unique, united,
problem. (Correct) usual, European, useful, unit, universal, university,
(c) I ex pected not such a turn of events. useless, one-eyed man, one-rupee not, unilateral, etc.
(Incorrect) 82. (a) He plays violin. (Incorrect)
I had not expected such a turn of events. He plays the violin. (Correct)
(Correct) (b) Can you play tabla? (Incorrect)
Explanation: Can you play the tabla? (Correct)
The past perfect tense is used with such verbs as Explanation:
hope, expect, think, intend, mean (=intend), suppose and The definite article the is used before musical
want to indicate that a past hope , e xpe ctation, instruments. When play means produce music, its
intention, desire, etc., was not realized. object is always preceded by an article.
78. (a) I had gone to Chandigarh. (Incorrect) 83. (a) He has no knowledge and interest in music.
I went to Chandigarh. (Correct) (Incorrect)
Or, I had been to Chandigarh. (Correct) He has no knowledge of and interest in
(b) I had slept for hours. (Incorrect) music. (Correct)
I slept for hours. (Correct) (b) He did not agree but differed from my
Explanation: opinion. (Incorrect)
We do not usually used past perfect tense singly He did not agree to but differed from my
in a sentence. We can use simple past tense instead. opinion. (Correct)
When the verb go is used in the sense of go and Explanation:
come back from, been is used in place of gone. Sometimes a single preposition cant be used for
79. (a) He needs not seek my help. (Incorrect) two words that take two different prepositions. In such
He need not seek my help. (Correct) a situation both the prepositions should be used.
(b) She dares not walk in the dark. (Incorrect) 84. (a) There is no end of troubles. (Incorrect)
She dare not walk in the dark. (Correct) There is no end to troubles. (Correct)

K KUNDAN
Explanation: (b) I am busy in my work. (Incorrect)
In affirmative sentence the singular form of dare/ I am busy with my work. (Correct)
need (that is, dares/needs) is used with singular (c) Send this letter on my address. (Incorrect)
subject. But need not and dare not admit of no change Send this letter to my address. (Correct)
even if the subject is third person singular. Explanation:
80. (a) The re is a HE school in my village . We usually say, end to ones troubles, busy with
(Incorrect) some work, send something to someones address.
The re is an HE school in my village . 85. (a) Entering the room, the boys were found
(Correct) quarrelling. (Incorrect)
(b) We have filed a FIR. (Incorrect) Entering the room, he found the boys
We have filed an FIR. (Correct) quarrelling. (Correct)
(c) He is a NCC officer. (Incorrect) (b) Walking in the garden, a snake bit him.
He is an NCC officer. (Correct) (Incorrect)
(d) He has set up a X-ray plant. (Incorrect) While he was walking in the garden, a snake
He has set up an X-ray plant. (Correct) bit him. (Correct)
Explanation: (c) Barking furiously I led the dog out of the
Whether a or an is used before initials depends compound. (Incorrect)
on how the initial is pronounced. A, E, F, H, I, L, M, I led the dog, barking furiously, out of the
N, O, R, S and X all begin with a vowel sound; hence compound. (Correct)
an LEA School, an MA, an MP but a BBC production, a (d) Going out of the room, the door was left
BA, a PhD, etc. open by her. (Incorrect)
81. (a) He is an university professor. (Incorrect) Going out of the room, she left open the
He is a university professor. (Correct) door. (Correct)
(b) It is an unit of measurement. (Incorrect) (e) On examining the answer books, many silly
It is a unit of measurement. (Correct) mistakes were detected. (Incorrect)
(c) It is an universal truth. (Incorrect) On ex amining the answe r books, we
It is a universal truth. (Correct) detected many silly mistakes. (Correct)
Explanation: Explanation:
We use a before a consonant sound, even if it is These sentences are examples of unattached
written with a vowel. When a word begins with U and participles. When the first word of a sentence is a
is pronounced as yu, or when a word begins with EU participle, it must refer to some noun or pronoun it
Error Detection English Language and Comprehension 267

qualifies. That noun or pronoun should be the subject Explanation:


