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ABSTRACT

The purpose of research is to make control system of sun tracking to run solar panels can
go after the movement of sun rotation so that it can produces electrical energy as much as
possible. For finding the sunlight,we use two sensor Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) which is
can provide an information about how much intensity of light received by each sensors.
Microcontroller Atmega16 used on process of intensity of data and determinate of motorDC
direction. The voltage produced solar panels displayed using LCD2x16.
Testing in the open spot affected directly by sunlight emissions from 7 am until 5 pm was
using a solar panels for 6 days. In the three days first testing we are not using tracker, then the
three days testing later we were using tracker. The testing result for 6 days were getting these
data: solar panels using solar tracker produce the average voltage precentage 1,6% larger on the
first day, the average voltage presentage 1,6% larger on the second day, and the average voltage
presentage 1,1% on the third day. In this system testing, the weather affected how was the syatem
working so the voltage of generate was not maximum since light intensity affect the power on
the solar cell system. The higher of light intensity was radiated on the solar planels surface, the
more increased voltage and stream produced by solar cell.
Keywords : solar panel,microcontroller atmega16,LCD,LDR,motor DC.

INTISARI
Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah membuat sistem kendali penjejak matahari untuk
menggerakan panel surya yang dapat mengikuti arah pergerakan matahari, sehingga energi
listrik yang dihasilkan dapat maksimal. Untuk mencari arah datangnya sinar matahari, digunakan
dua sensor Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) yang memberikan informasi besar intensitas cahaya
yang diterima masing-masing sensor. Pengolahan data-data intensitas, penentuan arah putaran
motorDC dilakukan oleh mikrokontroler ATmega16. Selanjutnya tegangan yang dihasilkan panel
surya ditampilkan menggunakan LCD2x16.
Pengujian dilakukan selama enam hari pada tempat terbuka yang terkena pancaran sinar
matahari secara bebas dari pukul 07.00 17.00 WIB dengan menggunakan satu panel surya
,kemudian panel surya tersebut di uji selama enam hari, tiga hari pertama tanpa menggunakan
tracker, kemudian untuk tiga hari berikutnya menggunakan sistem tracker.Dari hasil pengujian
selama enam hari diperoleh data bahwa panel surya menggunakan solar tracker menghasilkan
prosentase tegangan rata-rata lebih besar 1,6% pada hari pertama, menghasilkan prosentase
tegangan rata-rata lebih besar 1,6 % pada hari kedua, dan pada hari ketiga menghasilkan
tegangan ratarata lebih besar 1,1 %. Pada pengujian sistem ini faktor cuaca mempengaruhi
cara kerja sistem sehingga tegangan yang di hasilkan tidak maksimal.Karena intensitas cahaya
sangat mempengaruhi daya pada sistem solar cell.Semakin tinggi intensitas cahaya yang
menyinari permukaan panel surya, maka semakin meningkat arus dan tegangan yang dihasilkan
solar cell.
Kata kunci: panel surya,mikrokontroler atmega16,LCD,LDR, motor DC.

DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN JUDUL .........................................................................................i

LEMBAR PENGESAHAN I............................................................................iii

LEMBAR PENGESAHAN II..........................................................................iv


PERNYATAAN..................................................................................................v

PRAKATA .........................................................................................................vi

ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................viii

INTISARI...........................................................................................................ix

DAFTAR ISI......................................................................................................x

DAFTAR GAMBAR ........................................................................................xiv

DAFTAR TABEL..............................................................................................xvii

BAB I PENDAHULUAN

1.1 Latar Belakang........................................................................................1


1.2 Rumusan Masalah...................................................................................2
1.3 Manfaat Penelitian...................................................................................3
1.4 Tujuan Penelitian.....................................................................................3
1.5 Batasan Masalah......................................................................................4
1.6 Keaslian Penelitian..................................................................................4
1.7 Sistematika Penulisan..............................................................................6

BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA DAN LANDASAN TEORI

2.1.Tinjauan Pustaka..8
2.2.Landasan Teori.....9
1.2.1 Sensor Cahaya LDR....9
1.2.2 Sel Surya.................................................11
1.2.2.1 Panel Surya..12
1.2.2.2 Prinsip Kerja Solar Sell.......12
1.2.3 LCD Display...18
1.2.4 Motor DC19
1.2.4.1 Prinsip Kerja Motor DC......20
1.2.5 Driver Motor L298..23
1.2.6 Solar ChargeController24
1.2.6.1 Fungsi Solar Charge Controlle.24
1.2.6.2 Charging Mode Solar Charge Controller.....26
1.2.6.3 Mode OperationSolar Charge Controller.....27
1.2.7 Baterai (accu)...28
1.2.8 Mikrokontroller29
1.2.8.1 Mikrokontroller ATmega16.30
1.2.8.2 Blok Diagram ATmega16........31
1.2.8.3 Konfigurasi Pin AVR ATmega16........33
1.2.9 Sensor Tegangan......34
BAB III PERANCANGAN SISTEM DAN PENGUJIAN ALAT

3.1 Alat dan Bahan........................................................................36


3.1.1 Alat..36
3.1.2 Bahan...37
3.2 Jalannya Penelitian..................................................................... 39
3.3 Perancangan Sistem............................................................................... 39
3.3.1 Perancangan Perangkat Keras (Hardware).................................... 41
3.3.1.1 Rangkaian Catu Daya..42
3.3.1.2 Mikrokontroller ATmega16.43
3.3.1.3 Rangkaian LCD...46
3.3.1.4 Rangkaian LDR...48
3.3.1.5 Rangkaian Driver Motor DC...50
3.3.1.6 Rangkaian Sensor Tegangan....52
3.3.1.7 Kapasitas Panel Surya..53
3.3.1.8 Kapasitas Baterai55
3.3.1.9 Solar Charge Controller...56
3.3.2 Perancangan Perangkat Lunak (Software)59
3.3.2.1 BASCOM AVR..59
3.3.2.2 Extreme Burner AVR.60
3.3.2.3 Pemrograman Bahasa BASIC dengan BASCOM

AVR. ....61
3.3.3 Diagram Pengawatan.....65
3.4 Cara Analisis......67
3.4.1 Pengujian Sel Surya Desain Sistem............................................ ..67

BAB IV HASIL PENGUJIAN DAN PEMBAHASAN

4.1 Pengujian Fungsional.............................................................................. 69

4.1.1 Pengujian Rangkaian Catu Daya....................................................70

4.1.2 Pengujian Rangkaian Sistem Minimum Atmega16.......................71

4.1.3 Pengujian LCD 2x16......................................................................72

4.1.4 Pengujian LDR...............................................................................72

4.1.5 Pengujian Sensor Tegangan............................................................73

4.2 Hasil Pengujian.............................................................75

4.2.1 Pengujian Panel Surya Tanpa Tracker............................................75

4.2.2 Pengujian Panel Surya Dengan Tracker.........................................82


BAB V KESIMPULAN

5.1 Kesimpulan......................................................................................... 90

5.2 Saran ....................................................................................................91

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

LAMPIRAN