7/31/2008

Pakistan Electronic Media
Trends Amongst the Youth of Karachi Submitted by: y M. Zubair; #7971 y Ahsan Bham; #8106 Submitted to: Dr. Tanveer Anjum

M. Zubair; Ahsan Bham

Acknowledgment
We would like to thank Almighty ALLAH for giving us the strength to complete this report and we are grateful to our teacher (Dr. Tanveer Anjum) and our parents who guided us so that we may prosper and perform our best. We are also obliged to IQRA University for providing us with the facilities to that enabled us to perform our research in the best possible environment. We would also like to show appreciation to the students of IQRA University who spared there precious time so that we may get all the possible data which was required for concluding this report. In the end we hope that you may get all relevant information that we have tried to portray without any bias. ²THANKYOU

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Table of Contents
Abstract .............................................................................................................................................. 4 Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 5 y y y TELEVISION .......................................................................................................................... 5 INTERNET .............................................................................................................................. 5 MOBILE PHONES ................................................................................................................. 6

STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS ................................................................................................. 6 KEYWORDS .................................................................................................................................. 6 ASSUMPTIONS/LIMITATIONS ................................................................................................. 7 SCOPE/METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................8 DATA SOURCE .................................................................................................................................8 REVIEWS OF RELATED LITERATURE ........................................................................................ 9 DESIGN OF THE STUDY ................................................................................................................11 ANALYSIS OF DATA ...................................................................................................................... 25 CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................... 27 Works Cited .................................................................................................................................... 28 APPENDIX (A) ................................................................................................................................29

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Table of Figures
Figure 1: Multiple Bars show Academic Qualification divided into Gender of Student ..... 8 Figure 2: Watching hours of Television in a day............................................................. 11 Figure 3: Shows TV Channels preferences..................................................................... 12 Figure 4: Viewership of News Channels by Male ............................................................ 12 Figure 5: Viewership of News Channels by Female ........................................................ 12 Figure 6: Total Viewership of Sports/Documentary Channels ....................................... 13 Figure 7: Viewership of Entertainment/Shows Channels by Male ................................. 13 Figure 8: Viewership of Entertainment/Shows Channels by Female ............................. 13 Figure 9: Viewership of Music/MOD/VOD Channels by Male ....................................... 13 Figure 10: Viewership of Music Channels/MOD/VOD Channels by Female.................. 13 Figure 11: Shows TV Channels not preferred. ............................................................... 14 Figure 12: Ownership of number of TV & PC/laptop ..................................................... 14 Figure 13: Table shows the average expenditure depending on the number of SIMS owned ........................................................................................................................... 15 Figure 14: Categorizes population according to their expenditure Mobile-phone bills in a month ........................................................................................................................... 15 Figure 15: Categorizes population according to the number of SIM services they avail .. 15 Figure 16: Categorizes people according to what type of internet connection they use ... 16 Figure 17: Shows which type of activities they prefer to do on the Internet .................... 17 Figure 18: General view in regard to the question ¶Does TV effects the social behavior?· 18 Figure 19: General view in regard to the question ¶IS Television Either a Source of Entertainment or Information?· ..................................................................................... 19 Figure 20: General view in regard to the question ¶Will you able to function if Internet Facility is not provided?· ................................................................................................ 20 Figure 21: General view in regard to the question ¶IS chatting an important feature on the Internet?· ................................................................................................................. 21 Figure 22: General view in regard to the question ¶IS being Member of online blogs, forums, and communities useful?·................................................................................. 22 Figure 23: General view in regard to the question ¶Have you ever used internet as an educational aid?· ........................................................................................................... 23 Figure 24: General view in regard to the question ¶Does using mobile phones affect your studies?· ........................................................................................................................ 24

