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Acquisition image

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Acquisition

Lecture # 3

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Principal Sensor Arrangements

Incoming energy transformed into voltage by the

combination of:

Electrical power

Sensor material (responsive to type of energy)

Output voltage is proportional to intensity

Filter can improve selectivity ( Green etc)

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Principal Sensor Arrangements

Three Principal Sensor arrangement to transform illumination

energy into digital image

Line sensor

Array sensor

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Image Acquisition

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Image Acquisition

linear sensor strip

circular sensor strip

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Digital Camera Technologies

CCD (Charge Coupled Device)

Capacitive device

This technology has taken over the CCD

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Image Acquisition Digital Camera

Transfer Architecture

Frame Transfer

Architecture

Interline Transfer

Architecture

Active Pixel

Architecture

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Digital Camera Technologies (1)

CCD Array

Cameras

Frame Transfer

Architecture

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Digital Camera Technologies (2)

CCD Array

Cameras

Interline Transfer

Architecture

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Digital Camera Technologies (3)

Active pixel architecture

CMOS Array

Cameras

Standard semiconductor

production line

Active pixel architecture

Photo-detector and amplifier

are both fabricated inside each

pixel.

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Basic Relationship b/w pixels

Neighbors of a pixel

Adjacency

Connectivity

Path

Region / boundaries

Distance Measures

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Relationship Between Pixels

Neighbors of a Pixel

0 0 0 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 0

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Basic relationships between pixels

Arrangement of pixels: 0 1 1

0 1 0

0 0 1

4 neighbours N4(p): 1

0 1 0

0

1

0 1

0 1 0

0 0 1

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Neighbors of A Pixel

x

A pixel p at coordinate (x, y) has N4(p) : 4-

neighbors of p

y

(x+1, y), (x-1,y),(x,y+1), (x,y-1)

(x+1, y+1), (x+1,y-1),(x-1,y+1), (x-1,y-1)

N8(p) : 8-neighbors of p :

a combination of N4(p) and ND(p)

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Basic relationships between Pixels

Adjacency between pixels:

Two pixels p and q are adjacent if

They are neighbor

Their gray levels satisfy a specified criterion of similarity

similarity

4-adjacency: If gray-level p , q V, and q N4(p)

8-adjacency: If gray-level p , q V, and q N8(p)

m-adjacency (mixed adjacency): (modification of 8-adjancy)

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Adjacency

q

q q q

q p q q p q

q q q q

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Basic relationships between Pixels

PATH

A path from pixel p with coordinates (x, y) to pixel q with

coordinates (s, t) is a sequence of distinct pixels with

coordinates

(x0,y0),(x1,y1),(xn,yn)

where (x0,y0) = (x, y) , (xn, yn) = (s, t) and (xi, yi) is adjacent to

(xi-1,yi-1)

n is the length of the path

we can define 4-,8-, or m-paths depending on type of adjacency

specified.

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Basic relationships between Pixels

PATH. Find Shortest 4 path

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Basic relationships between Pixels

PATH. Find Shortest 8 path

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Adjacency

Mixed Adjacency:

Note: Mixed adjacency can eliminate the multiple path

connections that often occurs in 8-adjacency

arrangement center pixel

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M- Adjacency

q

with values from V are m-adjacent if

q is in the set N4(p) or

q is in the set ND (p) and the set N4(p) N4(q) has no

pixels whose values are from V. (if we get NUL result

from intersection then p and q are m-adjacent and

diagonal (Nd) path will be followed otherwise N4 path)

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Basic relationships between Pixels

PATH. Find Shortest m path

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M- Adjacency

Are b & c m-adjacent

Yes

Yes

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Yes

M- Adjacency

No

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m-connectivitys distance

between 2 pixels depends on values of pixels along

the path.

e.g., if only connectivity of pixels valued 1 is

allowed. find the m-distance b/w p and p4

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Basic relationships between Pixels

Connectivity between pixels:

An important concept used in establishing boundaries of

objects and components of regions

Let S represent a subset of pixel in an image. Two pixels p

and q are connected if there exit a path between them.

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Basic relationships between pixels

Regions

A set of pixels in an image where all component pixels are connected

Boundary of a region

A set of pixels of a region R that have one of more neighbors that are

not in R

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Boundary

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 1 1 1

0 1 1 1

0 1 1 1

0 1 1 1

0 0 1 1

0 0 1 1

31/48

Boundary

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 1 1 1

0 1 1 1

0 1 1 1

0 0 1 1

0 0 1 1

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Boundary

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 1

0 1 1 1

0 0 1 1

0 0 1 1

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Basic relationships between pixels

Neighbor -> adjacent -> path -> connected -> region

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Distance Measures

For pixel p, q and z with coordinates (x, y), (s, t) and (u, v)

respectively

D is a distance function or metric

s,t

y-t

x,y

x-s

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Distance Measures

Given coordinates of pixels p, q, and z: (x,y), (s,t), and (u,v)

Euclidean distance between p and q:

De ( p, q) ( x s) 2 ( y t ) 2

The pixels with De distance r from (x,y) define a disk of radius r

centered at (x,y)

City-block distance between p and q:

D4 ( p, q) x s y t

The pixels with D4 distance r from (x,y) form a diamond centered at

(x,y)

the pixels with D4=1 are the 4-neighbors of (x,y)

Chessboard distance between p and q:

D8 ( p, q) max(| x s |, | y t |)

The pixels with D8 distance r from (x,y) form a square centered at (x,y)

The pixels with D8=1 are the 8-neighbors of (x,y)

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Euclidean Distance Between p and q

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City-block distance: D4 distance

D4(p,q) = (|x s| + |y t |)

D4 =1 are 4-neighbors of (x, y)

Draw D4 distance 2

D4 distance 2 from (x,y) form the diamond centered at (x, y)

s,t

y-t

x,y

x-s

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Chessboard distance: D8 Distance

D8 (p, q) = max (|x s|, |y t |)

D8 =1 are 8-neighbors of (x, y)

Draw D8 distance 2 from (x,y)

D8 distance 2 from (x,y) form the square centered at

(x, y)

s,t

y-t

x,y

x-s

39/48

Distance Measures

close all; clear all

bw = zeros(5,5); bw(3,3) = 1 %bw(4,4) = 1

[DEucli] = bwdist(bw)

[DChess] = bwdist(bw,'chessboard')

[DCity] = bwdist(bw,'cityblock')

40/48

Distance.m

D4 and D8 Distances

We can consider both D4 and D8 distances b/w p and q

regardless of whether a connected path exists between them or

not because the definitions of these distances involve only the

coordinates.

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Adjacent

Two image area subsets S1 and S2 are adjacent

if some pixel in S1 is adjacent to some pixel S2.

42/48

Exercise

Consider the two image subsets S1 and S2

4- adjacent

8- adjacent

m- adjacent

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Exercise

Consider the two image subsets S1 and S2

q is not in the set N4(p)

(b) S1 and S2 are 8-connected

because q is in the set N8(p)

(c) S1 and S2 are m-connected because

(i) q is in ND (p), and

(ii) the set N4(p) N4(q) is empty.

44/48

Reading Assignment

Chapters 1 and 2 of Digital Image Processing by

Gonzalez.

Chapter 2 of Digital Image Processing using

MATLAB by Gonzalez.

45/48

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