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Our Hand Warmer

Calcium Chloride

Citlalli, Camille, Annabel, and Ben


What substances, and in what amounts will

produce an ideal had warmer that increases in
temperature by 20C.
- Breaking bonds absorbs energy from surroundings and new bonds release
- Ionic bonds between cations and anions in the solid and hydrogen bonds
between water molecules are broken
- New attractions between water molecules and anions and water molecules and
cations formed


More Background:

- Amount of energy to break and form new bonds depends on chemical

properties of the solid
- Bond making releases more energy than the bond breaking absorbs, so process
releases heat
Process: Calculating H
- Calorimeter- container used to calculate the heat of
solution during a process
- Used styrofoam cup
- Tested 3 different solids and collected data:
Mass (g) Initial Final
Mass (g) Initial Final Mass (g) Initial Final temp. C temp. C
temp. C temp. C temp. C temp. C
5 18.2 16.9
3.03 18.2 30.9 3.01 19.6 20.9
3.04 19.5 18.4
5 19.5 27.1
3.01 19.9 18
- Found qrxn and qsoln for each trial using the calorimeter constant

- Using values for qrxn and qsoln calculated enthalpy in units of kJ/mol

- Plugged values into q= mcT, finding value for (m)

- Found mass of solid needed to increase hand warmer by 20 C

Our Model:
3.5 in.


4 inches by 3.5 inches

25 mL of water

4 in.
5.25 g of calcium
25 mL water

5.25 g Calcium Chloride

Our Design

- Our design uses plastic bags, water, and calcium chloride

- It is fabricated using an impulse heat sealer
- The design uses two bags, one small bag to hold the water, and the other larger
bag holding calcium chloride
- The smaller bag is placed inside the big bag
- The hand warmer acts by popping the small water bag inside the bigger bag
filled with calcium chloride
- Immediately you will begin to feel warmth
- This will last you around 5 minutes of warmth
Why CaCl?

We chose Calcium Chloride because it had the highest output of energy for the
amount of water we used

It had the highest kilojoules per mol


Our prototype now was a result of a lot of trial and error. We tried many different
mL of water

10 mL: Lasted 1 minute 50 seconds

15 mL: Heat lasted 2 minutes 30 seconds

25 mL : Heat lasted 5 minutes

We decided to use the 25 mL of water because when we used smaller amounts the
heat didnt last as long as to having more. We also wanted to have a comfortable
sized hand warmer to fit in the palms of your hand.
Cost Analysis
Quart storage double zipper 84 bags ziploc - $7 .00

----> one bag can produce 4 handwarmers

CaCl2 - $0.07 for one hand warmer ----> $6.88 for 100 hand warmers

Water- FREE

TOTAL: $13.88 for 100 hand warmers

Very Cost Efficient!