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Abstract
Being a developing country, Pakistan has just stepped into the era of technological advancements in the past few years. Television, being the major contribution of the hitech progress, has made a great impact on our lives. It is the most popular source of information as well as entertainment as it tends to both the literate and illiterate population. Some call it an ´IDIOT BOXµ, as they consider it to be the reason why our current generation is completely misguided, blindly following whatever they are shown on TV. Similarly, TV has an adverse effect on the indigenous people, as it causes them to lose their cultural values and traditions, and adopt such innovations that may affect how they work, communicate, do business, trade, learn, teach, inform and research. Many are in favor of TV as it has a much positive impact on the life of the average people of Pakistan, in particular, and the world in general. It·s believed to be the most reliable source from where we can get up to date information on any affair or matter. Moreover, internet and mobile services are also steadily gaining popularity among the masses, especially in the more developed areas of the country. People, particularly the younger generation, is relying on it more and more as means of communication and source of information. Along with its benefits, it can also be a nuisance and cause serious problems if used negatively. In this paper, an empirical study is conducted whether watching TV, using internet, and mobile would lead us in a well informed, communicated, and participatory society or in a society of loneliness. These issues are explored in detail and analyzed what is the Electronic Media trend amongst the youth of Karachi.

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Pakistan Electronic Media
Trends Amongst the Youth of Karachi

Introduction

T

he dynamic nature of the technology has affected economic as well as social life pattern of the people. These continuously changing patterns were more difficult to

adhere to in the last decade. But recently these changes are much swift. Nowadays the youth tends to have gained interest in such technological toys: automobiles as convenient mode of transport, television as a source of entertainment, learning and information, and other many luxuries that seems to have become more like necessities.

y TELEVISION
Television, an electronic medium first introduced in Pakistan in early 1970, is supposed to be the breakthrough in globalization and multicultural trends showing a great impact on the indigenous people of Pakistan. Cable TV provides both sources of information and entertainment, with the former associated with news channels, documentary channels, and educational channels; and latter with sports channel, daily-soap channels, music channels, and movie channels. With more and more channels going on-air everyday viewers are exposed to choose from a wide variety.

y INTERNET
When personal computers reached the Pakistani market in late 1990, it was a great development tool as it provided effective work and time reduction. It had capabilities to perform complex tasks and provide variety of functions to different users. People at that time tend to show interest in learning how to employ it in their daily lives and avail its different benefits. As internet was introduced, it opened a Pandora box
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for the current users of the personal computer as well as attracted new users all around the world including Pakistan. Now even being confined around walls they could socialize with people globally, get acquaintance with their culture, and get unlimited information about everything they may desire.

y MOBILE PHONES
In the mid 1990 mobile phones penetrated the common public users which in return resulted in becoming an indispensable part of the society giving birth to nation specific mobile cultures and mobile etiquettes. SMS emerged as the most economic and convenient mode of receiving and sending messages. Today in an average family every member from schoolboy to a senior citizen, everyone owns a mobile phone. With the variety of mobile services present in the market there is neck to neck competition in gaining the largest market share and obtaining the largest customer base by providing highest level of customer satisfaction. For this purpose service providers are try to design the most attractive tariffs at lowest possible charges. Attracted by these impressive tariffs youngster get carried away and get captivated in a multitude of different packages and waste valuable resources ³ mainly time & money³holding the view that they·re economizing, whereas they·re actually being grasp off.

STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
´If behavior of people is related to their media exposure, then people with a high exposure to ¶electronic media· will have a greater impact of it on their behavior.µ

KEYWORDS
Technology, Television, Internet, Mobile Phones, IQRA University

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ASSUMPTIONS/LIMITATIONS
The objective of the study is to bring into consideration what the youth of Karachi prefer to watch and surf on TV and internet respectively. Here we have assumed that the viewership of the people of Pakistan is limited to channels of that are Pakistan based. That include:

GEO Television Network News / Current Affairs

AAJ TV DAWN NEWS GEO SUPER

SPORTS / DOCUMENTARY National Geographic Home Box Office Cartoon Network ENTERTAINMENT/ SHOWS

HUM TV

Star World Star Plus AAG TV Music / VOD / MOD MTV Pakistan PLAY TV

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SCOPE/METHODOLOGY
Keeping in view the above facts, our report will examine the different degrees of usage of the above electronic mass media resources. By circulating questionnaire (Appendix A) as a source of primary data and internet as the source of collecting secondary data; our final analysis will be regarding as to what extent the youth of Karachi uses different electronic mass media resources and what their effects are. The sample size taken from the population is of 150 (approx.), majorly consisting of students from IQRA University. In this study, datahas been analyzed according to sex; age and acedemic qualifacation are taken as single entity.

