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Autocratic Leaders

Definition A style of leadership that keeps all decision-making at the centre of the organisation.
Authority level Very high
Behaviour Leader takes all decisions.
Gives little information to staff.
Supervises workers closely.
Only one-way communication.
Workers only given limited information about the business.
Drawbacks Demotivates staff who want to contribute and accept responsibility.
Decisions do not benefit from employee input.
Possible application Defence forces and police where quick decisions are needed and the scope for 'discussion' must be limited.
In times of crisis when decisive action might be needed to limit damage to the business or danger to others.
Employee outcome Dependent on their leaders for all guidance and will not show any initiative.
Motivation likely to be low, so supervision of staff will be essential.
Name a leader Lorne Michaels: One of the 20th centurys most influential figures, Michaels changed television comedy and altered American
culture in subtle and extraordinary ways. As creative producer of NBCs Saturday Night Live, Michaels launched hundreds of
comedians careers, from Dan Aykroyd and Gilda Radner to Eddie Murphy and Will Ferrell. Michaels instinct for tapping into
Americas pulse and his ability to get the most out of talent are unrivaled on TV. He is known as a demanding producer, but he
exemplifies the best traits of an autocratic leader.
Others (How to succeed?) Respect subordinates. Exhibit fairness, objectivity and show respect for co-workers. They will see or feel it. Leaders respect
for others engenders mutual respect, which helps defuse workplace discord.
Communicate and explain. Most employees realize autocratic leaders expect them to obey rules and follow procedures.
Communicating details helps staff understand the rules. In turn, they are less likely to rebel and more likely to cooperate.
Practice consistency. Employees respect fairness and unbiased treatment. In light of the potential distrust that autocratic
leadership may foster, treating all staff consistently generates trust and earns respect.
Allow opinions. Encourage staff to express themselves. Permitting employees to offer suggestions is a valuable component
of success among autocratic leaders. Even if ideas arent adopted, people appreciate the freedom to share their thoughts.
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Paternalistic Leaders

Definition A type of fatherly style typically used by dominant males where their power is used to control and protect subordinate employees
who are expected to be loyal and obedient.
Authority level High
Behaviour Strong 'father-like' figure takes key decisions but in interests of employees.
Some feedback and consultation encouraged - but not participative decision-making.
Drawbacks Low staff motivation if loyal connection to leader is not established.
Increasing dependency of employees on the leader, leading to more supervision required.
Employee dissatisfaction if bad decisions are made.
Possible application Family-owned business where leaders still want to take decisions themselves but value employee loyalty and low labour
In a business with a formal and hierarchical structure where creative thinking is not required of employees.
Employee outcome Employee loyalty and motivation might be high.
No true participation in management decisions and this could lead to a sense of frustration.
Name a leader Ingvar Kamprad: The founder of Swedens most popular export is a solid example of a paternalistic leader. Ingvar Kamprads
leadership can be summed up by the quote: If there is such a thing as good leadership, it is to give a good example. Kamprad
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believes that by setting a good example, the subordinates will trust you more and perform their own work better as well.
The foundation of IKEA was purely an effort to create a family business and the core values of the company still emphasize the
idea of one big family. Kamprad set the vision, the goals and operational strategies from the start. He was in control of the
decisions, but he tried to make decisions with the familys wellbeing at the core of his thinking.
Kamprad wanted workers to have fun, but also to ensure they serve customers to the best of their abilities. He believed in the
central theme of paternalistic leadership, which claims that by improving employee motivation through caring and support, you
also end up driving the bottom line.
Others (Characteristics) Influential /Empowering /Compassionate/ Decisive / Organized