of the main clause. Though preferable is not a comparative yet it has
86. (a) I saw her to go. (Incorrect) a comparative force. It is, therefore, wrong to write
I saw her go. (Correct) more preferable. Prefer takes to, not than.
(b) I observed him to limp. (Incorrect) 91. (a) He regards me his guardian. (Incorrect)
I observed him limp. (Correct) He regards me as his guardian. (Correct)
Explanation: (b) They portrayed Nehru a dictator. (Incorrect)
We usually leave out to, the sign of infinitive, The y portraye d Ne hru as a dict ator.
after sensory verbs like feel, hear, see, observe, perceive, (Correct)
mark, behold, survey, view, watch. Explanation:
87. (a) He insisted to go. (Incorrect) Certain verbs are always followed by as. Such
He insisted on going. (Correct) verbs are: describe, depict, define, mention, portray,
(b) I am tired to sing and dance. (Incorrect) regard, represent, treat.
I am tired of singing and dancing. (Correct) 92. (a) She called me as a dullard. (Incorrect)
(c) He succeeded to win the match. (Incorrect) She called me a dullard. (Correct)
He succe e de d in winning t he match. (b) He was appointed as principal. (Incorrect)
(Correct) He was appointed principal. (Correct)
Explanation: Explanation:
An infinitive is generally not used after words Certain verbs are not followed by as or to be.
which take a preposition after them. Such words are: Such verbs are: appoint, choose, elect, call, consider,
Verbs: insist, object, prevent, succeed, think make, name, think.
Nouns: insistence, objection, intention, habit, 93. (a) She looks as if she suspects foul play.
resistance, view (Incorrect)
Adjectives: equal, fond, tired, used She looks as if she suspected foul play.
The infinitive s should be change d into the (Correct)
corresponding gerunds. (b) You act as though everything is in your
88. (a) Avoid to go there. (Incorrect) hands. (Incorrect)
Avoid going there. (Correct) You act as though everything was in your

K KUNDAN
(b) Stop to worry. (Incorrect) hands. (Correct)
Stop worrying. (Correct) Explanation:
(c) Keep on to try. (Incorrect) We usually avoid the use of present tense after
Keep on trying. (Correct) as if and as though.
(d) He is busy to write letters. (Incorrect) 94. (a) He did nothing but to play. (Incorrect)
He is busy writing letters. (Correct) He did nothing but play. (Correct)
Explanation: (b) She did nothing but to sing. (Incorrect)
The infinitives are changed into the corresponding She did nothing but sing. (Correct)
gerunds after certain words which do not take (c) She did no more than to cry. (Incorrect)
prepositions after them. Such words are: She did no more than cry. (Correct)
Verbs: avoid, enjoy, finish, go on, keep on, mind, Explanation:
remember, cant help, stop, give up We usually use the infinitive without to after the
Adjectives: busy, worth preposition but and than.
89. (a) It is no good to cry ove r spilt milk. 95. (a) She will wash up before she will go to bed.
(Incorrect) (Incorrect)
It is no good crying ove r spilt milk. She will wash up before she goes to bed.
(Correct) (Correct)
(b) There is no harm to do thi s work. (b) You wont know how good pudding is till you
(Incorrect) will have tasted it. (Incorrect)
There is no harm in doing this work. You wont know how good pudding is till you
(Correct) have tasted it. (Correct)
Explanation: Explanation:
The infinitive is changed into the corresponding The future simple is not used in time clauses.
gerund after such phrases as these: It is no use, It is The simple present tense is used instead. Nor is future
no good, Have the pleasure of, There is no harm in. perfect tense used in time clauses. The present perfect
90. (a) Death is more preferable than dishonour. is used instead.
(Incorrect) 96. (a) It is I who is responsible for this mistake.
Death is preferable to dishonour. (Correct) (Incorrect)
(b) I prefer swimming than walking. (Incorrect) It is I who am responsible for this mistake.
I prefer swimming to walking. (Correct) (Correct)
268 English Language and Comprehension Error Detection

(b) It is you who is responsible for this mistake. (c) He did not receive any message up till now.
(Incorrect) (Incorrect)
It is you who are re sponsible for this He has not received any message up till
mistake. (Correct) now. (Correct)
Explanation: (d) So f ar he did not re ac h the station.
The verb governed by who should follow its (Incorrect)
antecedent. In the first sentence the antecedent is So far he has not reached the station.
I. Hence the verb am. In the second sentence the (Correct)
antecedent is you. Hence the verb are. Explanation:
97. (a) I want an armchair for an old man with The present perfect tense can alone be used with
sliding back. (Incorrect) adverbials such as these: already, since, yet, so far, up
I want, for an old man, an armchair with till now.
sliding back. (Correct) 101. (a) This tragic incident has taken place last
(b) He shot himself dead after bidding his wife year. (Incorrect)
goodbye with a pistol. (Incorrect) This tragic incident took place last year.
He shot himself dead with a pistol after (Correct)
bidding his wife goodbye. (Correct) (b) She has gone to bed at 9 o clock.
Explanation: (Incorrect)
Both the sentences are examples of wrong word- She went to bed at 9 o clock. (Correct)
order impeding clarity of expression. It is well to (c) I have met him yesterday. (Incorrect)
remember that an adjective, adjective-substitute or I met him yesterday. (Correct)
adjective phrase should be put as near its antecedent Explanation:
as possible. This applies to relative clauses, too. Only the simple past can be used with adverbials
98. (a) No body has over helped you, has he? mentioning a definite time in the past.
(Incorrect) 102. (a) Reeta was married by Rakesh. (Incorrect)
Nobody has ever helped you, have they? Rakesh married Reeta. (Correct)
(Correct) (b) He married his youngest daughter with an

