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GSM Principle Company Confidential


Participants will understand basic idea of GSM System such as frequency

reuse, etc.

Participants will understand the structure of GSM system and the protocol

Participants will understand certain numbers that refer to BSS.

Participants will understand the 4 kind of channel combination and

understand the idea of multi-frame.

Participants will know some radio techniques.

Participants will get the idea of EDGE Company Confidential


1. GSM System Overview

2. GSM Network Structure

3. Service Area and Number Planning

4. Channel on the Wireless Interface

5. Radio Technique

6. GPRS & EDGE Introduction Company Confidential

1. GSM System Overview Company Confidential

GSM System Overview
The GSM system is a frequency and time division cellular system, each physical
system channel is characterized by a carrier frequency and a time slot number.

Cellular are designed to operate with groups of low power radios spread out over
the geographical service area. Each group of radios serve MSs presently located
near them. The area served by each group of radios is called a Cell.

Downlink and Uplink signals for one user are assigned different frequencies, this
kind of technique is called Frequency Division Duplex (FDD).

Data for different users is conveyed in time intervals called slots, several slots make
up a frame. This kind of technique is called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Company Confidential

GSM Development Company Confidential

Cell Technique
o Macro Cell and Micro Cell
A certain radio coverage area formed by a set of transceivers that
connected to a set of antennas is called a CELL

Macro Cell
In the beginning, High-power BTSs are adopted to provide services. The BTS
covers a wider area, but its frequency utilization is not efficient. So it can only
provide a few channels for subscribers.

Micro Cell
Later the Low-Power BTS joins the system for getting a better service area with
high capacity. At the same time it adopts the frequency reuse technique to
improve the efficiency of the frequency utilization and also the whole capacity
of the network. Company Confidential

Multiple Access Technique

o Multiple Access Technique allows many subscribers to use the same

communication medium.

o There are three kinds of basic Multiple Access technique:

1. FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

2. TDMA (Time division multiple access)

3. CDMA (Code division multiple access)

o GSM system adopt FDD-TDMA (FDMA and TDMA together). Company Confidential

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

o FDMA uses different frequency channel to

accomplish communication.

o The whole frequency spectrum available is

divided into many individual channel (for
transmitting and receiving), every channel can
support the traffic for one subscribers or some
control information. Company Confidential

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)

o TDMA accomplish the communication in

different timeslot.

o A carrier is divided into channels based on

time. Different signals occupy different
timeslots in certain sequence, that is many
signal are transmitted on the same frequency
in different time. Company Confidential

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

o CDMA accomplish the communication in

different code sequences.

o Special coding is adopted before transmission,

then different information will lose nothing
after being mixed and transmitted together on
the same frequency and at the same time. Company Confidential

Frequency Spectrum

o GSM 900

Duplex Separation : 45MHz

Channel Bandwidth : 200MHz Company Confidential

Frequency Spectrum

o DCS 1800

Duplex Separation : 95MHz

Channel Bandwidth : 200MHz Company Confidential

Frequency Spectrum
Frequency Range Uplink Frequency Frequency Downlink
Spectrum (MHz) Point Available Frequency

450.4~457.6 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
GSM 450 Fu(n)=450.6 + 0.2(n-259) 259<=n<=293
460.4~467.6 10
478.8~486 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
GSM 480 Fu(n)=479 + 0.2(n-306) 306<=n<=340
488.8~496 10
824~849 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
GSM 850 Fu(n)=824.2 + 0.2(n-128) 128<=n<=251
869~894 45
E-GSM 880~915 Fu(n)=890 + 0.2n 0<=n<=124 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
900 925~960 Fu(n)=890 + 0.2(n-1024) 975<=n<=1023 45
R-GSM 876~915 Fu(n)=890 + 0.2n 0<=n<=124 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
900 921~960 Fu(n)=890 + 0.2(n-1024) 955<=n<=1023 45
1850~1910 Fu(n)=1850.2 + 0.2(n- Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
DCS 1800 512<=n<=810
1930~1990 512) 80 Company Confidential

Frequency Reuse

o Frequency resource of mobile system in very limited.

o Different subscribers can use the same frequency in different


o Quality of communication must be ensured. Company Confidential

Frequency Reuse

o Frequency reuse pattern for N = 7 Company Confidential

Frequency Reuse

o Frequency reuse pattern for N = 4 Company Confidential

Cell Types

o Omni directional cell o 120 Degree Cell Company Confidential

2. GSM Network Structure Company Confidential

GSM GPRS Network Component Company Confidential

Interface between different entities Company Confidential

MS (Mobile Station)

o MS = ME + SIM

IMEI : International Mobile Equipment Identity

IMSI : International Mobile Subscriber Identity
SIM : Subscriber Identity Module
ME : Mobile Equipment Company Confidential

SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)

o International Mobile Subscriber

Identity (IMSI)

o Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity


o Location Area Identity (LAI)

o Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) Company Confidential

BSS (Base Station Subsystem)

o BSC :Base Station Controller

o BTS :Base Transceiver Station BSS

o TC :Transcoder

o SM :Sub Multiplexer Company Confidential

BSS (Base Station Subsystem)

o Packet data switching

o Bridge between SGSN

and BSC

o Provide Pb and Gb

GPRS Backbone Company Confidential

NSS (Network Switching System)



