AWARENESS LEVEL OF ENERGY DRINKS SIDE EFFECTS

IU IQRA UNIVERSITY

Awareness Level of Energy Drinks Side Effects
Research Report
T h u r s d a y, M a y 0 6 , 2 0 1 0

Group Members:
Muhammad Zubair (#7971) Ahsan Bham (#8106) Muhammad Arsalan (#7989) Mehlan (#8117)

Research Methods (Thursday 6 to 9 PM)

Instructor: Sir. Faisal Qureshi

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Letter of Authorization
Thur s day, May 06, 2010 D ear Rea der : As aut hor ized by our t eacher S ir Fais al K. Qur es hi , we deci ded t o do a r es ear ch r eport on t he awar enes s l evel of ener gy dr inks ¶ s ide eff ects . T his report contai ns compl et e inf or mat ion about t he ener gy dr ink pr oduct s availabl e and indus tr y. Als o included i n t his r eport is a det ailed a nalys is of t he ingr edi ent s us ed in t he pr oduct and t heir pr obabl e s i de eff ect s . All inf or mat i on is pr es ent ed in a ver y s i mpl e ma nner , for t he int er est of a common r eader. T his r eport cons ist s of genui ne and compl et e s our ce of in f or mat ion on t he pr oduct and t he r es pondent s . You ma y contact us for furt her quer ies or comment us on our wor k. Sincer el y, M. Zubair M. Ar sala n Mehla Ahs a n Bha m (#7971) (#7989) (#8117) (#8106)

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Letter of Transmittal
Thur s day, May 06, 2010 Sir Faisal K. Qur es hi Facult y M ember, Res ear ch M et hods Iqra Uni ver s it y, Def ence Vi ew Karachi D ear Mr. Qur es hi : We ar e s ubmitt ing her e our t er m r eport on t he a war enes s l evel of cons umer s r egar di ng ener gy dr i nks ¶ s i de effect s . Init ial pages of t his r eport als o cont ain t he br ief inf or mat i on about t he pr oduct s, it s ingr edi ent s, and its industr y. All t he inf or mat ion pr ovi ded i n t he r eport is compr ehens i vel y dis cus s ed wit h a sat is fact or y backgr ound of vali d fact s and figur es . If t her e ar e any ques t ions or quer i es you have ab out t he mat er ial pr es ent ed in t his r eport, we will be extr emel y glad t o appear bef or e you. Sincer el y, M. Zubair M. Ar sala n Mehla Ahs a n Bha m (#7971) (#7989) (#8117) (#8106)

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Acknowledgement
D ear Rea der : Wit h t he bles s i ngs of ALL AH t he al mi ght y, t he r eport encl os ed has r eached it s st age of fi nal compl et i on. T his r eport is a r es ult of exhaust i ve and much ent hus iast ic wor k. We ext end our heart i est t ha nks t o S ir Faisal K. Qur es hi, for conduct ing t his cour s e and maki ng it int er es t ing and knowl edgeabl e, wit hout her eff orts and co -oper at ion t he r eport woul d not ha ve been pos s ibl e. We als o t ha nk for her confi dence and tr ust s he ha d i n us, i mport ance of whi ch can in no wa y be under est i mat ed. We ar e equall y grat eful t o Iqra Uni ver s it y for pr ovi di ng us t he oppor t unit ies t o purs ue our endea vor. We als o appr eciat e t he st udent s of Iqra Uni ver s it y, who as s ist ed us in pr ovi ding us all t he neces s ar y inf or mat i on and feedback t hat we r equir ed f or compl et i ng t his tas k. We hope r ea ders of t his r eport can compl ement t he dept h of t he st udy and eff ort s put i nt o it. T hanki ng You Sincer el y, M. Zubair M. Ar sala n Mehla Ahs a n Bha m (#7971) (#7989) (#8117) (#8106)

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This research report, is a part of our term project, is conducted by the team members. The sole purpose of the report was to analyze the awareness level of energy drinks and their side effects among the students and professionals. The report is prepared under the impression that it will help us in develop rational grounds to verify whether there is awareness among the consumers of energy drinks¶ side effects. Initially, there is a brief introduction and background about the research being conducted. Afterwards, we have elaborated the historical background and prevailing situation in the industry of energy drinks. The findings of the report consist of data that is analyzed and interpreted on the basis of statistical inferences. In the conclusion group members have made series of recommendation regarding the energy drinks, their side effects and awareness among the consumer. Towards the purpose of accomplishing the task of carrying out the above stated research, a proposal report was submitted initially. Later as stated in the research methodology, the data was collected from the defined sample size. Direct meetings and questioners remained the main focus of this research. The statistical analysis and the final draft of observation and recommendations were composed by the group members based on the research proposal.