DATA SOURCE
IQRA UNIVERSITY PRIVATE

BCS

INTERMEDIATE

BBA

Bachelors of Commerce

MBA

Other

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

51%

48%

45%

26% 2% 5% BBA MBA 18% 5% Male Female

BCS Pvt.

Figure 1: Multiple Bars show Academic Qualification divided into Gender of Student

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REVIEWS OF RELATED LITERATURE
In recent years, Pakistan has moved into the age of multiple-channel television broadcasting. The cable TV has brought the world close to the domestic viewers, earnestly making and shaping their opinions in the process. (Waseem, 2006) In the above extract, the author has tried to explain that with the increasing number of licenses issued, to private channels and news agencies, by PEMRA (Pakistan Electronic & Media Regulatory Authority) there has been an outburst of a large number of channels telecast via satellite through cable TV. Television technology has had an impact on media habits of the public, their attitudes and behavior towards entertainment and interaction between family members. (Cole, 2000) assessed the need of internet as a mainstream medium that may soon be as pervasive as television although speed of its diffusion seems much faster. Internet has influenced different aspects of society. It is important to understand what the consequences of the diffusion and high use of internet are on lives of people. (Isherwood & Marry, 1979) One school of thought is of the opinion that internet is completely destroying the perceptions of our youth as to what they think their cultural and social values are; on the other hand, some are of the view that although having a negative impact it also imparts common knowledge to different parts of society and provides information and entertainment to a larger population as compared to television.

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According to a survey by (Wellman, Haase, Witte, & Hampton, 2001) on ´the National Geographic Society websiteµ internet is increasing interpersonal

connectivity and organizational involvement. This increased connectivity and involvement exposes people to increased contact and information; however, it also reduces commitment to community and creates individual isolation. Among many advantages, internet has proved to have a negative impact on society. The new generation is much more involved in availing computer facilities and activities like browsing, blogging, and chatting on the internet; they are greatly exposed to the western ideology and explicit content that can limit the ability to differ right from wrong. Another downside to it is that it is believed that it causes mental stress and seclusion due to decreased social interaction as the users are confined to their rooms all day.

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DESIGN OF THE STUDY

50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

41% 42% 45%

45%

14% 13%

Male Female

Less than 1 hour Between 1 - 3 hours More than 3 hours

Figure 2: Watching hours of Television in a day

In fig. 2, bar chart is shown divided into different response that depicts the percent of TV watching hours gathered on basis of the questionnaire. Survey shows pattern of hours watching TV is nearly similar of male and female, i.e. about 42% of population watch TV for less than an hour, 45% watch TV between 2-3 hours. Thus the ratio of people watching TV for long hours is not large as far as time is concerned. Only 13% of the population watches TV for more than 3 hours.

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50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

43% 38% 38% 16% 20% 3% 15% 27% Male Female

News / Current Affairs Sports/Documentary Entertainment/Shows Music/VOD/MOD

Figure 3: Shows TV Channels preferences

In fig. 3, because of the current political instability in the country people are now more interested in knowing the latest affairs of the state which might be the reason that about 38% of males and 16% of female prefer to watch News/Current Affairs. Sports have always has been of greater interest among male therefore 20% of male prefer to watch sports/documentaries; on the contrary, female preference is negligible. Entertainment /shows are always popular among the females and watch their soaps and dramas more regularly as compared to males. Music/VOD/MOD is commonly popular among the masses as about 27% and 38% of males and females respectively, prefer to listen to music and videos.
AAJ TV 9% DAWN NEWS 12% GEO NEWS 56% GEO NEWS 79% DAWN NEWS 11%