MSC : Mobile-service Switching Center

HLR : Home Location Register
VLR : Visitor Location Register
EIR : Equipment Identity Register
AUC : Authentication Center
EC : Echo Canceller Company Confidential

MSC (Mobile-Service Swithcing Center)

o Call Processing

o Operations and Maintenance Support

o Interface Management

o Inter-network and Inter-working

o Billing Company Confidential

HLR (Home Location Register)

o Subscriber ID (IMSI and MSISDN)

o Current subscriber VLR (current location)

o Supplementary service information

o Subscriber status (registered/deregistered)

o Authentication key and AuC functionality Company Confidential

VLR (Visitor Location Register)

o Mobile Status (IMSI attached / detached / busy / idle etc.)

o Location Area Identity (LAI)

o Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

o Allocation the Roaming Number Company Confidential

EIR (Equipment Identity Register)

White List
Black List
Grey List

If NOT found

EIR focus on the equipment, not the subscriber! Company Confidential

OMC Functional Architecture

OMC (Operation and Maintenance Center) as a operation control center and

maintenance of the network. Company Confidential

3. Service Area and
Number Planning Company Confidential

Service Area

PLMN Service area

MSC Service area
Location Area..


PLMN Service area
MSC Service area
Location Area..

CELL Company Confidential

LAI (Local Area Identification)

Location Area Identification

LAI is the international code for a location area.

MCC : Mobile Country Code, it consist of 3 digits,

example : MCC of Indonesia is 510
MNC : Mobile Network Code, it consist of 2 digits,
example : MNC of Telkomsel is 10
LAC : Local Area Code, Its a two bytes hex code.

For Example : 510-10-2258 Company Confidential

CGI (Cell Global Identification)

Location Area Identification

CGI (Cell Global Identification)

CGI (Cell Global Identification) is a unique international identification for a cell.

CGI format is LAI (Location Area Identification) + CI (Cell Identity)

CI : Cell Identity. This code uses two bytes hex code to identify
the cells within an LAI.

For Example : 510-10-2258-0001 Company Confidential

BSIC (Base Station Identity Code)

BSIC (Base Station Identity Code)

The Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) is a code used in GSM to uniquely identify a
base station. The code is needed because it is possible that mobile stations
receive the broadcast channel of more than one base station on the same

NCC : PLMN network color code. It comprises 3 bit. It allows various

neighboring PLMN to be distinguished.
BCC : BTS color code. It comprises 3 bit, used to distinguish different cells
assigned the same frequency. Company Confidential


National (significant) Mobile Number

Mobile station international ISDN number

A Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN) is a number used

for the international identification of mobile phone numbers. The number also includes
the country code and a national destination code characterizing the subscribers operator,
which is usually used to track calls to subscribers.
A MSISDN is also known as a Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Number

CC : Country code. Example : the CC of Indonesia is 62.

NDC : National Destination Code. Example NDC Telkomsel is 812
SN : Subsicriber Number. Format : H0 H1 H3 ABCD
Example : 62-812-9551-5901 Company Confidential




The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is an internationally standardized

unique number to identify a mobile subscriber. The IMSI consists of a Mobile Country
Code (MCC), a Mobile Network Code (MNC) and a Mobile Station Identification Number

MSIN : Mobile Subscriber Identification Number. Example : 1234567

NMSI : National Mobile Subsciber Identification ( MNC + MSIN )
For Example of IMSI : 510-10-1234567 Company Confidential


The Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) is a temporary identification number

that is used in the GSM network instead of the IMSI to ensure the privacy of the mobile
subscriber. The TMSI prohibits tracing of the identity of a mobile subscriber by
interception of the traffic on the radio link.

The TMSI is assigned only after successful subscriber authentication.

The VLR controls the allocation of new TMSI numbers and notifies them to the HLR.

TMSDI is used to ensure that the identity of the mobile subscriber on the air interface is
kept secret.

The TMSI consist of 4 bytes (8 Hex Numbers) and determined by the operator. Company Confidential



The International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) looks more like a serial number
which distinctively identifies a mobile station internationally. This is allocated by the
equipment manufacturer and registered by the network operator, who stores it in the
Entrepreneurs-in-Residence (EIR). By means of IMEI, one recognizes obsolete, stolen, or
non-functional equipment.

Following are the parts of IMEI:

TAC (Type Approval Code) : 6 bit, centrally assigned.
FAC (Final Assembly Code) : 2 bit, assigned by the manufacturer.
SNR (Serial Number) : 6 bit, assigned by the manufacturer.
Spare (SP) : 1 bit, not used. Company Confidential

4. Channel on the Wireless
Interface Company Confidential

Physical Channel & Logical Channel

The Physical Channel is

the medium over which
the information is carried TDMA Frame
: 200KHz and 0.577ms
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
The Logical Channel
consist of the Timeslot
informationcarried over The information carried in one
the physical channel. time slot is called a Burst Company Confidential

Logical Channel

Logical Channels are determined by the information carried within the physical channel.
Logical channels used to carry data and signaling information. Different logical channels
are mapped in either direction on physical channels.