K KUNDAN
(b) Dont do that any more, do you? (Incorrect) engineer. (Incorrect)
Dont do that any more, will you? (Correct) He married his youngest daughter to an
(c) I am taller than him, isnt I? (Incorrect) engineer. (Correct)
I am taller than him, arent I? (Correct) (c) His youngest daughter was married with
Explanation: an engineer. (Incorrect)
If anybody, anyone, everybody, everyone, somebody, His youngest daughter was married to an
someone, nobody or no one is the subject of the main engineer. (Correct)
clause, the subject of the question tag is normally Explanation:
they. If the main clause is in the form of a negative When marry is used in the sense of take as
request or command, the question tag normally begins husband or wife, it can never be used in the passive
with will. The question tag after I am is arent I. form. It can be used both in the active and passive
99. (a) Bring a cold glass of water. (Incorrect) forms in the sense of give in marriage. It is to be
Bring a glass of cold water. (Correct) followed by to, not with.
(b) He has purchased a fresh basket of apples. 103. (a) She come s to colle ge by a bicycl e.
(Incorrect) (Incorrect)
He has purchased a basket of fresh apples. She comes to college by bicycle.
(Correct) Or, She comes to college on a bicycle.
(c) Id love to have a hot cup of tea. (Incorrect) (Correct)
Id love to have a cup of hot tea. (Correct) (b) He came back by my car. (Incorrect)
Explanation: He came back in my car. (Correct)
In the present context the expression, cold glass, Explanation:
fresh basket and hot cup are meaningless. The When the name of a vehicle is used in a general
adjectives cold, fresh and hot qualify the noun water, sense, the preposition by is used. In all such cases
apples and tea respectively. Hence the correct no article is used before the name of the vehicle. If
expressions will be cold water, fresh apples and hot the reference is to a particular vehicle, by is not used.
tea. We use in or on instead.
100. (a) He already left for Delhi. (Incorrect) 104. (a) Supposing if he does not come, what will
He has already left for Delhi. (Correct) you do? (Incorrect)
(b) He did not speak to me since that incident. Supposing he does not come, what will you
(Incorrect) do? OR,
He has not spoken to me since that If be does not come, what will you do?
incident. (Correct) (Correct)
Error Detection English Language and Comprehension 269

Explanation: believe, suppose and imagine, we make the first verb


Supposing and If are not used together. Either (think, believe, etc.) negative, not the second.
of the two should be used. 108. (a) Do sit down, will you? (Incorrect)
105. (a) He informed that everybody had gone Do sit down, wont you? (Correct)
against him. (Incorrect) (b) Give me sufficie nt time , wont yo u?
He informed me (us, him, them, etc.) that (Incorrect)
everybody had gone against him. (Correct) Give sufficient time, will you? (Correct)
(b) She told that she was interested in chess. (c) Shut up, can you? (Incorrect)
(Incorrect) Shut up, cant you? (Correct)
She told me (us, him, them etc.) that she Explanation:
was interested in chess. (Correct) After imperative we use (i) wont you? to invite
(c) He assured that every help would be given. people to do things. (ii) will you?/would you?/could
(Incorrect) you?/cant you? to tell people to do things.
He assured me (us, him, them, etc.) that 109. (a) He pays more attention to films than books.
every help would be given. (Correct) (Incorrect)
Explanation: He pays more attention to films than to
The verbs assure, inform, remind and tell are not books. (Correct)
immediately followed by thatclause as their object. (b) I can rely more on you than her. (Incorrect)
There has to be an indirect object between the verb I can rely more on you than on he r.
and the clause. (Correct)
106. (a) Flour is made of wheat. (Incorrect) Explanation:
Flour is made from wheat. (Correct) When there is comparison between two objects,
(b) Your chair is not made fr om wood. the preposition is placed before each of the two objects.
(Incorrect) 110. (a) He is declared to pass in the first division.
Your chair is not made of wood. (Correct) (Incorrect)
Explanation: He is declared to have passed in the first
When reference is made to the material of which division. (Correct)
something is made, we use of. The original material (b) She is supposed to commit this murder.

