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JUDICIAL CONFIRMATION OF IMPERFECT personally or through their duly

OR INCOMPLETE TITLES authorized representatives:

(1) Those who by themselves or
through their predecessors-in-interest
1. GOVERNING LAW: Section 48(b), have been in open, continuous,
Commonwealth Act 141 (Public Land Act), exclusive and notorious possession
approved on November 7, 1936, governs and occupation of alienable and
the proceedings for the judicial disposable lands of the public domain
confirmation of imperfect or incomplete under a bona fide claim of ownership
titles. since June 12, 1945, or earlier.

Sec. 48, Commonwealth Act 141: The (2) Those who have acquired
following described citizens of the ownership of private lands by
Philippines, occupying lands of the prescription under the provision of
public domain or claiming to own existing laws.
any such lands or an interest
therein, but whose titles have not (3) Those who have acquired
been perfected or completed, may ownership of private lands or
apply to the Court of First Instance abandoned river beds by right of
[now Regional Trial Court] of the accession or accretion under the
province where the land is located existing laws.
for confirmation of their claims
and the issuance of a certificate of (4) Those who have acquired
title therefore, under the Land ownership of land in any other manner
Registration Act, to wit: provided for by law.

(b) Those who by themselves or Where the land is owned in common,

through their predecessors in all the co-owners shall file the
interest have been in open, application jointly.
continuous, exclusive, and
notorious possession and 3. REQUISITES: Same Sec. 14 (1), PD
occupation of agricultural lands of 1529:
the public domain, under a bona
fide claim of acquisition or
ownership, since June 12, 1945, PROPERTY PUBLIC LAND ACT CA
or earlier, immediately preceding REGISTRATION 141
the filing of the application for DECREE
confirmation of title except when
prevented by war or force majeure. PD 1529
These shall be conclusively
presumed to have performed all There exists a title which The presumption
the conditions essential to a is to be confirmed by the always is that the
Government grant and shall be court land applied for
entitled to a certificate of title pertains to the
under the provisions of this State, and that the
chapter. occupants and
possessors claim an
2. COUNTERPART PROVISION: Sec. 14 (1), interest only in
PD 1529: WHO MAY APPLY. The following the same by virtue of
persons may file in the proper Court of their imperfect tile or
First Instance an application for continuous, open,
registration of title to land, whether and notorious
possession his application denied the land applied for
The court may dismiss The court has Vests in the Director of
the application of the jurisdiction or proper Lands and
applicant with or without to adjudicate land in Secretary of DENR the
prejudice to the right to favor of any of authority to
file a new application for the conflicting
dispose and manage
the registration of the claimants
public lands
same land
Only risk that an The applicant runs the
applicant runs is to have risk of losing