AAJ TV 33%

Figure 4: Viewership of News Channels by Male

Figure 5: Viewership of News Channels by Female

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NAT GEO 22%

GEO SUPER

78%

Figure 6: Total Viewership of Sports/Documentary Channels

STAR WORLD

HBO 31%

HUM TV 8%
STAR WORLD

38%

24%
CARTOON NETWORK

HUM TV 8%

23%

STAR PLUS 68%

Figure 7: Viewership of Entertainment/Shows Channels by Male

Figure 8: Viewership of Entertainment/Shows Channels by Female
PLAY TV 14% AAG TV 13%

PLAY TV 21%

AAG TV 25%

MTV 54%

MTV 73%

Figure 9: Viewership of Music/MOD/VOD Channels by Male

Figure 10: Viewership of Music Channels/MOD/VOD Channels by Female

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In fig.11, it seems unanimous that no one prefers to watch any regional channels and even having number regional channels there is very less viewership. This is a clear waste of economic resources of the country as there can be much more productive use of such resources rather than just airing such channels which has no viewers. Many also don·t like to watch News/Current Affairs channels but only because of their family preference they are compelled to watch without any choice.

80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Male Female Regional Music/VOD/MOD Entertainment/Shows Sports/Documentary News Channels

Figure 11: Shows TV Channels not preferred.

In fig. 12, comparison between the ownership of television and PC/Laptop illustrates that population prefers to own more than one TV. Larger number of channels is being telecast therefore its necessary to have more than one TV so that all members of the family can watch their own preferred channels. But in case of PC/Laptops there is no such requirement therefore one PC/Laptop is enough.
Television PC/Laptop

49% 31%

40%

34% 18% 12% 11% 5%

1

2

3

4

Figure 12: Ownership of number of TV & PC/laptop

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After the large reduction in mobile phone service charges people have started to use mobile phones exhaustively. As different mobile phone services companies offer different package therefore they buy SIMs of different companies; consequently, there is an increase in their expenditure as shown in fig. 13.
Number of Sims One SIM Two to Three SIMs More than three SIMs Average Level of Expenditure Less than Rs. 500 Between Rs. 500 ² Rs. 2,000 More than Rs. 2,000

Figure 13: Table shows the average expenditure depending on the number of SIMS owned

In fig. 14, mobile phone expenditure is divided into following categories in which 45% of the population spends less than Rs. 500, 41% spends between Rs. 500 and Rs. 2,000, and 14% spends more than Rs. 2,000. Thus the ratio of spending large amount on mobile phones is much less. In fig. 15, 50% of people own one SIM and the rest of the population owns more than one SIM.
45% 41%

14%

Less than Rs 500

Between Rs 500 - 2000

More than Rs 2000

Figure 14: Categorizes population according to their expenditure Mobile-phone bills in a month

52% 32% 9%

2%
Four SIMs

4%
Above

One SIM

Two SIMs

Thre SIMs

Figure 15: Categorizes population according to the number of SIM services they avail

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In fig. 16, people using internet access the internet through these type of connection in which broadband has the largest 45% market share, then comes DSL and Dial-up connections having about 25%. Wireless/Wi-Fi has very less users. There were also 3% people who were not using internet; main reason for not using internet was that they didn·t even know how to operate windows or even a computer. When asked they either didn·t have a good schooling background or they came from interior areas and didn·t have a good financial condition.
45 %

22 %

25 %

5%

3% No Connection

Dial-up Connection

Broadband

DSL

Wireless/WiFi

Figure 16: Categorizes people according to what type of internet connection they use