Table of Contents
1 Introduction and Background ................................ ................................ ............. 1 1.1 1.2 2 3 Industry Overview ................................ ................................ ...................... 3 Major Players ................................ ................................ ............................. 5

Literature Review ................................ ................................ .............................. 7 Problem Statement: ................................ ................................ ......................... 13 3.1 3.2 3.3 Research Question ................................ ................................ .................... 13 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ .................. 13 Research Variables ................................ ................................ ................... 14

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Purpose ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 14 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ 14 Scope ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 14 Hypothesis ................................ ................................ ............................... 15 Methodology ................................ ................................ ............................ 15

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Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 15 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 25 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ........................... 27 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 28 Annexure ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 29

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I n t r o d u c t i o n a n d B ac k g r o u n d

The report helps us analyze whether the consumer has a high level of awareness regarding side effects of energy drinks Energy drink promises to energize the spirit, body and mind to release the latent energy within youngsters. Due to the fast growing environment the trends are changing continuously and Consumer is trying to follow the western culture rapidly. Lately, consumption of energy drink has become a fashion statement. Since the lifestyle in urban areas have changed drastically within the past few years, with the passage of time usage of energy drinks is increasing in Pakistan. Male and female both are using energy drinks now. Energy drinks got their own side effects as well. These circumstances motivated team members to study the awareness about and the side effects of energy drinks among the university students and professionals. Team members conducted this research in order to come to know about the awareness of energy drinks among the consumers and also to check their awareness level. Energy drinks are soft drinks advertised as being specifically designed to provide energy. The amount of quantitative 'energy' (as measured in Calories) found in these drinks is often lower than that found in regular soft drinks and currently there is no scientific basis for concluding that the non-caffeine elements in these drinks contribute to either shortterm mental alertness or physical performance. The drinks include a variety of ingredients in different combinations: plant -based stimulants like gaurana, herbs like ginkgo and ginseng, sugar, amino acids including taurine as well as vitamins. But the main active ingredient is caffeine. Loaded with sugar and short on protein they give the body a quick lift without providing any real nourishment. The lift soon gives way to a letdown and you feel hungrier than before. This can be the beginning of the vicious cycle. In real terms

Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects energy drinks do not provide lasting energy. They artificially and temporarily cover the human weaknesses and boost cognitive and physical performance temporarily. Humans are not naturally lethargic or sluggish. Sluggishness is brought about due to lack of sleep, a poor diet, stress etc. Thus, when humans rely on energy drinks to boost performance they are actually neglecting the root causes and covering up the problems temporarily. This in turn can be the beginning of a vicious cycle whereby temporal fitness is achieved at the expense of real sustainable health and fitness. These beverages also contain herbs that may have been grown with pesticides. Moreover, they add toxins to your body, which has to work harder in order to expel them. Excessive use of energy drinks before physical activity is more likely to have a negative impact on the performance and the health of the participant. Additionally, the risks of high blood pressure, anxiety, shaking, elevated heart rate and increased urine discharge (which in turn increases the risk of dehydration) are associated with high intakes of such energy drinks. Caffeine boosts the levels of free fatty acids and an increase in the blood level of the hormone. Moreover high intake of caffeine has been linked to the damaging of blood vessels and a loss of aortic elasticity. High caffeine consumption is associated with chronic daily headaches, particularly among young women and among those with chronic episodic headaches and of recent onset. Central nervous system, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal dysfunction have been associated with chronic caffeine ingestion. In sum, the caffeine in energy drinks will provide the consumer the desirable effects of increased alertness, improved memory, and enhanced mood. However, caffeine can have harmful physical consequences.

