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Banking, is the business of providing financial services to consumers and businesses. The
basic services a bank provides are checking accounts, which can be used to make
payments and purchase goods and services; savings accounts and time deposits that can
be used to save money for future use; loans that consumers and businesses can use to
purchase goods and services; and basic cash management services such as check cashing
and foreign currency exchange. Four types of banks specialize in offering these basic
banking services: commercial banks, savings and loan associations, savings banks, and
credit unions.

A broader definition of a bank is any financial institution that receives, collects, transfers,
pays, exchanges, lends, invests, or safeguards money for its customers. This broader
definition includes many other financial institutions that are not usually thought of as
banks but which nevertheless provide one or more of these broadly defined banking
services. These institutions include finance companies, investment companies, investment
banks, insurance companies, pension funds, security brokers and dealers, mortgage
companies, and real estate investment trusts.

Individuals rely on the financial services sector for chequing, insurance and other
services that are part of daily living; to hold their savings and provide their credit; and for
a range of other services. Businesses rely on the sector for a host of important services.
The nation's efficiency, competitiveness, depth of employment opportunities and quality
of life are enhanced by an effective financial services sector. Indeed, almost by definition,
an effective financial services sector is the hallmark of a modern economy.
Bank is defined in many ways by various authors in the book son economics and
commerce. It is very difficult to define a bank; because a bank performs multifarious
functions may be defined in many ways according to their functions. The evolution of
different types of banks, each specializing in a particular field, gives emphasis on each
and every kind of bank. A general and comprehensive definition to cover all types of
banking institutions would be unscientific and probably impossible. Each type of bank
should have its own definition, explaining its specialized functions. Legislators have

understood this difficulty and that is why the bill of exchange Act 1882 (England) defines
A bank includes a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who carry on the
business of banking
From this definition it is clear to us that any institution, which performs the various
banking functions, may be termed as bank. But in practice it is found that many banking
functions wary from time to time and country to country. It is not possible on the part of a
single bank to perform all the banking functions at a time. So there originated numbers of
specialized banks with the objective of performing one or more functions. As for
example, Central Bank, Commercial bank, Industrial Bank, Agricultural Bank, Co-
operative Bank etc., are seen in the practical field.
Dr. Herbert L. Hart has defined a banker as
A banker is one who in the ordinary course of business honours cheques drawn upon
him by persons for whom he receives money on current account
According to Sir John Paget
No one and nobody corporate and otherwise can be a banker who does not (i) take
deposit accounts (ii) take current accounts (iii) issue and pay cheques drawn upon him(iv)
collect cheques crossed and uncrossed for his customers
Hilton Banking Commission defines bank or banker in the following words:
Every person, firm or company using in the description or its title, bank or banker or
banking and accepting deposits of money subject to withdrawal by cheque, draft or
In view of the above definitions, a simple and short definition can be given as
Bank is an institution, which deals in money and credit
According to this precise definition a bank accepts deposits from public and makes
advances and loans to them. In practice bank receives deposits of money in savings and
current accounts at lower rate of interest or profit and gives on credit to needy persons
and businessmen at a higher rate of interest or profit. It also transfers money for the
clients from one city or country to another and also performs various other agency
services for earnings.

Banking in India
Banking in India in the modern sense originated in the last decades of the 18th century.
The first banks were Bank of Hindustan (1770-1829) and The General Bank of India,
established 1786 and since defunct.
The largest bank, and the oldest still in existence, is the State Bank of India, which
originated in the Bank of Calcutta in June 1806, which almost immediately became
the Bank of Bengal. This was one of the three presidency banks, the other two being
the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras, all three of which were established under
charters from the British East India Company. The three banks merged in 1921 to form
the Imperial Bank of India, which, upon India's independence, became the State in 1955.
For many years the presidency banks acted as quasi-central banks, as did their successors,
until the Reserve Bank of India was established in 1935.
In 1969 the Indian government nationalized all the major banks that it did not already
own and these have remained under government ownership. They are run under a
structure know as 'profit-making public sector undertaking' (PSU) and are allowed to
compete and operate as commercial banks. The Indian banking sector is made up of four
types of banks, as well as the PSUs and the state banks; they have been joined since the
1990s by new private commercial banks and a number of foreign banks.
Banking in India was generally fairly mature in terms of supply, product range and reach-
even though reach in rural India and to the poor still remains a challenge. The
government has developed initiatives to address this through the State Bank of India
expanding its branch network and through the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural
Development with things like microfinance.
Indian Banking Industry currently employees 1,175,149 employees and has a total of
109,811 branches in India and 171 branches abroad and manages an aggregate deposit
of 67504.54 billion (US$1.1 trillion or 820 billion) and bank credit of 52604.59
billion (US$880 billion or 640 billion). The net profit of the banks operating in India
was 1027.51 billion (US$17 billion or 12 billion) against a turnover of 9148.59
billion (US$150 billion or 110 billion) for the fiscal year 2015-16.