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Internet users have access to a large number of entertainment and information portals therefore have many options to choose from which is shown in the following chart. In fig. 17, in response to internet activities different variations of preference is seen between population of male and female. It is prominent that 45% of females as well as 31% of males do browsing and searching. It was also observed that every single user who prefers browsing or searching on the internet always use GOOGLE. In case of Community/Blogs/Forums 27% of males are involved as compared to only 14% of females uses these kinds of services which consists of ¶Facebook· and ¶Orkut·. There is less but equal number of males and females who prefer to do chatting. Entertainment/Streaming is done by about 15% which is done on YOUTUBE. But there are negligible number of people who prefer to study online which constitutes of 15% and 16% of male and female respectively.
Male Female

45%

27%

14% 22%

22% 31% 14% 15% 5% 6%

Community/Forum/Blogs

Chatting Browsing/Searching Entertainment/Streaming E-Learning

Figure 17: Shows which type of activities they prefer to do on the Internet

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Does TV affect the social behavior?

100% 80% 60% 40% 70%

66%

28% 25% 7%

20% 0% Yes No Maybe 5%

Male

Female

Figure 18: General view in regard to the question µDoes TV affect the social behavior?¶

In fig. 18, table shows the response to the question whether TV has an impact on their social behavior. About 70% of male and 66 % of female population said yes they are affected by what they see on the TV. Then 25% of male and 28% of female population said that they·re not affected by what they see on TV. Others expressed no views regarding this.

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Television Either a Source of Entertainment or Information
88% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% BOTH Either Female 10% 12% 90%

Male

Figure 19: General view in regard to the question µIS Television Either a Source of Entertainment or Information?¶

In fig. 19, people gave answer to the question that either TV is a source of entertainment or information. Almost everyone, i.e. 90% of the male and 88% of the female population answered both. Remaining answered either of them.

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Ability to Function if Internet Not Provided

100% 64% 80% 33% 60% 40% 20% 0% Yes No Maybe Female 9% 3% 40% 51%

Male

Figure 20: General view in regard to the question µWill you able to function if Internet Facility is not provided?¶

In fig. 20, response to the question asked that if they will be able to function if internet facility is not provided. There were mixed answers that 40% of the male and 33% of the female population answered that they will be able to function if internet facility is not provided. On the other hand 51% of the male and 64% of the female population said that they will not be able to function if internet facility is not provided. Others had no comments about it.

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Is Chatting an Important Feature of Internet

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Yes No 31% 29% 61%

69%

2% 8%

Maybe Female

Male

Figure 21: General view in regard to the question µIS chatting an important feature on the Internet?¶

In fig. 2, when asked whether chatting is an important feature on the internet. The response was that 61% of the male and 69% of the female population said that it·s not an important feature of the internet. On the other hand 31% of the male and 29% of the female population said that it·s an important feature on the internet. Rest of them had nothing t o say.

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Is Being Member of online Blogs, Forums, and Communities Useful

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Yes No Maybe Male Female 8% 45% 55% 31% 47% 14%

Figure 22: General view in regard to the question µIS being Member of online blogs, forums, and communities useful?¶

In fig. 22, the chart shows the response of the people when asked that is being a member of communities/forums and blogs is useful. There was positive reply from 45% of male and 31% of the female population. But 47% of the male and 55% of the female population gave a negative answer. Others had no opinion regarding this question.

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Use of Internet as an Educational Aid
97% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 89%

3% 11%

Yes No

Male

Female

Figure 23: General view in regard to the question µHave you ever used internet as an educational aid?¶

In fig. 23, we asked whether people have used internet as an educational add. The response to this question was that 89% of the male and 97% of the female population said that they have use internet as an educational aid. But others were not using internet for educational aid at all.

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Does Using Mobile Phones Affect Your Studies

100% 80% 31% 60% 40% 20% 0% Yes No Maybe Female 8% 45% 47% 14% 55%

Male

Figure 24: General view in regard to the question µDoes using mobile phones affect your studies?¶

In fig. 24, in this question we asked people if they think that with extensive use of mobile phones are they wasting their money or time, whether there studies are affected or not. In reply 45% of the male and only 31% of the female population said that their studies are affected and it·s also a waste of money. But 47% of the male and 55% of the female answered that their studies are not at all affected and it·s also not a waste of money. The rest of them had nothing to say.