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1.1 Industry Overview
The energy drink industry is a smart industry that is continually developing, expanding, and using innovative marketing techniques. As a whole, the industry caters to a younger market, and some energy drink brands aim their products at a healthconscious crowd. The primary target for the majority of energy drink companies is male teenagers and young Consumer, mostly in the 20s age bracket. It is a small segment of society and seemingly very tight market, but these potential consumers have so far been exceptionally receptive to energy drink products. The energy drink industry is not dominated by large, giant companies like the soft -drink industry, but instead characterized by stiff competition between an increasing number of smaller companies, all catering to a very select consumer base. In 1995, PepsiCo launched Josta, the first energy drink introduced by a major US beverage company. In Europe, energy drinks were pioneered by Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur who developed Red Bull based on the Thai drink Krating Daeng, itself based on Lipovitan. Red Bull was introduced to the US in 1997 and is the dominant brand there, with a market share of approximately 47%. Many energy drink companies are directing their products at very specific groups of consumers, such as extreme sports enthusiasts, video game players, or the hip-hop crowd. In fact, many of the names of the beverages clearly relate to one of these areas. Little, if any, advertising for most of these energy drinks is done with television ads. A good number of the companies sponsor extreme events and publicity stunts to promote awareness of their product to the desired consumer group. In addition to sponsoring public events, such as extreme sporting contests or video game championships, other energy drink companies rely on celebrity endorsements to promote their beverages.

Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects Since 2002, the energy drink industry has focused its market on the young generation as a way to stay up to get your studies completed or to work late hours. There have been many creative efforts in packaging to get Consumer to buy energy drinks and take advantage of this growing market. They increased the number of servings per container and made concentrated energy shots. More than 500 new energy drinks were launched worldwide in 2006 and beverage companies are reaping the financial rewards of the 5.7 billion dollar energy drink industry. Energy drinks, including Red Bull, Amp, Monster, Rock Star, Rip It, Full Throttle, and Cocaine, are designed to give the consumer a "jolt" of energy provided by the combination of stimulants and "energy boosters" that they provide, including caffeine, herbal extracts such as gaurana, ginseng, and ginkgo biloba, B vitamins, amino acids such as taurine, amino acid derivatives such as carnitine, and sugar derivatives, including glucuronalactone and ribose. In 2007 the energy drink industry introduced powders and effervescent tablets to be added to water, which made them even more portable and convenient. Recently, health risks involved with using these high-powered liquids is changing the history of energy drinks. The use of natural energy drinks is starting to be a more a more popular solution. These drinks do not contain the stimulants associated with dangerous energy drinks. They are safe and have healthy ingredients that promote well-being. It is predicted that by 2010 the energy drink industry will reach 10 billion dollars.

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1.2 Major Players
Because of the growing craze over energy drinks, the number of energy drink brands has been increasing steadily as everyone wants to take advantage of the expanding market. The demand for energy drinks could be a direct result of Consumer¶s lives becoming busier. As Consumer fill their lives to capacity and then add even more responsibilities, the daily schedules can become quite overwhelming, leaving little time for rest, relaxation, or sleep. All of this activity causes stress and fatigue, but there is no time to stop for a moment and recharge the batteries. As a result, Consumer often turns to stimulants to keep them going throughout the day and give them the energy they need to complete everything they need to do. Energy drinks are one of the more popular ³stimulants´ because they are quick and easy, and most have few recognizable negative side effects. The number of energy drink brands is actually much greater than Consumer realize. RedBull has been the dominant brand for many years, probably because it was one of the first energy drinks developed. Word of mouth has been a big part of RedBull¶s advertising, and as a result, many of the other options have been hidden in RedBull¶s shadow. Although there are many similarities between all the different energy drink brands, there are obviously some differences. The primary difference that distinguishes many energy drinks is the ingredient list. All energy drinks must contain something that results in an increase of energy, but there are various ways to achieve this effect. All of the energy drink brands experiment with their own unique mixture of ingredients, adding higher concentrations of some and lower concentrations of others.

Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects In Pakistan with the increasing trends of using energy drinks number of brands available are increasing. Generally, there is no manufacturer here. There are distributors who import these ready to drink around the world. Main market to import energy drinks is UAE, from there importers import in bulk and then distribute in their target areas. OZO Switzerland is a beverage company with the most extensive distribution system in the world. To distribute their product in Pakistan they have granted the rights to Ghani Group of Industries. This is the only brand that distributors import it directly from the manufacturer and they make its packaging accordingly then. The majority of the sales are coming from urban areas where Consumer has greater purchasing power and awareness of such drinks. Sales of energy drinks are limited in rural areas although they are growing. Around 66% of the Pakistani population resides in rural areas, but most do not buy energy drinks as they are too expensive. Recently, PepsiCo introduced its brand of energy drink ³Sting´ in Pakistan. With the advent of bombarding various brand of energy drink in the market like bomba, booster, and OZO; Sheezan introduced its new brand of energy drink ³Speed´. Energy drink market being a very attractive market for business, many firms has decided to enter this industry. There may be reservations about the quality of such products and what kind of impact will it be making on the behavior of the youth. The major issue here is the awareness of what is being marketed, whether the purpose of such a product is explained in detail or will it be only compos ed to a fashion statement. In general, the public opinion on the consumption of such beverages is not positive. Consumers do abstain from its consumption, until there is an external influence or peer pressure among teenagers. The price is also a highlighting factor in the Pakistani market.

