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Clackamas Community College

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY

Clackamas Community College GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY B aseline for 2005-2009 PREPARED BY TIM MAHER, SUSTAINABILIT
Clackamas Community College GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY B aseline for 2005-2009 PREPARED BY TIM MAHER, SUSTAINABILIT

B aseline for 2005-2009

PREPARED BY TIM MAHER, SUSTAINABILIT Y COORDINATOR

Clackamas Community College

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are known to be causing an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations well above natural levels. According to overwhelming consensus from the international scienti c community, this drastic increase in GHG concentra - tions is likely responsible for global warming that is resulting in worldwide climate change. The implementation of a campus-wide GHG emissions inventory is in line with the Mission Statement of Clackamas Community College (CCC) and the vision of the CCC Sustainability Committee. Study - ing CCC’s emissions provides the opportunity to reduce those emissions and educate the college community and the county concerning the signi cance of climate change.

Clackamas Community College Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are known to be causing an increase

INTRODUC TION

Clackamas Community College Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are known to be causing an increase

It is di cult to conceive of many human activities that do not in some way contribute to the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Whether directly through combustion of fossil fuels in our vehicles or home heating furnaces, or indirectly through the production and transportation of the products we use daily, almost everything we do releases emissions. The cumulative e ect of these emissions is widely recognized as having signi cant negative impacts on a local, national, and global scale. While this report represents the most comprehensive e ort to date to quantify GHG emissions for Clackamas Community College (CCC), there are clear limitations involved. Accounting for all the aggregate emissions generated in our daily lives is a nearly impossible task, and there is no current methodology for capturing the emissions associated with all the imported goods coming into a community. As such, the scope of this inventory is limited to the major source categories of transportation, heating, energy generation, agriculture, refrigerants and chemicals, and solid waste, which is consistent with inventories that other college communities have undertaken. This baseline inventory is crucial for the allocation of future bene ts based on immediate reductions. In coming years, GHG emissions are likely to have a de ned market value as determined by national legislation. The allocation of emissions rights will likely be based on proven emis - sions reductions, a process which will rely on baseline inventories such as this. When seeking outside funding for climate change adaptation and emissions reductions, a baseline inventory will be important for identifying CCC-speci c needs. I hope that in future years this baseline inventory will be re ned continually and improved upon, and that it will serve as a tool for identifying areas within CCC where emissions levels can be reduced.

ME THOD

Emissions throughout this report are expressed in tons of gas per year having a warming e ect equivalent to carbon dioxide, the most abundant and cumula - tively important gas. The consistent unit is Metric Tons of CO2 equivalent (MTeCO2). Greenhouse gas accounting procedures were determined using internationally recognized protocols promulgated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as followed by the Association for the Advance - ment of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE), the American College and University President’s Climate Commitment (ACUPCC), and the US Environmen - tal Protection Agency (EPA).

Throughout the inventory process, the method for calculating emissions involved the use of an outside inventory tool developed by Clean Air-Cool Planet (CA-CP). There are numerous GHG inventory calculators available for institutions to use, however CA-CP o ers a campus GHG calculator, which is tailored speci cally for institutions of higher education. The CA-CP Campus Carbon Calculator is recommended by AASHE as well as the ACUPCC. The CA-CP Campus Carbon Calculator is an MS – Excel-based spreadsheet tool, and the science behind this calculator is based on the conclusions and recommenda - tions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The tool is updated frequently, to address new scienti c understandings of GHG emissions, and is also the most widely used GHG inventory tool for institutions of higher education.

International GHG protocol presents a useful accounting concept, called scopes, that can help entities understand and structure decisions about opera - tional boundaries, and can simultaneously help address the potential for “double counting.” This approach de nes three levels of responsibility for emis - sions, and basically posits that an entity’s responsibility for emissions is directly related to its control over, or ownership of, the sources of those emissions. For example, I am more responsible for the emissions from gasoline used in my car than the emissions from diesel in a bus I ride. It was my decision to buy a gas-guzzler rather than a fuel-e cient vehicle, and only I determine how far or frequently I drive. By contrast, I have no control over the fuel e ciency of another entity’s busses, yet it was still my choice to outsource my transporta - tion needs to them.

