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LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation

(CA) from design to implementation


and test challenges
November 2014

Andjela Ilic-Savoia
Keysight Technologies
Agenda
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LTE-A Carrier Aggregation technology, and relevance in the 4G and beyond era

Key Features of LTE-Advanced

What is CA and why do we need it?

Bands and CA Deployment Scenarios

Definitions and UE Categories

How does CA work: Where is the impact and Protocol implications

Whats coming in Rel-11, 12

Summary
Keysight Technologies Began Operations, Aug 1, 14
Agilent announced Sept. 19, 2013, it would separate into:

an Electronic Measurement company (now Keysight)

a Life Sciences, Diagnostics and Applied Markets company (to


retain the Agilent name)

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Keysight in Electronic Measurement
The industry leader

Communications Industrial, computer, Aerospace/defense


semiconductor

FY13 $2.9 billion revenue | 18.9% operating margin | 31% ROIC | best in class financial profile

(1) Presented on a non-GAAP basis; reconciliations to closet GAAP equivalent provided. See reconciliations for definition of ROIC.

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Key LTE-Advanced Features

Carrier Aggregation Enhanced MIMO

Higher data rates


(bps) Higher spectral
Het Nets effiency
(bps/Hz)

Higher spectral
effiency
per coverage area
(bps/Hz/Km2)

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What is Carrier Aggregation?
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Combining (using) multiple LTE carriers together in order to


increase data throughput
Extends the maximum transmission bandwidth, up to 100 MHz, by
aggregating up to five LTE carriers a.k.a component carriers
(CCs)

Initially defined in the 3GPP Release 10 standard

To preserve compatibility with existing devices, all aggregated


carriers look exactly like R8/R9 carriers.

Can be supported in Downlink only or both in Downlink and Uplink

Supported for FDD and TDD modes


Why Carrier Aggregation? Page 7

Lack of sufficient contiguous spectrum forces use of carrier


aggregation to meet peak data rate targets
Motivation:
Achieve wider bandwidths (for throughput, throughput
and also throughput)
Facilitate efficient use of fragmented spectrum
Efficient interference management for control channels
in heterogeneous networks(cross scheduling optional)

f
Why Carrier Aggregation - Industry Inflection Point
Data Traffic Growth Driven By Smartphones
Industry Trends
LTE Technology & Smartphones, 2014 LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation
Continued growth and opportunity Benefits:
263 LTE networks in 97 countries* Faster IP Data
1371 LTE devices* Wider bandwidths
918.6M Smartphone shipments** Reduced latency
Global shift (US 15%, China 33%; India growing 460% in 2013-17)* Improved spectrum efficiency
*Source GSMA, Jan 2014

LTE-A Carrier Aggregation Solution:


10 or 20 MHz fragments aggregated to get 30 - 40MHz channel bandwidth

150 Mbps LTE Carrier # 1


IP data 20 MHz Bandwidth

150 Mbps LTE Carrier # 2


IP data 20 MHz Bandwidth

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Carrier Aggregation Modes
Component Carrier (CC)
up to 20 MHz BW Page 9

f
Intra -band
contiguous
allocation
Band A

Intra-band
non-contiguous
f allocation

Band A

Inter-band
f non-contiguous
Band A Band B allocation
3GPP Release 10 RF & Performance Requirements

Page 10
Component Carrier (CC)
up to 20 MHz BW
Maximum 2 CCs supported
for both uplink & downlink,
f FDD & TDD
Band A
Intra -band contiguous

Not supported in Rel 10


f
Band A
Intra-band non-contiguous

Maximum 2 CC supported
f ONLY for FDD-downlink
Band A Inter-band allocation Band B
Rel-10 Defined CA Bands
Release 10 defines three CA bands: Page 11

Intra-band contiguous CA:


Band 1 (FDD) is defined as CA band CA_1 (IMT-2000 band)
Band 40 (TDD) are defined as CA_40 (2300 MHz TDD band)

For inter-band non-contiguous CA:


R8 operating bands 1 and 5 are defined as one CA band named CA_1-5.
(IMT-2000 and US Cellular 800 MHz bands)

Relaxing the constraint on Rel-10 CA


An important aspect of frequency bands when it comes to the 3GPP releases is
that they are release independent.