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Li ter a tur e R evi ew

A study by the American Heart Association found that healthy participants who drank two energy drinks daily experienced blood pressure and heart rate increases. That alone isn¶t necessarily alarming, as healthy adults can usually handle a momentary spike in blood pressure. But, for Consumer with cardiac issues, or if normally healthy Consumer drink too much, there could be dangers. A moderate amount of caffeine, about 2-3 cups of coffee a day, isn¶t dangerous for healthy adults. But when you start creeping up to about 500 -600 mg of caffeine, or between 4-7 cups, you run the risk of side effects such as anxiety, irritability, sleeplessness, headaches, gastrointestinal problems, and abnormal heart rhythms. (Reissig, 2008) The American Beverage Association says its members don¶t market energy drinks to teenagers. The intended audience is adults. Consumers who can actually afford these expensive beverages are the intended buyers of the products. One concern about the drinks is that because they are served cold, they may be consumed in larger amounts and more quickly than hot coffee drinks, which are sipped. Another worry is the increasing popularity of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. The addition of caffeine can make alcohol users feel less drunk, but motor coordination and visual reaction time are just as impaired as when they drink alcohol by itself, according to an April 2006 study in the medical journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. (Parker, 2008) Caffeine also causes insomnia, so if you have trouble sleeping, the problem could be caffeinated drinks. There are some energy drinks which have more caffeine than coffee, which is the primary source of caffeine. Some students use caffeine to avoid

Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects sleepiness, so that they can keep studying throughout the night. Energy drinks won't help you concentrate while studying, so don't believe the hype created by energy drink manufacturers. Energy drinks can also make you feel tired and lazy and it becomes difficult to concentrate after consuming energy drinks. Some fitness freaks consume energy drinks before exercising, which can cause dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Another energy drink side effect is that it is diuretic, which causes the kidneys to get rid of extra water, that is, a person urinates more. This, in addition to the fact that you lose water because you sweat during a workout, means that you should not consume energy drinks while exercising. They won't help you lift more weights or improve your stamina, so don't consider them as sport drinks. (Deshpande, 2009) Amidst their growing popularity there is a considerable amount of doubt concerning their side effects on heath. Though they were introduced late in Pakistan, but today there are a large variety of energy drink brands in the country. The sale of these drinks has been gaining momentum and more and more Consumer want to try them out (that¶s what is called The Bandwagon Effect in business studies). However, a number of these ignorant Consumers are not taking an important fact into consideration and that is the side effect of these drinks. This is an important issue that must be addressed promptly Though the names are different but almost all of the energy drinks have similar ingredients. The primary components are caffeine and sugar (in the form of glucose, sucrose and glucuronalactone). Other popular ingredients are herbal supplements, vitamins, amino acids (such as taurine) and gaurana (a South American berry which has a stimulant effect similar to that of caffeine). (Malik, 2005)

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Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects Taurine is probably fine in small doses, but chug too many energy drinks and the picture become less clear. According to a recent case report from St. Joseph's Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, three Consumers had seizures after drinking approximately two 24-ounce energy drinks in a short period of time. However, the researchers don't know whether to blame the taurine or the caffeine, or what role preexisting health conditions may have played. The fact is that there's been little research on taurine consumption in humans, so it's impossible to conclude whether it's safe to consume in high doses. Of course, there's no strong evidence to support its role as an energy booster, either. (Loeb, 2009) Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a reported frequency of 1 ± 4 days per month, many users consumed three or more when combining with alcohol while partying. Further, side effects from consuming energy drinks are fairly common, and a significant dose effect was found with jolt and crash episodes. Future research should identify if college students recognize the amounts of caffeine that are present in the wide variety of caffeine-containing products that they are consuming, the amounts of caffeine that they are consuming in various situations, and the physical side effects associated with caffeine consumption. (Malinauskas, Aeby, & Overton, 2007) Super-caffeinated energy drinks, with names like Red Bull, Monster, Full Throttle and Amp, have surged in popularity in the past decade. About a third of 12- to 24-year-olds say they regularly down energy drinks, which account for more than $3 billion in annual sales in the United States.