K KUNDAN
of which something is made can still be recognised. (Incorrect)
But we use from when something is changed beyond She is supposed to have committed this
recognition. murder. (Correct)
107. (a) I thin k you hav ent me t my fathe r. Explanation:
(Incorrect) Perfect infinitive is used if it refers to a time prior
I do not think you have met my father. to that which is expressed by the finite verb.
(Correct) 111. (a) How do you do? Fine, thanks. (Incorrect)
(b) I believe you havent seen the Taj Mahal. How do you do? How do you do? (Correct)
(Incorrect) Explanation:
I dont believe you have seen the Taj Mahal. Dont confuse How do you do? with How are you? It
(Correct) is a formula used when people are formally introduced.
Explanation: The reply is exactly the same: How do you do?
When negative ideas are introduced with think,

Correct Usage
Here are two lists of such words and expressions earning earnings
as are commonly misused. Their correct forms will equipments equipment
help you avoid mistakes you occasionally commit. furnitures furniture/pieces of furniture
Incorrect Correct gentries gentry
advices advice/pieces of advice lecturership lectureship
arm (Weapon) arms machineries machinery/machines
auspice auspices offsprings offspring
blotting blotting paper outskirt outskirts
boarding boarding house, hostel poetries poems
bowel bowels sceneries scenery/scenes
breads pieces/slices/loaves of bread scissor scissors
cattles cattle stationeries stationery
270 English Language and Comprehension Error Detection

traffics traffic with black and blue black and blue


trouser trousers with heart and soul heart and soul
a coward man a cowardly man/a coward with tooth and nail tooth and nail
a miser person a miserly person/a miser good in studies good at studies
a man of his words a man of his word clever in figure works clever at figure works
a flight of stair a flight of stairs bad in studies bad at studies
a man of letter a man of letters in trice in a trice
Arrear Bill Arrears Bill in hurry in a hurry
a serial of lectures a series of lectures What to speak of Not to speak of
birth date date of birth abstain to speak ill of.. abstain from speaking ill of...
cousin brother/ aim to do good aim at doing good
sister cousin bent to do bent upon doing
custom duty customs duty desirous to go desirous of going
family members members of his family do the needful do whatever is necessary
famous criminal notorious criminal (have) passion to read (have) passion for reading
head pain headache persist to say persist in saying
stomach pain/ refrain to go refrain from going
tooth pain stomachache/toothache repent to do repent of doing
(He has a headache/toothache/stomachache.) succeed to win succeed in winning
in class tenth in class ten or in the tenth class take pride to do take pride in doing
in the campus on the campus think to do think of doing
in the committee on the committee build a home build a house
in leave on leave cut jokes crack jokes
mutual friend common friend cut the pencil sharpen the pencil

K KUNDAN
no place (in a bus, cook bread bake bread
train etc.) no room (in a bus, train etc) describe about describe
passing marks pass marks discuss about discuss
Tennis field Tennis court drink tea take tea
cheque of Rs. 200 cheque for Rs 200 excel to speak excel in speaking
The back side give a speech deliver a speech
of a building The back of a building give goodbye bid goodbye
The front side give the examination take the examination;
of a building The front of a building appear at the examination;
today morning this morning sit for the examination
today afternoon this afternoon eat the poor feed the poor
today evening this evening give order give orders
today night tonight make a lecture deliver a lecture
two dozens pens two dozen pens make a goal score a goal
three thousands people three thousand people make noise make a noise
(But we say, dozens of pens, thousands of people to de- open the knot untie the knot
note unspecified number).
pray God pray to God
Saving Bank Savings Bank
rise the lid raise the lid
sworn enemies avowed enemies
see the pulse feel the pulse
vacant vessels empty vessels
speak a lie tell a lie
white hair grey hair
stick the button sew the button
worth seeing sight a sight worth seeing
take out ones shoes take off ones shoes
9.30 oclock train 9.30 train
to have headache to have a headache
details upon details detail upon detail
to have temperature to have a temperature
miles after miles mile after mile
to steal in the exami- to use unfair means
with bag and baggage bag and baggage
nation in the examination