This means that a band defined in a later release can be applied to an earlier
release.
Rel-11 Carrier Aggregation Combinations
Band Lead company Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Mode
Page
CA-B3_B7 TeliaSonera 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD
CA-B4_B17 AT&T 1710 1755 2110 - 2155 704 716 734 - 746 FDD
CA-B4_B13 Ericsson (Verizon) 1710 1755 2110 - 2155 777 - 787 746 - 756 FDD
CA-B4_B12 Cox Communications 1710 1755 2110 - 2155 698 716 728 - 746 FDD
CA-B20_B7 Huawei (Orange) 832 862 791 - 821 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD
CA-B2_B17 AT&T 1850 1910 1930 - 1990 704 716 734 - 746 FDD
CA-B4_B5 AT&T 1710 1755 2110 - 2155 824 849 869 - 894 FDD
CA-B5_B12 US Cellular 824 849 869 - 894 698 716 728 - 746 FDD
CA-B5_B17 AT&T 824 849 869 - 894 704 716 734 - 746 FDD
CA-B20_B3 Vodafone 832 862 791 - 821 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 FDD
CA-B20_B8 Vodafone 832 862 791 - 821 880 915 925 - 960 FDD
CA-B3_B5 SK Telecom 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 824 849 869 - 894 FDD
CA-B7 China Unicom 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD
CA-B1_B7 China Telecomm 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD
CA-B4_B7 Rogers Wireless 1710 1755 2110 - 2155 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD
CA-B25_25 Sprint 1850 - 1915 1930 - 1995 1850 - 1915 1930 - 1995 FDD
CA-B38 Huawei (CMCC) 2570 - 2620 2570 - 2620 2570 - 2620 2570 - 2620 TDD
CA-B41 Clearwire 2496 - 2690 2496 - 2690 2496 - 2690 2496 - 2690 TDD

2012 Agilent Technologies


Rel-11 Carrier Aggregation Combinations
Continued
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Band Lead company Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Mode

CA-B1_B18 KDDI 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 815 - 830 860 - 894 FDD
CA-B1_B21 NTT DoCoMo 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 1447.9-1462.9 1495.9-1510.9 FDD
CA-B11_B18 KDDI 1427.91427.9 1475.9- 1495.9 815 - 830 860 - 894 FDD
CA-B3_B8 KT 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 880 915 925 - 960 FDD
CA-B2_B4 TMO-US 1850 1910 1930 - 1990 1710 1755 2110 - 2155 FDD
CA-B1 KDDI 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 FDD
CA-B3_B3 SK Telecom 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 FDD
CA-B4_B4 TMO-US 1710 1755 2110 - 2155 1710 1755 2110 - 2155 FDD

2012 Agilent Technologies


CA How is it used?
PCC (Primary Component Carrier)
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Random access procedure Downlink
Handles the RRC/NAS connection
procedures
Measurement and mobility (handovers)
procedures based on PCC
Uplink
SCC (Secondary Component Carrier)
Activated only when in CONNECTED mode
(can you guess why this req?)
Can be dynamically activated/deactivated
(through MAC PDU)
PUSCH is optional (asymmetric CA, only on
DL)
CA Deployment Scenarios (1 of 2)
Scenario #1:
F1 and F2 cells are co-located and overlaid, providing
same coverage. Page 15

Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of the same band.


Scenario #2:
F1 F2

F1 and F2 cells are co-located and overlaid, but F2


has smaller coverage

Only F1 provides sufficient coverage and F2 is


used to improve throughput.
Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of different
bands
Scenario #3:
F1 and F2 cells are co-located but F2 antennas are
directed to the cell boundaries of F1 so that cell edge
throughput is increased.
F1 provides sufficient coverage and F2 potentially fills the
holes
Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of different bands
CA Deployment Scenarios (2 of 2)
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Scenario #4:
F1 provides macro coverage and on F2 Remote Radio
Heads (RRHs) are used to improve throughput at hot
spots.
Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of different bands.

Scenario #5:
Similar to scenario #2, but frequency selective
repeaters are deployed to extend coverage for one of
the frequencies.
To specify different CA combinations
some new definitions are used:
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Aggregated Transmission Bandwidth Configuration (ATBC): total number of


aggregated physical resource blocks (PRB).

CA bandwidth class: indicates a combination of maximum ATBC and


maximum number of CCs in each band. In R10 and R11 three classes are
defined:

Class A: ATBC 100, maximum number of CC = 1


example: CA_1A_5A: BC1 and BC5, Inter-band, can do 2x up to
10MHz

Class B: ATBC 100, maximum number of CC = 2

Class C: 100 < ATBC 200, maximum number of CC = 2


example: CA_1C: BC1, Intra-band cont., can do 2x up to 20MHz
Class D, E, F: ATBC up to 500 For Future Study
UE Categories
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Data Rate Downlink Uplink


UE
DL/UL Max number Max number Support for
Category
(Mbps) of layers of layers 64QAM

1 10 / 5 1 1 No
2 50 / 25 2 1 No
LTE

3 100 / 50 2 1 No
4 150 / 50 2 1 No
5 300 / 75 4 1 Yes
6 300 / 50 2 or 4 1 or 2 No
LTE-A

