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GSM Principle

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Objectives

Participants will understand basic idea of GSM System such as frequency


reuse, etc.

Participants will understand the structure of GSM system and the protocol
used.

Participants will understand certain numbers that refer to BSS.

Participants will understand the 4 kind of channel combination and


understand the idea of multi-frame.

Participants will know some radio techniques.

Participants will get the idea of EDGE

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Contents

1. GSM System Overview

2. GSM Network Structure

3. Service Area and Number Planning

4. Channel on the Wireless Interface

5. Radio Technique

6. GPRS & EDGE Introduction

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1. GSM System Overview

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GSM System Overview
The GSM system is a frequency and time division cellular system, each physical
system channel is characterized by a carrier frequency and a time slot number.

Cellular are designed to operate with groups of low power radios spread out over
the geographical service area. Each group of radios serve MSs presently located
near them. The area served by each group of radios is called a Cell.

Downlink and Uplink signals for one user are assigned different frequencies, this
kind of technique is called Frequency Division Duplex (FDD).

Data for different users is conveyed in time intervals called slots, several slots make
up a frame. This kind of technique is called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).

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GSM Development

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Cell Technique
o Macro Cell and Micro Cell
A certain radio coverage area formed by a set of transceivers that
connected to a set of antennas is called a CELL

Macro Cell
In the beginning, High-power BTSs are adopted to provide services. The BTS
covers a wider area, but its frequency utilization is not efficient. So it can only
provide a few channels for subscribers.

Micro Cell
Later the Low-Power BTS joins the system for getting a better service area with
high capacity. At the same time it adopts the frequency reuse technique to
improve the efficiency of the frequency utilization and also the whole capacity
of the network.

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Multiple Access Technique

o Multiple Access Technique allows many subscribers to use the same


communication medium.

o There are three kinds of basic Multiple Access technique:


1. FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

2. TDMA (Time division multiple access)

3. CDMA (Code division multiple access)

o GSM system adopt FDD-TDMA (FDMA and TDMA together).

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FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

o FDMA uses different frequency channel to


accomplish communication.

o The whole frequency spectrum available is


divided into many individual channel (for
transmitting and receiving), every channel can
support the traffic for one subscribers or some
control information.

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TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)

o TDMA accomplish the communication in


different timeslot.

o A carrier is divided into channels based on


time. Different signals occupy different
timeslots in certain sequence, that is many
signal are transmitted on the same frequency
in different time.

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CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

o CDMA accomplish the communication in


different code sequences.

o Special coding is adopted before transmission,


then different information will lose nothing
after being mixed and transmitted together on
the same frequency and at the same time.

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Frequency Spectrum

o GSM 900

Duplex Separation : 45MHz


Channel Bandwidth : 200MHz

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Frequency Spectrum

o DCS 1800

Duplex Separation : 95MHz


Channel Bandwidth : 200MHz

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Frequency Spectrum
Frequency Range Uplink Frequency Frequency Downlink
Spectrum (MHz) Point Available Frequency

450.4~457.6 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
GSM 450 Fu(n)=450.6 + 0.2(n-259) 259<=n<=293
460.4~467.6 10
478.8~486 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
GSM 480 Fu(n)=479 + 0.2(n-306) 306<=n<=340
488.8~496 10
824~849 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
GSM 850 Fu(n)=824.2 + 0.2(n-128) 128<=n<=251
869~894 45
E-GSM 880~915 Fu(n)=890 + 0.2n 0<=n<=124 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
900 925~960 Fu(n)=890 + 0.2(n-1024) 975<=n<=1023 45
R-GSM 876~915 Fu(n)=890 + 0.2n 0<=n<=124 Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
900 921~960 Fu(n)=890 + 0.2(n-1024) 955<=n<=1023 45
1850~1910 Fu(n)=1850.2 + 0.2(n- Fd(n)=Fu(n) +
DCS 1800 512<=n<=810
1930~1990 512) 80

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Frequency Reuse

o Frequency resource of mobile system in very limited.

o Different subscribers can use the same frequency in different


places.

o Quality of communication must be ensured.

