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A Critical Surwy of Fout Papcruon

Maritimc RcligiourRwirals


Hlrltury 342
Prof. Baskenille
OsL nfn
four esqaysby D'G Rell,
This paperwill attenrptto criticalty matyrsthe contritnrtionsof
tre rcligiousfn'iwls
Dariel coo&naq GcorgeRirvtylq ard Neil serple to understandirg
anronggrural pcoplesin Caradaliom the lde eight€en&to earty
'sociologicat' of ttrc tI*! of religionin ft€ dct/€lopnrcnt
Dadel r3oo&nar conductsa
him concMing ftat fto
of a touvnslip.rfis focrn m stnrcur€, ild pafiscr, follows nrift
dnrctopmentof ffreBaptistChurchin drc nineteenficerfiry de8enfog-morB
in cmpharizinglcsslhc
Rawlylq rrxr,fix;usc;son rhir p*i*|, bur tlirrcrgwfnrm crotxlwfub
of society,andmorethe prychologicalrealityof fie ritml of baptism
of dcmpts to
Bcll orpards on frc inffucnccof Hcnry Allinc, trc taditional footlsof
the rcligioru rsvivalin Maritime (New Bnrnsntick& Nova Scotia)cmada"
canadq br$ his mdn
finally, Neil Seinplecnlargesfie surveyto inchrdel-ower andUpper
contibution is in offecingto readsg dctds of thc optionnot takeq Melhodisill,
of dramaticsucc€sshetp trighlidf, andconfrm tre poputistappcalof tre

religionsin Canada.
DanietGoodmarinuoducesus to Yrnroutr county,in the late ssv€Nile€n
comty unitedby its disunity,peopledby recentrriwls from nedy twenty differcnt

md Corurecticrs.He rcldea fre stmy of a comnunity barelyworth s|tch
ftom lvlassachus€tb
'rociety' tnetlrbcffi(ftoec
divid€dinto two gtoupsof
a label,widr no shtredlife cxperiences,
andffnu not unified
still tisd to fteir p,rwiogr churshes)and

lhougtrtghallow,forrnalirlic, and uni$Piring morginginlo
bshindrrligiogr lsrtsrr avatlarblc,
a unified wnununity aftsl.tlrearrivalof Henry Allino. Alline, by way of flre inunense
of his preaching,andthe scomdircct€dat him by established
'Creat Awakming"
he$cd dcfrre a distinctivcAlline morrcnre,nlboth he$ed crcatea

fcn the first time tluge numbcrof perryrfe
in Yannouilf shareda oomflron

religioruidctttity. Afiine's influsncc wasfdlowed cvmtudty wift thc dcrrclopmentof an

orgiltized religiun smrcnrc cr€afi€dby the Betist Chrrc,hwhich cmre to donrindefire

Gountyin fio cidffecn hrmdneds.
The Ba$ist Chrrch hebcd cenrqrta disciptine,andorderto

eocicty,lackfutgwilh Alline, while not thatenirg tlrc csenc€ of pcoplc'scrrangeficrfi*r'

Coo&rin hopesftat if ftis pattsrnof ffrerolc of rcfuion in Yarnrordr socictyholdstrue

for olhsr cruunlicqlhat lhe notion lhal lhs ar,rrcptcd
lhc;rirlhat lhc Nsw 511gkmd

YankeePtantersashiq/Eda collectiveidentityduringthe First Gred Aw*ening will haveto

bo rc-cvaluatcdwfth cmphasismorc propcrlyfocuscdon ffrc ninctc€nft ccnturywi*r thc

of the Baptistchurclr"
; 4 :

Brtr &e studyof structrc alonemny mistea4for beirg impefionat anddistur(,Rasrlyk '

heb$ by hrmranizirythe peoph of ficse ncwly oryN?dc,mnrnmitieq ffi/orilrg a clos€r

look at fte role of baptismin pcruonalhangfofination,raffrerlhan ffreBaptirt Chrnchin

societafcngnirilinn- Rawlyt'n cnsayexaminesdreimmensityof fire eryrerience
of baptisnr
dtrugh drc 'biogrryhical' bok d two lcadhg prcaclren,Jos€phCranda4anda peruoei
baptire4 Elijah particularhe exanrinesfte inportanceof a drcam
Crandall'q a powcrfirl god giv€Nlvisim of savirrymuls afrift in wder, rtrat
dtat baflim wagnot a m€recmptyrianl but requiredfm enuanceinto hcarrcn.