“Clean Air-Cool Planet Campus Carbon Calculator User’s Guide, Version 6, August 2008”

ME THOD Emissions throughout this report are expressed in tons of gas per year having a
ME THOD Emissions throughout this report are expressed in tons of gas per year having a
ME THOD Emissions throughout this report are expressed in tons of gas per year having a

Clackamas Community College

S cop es laid out by the GHG proto col:

“Scope de nitions created by Clean Air-Cool Planet Campus Carbon Calculator User’s Guide, Version 6, August 2008”

S cop e

1

Direct emissions from sources that are owned and/or controlled by CCC. This includes combustion of fossil fuels in college owned facilities or

vehicles, fugitive emissions from refrigeration, and emissions from on-campus agriculture.

CCC has complete control over these emissions, and

they are no-one else’s responsibility.

For CCC, the following sources are included as scope 1 emissions:

On Campus Stationary Sources – emissions from all on-campus fuel combus tion (excluding vehicle fuels)

Direct Transportation Sources – Emissions from all fuel used in the institution’s eet Refrigeration and other Chemicals – Fugitive emissions (evaporation of greenhouse gases from liquid refrigerant leaks in refrigerant systems) and other chemical leaks Agriculture – N2O emissions from fertilizer use

S cop e

2

S cop e 3
S cop e
3

Indirect emissions from sources that are neither owned nor operated by CCC but whose products are directly linked to on-campus energy consumption. This includes purchased energy/electricity. Although CCC is not directly responsible for these emissions, it is strongly implicated. These emissions come from converting energy sources that release greenhouse gas emissions when used (fossil fuels) to energy sources that do not (electricity). Although CCC did not burn the coal to make the electricity that it uses, someone had to, and although the electricity producer emitted the gasses, they did not use any of the energy produced. For CCC, the following source is included as scope 2 emissions:

Purchased Electricity – Emissions from the production of any electricity the college purchases

O ther emissions attributed to CCC, deemed “optional” emissions by corporate inventories. This includes emissions from sources that are neither owned nor operated by CCC but are either directly nanced (i.e. commercial air travel paid for by the institution) or are otherwise linked to the campus via in uence or encouragement (i.e. air travel for study abroad programs, regular faculty, sta , and student commuting). Solid Waste – Emissions from managing the college’s waste (incineration, land lling, etc.) Scope 2 T&D Losses – Emissions associated with the transmission and distribution losses of purchased electricity. Directly Financed Outsourced Transportation – Emissions from travel that is paid for by the institution, but does not occur in eet vehicles (business trips in commercial aircraft, sta travel in personal vehicles where mileage is reimbursed, etc.) At the point of this baseline inventory, no data has been recorded for this source of emissions, but future inventories will include air-travel. Commuting – Emissions from regular commuting by faculty, sta , or students.

Clackamas Community College S cop es laid out by the GHG proto col: “Scope de nitions

It is important to note that many of the quantities of GHG emissions reported here are estimates.

It is not possible for this or any other institution

to measure GHG emissions with total accuracy given the number of sources and lack of perfect data.

Clackamas Community College S cop es laid out by the GHG proto col: “Scope de nitions

Clackamas Community College

SUMMARY OF CCC ’s GHG EMISSIONS

TOTAL EMISSIONS

Baseline of total greenhouse gas emissions for Clackamas Community College for scal years 2005-2009.

Clackamas Community College SUMMARY OF CCC ’s GHG EMISSIONS TOTAL EMISSIONS Baseline of total greenhouse gas
Clackamas Community College SUMMARY OF CCC ’s GHG EMISSIONS TOTAL EMISSIONS Baseline of total greenhouse gas
Clackamas Community College SUMMARY OF CCC ’s GHG EMISSIONS TOTAL EMISSIONS Baseline of total greenhouse gas

SCOPE 1 EMISSIONS

Scope 1 emissions for CCC have been steadily declining for several years now. This is due largely in part to energy e ciency measures enacted by talented engineers in the Facilities department. Due to lack of records for Direct Transportation and Refrigerants in the year 2005, the total emissions for 2005 is a low estimation. This places even more emphasis on overall emission reductions from e ciency measures.