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ANALYSIS OF DATA
The study reveals that youth mainly uses electronic media for the sake of enjoyment. Due to isolation, many resort to such methods as to end depression or to make new friends. It helps them to bridge the gap between people. They also require a source of entertainment either through TV; internet or, mobile phones. Youth has access to different TV channels, giving them increased exposure to superfluous news and information. As the saying goes, ¶Ignorance is bliss·, it is sometimes better to be unaware of things, rather than take all the worries of the world upon oneself. Similarly, internet is also used as a means to obtain redundant information. Because of the excessive use of internet people are diverted from more productive activities and this may cause cessation of mental growth. Likewise, mobile phones present a way of constant communication, which again may rob us of peace of mind and privacy. With the introduction of packages offering night-long free calls for example ¶Saari Raat Free Main Baat·, many don·t sleep all night just for the sake of talking for free, not realizing that just to save a few hundred rupees, they are deprived of their fitful sleep, health and academic future. It is correct that there are number of people that are adversely affected by excessive media exposure but they do not form a large part of the population. There are a significant number of people who realize that their lives are beyond the media hype. There are still many who use electronic media for getting useful information as well as meaningful entertainment, using media exposure in a productive manner. They do not watch TV or use internet as a compulsion, but only to get general knowledge through news updates, current affairs, sports, and documentaries so as to know what is happening around them. They use internet as an effective tool for their education and to get required information. It provides them with a means of communication with people with the motive of their own betterment. They get information relating to health, religion; communicate with their friends and relatives; do on-line shopping; and consult with professionals without time and space restrictions. In the same context, mobile phones can also be used to get useful information, contact friends and family in times of need, and get news quickly when necessary.

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The youth of Karachi is content with their involvement in electronic media and seems to be responsible enough to know what is right and what is wrong. They may make mistakes, but they learn from them and as a result are more cogent and well informed of the consequences they might have to face if they abuse the facilities available to them. They have a rational approach towards the use of TV, internet, and mobile phones. They are aware of the pros and cons of electronic media and they make their choices with an open mind. Even though they have such a positive attitude, it is still the responsibility of concerned authorities to keep a strict check on the usage of electronic media and on what is being imparted to the youth to avoid incidents which may later cause regret.

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CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, results of the survey about the trend amongst the youth of Karachi concerning Pakistan Electronic Media are presented. These results suggest that, in general, majority of the users do agree to the potential of electronic media for being an informative source for the general public and realize that if effectively utilized, this proves to be a valuable resource. The survey shows that the percentage of population watching TV for long hours, wasting time on internet, chatting or making careless expenditure on mobile phone services is insignificant. This could be attributed to the presence of principled behavior. It appears that electronic media also provides a platform to get acquainted with different cultures through TV. Similarly, electronic media has emerged as a source of developing social contacts among people and keep friends and family in touch using several facilities provided on the internet. It also benefits educationists to get updates and on-line information with a single keystroke. In this study, youth has rejected to the adverse effect of mobile phone services on their studies. However, youth is adversely affected by the seemingly cheap packages offered by the mobile phone service providers. It is the responsibility of parents and elders to keep a vigilant eye on their children when they·re being provided with such facilities. Also, the youth should act responsibly when using such facilities and respect their elders· decision to be provided with them.

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Works Cited
Cole, J. I. (2000). The Impact of the Internet on Our Social, Political and Economic Life. The UCCLA Center for Communication Policy . Isherwood, B., & Marry, D. (1979). The world of goods. In New York Basic Books. Waseem, M. (2006, November 26). The Electronic Media Explosion. Retrieved from Asia Media: http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/ Wellman, B., Haase, A. Q., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital? Social Networks, Participation, and Community Commitment. In The Internet in Everyday Life , American Behavioral Scientist (pp. 45(3), 437-456).

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APPENDIX (A)

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