Logical channels divided in to following two categories:

Traffic Channel (TCH) :

Transmits traffic information, include data and speech.

Control Channel (CCH) :

(or) Signaling Channel, transmits all kind of control information. Company Confidential

TCH (Traffic Channel)

Traffic Channel (TCH)

Speech Data


TCH (Traffic Channel)

TCHF : TCH Full Rate Speech Channel

TCHH : TCH Half Rate Speech Channel
TCH/9.6 : Data Channel 9.6 kb/s
TCH/4.8 : Data Channel 4.8 kb/s
TCH/2.4 : Data Channel 2.4 kb/s Company Confidential

CCH (Control Channel)

CCH (Control Channel)





BCCH : Broadcast Control Channel

CCCH : Common Control Channel
DCCH : Dedicated Control Channel
ACCH : Associated Control Channel Company Confidential

BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel)

CCH (Control Channel) The Information carried on the BCCH is

monitored by the Mobile Station (MS)

BCH periodically when it is in idle mode.

BCCH Sync Channel BCH : Broadcasting Channel

BCCH : Broadcast Control Channel

SCH FCCH FCCH : Frequency Correction Channel

SCH : Synchronization Channel Company Confidential

CCCH (Common Control Channel)

CCCH (Common Control Channels) are

CCH (Control Channel)
used for conveying information from
network to the Mobile Subscribers(MSs)
and provide access to the Mobile


GSM CCCHs include :
RACH : Random Access Channel
PCH : Paging Channel
AGCH : Access Granted Channel
CBCH : Cell Broadcast Channel Company Confidential

CCH (Control Channel)

CCH (Control Channel)

DCCH is assigned to a single wireless connection for
measurement and handover purpose.

SDCCH : Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel
ACCH : Associated Control Channel
SACCH : Slow Associated Control Channel
FACCH SACCH FACCH : Fast Associated Control Channel Company Confidential

Uplink Logical Channel


TCHH Company Confidential

Downlink Logical Channel




TCHH Company Confidential

How to use these channel?

Power Off
FCCH Search for frequency correction burst
SCH Search for synchronous burst
BCCH Extract system information
Idle Mode
PCH Monitor paging message
RACH Send access burst
AGCH Allocate signaling channel
SDCCH Setup the call Dedicated Mode
SDCCH Allocate voice channel
TCH Conversation
FACH Release the Call
Idle Mode Company Confidential

Packet Logical Channel

o PDCH (Packet Data Channel)

o Comprising packet service channel and packet control channel TCH

o PDTCH (Packet Service Channel)

o Combined into the single-directional service channel TCH

o Packet Control Channel

o Broadcast Control Channel : PBCCH BCCH
o Public Control Channel : PPCH, PRACH, PAGCH CCCH
o Private Control Channel : PACCH, PTCCH
SACCH Company Confidential

GSM Logical Channel Combination

o Main BCCH combination : FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH

o SDCCH combination : SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8

o Combines BCCH : BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4 + SACCH/4

o TCHF combination : TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/F

o TCHH combination : TCH/H + FACCH/H + SACCH/H Company Confidential

Combination of packet logic channel

o Packet logic channel (PDCH) can be combined via the following three modes:



o With the increase of traffic, packet public channel should be configured in the
cell. Channel combination mode 1 and mode 2 should be adopted.

o In case of small GPRS traffic, GPRS and circuit services use the same BCCH and
CCCH in the cell. In case, only combination mode 3 is needed in the cell. Company Confidential

GSM Multi-frames

TDMA Frame
0 1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 45 46 47 48 49 50

51 Frame Multi-frames

CONTROL CHANNEL Company Confidential

GSM Multi-frames

TDMA Frame
0 1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 20 21 22 23 24 25

26 Frame Multi-frames

CONTROL CHANNEL Company Confidential

5. Radio Technique Company Confidential

Power Control

8W Both downlink and uplink power
settings can be controlled
independently and individually.

Saved battery power

Reduce co-channel, and
0.8 W Adjacent channel interference

Note : BCCH does not attend Power control Company Confidential


DTX Discontinuous Transmission

VAD Voice Activity Detection

Battery Saving
Interference reduction Company Confidential

Timming Advance

The mobile phone should send the

signal in advance!

RX Delay

TX Delay Company Confidential

Multi-path Fading

o Multi-path Fading
Frequency Hopping Company Confidential


o What is Diversity?

Receive diversity provides an effective technique for both overcoming the

impact of fading across the radio channel and increasing the received signal to
interference ratio.

The former is achieved by ensuring uncorrelated (i.e. low enough correlated)

fading between antenna braches i.e not all antennas experience fades at the
same time. Company Confidential

Frequency Hopping Company Confidential

Introduction Company Confidential

GSM Develompment Evolution

3G IMT-2000 2

2.5G GPRS 115 kb/s

EDGE 384 kb/s

HSCSD 57.6

GSM 9.6 kb/s Company Confidential

Date rate of GPRS & EDGE Company Confidential Company Confidential