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Frequency Reuse

o Frequency reuse pattern for N = 7

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Frequency Reuse

o Frequency reuse pattern for N = 4

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Cell Types

o Omni directional cell o 120 Degree Cell

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2. GSM Network Structure

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GSM GPRS Network Component

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Interface between different entities

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MS (Mobile Station)

o MS = ME + SIM

IMEI : International Mobile Equipment Identity


IMSI : International Mobile Subscriber Identity
SIM : Subscriber Identity Module
ME : Mobile Equipment

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SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)

o International Mobile Subscriber

Identity (IMSI)

o Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

(TMSI)

o Location Area Identity (LAI)

o Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki)

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BSS (Base Station Subsystem)

o BSC :Base Station Controller

o BTS :Base Transceiver Station BSS

o TC :Transcoder

o SM :Sub Multiplexer

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BSS (Base Station Subsystem)

o Packet data switching

o Bridge between SGSN


BSS
and BSC

o Provide Pb and Gb
interface

GPRS Backbone

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NSS (Network Switching System)

NSS

OMC

MSC : Mobile-service Switching Center


BSS
HLR : Home Location Register
VLR : Visitor Location Register
EIR : Equipment Identity Register
AUC : Authentication Center
EC : Echo Canceller

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MSC (Mobile-Service Swithcing Center)

o Call Processing

o Operations and Maintenance Support

o Interface Management

o Inter-network and Inter-working

o Billing

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HLR (Home Location Register)

o Subscriber ID (IMSI and MSISDN)

o Current subscriber VLR (current location)

o Supplementary service information

o Subscriber status (registered/deregistered)

o Authentication key and AuC functionality

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VLR (Visitor Location Register)

o Mobile Status (IMSI attached / detached / busy / idle etc.)

o Location Area Identity (LAI)

o Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

o Allocation the Roaming Number

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EIR (Equipment Identity Register)

White List
Black List
Grey List

If NOT found

EIR focus on the equipment, not the subscriber!

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OMC Functional Architecture

OMC (Operation and Maintenance Center) as a operation control center and


maintenance of the network.

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3. Service Area and
Number Planning

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Service Area

PLMN Service area


MSC Service area
Location Area..

CELL

SERVICE AREA
PLMN Service area
MSC Service area
Location Area..

CELL

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LAI (Local Area Identification)

Location Area Identification

LAI is the international code for a location area.

MCC : Mobile Country Code, it consist of 3 digits,


example : MCC of Indonesia is 510
MNC : Mobile Network Code, it consist of 2 digits,
example : MNC of Telkomsel is 10
LAC : Local Area Code, Its a two bytes hex code.

For Example : 510-10-2258

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CGI (Cell Global Identification)

Location Area Identification

CGI (Cell Global Identification)

CGI (Cell Global Identification) is a unique international identification for a cell.


CGI format is LAI (Location Area Identification) + CI (Cell Identity)

CI : Cell Identity. This code uses two bytes hex code to identify
the cells within an LAI.

For Example : 510-10-2258-0001

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BSIC (Base Station Identity Code)

BSIC (Base Station Identity Code)

The Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) is a code used in GSM to uniquely identify a
base station. The code is needed because it is possible that mobile stations
receive the broadcast channel of more than one base station on the same
frequency.

NCC : PLMN network color code. It comprises 3 bit. It allows various


neighboring PLMN to be distinguished.
BCC : BTS color code. It comprises 3 bit, used to distinguish different cells
assigned the same frequency.

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MSISDN

National (significant) Mobile Number

Mobile station international ISDN number

A Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN) is a number used


for the international identification of mobile phone numbers. The number also includes
the country code and a national destination code characterizing the subscribers operator,
which is usually used to track calls to subscribers.
A MSISDN is also known as a Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Number

CC : Country code. Example : the CC of Indonesia is 62.