Batisilt cannotbe disilniss€{t
asonly a kind ofrcligious fad in a time of religiou fadq

R"wbb nor sanil *rlob bc rux&nst{rod
ar'rlaling poinl frn qgtrni1;rdch'rruh

in flre livttsof lvlruitimeruasonemiglrt conchrdeafter rgadfuBGoodruin.

Ranttykin enphasizingflre inportanceof baptismin waterasan rurforgettable
the definingmomentin a life, whercthe prron baptizedfelt ahnost
onewith tre divine,
- 3-

ilrA dreItr{rrrtffco of trryrlinnrtr} Maritim€nf,silf be mdmstondby nnt ignoringthe

obvious,ffte pcnond ftarsf,omdion it otr€redto a higtrcrstatcof *indRawlyk,,too,

wih its poychological
sugeetsfre imporfarccof brytim in creding a comnnunit5l, rcjectbn

of the wodd md irl hcb in dcfuitg a nsw ons. It waspcrrmat hil alsopublic he sa5ns.

he docsnot learrcilr irpmeim of a poopb in a conscndive, cuudiddiry moo( foistcad,

Rawlyk'sncwly orgmA cumunity of fvluitimcrg rccm ryirinn[y liberdcd urd upliftcd.

Rawbk'r crpharir rn @fum'c rycal asa ril$alpn ilr sodueliwbkrrrling of lhe

temporalandthe cosftris,a rxlre sffisrrus, andperhapocon incfuigmomentof comrcnsiorq

ftfft ftc inncr comrcrsionadrrccocdby Hcnry Allinc, nonc-ftc-lcss,bringsrn backto thc

originsof religiornre;riwl, wift the prcachiagofHe,lrry Alline. Uke Rawtyk'gbrytigm,

Hemy Allinc h'ougltt pcoptec'l6cr to fte divineb€in& prcaching'spirihralmemings' in

cotloquialluguryo, with fiE nrid uscof sog andwift a pcrfornranccffrtffi m
-. ;

minist€ragChrist-likc. Bell'g cssaysGwEsasa closcbo} at lhin mm, rvho scNrrcd
l,J",u*f 1,'*
pime movcr of a grcafircligirnrsawakeningmdh defrningtim€ frr Mritime society,

Bell beginstV nnveryingthc ltfaritirncsbcforc Alline's ilrivat The raadcris r€mindcd

lhd mary offrre s€ffi€ffiwctt ahsadyNew Ught @ andffnu is not suryiscd

wlrentsell suggBsbffratHenry Allin€ wasnlcc€sffiil &rc to hb chrismdic preachinestylc..

Bttt Bcll'r descripionsdo sryprite wifr hb dctaitsof Alline's "unordtodor(confirsionof the
of gaff€d,ands€cultrrp#'which soffi
dgmarcatim hierarchies
ags,gcnda, and atlrsnlim"l Bdl dcgsrbcga rtyh of pruar,hiagwhish mim[l ftxnlwin's

doscrbdm of an initialty cqttanyconftd Novr Sootietffinship. Perlrye ddstoo, waepart

of his 4eeal' a key to under*arding his inftEnc€. Ifis unordrodoxyccrtdnty erylairu the

oeposifionto A[lnc' wftich Bell crylainswasfirll of anarchicpossfrilfticqepcialty thc

antinomiannotirn of oncccnrnterte4onecouldne\rcrfafl ftom grrco. And Rell offers a fmr

cxmplcs offsrpdby fu New@ rvtos€ qf,eessbrcudntpeopleht€r into flre

tblds of a mur cong€ndive,CahdnblbBaeftt tiild"

BGllexmines scvEfiel
treories of ftG lnportancc of thc corffict betlyomthc British md

the Americancolonicl, wift tte lfiritimes tics to bodt eachnrygcsthgfrat Allinc offcrcd an

idsntity (aeGoo&rin clumicled) for a comne4 depnesEpd
rqion, Bcll rscmsto favor

Rawlyk't ruggsslftn lhal.lhe lvfuitimst idr;ndnd fttmudrm prxitiwly, nrycrfonlo lhrxc in
lheir prwbus Ne,wEngfandhornshnd" Brs in Bcll's closcloofHenry Alline, a qu*ion

oomc$to frc rcadsr. Is it stffcicnt to look at ffrotroublcdtimsssrrygcs0od
by thc coincidsnoc

of timlng wift lhe AmedcaoRwoMon, m d the dinmified nanrc of societyasdctailedby

Coo&vin, to mderrstandAllinc's ryeaf?