On Campus Stationary Sources – Emissions from the burning of natural gas for use in the boiler. E ciency measures have consistently decreased the amount of natural gas burned.

Direct Transportation – Emissions from the burning of fuel for eet vehicles. No data existed for 2005.

Agriculture – Emissions from the use of fertilizer. In 2009, CCC opted to not fertilize the grounds, reducing emissions by 63 MTeCO2.

Refrigerants and Chemicals – Fugitive emissions from refrigerant chemicals. Records began in 2007.

SCOPE 1 EMISSIONS Scope 1 emissions for CCC have been steadily declining for several years now.
SCOPE 1 EMISSIONS Scope 1 emissions for CCC have been steadily declining for several years now.
SCOPE 1 EMISSIONS Scope 1 emissions for CCC have been steadily declining for several years now.

SCOPE 2 EMISSIONS

Scope 2 emissions for CCC have stayed relatively constant over the past few years, with a notable increase beginning in 2007. Interestingly, this emissions increase is NOT due to an increase in the amount of electricity purchased by CCC, but by a change in GHG accounting protocol.

Purchased Electricity – Emissions from the generation of any electricity that the college purchases. These emissions are calculated using US EPA’s eGRID system. The Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) is a comprehensive inventory of environ - mental attributes of electric power systems. The preeminent source of air emissions data for the electric power sector, eGRID is based on available plant speci c data for all US electricity generating plants that provide power to the electric grid and report data to the US govern - ment. Every year, the EPA reviews and updates the methodologies of the eGRID system to re ect the latest scienti c understandings of GHG emissions, and in 2007 the eGRID system received a major update. This update added several greenhouse gases to the database, as well as improved the emission-coe cients and global warming potentials of known gases. As a result of this eGRID update, many GHG inventories in the US saw a spike in Scope 2 emissions for the year 2007; in line with this trend, CCCs Scope 2 emissions also spiked as of 2007.

SCOPE 2 EMISSIONS Scope 2 emissions for CCC have stayed relatively constant over the past few
SCOPE 2 EMISSIONS Scope 2 emissions for CCC have stayed relatively constant over the past few

SCOPE 3 EMISSIONS

Scope 3 emissions for CCC have been steadily increasing over the past few years. This increase is largely due to the record number of students enrolled at the college and their commuting habits.

Student Commuting – Emissions from regular commuting

by students is by far the highest single source of emissions for

CCC.

In 2009, emissions from student commuting accounted

for 62% of the school’s total emissions, and in every year

inventoried, emissions from student commuting are greater

than all other sources of emissions combined.

Also, from 2005

through 2009, emissions from student commuting have risen by 2,585 MTeCO2, while emissions from all other sources

combined have only risen by 150 MTeCO2 over the same time

period.

Note: Student commuting information was estimated

using the limited amount of data available, and as more data

becomes available in the future, these estimations will be

ne-tuned.

As per GHG accounting protocol, these numbers are

a conservative estimation and future analysis is likely to see

these numbers increase. Employee Commuting – Emissions from regular commut -

ing by faculty and sta .

Given the long history of the

Employee Commute Options (ECO) survey required by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), the data for employee commuting is much more accurate than the

estimations for student commuting. Scope 2 T&D Losses – Emissions associated with the transmission and distribution losses of purchased electricity

(which is a Scope 2 source). electricity purchased.

Roughly calculated as 9.8% of total

Solid Waste – Emissions associated with managing the

college’s waste.

All of the college’s garbage is sent directly to a

land ll, where it releases methane (a GHG) as it decomposes

over time. Of course, the college’s recycling e orts over the last several years have greatly contributed to limiting land ll

contributions and associated GHG emissions.

Solid waste is

only responsible for 1-2% of the college’s emissions, and that

rate is falling due to continued recycling e orts.

As a whole

though, solid waste emissions are fairly negligible compared

with other much larger sources. .

SCOPE 3 EMISSIONS Scope 3 emissions for CCC have been steadily increasing over the past few
SCOPE 3 EMISSIONS Scope 3 emissions for CCC have been steadily increasing over the past few
SCOPE 3 EMISSIONS Scope 3 emissions for CCC have been steadily increasing over the past few

RECOMMENDATIONS

An emissions inventory that identi es and quanti es an institution’s primary anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases is essential for addressing climate change. Before emissions can be reduced, they rst must be quanti ed. The purpose of this inventory is to provide a solid foundation for the future of GHG reporting and reduction strategies at Clackamas Community College.

