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Railway Engineering (CL- 410)

> Construction of New Railway Track

Construction of New Lines
1. Land acquisition
2. Earthwork and bridges
3. Construction of station building, staff quarters,
and other allied facilities, including platforms
and sheds
4. Laying of plates including ballasting of track
5. Opening of section to traffic
Land Acquisition
o The work of land acquisition should start well in advance so
that all the legal and financial formalities are completed in
time and the possession of the land is taken for starting
construction work.

o Land acquisition is done with the help of the State

Government as per the procedure laid down in the Land
Acquisition Act.

Land Acquisition
o The land being acquired should be sufficient for the
formation, berm, and borrow pits. It should also have
adequate provision for any future expansion.

o Even when a single line is to be constructed, it should be

ascertained that the land made available is suitable for future
conversion into a double line.

Land Acquisition
o Normally a strip of 15 to 25 m of land is acquired for the
construction of a railway line. An extra width of land is
acquired for station yards. In the case of small stations, the
width normally adopted is 150 1000 m.

Earthwork for Formation
o Depending upon the rail level and general contour of the area,
the formation may be laid in an embankment or in a cutting. A
formation laid in an embankment is normally preferred
because it affords good drainage.

o The height of the embankment also depends on the high

flood level (HFL) of the area and a reasonable free board
should be given above the HFL.

Earthwork for Formation

Earthwork for Formation
Points to be kept in mind with regard to earthwork:

o Earthwork is normally done in 30-cm layers so that the soil is

well compacted.

o Mechanical compaction is normally done after each layer of

earthwork with the help of a sheep foot roller to obtain 90%
maximum dry density at an optimum moisture content.
Earthwork for Formation
Points to be kept in mind with regard to earthwork:

o A shrinkage allowance of 5% is made for the consolidation of

the final cross section in the case of mechanical compaction.
The shrinkage allowance is increased to 10% if no mechanical
compaction is involved.

o A blanket of a thickness of about 30 cm is provided at the top

of the embankment where the soil is not of good quality.
Earthwork for Formation
Points to be kept in mind with regard to earthwork:

o In areas where there are both cuttings and embankments, the soil
from the cuttings should be used for the embankments up to an
economical lead. The economical limit of moving the earth in the
longitudinal direction is determined by the mass-haul curve.

o For the early execution of earthwork, the section is normally

divided into convenient zones, with each zone requiring earthwork
costing Rs 1.5 to 3 million approximately.
o Bridges should be designed to bear the load of the
heaviest locomotive likely to pass the section.

o Depending upon the topography of the location and the

type of stream to be crossed, hume pipe culverts, RCC
slab bridges, plate girders, PRC girder bridges, or steel
bridges are designed.

Service Buildings and Staff Quarters
o Service buildings include buildings such as the station masters
office or telegraph office, which are basically required for providing
assistance in the running of trains.

o Apart from this, staff quarters and other passenger amenities are
also provided at the stations.

o All these constructions are taken up simultaneously by civil

engineers, electrical engineers, and signal engineers so that all work
can progress together.
Plate Laying or Track Linking
o Once the formation is ready, plate laying or track linking
should be done, which basically consists of laying rails,
sleepers, and fastenings.
o The following methods can be adopted for plate laying:

1. Tram line method

2. American method
3. Telescopic method
Tram line method
o In this method, a temporary line known as a tram line is laid by the
side of the proposed track for transporting track material to the

o This method can be useful in flat terrains, where laying of a tram

line on the natural ground may be comparatively easier.

o A modification of the above method, called side method, is also in

practice, where track and bridge material such as steel girders and
RCC slabs is carried to the site in trucks on a service road that runs
parallel to the track.
American method
o In this method, rails and sleepers are first assembled in the base
depot, and the preassembled track panels are then conveyed to the
site along with the necessary cranes, etc.

o The track panels are then unloaded at the site of work either
manually or with the help of cranes and laid in their final position.

o This procedure is used in many developed countries, particularly

where concrete sleepers are laid, which are quite heavy and not
very easy to handle manually.
Telescopic method
o This method is widely used on Indian Railways. In this
method, the rails, sleepers, and other fittings are taken to the
base depot and unloaded.

o The track material is then taken to the rail head, where the
tracks linked and packed.

o The rail head is then advanced up to the point where the track
has been laid.
Telescopic method
o The track materials are then taken up to the extended rail
head with the help of a dip lorry and the track is linked and
packed again. Thus the rail head goes on advancing till the
entire track has been linked.

o The main operations involved in this method are as follows:

o Unloading of materials
o Linking of track
o Packing of track
o Ballasting of track
Requirement of Track Material for BG Track

Requirement of Track Material for BG Track

Requirement of Track Material for BG Track