Bell's (mfnaccormtof llcruy Allinc hashim obccsscdwift pcrsmal sin, asdid Ranrlyk's

dercdptionof &urdall, md ftis msy hnvchadnodriqgto do wiill thc natureof the dnros,but

a slc/.e.
of mind pflhqtc $ar€d try mary olhcffi,rcprcnnedbril wmting recnlrilinn. Inner

cofiversionallowr for grrcc, forgiwnceq andpcrhapstlre coflvincing chrismatic galeof lhig

to a ple wift a fte finG of mind to Allin€, war at epealitg asaily auwcr fiey sougfutfor

ala*of comnnmalifui&y. Pedlrys fuh uncertainenviurnrcnt wassdnehowa gift, an

qgeommity!o rc-imaginelt€mrch,Esmd fteh ryfuinnl polendat Bcll might wcll agrpe,
l; r' r*'*';-ar'

arydry Alline'scmtinucdepcal hto ffretwcnli€ftccntry asChisim wih€ss.Cluist's

mcilsryEof firgirrcntarehts h.d an appcallsolftg a&nrrt tffl nnillgrnignraml pcrhrys lhc

ttttittat ofits memoryto a pcoplewlro lud for a time foryofen 4 erylairu mgch of fts

lduitime refuiorn Nwivat

Smple offerutre readerUf a chnonicleof a rcligion rvhichdid not offor salvdionby faith

aloc, nm cmpilrairedtlrccdnxiasm fu baUimrcncolraepdby dtcB4lisb, dd drc

clnonicleb a Hcakoc frrthoelliry fv{cftodirmfribd b fr.ct fotm€rNcwEr4fand

a lac,tof indvgnd
a rfiiot nord oodG,
Conglgadm.tlts. ThEyurgedrfrirt afurchnnc, in

r.dicll pottricsard a dinppruwl ofuncdolbd €ffiudas ad cmotlnal rwiwl $tt ises.

Theroryonseis rccddedby Rob€dCoor€t, a prrominoot wttosil,ot€
Wedeyo missionary,
"thopoouliuidcsof llcthodircr rrp rdcr did.sbfitl to manypcoplc". Scryh rqgoenrothm
Britfuhaodllnrrico lvlefrodfor tte poc ttcod of
reacorrlilrctis inotr dirputerbc&eccn

itnemryprcac.ten,ad theroote&rego
dib leadeddpin fr awayBrilrin, hr lvictrodigm's

sdbusocssandhce of moionat acal war pcrhaprib gcacrt dcficiencfos

wtcncoaparcdwilr d'd.ilFof lltry dinc'r mdlhcBSbt'r 4pcd toth omcpoople.

Thh pqrerho1lcdto brirg f{r{r md crinhalycoqrrc rcvcfiNl
rlodiesof rcligirurrevinlr

in thclfiritimoe tring ttc ciglsocift od ninc0ocdcctuicl WlrcilrcrHwy Allincb the

ood iryortad a$jgot d tbcq ar r prilrc movEr,or rdc, &c. ryrfi,e dotdopmcotof ,.
th6BrptiscClnncto,drcorgilirc.l univEnelrc spmmo4is a ioDiG'ftvclr
s!rylo snidcnce

tb rcadng for gecmem on oitllcfrklo. R rErydoftc altds confadbtcaohotror,rds d'

di$gtcctn€ilblt uaully orrcrrvtd flrQioctoryht to bc cryhadreA Togctber,fu! fl**
tr unflhnrzl w;h oilnr prxilhg r mrrnrtcxltlrltl qFecir&ra of m iqxnlant sliw of

lirncfor lvfaritimoCanada


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