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Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects The trend has been the source of growing concern among health researchers and school officials. Around the country, the drinks have been linked with reports of nausea, abnormal heart rhythms and emergency room visits. (Parker, 2008) The primary effect of caffeine is to relieve fatigue and enhance mental performance. Excessive ingestion leads to a state of intoxication known as caffeinism, which is characterized by restlessness, agitation, excitement, rambling thought and speech, and insomnia. These symptoms clearly overlap with those of many psychiatric disorders. The potential harmful effects of caffeine have long been recognized. (Winston, Hardwick, & Jaberi, 2005) Sports drinks provide electrolytes and a high concentration of carbohydrates which are beneficial for the athlete¶s body and performance. Energy drinks do not provide electrolytes, and have a higher likelihood of an energy ³crash-and-burn´ effect. Caffeine in energy drinks can excrete water from the body which can lead to dehydration. If the body is dehydrated by 1%, performance is decreased by up to 10%. (Sport Diet Dilemmas, 2009) One can of Red Bull contains 80mg of caffeine - equivalent to one cup of coffee. Three years ago, Ross Cooney, 18, from Ireland, died after he shared four cans of Red Bull and played in a basketball match. An inquest into his death ruled that he died from Sudden Adult Death Syndrome. Lyondell Contain, a dietician, said: 'The problem with caffeine is that the effects can vary, so it is difficult to say what a safe level is. High levels of caffeine can be dangerous for Consumer with high blood pressure or anxiety disorders. Not much is known about taurine and glucuronalactone, but high levels of them could affect the body.' (Nordqvist, 2004)

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Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects Energy drinks all try to stimulate something in your body that leads to your awakening and feeling as though you have more energy. One big mistake that most Consumer make is that energy drinks will have the same effect on them, regardless of the choice of drink, and ignoring an individual¶s unique body chemical make -up. Since consumption of energy drinks is so prevalent among youth and frequently associated with raves and the nightclub scene, many wonder about their addictive properties. In fact, the only truly addictive part of energy drink ingredients appears to be caffeine. So if you drink enough cans, you may become addicted to caffeine and ultimately suffer from the effects of the addiction. (BrianX, 2004) Drug Education in UK, which delivers drug-awareness classes in schools, warned that the drinks could make pupils disruptive and hyperactive. The makers of energy drinks have say that their products can boost concentration, contain about the same amount of caffeine as a cup of coffee and are not aimed at children. Energy drinks are designed to increase mental awareness and physical performance. If you were to drink energy drinks the psychological effects that you might experience would include; decreased memory, increased alertness, and a head rush. There are many long term effects of drinking energy drinks. Addiction is one of them. Being addicted to anything is very dangerous. When you try to quit drinking these drinks you will experience withdrawal symptoms if you are addicted. Energy Drinks must be taken properly because if not it can affect your body. Energy drinks could also lead to cavities, kidney failures, heart problems, skin problems, and other organ problems.

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Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects Your heartbeat and blood pressure can also be affected by the ingredients in energy drinks. The sugar will make them skyrocket. Never use energy drinks during a physical activity. The caffeine in your energy drink will leave a dehydrated feeling. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose in caffeine abstainers as well as habitual consumers of caffeine from coffee, soft drinks, and tea. The potential for acute caffeine toxicity due to consumption of energy drinks may be greater than other dietary sources of caffeine for several reasons: (1) Lack of adequate labeling: As mentioned earlier, many energy drinks do not label their product with the amount of caffeine, and are not required to display warning labels advising proper use. Consumers may be completely unaware of the amount of caffeine they are ingesting. (2) Advertising: Many energy drinks are marketed with claims of performance enhancing effects although the existence and extent of such effects is subject to debate. Red Bull, for example, advertises several benefits of consumption including improved performance, endurance, concentration and reaction speed, and increased metabolism. Consumers may falsely believe that ³more is better´ and ingest multiple servings of these products. As an added risk, some energy rinks encourage rapid consumption of their products. (3) Consumer demographics: Since there are no restrictions on the sale of energy drinks, adolescents and children (who may be inexperienced and less tolerant to the effects of caffeine) may be at an increased risk for caffeine intoxication. (Reissig, Strain, & Griffiths, 2008)

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P r ob le m S t a t e m e n t :

The purpose is to analyze the awareness level of consumers at Iqra University regarding energy drinks¶ side effects.