7 300 / 100 2 or 4 1 or 2 No
8 3000 / 1500 8 4 Yes
New UE Categories
Combinations of Carrier Aggregation and Layers
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There are multiple combinations of CA and layers that can meet
the data rates for the new and existing UE categories

The following tables define the most cases for which


performance requirements may be developed

capability DL layers
UE category capability UL layers
[#CCs/BW(MHz)] [max #layers] UE category
[#CCs/BW(MHz)] [max #layers]
1 / 20MHz 4
2 / 10+10MHz 4 1 / 20MHz 1
Category 6 2 / 20+20MHz 2 Category 6 2 / 10+10MHz 1
4 (10MHz) 1 / 10MHz 2
2 / 10+20MHz
2(20MHz)
2 / 20+20MHz 1
1 / 20MHz 4
2 / 10+10MHz 4 1 / 20MHz 2
Category 7
Category 7 2 / 20+20MHz 2 2 (10MHz)
4 (10MHz) 2 / 10+20MHz
2 / 10+20MHz 1 ( 20MHz)
2(20MHz)
Category 8 [2 / 20+20MHz] 4?
Category 8 [2 / 20+20MHz] 8?

Downlink Uplink
CA where is the impact?
MAC, PHY and RF are the most impacted layers
Aggregated carriers behave separately, including error correction, Page 21
until demodulation is complete.
Data aggregation happens in MAC layer
Single instance of PDCP/RLC for aggregated carriers as if only
one carrier
SCC communicated to UE
in RRC Reconfiguration
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Protocol implications how to agree to establish CA
During initial attach procedure, UE informs eNB of its capabilities in UE-
EUTRA-Capability information element: Page 23
Further on rf-parameters v1020 UE reports in
UE-EUTRA-Capability information element:
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Protocol implications
how to agree to establish CA Page 25

SCC is enabled at MAC layer, and signaled to UE via


RRC Reconfig:
MAC implications
how to Activate/deactivate SCC Page 26

C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 R Oct 1

Figure 6.1.3.8-1: Activation/Deactivation MAC control element


Carrier Aggregation Design Challenges:
one example
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Need to design front-end components that help reduce harmonics


and other intermodulation products.

Example: Band 17-4 combination


Third harmonic

710 740 2130 MHz


MHz MHz
Band 17 Band 4
Evolution of carrier aggregation
Rel-12 Dual connectivity for LTE

By allowing CA between sites it is possible to provide


continuous CA coverage using a low frequency
macro (umbrella) cell and local capacity
using a higher frequency small cell

Macro umbrella cell


Small Small
Small
cell cell
cell

The separation of the sites means


that enhancements are required at the
physical layer including multiple timing advances
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Evolution of carrier aggregation
Rel-13 Multi-RAT dual connectivity
The ultimate flexibility is achieved if CA is performed
across radio access technologies (RATs) and
in particular with todays dominant small
cell technology: WLAN.

Macro umbrella cell


Small WLAN
WLAN
cell
This level of integration
will force solutions to the issues
of authentication and billing which
continue to limit the potential of WLAN today.

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LTE-Advanced Release 11, 12 &13 RAN stats

3GPP Releases 11, 12 and early 13 represent a


huge growth in features and complexity
58 Study items for feasibility of new work
75 new features (excl. carrier aggregation), 51 with new
performance requirements
129 new carrier aggregation combinations with
corresponding performance requirements
4 performance only requirements for features from
earlier releases
29 new conformance tests (expect ~180 at completion)

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Release 9: Summary of Key Radio Features
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Home base station (femtocell)

MBMS completion of MBSFN

Positioning Support (AGNSS)

Local Area Base Station (picocell)

Self Organizing Networks (SON)

Multicarrier / Multi-RAT Base Station (Multi Standard Radio)

Dual layer beamforming (TM8)

2012 Agilent Technologies


Rel-10: Stage 3 Frozen March 2011
Summary of Key Radio Features
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Simultaneous PUCCH and PUSCH


Clustered SC-FDMA
Relaying continued in Release 11
Enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination (eICIC)
Minimization of Drive Test (MDT)
Machine Type Communications (MTC)
SON enhancements for self healing
Transmit diversity, two- and four-layer spatial multiplexing
Eight-layer spatial multiplexing including UE-specific RS (TM9)

2012 Agilent Technologies


Rel-11: Stage 3 Frozen Sept 2012
Summary of Key Radio Features Page 33

New carrier aggregation combinations (18)

Verification of radiated multi-antenna reception performance of UEs in


LTE (MIMO OTA)

Signaling and procedure for interference avoidance for in-device


coexistence

Coordinated multi-point operation for LTE (CoMP)