NDC : National Destination Code. Example NDC Telkomsel is 812
SN : Subsicriber Number. Format : H0 H1 H3 ABCD
Example : 62-812-9551-5901

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IMSI

NMSI

IMSI

The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is an internationally standardized


unique number to identify a mobile subscriber. The IMSI consists of a Mobile Country
Code (MCC), a Mobile Network Code (MNC) and a Mobile Station Identification Number
(MSIN).

MSIN : Mobile Subscriber Identification Number. Example : 1234567


NMSI : National Mobile Subsciber Identification ( MNC + MSIN )
For Example of IMSI : 510-10-1234567

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TMSI

The Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) is a temporary identification number


that is used in the GSM network instead of the IMSI to ensure the privacy of the mobile
subscriber. The TMSI prohibits tracing of the identity of a mobile subscriber by
interception of the traffic on the radio link.

The TMSI is assigned only after successful subscriber authentication.

The VLR controls the allocation of new TMSI numbers and notifies them to the HLR.

TMSDI is used to ensure that the identity of the mobile subscriber on the air interface is
kept secret.

The TMSI consist of 4 bytes (8 Hex Numbers) and determined by the operator.

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IMEI

IMEI

The International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) looks more like a serial number
which distinctively identifies a mobile station internationally. This is allocated by the
equipment manufacturer and registered by the network operator, who stores it in the
Entrepreneurs-in-Residence (EIR). By means of IMEI, one recognizes obsolete, stolen, or
non-functional equipment.

Following are the parts of IMEI:


TAC (Type Approval Code) : 6 bit, centrally assigned.
FAC (Final Assembly Code) : 2 bit, assigned by the manufacturer.
SNR (Serial Number) : 6 bit, assigned by the manufacturer.
Spare (SP) : 1 bit, not used.

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4. Channel on the Wireless
Interface

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Physical Channel & Logical Channel

The Physical Channel is


the medium over which
the information is carried TDMA Frame
: 200KHz and 0.577ms
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
The Logical Channel
consist of the Timeslot
informationcarried over The information carried in one
the physical channel. time slot is called a Burst

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Logical Channel

Logical Channels are determined by the information carried within the physical channel.
Logical channels used to carry data and signaling information. Different logical channels
are mapped in either direction on physical channels.

Logical channels divided in to following two categories:

Traffic Channel (TCH) :


Transmits traffic information, include data and speech.

Control Channel (CCH) :


(or) Signaling Channel, transmits all kind of control information.

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TCH (Traffic Channel)

Traffic Channel (TCH)

Speech Data

TCHF TCHH TCH/9.6 TCH/4.8 TCH/2.4

TCH (Traffic Channel)

TCHF : TCH Full Rate Speech Channel


TCHH : TCH Half Rate Speech Channel
TCH/9.6 : Data Channel 9.6 kb/s
TCH/4.8 : Data Channel 4.8 kb/s
TCH/2.4 : Data Channel 2.4 kb/s

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CCH (Control Channel)

CCH (Control Channel)

DCCH BCH
CCCH

SDCCH ACCH BCCH Sync CH

RACH PCH/AGCH CBCH


FACCH SACCH SCH FCCH

BCCH : Broadcast Control Channel


CCCH : Common Control Channel
DCCH : Dedicated Control Channel
ACCH : Associated Control Channel

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BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel)

CCH (Control Channel) The Information carried on the BCCH is

monitored by the Mobile Station (MS)

BCH periodically when it is in idle mode.

BCCH Sync Channel BCH : Broadcasting Channel

BCCH : Broadcast Control Channel

SCH FCCH FCCH : Frequency Correction Channel

SCH : Synchronization Channel

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CCCH (Common Control Channel)

CCCH (Common Control Channels) are


CCH (Control Channel)
used for conveying information from
network to the Mobile Subscribers(MSs)
CCCH
and provide access to the Mobile
Subscribers.