3.1 Research Question
y

What is the level of awareness among consumers about energy drink?

3.2 Research Objectives
y y y y y y y y

How many times usually a respondent consumes an energy drink? What are the different energy drink companies in the market? Which brand they prefer in energy drinks? What is the reason for preference of that brand? Is the energy derived from consumption related to satisfaction level? What is the consumption and awareness level among male and female? Any side effect due to use of energy drink? What is the level of awareness regarding ingredients of energy drinks? Who are more aware students or professionals? What age group is more aware about side effects of energy drinks? Is the recommendation based on the satisfaction level of the consumer? What are the most commonly experiences side effects?

y y y y

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3.3 Research Variables
The variables of the research will be: Consumers¶ awareness about energy drinks Consumers¶ awareness about ingredients of the different brands Consumers' awareness about abnormalities caused by energy drinks Consumers¶ frequency of consumption of energy drinks Consumers¶ reason for choice of their preferred brand of energy drinks Consumers¶ attitude towards consumption of energy drinks Consumers¶ urging to consume energy drinks Age dominance in awareness level Gender dominance in awareness level Status dominance in awareness level

y y y y y y y y y y

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4.1 Objectives

Pur pos e

To assess how aware consumers are about energy drinks, frequency of consumption, and the level of awareness regarding the ingredients of energy drinks and their sideeffects.

4.2 Scope
The findings of this study will be applicable to the regular energy drink consumers who are completely aware about the products attributes and features.

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4.3 Hypothesis
H0 : Consumers do NOT have a high level of awareness regarding side effects of energy drinks. H1 : Consumers have a high level of awareness regarding side effects of energy drinks. H0 : Consumers do NOT assign a high level of importance to the side effects of energy drinks. H1 : Consumers assign a high level of importance to the side effects of energy drinks.

4.4 Methodology
The data will be collected through primary sources by surveying Iqra University Main/EDC campus & secondary data from the internet.

SAMPLING UNIT: The sample unit consists of professionals & students at Iqra
University, with a consistent level of energy drink consumption.

SAMPLE SIZE: A sample of 150 Consumer in Iqra University will be drawn.

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R e s u lt s

In Pakistan, the advent of energy drink is a recent highlight of a urban city dwellers daily life. Energy drink, as the name suggests, is a beverage that can be used for an instant energy boost. The pace at which people in the city are functioning creates exhaustion and makes them lethargic to work energetically. There is a need of sum supplement that can improve their performance capabilities. Energy drinks provides that solution, but the question arises that what causes such a boost. Apart from natural ingredients used to enhance performance, artificial or medicated toxins are also being used in such drinks which may have adverse effects. Now we might need to know whether or not the consumer is aware of such aspects, do they give weightage to such elements or are they indifferent to it.

Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects We will start our discussion by testing our first hypothesis where we will be testing the awareness level of consumers regarding energy drinks¶ side effects. We asked our respondents whether they were aware of the ingredients¶ side effects used in the energy drinks. In response to the question we found that only half of the consumers were aware of the ingredients side effects.

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At significance level of 95%, we can accept our null hypothesis that consumers do NOT have a high level of awareness regarding side effects of energy drinks. Based on such results we can deduce that consumers are neither informed nor intrigued by the ingredients used in the energy drinks.

Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects Next, we test the second hypothesis which predicts that consumers don¶t give any importance to side effects of energy drinks. This can be tested by taking into account the level of consumption and awareness about his preferred brand of energy drink. The table below explains whether there is any association between the consumption pattern and awareness level of energy drinks.

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In the classification table, we can see that 56.5% of consumers who are aware of the ingredients used in their preferred brand of do not consume energy drink regularly. Similarly in the case where 76% of consumers who are not aware of the ingredients used in their preferred brand of energy drinks still don¶t consume it regularly. The reason for this phenomenon can be the price factor. Where even with no awareness of the ingredients used, consumers are hesitant to buy such an expensive beverage as a source of refreshment. At a confidence level of 95%, the test is insignificant and we can accept our null hypothesis that consumers do NOT assign a high level of importance to the side effects of energy drinks.

Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects No we will study the different dimensions of the consumer based on the demographics and other importance attributes which were taken as response from the consumers through our questionnaire. By doing this we will be fulfilling our research objectives which we have stated in the previous section of the report. In the following table we have are testing whether age group of the consumer is associated with the consumption of the energy drinks. As we discussed earlier, the target market for the energy drink is mainly adults above the age of 24.

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In the classification table, it shows that the consumer who are above 23 years of age consumes relatively more than the rest. Based on the percentages there is an increased level of consumption in adults, but there are a few heavy drinkers in below 23 years of age bracket. The reason for this might be teenagers are more concerned about their social status or they like to be active for prolonged hours. At 95% confidence interval, the test is insignificant which means that consumption is not associated with age groups.

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In the classification table we can study that males consumes more the energy drink than females. At confidence level of 95%, the test is insignificant; there is no association between gender and the consumption pattern.

The table above shows that group who give weight to taste for choosing a brand is significantly high at 95% confidence interval. He we can infer that taste is an important factor based on which the consumer chooses his option. The main reason is the medicated odour due to the ingredients that may be used in it. Many companies have introduced products that have better taste. Next to taste, weightage is also given to the energy extension ability of the brand.

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In the above table it explains that the consumers are more satisfied with their preferred brand when they get the desired energy on its consumption. 93.8% consumers who get the source of energy from the preferred energy drink are highly satisfied; whereas, 85.7% of consumers who don¶t get the energy from their preferred bra nd are dissatisfied with it. At a significance level of 95%, the null hypothesis in rejected and the level of satisfaction is completely dependent upon whether the energy drinks provide the level of energy that the consumer perceive the brand to provide on consumption.

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Here the table explains that consumers who are highly satisfied with their brand of energy drink will recommend their friends and colleagues. 81.3% of consumers who are highly satisfied said yes when asked to recommend their preferred brand of energy drink. The reason might be it can be helpful while studying for a test in the night or before any sports activity. And 57.1% of the consumers who were dissatisfied won¶t recommend the product to anyone. At a 95% significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected; the opinion of recommendation is completely dependent upon the level of satisfaction which is derived from consumption of preferred brand of energy drinks.

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Neither status nor gender is associated with awareness of the ingredients used in energy drinks at a confidence level of 95%. Therefore we can say that there is a general perception of beliefs among the population but there is no precise detail about the ingredients used in the energy drinks.

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Cross tabulation shows that 63.6% consumers above the 28 years of age are aware of the ingredients used in the energy drinks. At a 95% significance level, there is no association between the age and the awareness level of the consumers.

Significant side effects are Headache, B.P Disorder and Sleep disturbance.

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There are a significant number of consumers in a group who believes that consuming energy drink before any particular physical or mental activity. Though they are not addicted but still they believe that it will enhance their capabilities and be more alert to cope with the situation they intend to be in. Here we can realize that the consumers are fully aware of the purpose of the energy drink and they use it when it is required rather than casual refreshment.

From the table above we can understand that the consumer is fully aware that regular consumption of energy drink will cause serious damage to their health and will result in physical abnormalities. Though there is no evident acceptance towards the fact that there are side effects to it, but still consumer feels that if energy drinks are consumed more frequently, it will affect their health. This can be because influential sources who ask them not to consume energy drinks because it¶s harmful to health, but still they feel the urge to consume.

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F i n di n g s

From the whole research the team members have got following major findings regarding the consumers of Iqra University Concept of usage of energy drinks is there among the Consumer and almost one third of the population like to have energy drinks. Male are more aware about the energy drinks as compared to females. Consumer does believe that energy drinks serve the purpose of providing them energy. Other factors like status, showoff, taste etc do count but up to little extent. Consumers of Iqra University are partially familiar with the ingredients of the energy drinks. Adults of Iqra University are more familiar about the ingredients of the energy drinks as compared to the teenagers. The Consumer does know that energy boosters both artificial and natural are used to re-boost their energy level. They don¶t know about the other key ingredients. Consumers do agree that Caffeine builds various health hazards in their body. Consumer doesn¶t know about the effects of tuarine, gaurana and ginseng on their health. There is no manufacturer in the Pakistan.