Further Enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination (FeICIC)

2012 Agilent Technologies


Rel-12:
New Frequency Bands Page 35

Three new FDD frequency bands will be defined:


Downlink 1670 MHz1675 MHz, uplink 1646.7 MHz1651.7 MHz
for ITU Region 2 (US)
Downlink 461MHz468 MHz, uplink 451458 MHz
for Brasil
Downlink 23502360 MHz, uplink 23052315 MHz
US Wireless Communications Service (WCS) band
There is also a study item for:
Uplink 19802010 MHz and downlink 2170 MHz 2200 MHz.
This is currently widely allocated for satellite communications but terrestrial use
now being considered, particularly for ITU Region 3.
The potential for 110 MHz pairing with band 1 is also being considered.

2012 Agilent Technologies


3GPP Rel-12 Workshop June 2012
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The following proposals from the workshop were identified as most likely to be
developed:
Dynamic TDD
Frequency separation between macro and small cells, using higher frequency
bands in small cells (e.g., 3.5 GHz)
Inter-site carrier aggregation and macrocell-assisted small cells
Interworking with Wi-Fi
Continuous enhancements for machine-type communications, SON, MDT
Proximity services and device-to-device communications(LTE-Direct)

2012 Agilent Technologies


Rel-12: Stage 1 March 2013,
Stage 3 2014?
Current Work Items Page 37

The Release 12 work items that have been defined so far are:
New frequency bands
13 new carrier aggregation scenarios
Bringing the total to 31 for Rel-11 & 12 to date
Carrier-based Het-Net ICIC for LTE
Extends existing co-channel ICIC to include network-based carrier selection
New Carrier Type for LTE
The so-called lean carrier not backwards compatible with Rel-8. Less control
channel overhead, can be switched on and off based on load
Further Downlink MIMO Enhancement for LTE-Advanced
Further enhancements for H(e)NB mobility
Inter H(eNB) and H(e)NB to macro

2012 Agilent Technologies


Thank You!

Name: Andjela Ilic-Savoia


E-mail:andjela_ilic-savoia@keysight.com

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Extras

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End-to-end IP data throughput test
3GPP 37.901 Application Layer Data ThroughputDLTesting
Channel
Application System emulator UL Page 40
Server Simulator
Test UE
App System Simulator Channel emulator
Layer profiles
Protocol
FTP over LTE LTE
TCP/IP - settable parameters - static, EPA5, EVA5,
UDP over and EVA70, EVA200, ETU70 PDSCH data
IP power levels, closed
loop CQI
sf0 sf1 sf2 sf3 sf4 sf5 sf6 sf7 sf8 sf9
DL

- 3GPP 37.901 is defined with no PDSCH data in sub-frames 0 and 5


- For LTE CAT4 this reduces the headline rate from 150Mbps to 120Mbps (20MHz channel)
- 3GPP 37.901 Application layer Throughput also excludes TCP/UDP protocol overhead and re-transmissions which reduce
the measurement result further
CAT6 E2E IP Measurements on UXM
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300Mbps achieved with 2x CCs and 20MHz bandwidth

E2E IP Throughput
Real world conditions Affecting UE Performance
W-CDMA
HSPA+

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LTE-A LTE-A
CA CC#1 CA CC#2

LTE
CA
Doppler & MIMO Fading conditions
Doppler speed
Degree of spatial diversity
Adaptive
modulation
Interference Multipath & coding Noise and interference conditions
& AWGN fading
Transmission mode used
Influence of adaptive modulation & coding

Need network and channel emulation to verify


LTE/LTE-A device performance
Overcome LTE-A UE Design Test
Challenges with Agilents New UXM
Assess design readiness with greater confidence Page 43

1. End-to-end IP data throughput test for LTE/LTE-A chipsets/ UEs

2. Receiver test complexities and challenges with 2CC CA, 4x2 MIMO and fading

3. Quickly setup multiple test sequences that require different parameters for each sequence

1. E2E IP Throughput 2. Rx characterization 3. Test Parameter changes


Gain new insights for LTE-Advanced
Wring out designs with a broad range of integrated capabilities LTE-Advanced
carrier aggregation

Ensure realistic category 6 performance Page 44


DL: 300 Mbps
Sustained bidirectional
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Most highly integrated solution: UL: 50 Mbps
multiple cells, carrier aggregation,
4x2 DL MIMO, integrated fading and Cat 6
built-in application server device

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Page 45

Designed for next advancements in


antenna techniques, component
carriers & data rates
Two independent 100 MHz RF transceivers
Two receiver paths per cell
Enables multiple cells, carrier aggregation,
higher order MIMO, and integrated fading
Multi-format capable
Supports LTE FDD and TDD now

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