RACH (UL) CBCH (DL)


GSM CCCHs include :
RACH : Random Access Channel
PCH : Paging Channel
PCH/AGCH (DL)
AGCH : Access Granted Channel
CBCH : Cell Broadcast Channel

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CCH (Control Channel)

CCH (Control Channel)

DCCH
DCCH is assigned to a single wireless connection for
measurement and handover purpose.

SDCCH ACCH
SDCCH : Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel
ACCH : Associated Control Channel
SACCH : Slow Associated Control Channel
FACCH SACCH FACCH : Fast Associated Control Channel

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Uplink Logical Channel

RACH CCCH CCH

SDCCH
SACCH DCCH
FACCH DCH
TCHF
TCH
TCHH

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Downlink Logical Channel

FCCH
BCCH SCH

CCH BCCH
PCH
CCCH
AGCH

SDCCH
DCCH SACCH

DCH FACCH
TCHF
TCH
TCHH

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How to use these channel?

Power Off
FCCH Search for frequency correction burst
SCH Search for synchronous burst
BCCH Extract system information
Idle Mode
PCH Monitor paging message
RACH Send access burst
AGCH Allocate signaling channel
SDCCH Setup the call Dedicated Mode
SDCCH Allocate voice channel
TCH Conversation
FACH Release the Call
Idle Mode

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Packet Logical Channel

o PDCH (Packet Data Channel)


o Comprising packet service channel and packet control channel TCH

o PDTCH (Packet Service Channel)


o Combined into the single-directional service channel TCH

o Packet Control Channel


o Broadcast Control Channel : PBCCH BCCH
o Public Control Channel : PPCH, PRACH, PAGCH CCCH
o Private Control Channel : PACCH, PTCCH
SACCH

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GSM Logical Channel Combination

o Main BCCH combination : FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH

o SDCCH combination : SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8

o Combines BCCH : BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4 + SACCH/4

o TCHF combination : TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/F

o TCHH combination : TCH/H + FACCH/H + SACCH/H

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Combination of packet logic channel

o Packet logic channel (PDCH) can be combined via the following three modes:
Mode 1 : PBCCH + PCCCH + PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH;

Mode 2 : PCCCH + PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH

Mode 3 : PDTCH + PACCH + PTCCH

o With the increase of traffic, packet public channel should be configured in the
cell. Channel combination mode 1 and mode 2 should be adopted.

o In case of small GPRS traffic, GPRS and circuit services use the same BCCH and
CCCH in the cell. In case, only combination mode 3 is needed in the cell.

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GSM Multi-frames

TDMA Frame
0 1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 45 46 47 48 49 50

51 Frame Multi-frames

CONTROL CHANNEL

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GSM Multi-frames

TDMA Frame
0 1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 20 21 22 23 24 25

26 Frame Multi-frames

CONTROL CHANNEL

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5. Radio Technique

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Power Control

5W
8W Both downlink and uplink power
settings can be controlled
independently and individually.

Saved battery power


Reduce co-channel, and
0.8 W Adjacent channel interference

Note : BCCH does not attend Power control

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DTX and VAD

DTX Discontinuous Transmission

VAD Voice Activity Detection

Battery Saving
Interference reduction

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Timming Advance

The mobile phone should send the


signal in advance!

RX Delay

TX Delay

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Multi-path Fading

o Multi-path Fading
Diversity
Frequency Hopping

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Diversity

o What is Diversity?

Receive diversity provides an effective technique for both overcoming the


impact of fading across the radio channel and increasing the received signal to
interference ratio.

The former is achieved by ensuring uncorrelated (i.e. low enough correlated)


fading between antenna braches i.e not all antennas experience fades at the
same time.

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Frequency Hopping

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6. GPRS & EDGE
Introduction

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GSM Develompment Evolution

3G IMT-2000 2
Mb/s

2.5G GPRS 115 kb/s

EDGE 384 kb/s


2G
HSCSD 57.6
kb/s

GSM 9.6 kb/s

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Date rate of GPRS & EDGE

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