Rep or ting Recommendations

In order to accurately gauge the success or failure of emission reduction strategies, it is imperative that the inventory is updated on an annual or biannual basis. In this and future years, record-keeping for all emission sources must be maintained as complete and accurate. For this baseline inventory, records from several sources were incomplete and therefore the resulting emissions estimations used in this report are conservative and do not re ect the full extent to which CCC emits GHGs. For example:

Directly Financed Outsourced Transportation - Emissions from travel that is paid for by the institution, but does not occur in eet vehicles (business trips in commercial aircraft, sta travel in personal vehicles where mileage is reimbursed, etc.) At the point of this baseline inventory, no data has been recorded for this source of emissions, but future inventories will include air-travel. Refrigerants and other Chemicals – Limited records resulted in low estimations of fugitive emissions. Student Commuting – Limited data resulted in low estimations of student commuting emissions. This is a very signi cant hole, because student commuters account for the largest single source of emissions for the college. Paper – Emissions associated with the production and transportation of paper-products that the college purchases. At the point of this baseline inventory, no data has been recorded for this source of emissions.

Recommendations for GHG reduc tions

In the context of climate change, all MTeCO2 are considered equal. Therefore, any reductions for any source will make an impact. However, the most e cient use of planning and funding would be to focus emission reduction strategies on the largest sources. The graph below shows that student commuting is by far the largest source of emissions at CCC. Most importantly, I would like to recommend that CCC implement an institutional plan that explicitly states emission reduction goals on a long-term timeline. Ideally, this plan would outline speci c reduction targets and strategies for achieving those targets. This plan could be in the form of a Climate Action Plan, following the lead of hundreds of other Colleges, or this plan could be part of a larger Sustainability Plan. The framework for the plan is not nearly as important as ensuring that the plan contains quanti able goals with speci c deadlines

RECOMMENDATIONS An emissions inventory that identi es and quanti es an institution’s primary anthropogenic sources of

Clackamas Community College

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This inventory would not have been possible without the help and patience of numerous individual members of the college community.

Chris Robuck, Director of Business Services Laura Zentner, Dir. Of Financial Services Lacressia St. Clair, Purchasing Agent Judy Redder, Curriculum and Reporting Operations Manager Bill Leach, former Dean of Campus Services Kirk Pearson, Dir. Of Campus Services Hilmo Ljucevic, Manager/Plant Engineer, Campus Services Je Tapp, Plant Engineer, Campus Services Rodney Osterhoudt, Plant Engineer, Campus Services Debbie Mullins, Administrative Assistant for Campus Services Tom Powell, Grounds, Campus Services Mickey Yeager, Grounds, Campus Services Martha Mitchell, Sustainability Coordinator, Campus Services Courtney Wilton, VP and CFO of CCC Joanne Truesdell, President of CCC George Sims, EH&S O cer of CCC Sara Simmons, HR Elizabeth Cole, Business Services Dean Walch, Web Developer, ITS Elizabeth Howley, Dean of Horticulture Chris Miskow, Lab Assistant, Horticulture Bill Briare, Dean of Arts, Humanities and Social Science Mindy Brown and ASG Pam Bloom of BB Leasing Janet Paulson, Public Information O cer Carrie Kraten, Project Coordinator, Customized Training and Development Ray Hoyt, Dir. Of Customized Training and Development Major Account Service Team at NW Natural Gas

Sustainability Committee College Council President’s Council

Document Design by Sean P. Trani

- www.seantrani.com

B aseline for 2005-2009

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY

Clackamas Community College ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This inventory would not have been possible without the help and patience

REFERENCES

Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education

- www.aashe.org" http://www.aashe.org

American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment

-

www.presidentsclimatecommitment.org/" http://www.presidentsclimatecommitment.org/

Clean Air-Cool Planet - provided the toolkit for calculating all emission sources www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/

US EPA - Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks 1990 -2008

http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads10/US-GHG-Inventory-2010_Report.pdf