y

y y

y

y

y

y y y

y

Research Methods ± Thursday, May 06, 2010 Awareness Level of Energy Drinks¶ Side Effects
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Limited numbers of brands are available in Pakistan, but recently new brands are being introduced in the local market. Available brands are being imported from UAE in ready to drink form. There is no legal imposition over the import of energy drinks. And ministry of health is taking no action to create awareness among the Consumer about the side effects of the energy drinks. Level of awareness among the Consumer of Iqra University is high because mostly they are overseas and there awareness level about the energy drinks is quite high. Due to the lack of direct supply chain promotional activities about the energy drinks are very less in number. Because of the more work load over the students they are obliged to use such artificial energy boosters. Marketing campaigns launched by the different brands are misleading the youngsters.

y y

y

y

y

y

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R e c om m e nd a ti on s

Despite the limited science, we do know that energy drinks constitute a potential danger to the health and safety of our communities, and particularly to our young Consumer. We need not wait for more science to act: Energy drinks should be vigorously opposed before the products become even more popular Health ministry should take actions in order to make Consumer aware about the health hazards of the energy drinks focusing particularly on the impact on underage drinking Government should make a check upon the misleading advertising campaigns and should take legal actions against them. Campaigns should be encouraged in order to create awareness about natural energy providers Communities need to aggressively seek both voluntary action and government action at all levels national, state, and local to protect our young Consumer from harm. Action is urgently needed before energy drinks become further entrenched in the marketplace, which in turn would create powerful economic interests determined to maintain the country quo. These beverages are still in development, with major marketing efforts undoubtedly now being devised by the major producers.

y

y

y

y

y

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Co nc lu si o n

To conclude, we may say that the energy drink consumer are NOT fully aware of the ingredients used in the energy drinks and are not affected by due it as well. There consumption pattern is low not due to awareness of ingredient¶s side effects but due to certain other factors which may deter consumer to drink energy drink more regularly. Though there is no pattern among demographics related to it consumption. But still a prominent relation can be seen in the between the need for instant energy and the satisfaction level. In turn the consumer will also recommend the product to his colleague. There are also side effects to its consumption which needs be taken into consideration. Another important dimension that can be seen is the benefits which consumers feel they can derive from its consumption and on the other hand they believe that there will be some latent abnormalities that will occur in their bodies if they continue to consume energy drinks at the same pace. Lastly, I would like to add that anything excess above necessity can prove to be harmful, if we use the product for the sole purpose for which it is marketed for, i.e. an instant source of energy, rather than just a refreshment or a sign of social status. I believe there can be no harm in a conventional consumption at time of need, such as, studies or sports. Though, excess consumption of energy drink can prove to be fatal.

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A nne x ur e

Works Cited
BrianX. (2004, November 23). Energy Drinks: Ingredients & Dangers. Retrieved March 06, 2010, from BrianX.com: http://brianx.com/nightlife/energy-drinks.html Deshpande, M. (2009, August 10). Energy Drinks Side Effects. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from Buzzle.com: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/energy-drinks-side-effects.html Loeb, H. (2009). Do the Ingredients in Energy Drinks Work? Retrieved March 4, 2010, from MensHealth.com: http://www.menshealth.com/mhlists/effectiveness_of_energy_drinks/Taurine.php Malik, W. M. (2005, February 20). The next big addiction. Retrieved May 06, 2010, from Dawn.com: http://www.dawn.com/weekly/dmag/archive/050220/dmag9.htm Malinauskas, B. M., Aeby, V. G., & Overton, R. F. (2007). A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students. Nutrition Journal , 1-7. Nordqvist, C. (2004, February 08). French ban on Red Bull (drink) upheld by European Court. Retrieved May 06, 2010, from Medical News Today: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/5753.php Parker, T. (2008, May 27). Taste for Quick Boost Tied to Taste for Risk. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/27/health/27well.html?_r=1&n=Top/Reference/Times%20 Topics/Consumer/P/Parker-Pope,%20Tara Reissig, C. J., Strain, E. C., & Griffiths, R. R. (2008). Caff einated energy drinks²A growing problem. Drug and Alchohol Dependence , 1-10. Reissig, D. C. (2008, October 3). Experts Want Label Overhaul for Energy Drinks. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from WellSphere: http://www.wellsphere.com/weight-loss-article/experts-want-labeloverhaul-for-energy-drinks/412996;jsessionid= D9A1FCCC8B91F670E258C5900EF8FAAE?query=Energy+Drink+Side+Effects Sport Diet Dilemmas. (2009, July 31). 12-13. Washington, United States of America: WINForum.org. Winston, A. P., Hardwick, E., & Jaberi, N. (2005). Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment , 11, 432±439.

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