Democratic Leaders

Definition A leadership style that promotes the active participation of workers in taking decisions.
Authority level Low
Behaviour Participation encouraged.
Two-way communication used, which allows feedback from staff.
Workers given information about the business to allow full staff involvement.
Drawbacks Consultation with staff can be time-consuming.
On occasions, quick decision-making will be required.
Level of involvement - some issues might be too sensitive e.g. job losses, or too secret, e.g. development of new products.
Possible application Most likely to be useful in business that expect workers to contribute fully to the production and decision-making processes,
thereby satisfying their higher-order needs.
An experienced and flexible workforce will be likely to benefit most from this style.
In situations that demand a new way of thinking or a new solution, then staff input can be very valuable.
Employee outcome Staff have much to contribute and can offer valuable work experience to new situations.
Workers should feel more committed to ensuring that decisions that they have influenced are put into effort successfully.
Name a leader Indra Nooyi: Nooyi, the CEO and chairman of PepsiCo, has endeared herself to employees. She takes an interest in the personal
lives of employees and has a vision of the companys future. Nooyi made news when she sent letters to the parents of direct
reports to let them know how proud they should be of their executive adult/children. When one recruit was undecided about
joining the company, Forbes magazine reports, Nooyi called the candidates mom and subsequently landed the executive. She has
also made fans of investors with smart divestitures and acquisitions, such as Tropicana, Quaker Oats and Gatorade.
Others (Characteristics) Egalitarian / Fair-minded / Adaptive / Engaged / Role models / Forward-thinking /Team-oriented /Consensus builders
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Laissez-faire Leadership

Definition A leadership style that leaves much of the business decision-making to the workforce - a "hands-off" approach and the reverse of
the autocratic style.
Authority level Very low
Behaviour Managers delegate virtually all authority and decision-making powers.
Very broad criteria or limits might be established for the staff to work within.
Drawbacks Workers may not appreciate the lack of structure and direction in their work - this could lead to a loss of security.
Lack of feedback - as managers will not be closely monitoring progress - may be demotivating.
Possible application When managers are too busy (or too lazy) to intervene.
May be appropriate in research institutions where experts are more likely to arrive at solutions when not constrained by
narrow rules or management controls.
Employee outcome Easier to make decision and free to do anything.
Lack of confidence, poor decisions and poor motivation as they are never sure if what they are doing is 'right'.
Name a leader Donna Karan : founder of DKNY jeans and apparel, enjoys a reputation as an attentive but hands-off leader who follows fashion
trends while keeping her eyes on profits. The Center for Association Leadership noted in a 2013 article that Karan trusts managers
to make good decisions while monitoring their performance and offering ongoing feedback. Karan reportedly believes firmly in
autonomy, which leads to strong job satisfaction and increased productivity.
Others (How to succeed?) To succeed, laissez-faire leaders need to:
Closely monitor group performance
Employ highly skilled, well-educated staff
Treat people as motivated self-starters
Use the laissez-faire style only with experienced staff
Give consistent feedback to team members

Situational Leaders

Definition Effective leadership varies with the task in hand and situational leaders adapt their style to each situation.
Authority level Moderate
Behaviour Style of leadership used will depend on the nature of the task and the work group's skills and willingless to accept
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Drawbacks Varying the style of leadership may be difficult for some workers to accept and they may become uncertain of how they will
be led in different situations.
Possible application By allowing flexibility of leadership style, different leadership approaches can be used in different situations and with
different groups of people.
Employee outcome Easy to follow if the leadership style applied is the one that they preferred.
Can be confusing to the workers as the are unsure about what kind of leadership are applied by their managers in certain
Name a leader Dwight Eisenhower : Dwight D. Eisenhower was the president of the United States after World War II. He was also the Allied
Commander during the war. He was known for his diplomacy and his ability to get the allied leaders to work together to defeat the
Nazi war machine. His background in the military taught him how to order and direct military exercises, and he needed to be a
statesman not only to manage the strong personalities of the allied leaders, but to run for president and then win two terms of
Others (Style) Daniel Goleman, the author of Emotional Intelligence, defines six styles within situational leadership.

Coaching leaders, who work on an individuals personal development as well as job-related skills. This style works best with
people who know their limitations and are open to change.
Pacesetting leaders, who set very high expectations for their followers. This style works best with self-starters who are highly
motivated. The leader leads by example. This style is used sparingly since it can lead to follower burnout.
Democratic leaders, who give followers a vote in almost all decisions. When used in optimal conditions, it can build
flexibility and responsibility within the group. This style is, however, time consuming and is not the best style if deadlines
are looming.
Affiliative leaders, who put employees first. This style is used when morale is very low. The leader uses praise and
helpfulness to build up the teams confidence. This style may risk poor performance when team building is happening.
Authoritative leaders, who are very good at analyzing problems and identifying challenges. This style is good in an
organization that is drifting aimlessly. This leader will allow his or her followers to help figure out how to solve a problem.
Coercive leaders, who tell their subordinates what to do. They have a very clear vision of the endgame and how to reach it.
This style is good in disasters or if an organization requires a total overhaul.