History of financial services

United States: Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

The term financial services became more prevalent in the United States partly as a result
of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of the late 1990s, which enabled different types of
companies in the US financial services industry to merge. Critics of this act say the term
financial services attempts to make the unison of these operations sound natural, ignoring
the history of problems that have arisen from combining them, such as conflicts of
[citation needed]
interest and monopolization . Others, noting that many of the restrictions
abolished by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act had never existed in other countries or had
been abolished earlier than in the US, say the term financial services is a natural one, in
long term use, which means nothing more than its constituent words

In the USA almost every company now which previously described themselves as a bank,
insurance company, or brokerage house, now describes themselves in some way as a
financial services institution. Allstate Insurance, for example, now provides CDs and
investment brokerage services. Bank of America offers full-featured brokerage products,
while E*TRADE has expanded into offering bank accounts and loans. Companies usually
have two distinct approaches to this new type of business. One approach would be a bank
which simply buys an insurance company or an investment bank, keeps the original
brands of the acquired firm, and adds the acquisition to its holding company simply to
diversify its earnings. Outside the U.S., e.g., in Japan, non-financial services companies
are permitted within the holding company. In this scenario, each company still looks
independent, and has its own customers, etc. This is essentially the style of Citigroup and
JP Morgan Chase.

In the other style, a bank would simply create its own brokerage division or insurance
division and attempt to sell those products to its own existing customers, with incentives
for combining all things with one company. This is the style of Washington Mutual and
Wells Fargo.

Business of Banking

Commercial Bank

A commercial bank is what is commonly considered a 'bank'. The term 'commercial' is

used to distinguish it from an 'investment bank', a type of financial services entity which,
instead of lending money directly to a business, helps businesses raise money from other
firms in the form of bonds (debt) or stock (equity). Major commercial banks include:

Private Bank

The term private bank is simply a marketing term for a bank or a division of a financial
services company targeted towards wealthy individuals. Often it is used to describe
specifically the lending services targeted towards this group, such as large margin loans.

Investment Banks

Investment banks (capital market banks) underwrite debt and equity, assist company
deals (advisory services, underwriting and advisory fees), and restructure debt into
structured finance products. Prominent investment banks include:

Barclays Capital

Bear Stearns

Citigroup Global Markets (formerly Salomon Brothers)

Credit Suisse First Boston

Goldman Sachs


JPMorgan Chase

Bank cards

Bank cards include both credit cards and debit cards. Bank Of America is the largest
issuer of bank cards.

American Express


Capital One

Discover Card


Intelligent Finance


Washington Mutual


Credit card machine, Services and Networks

Companies which provide credit card machine and payment networks call
themselves "merchant card providers". These include:

US Bank

First Data Corporation

Heartland Payment Systems

Investment Services

Asset Management

Asset management is the term usually given to describe companies which run collective
investment funds.

Custody services

Custody services and securities processing is a kind of 'back-office' administration for

financial services. Assets under custody in the world were estimated to $65 trillion at the
end of 2004. Firms engaged in custody services include:

The Bank of New York

Mellon Financial Corporation

State Street Corporation

Investors Bank and Trust

JPMorgan Chase

PNC Financial Services Group

Insurance related
Insurance Brokerage
Insurance brokers shop for insurance (generally corporate property and casualty
insurance) on behalf of customers. Significant companies in this sector of the financial
services market include:

Insurance Underwriting

Personal lines insurance underwriters actually underwrite insurance for individuals, a

service still offered primarily through agents, insurance brokers, and stock brokers.
Underwriters may also offer similar commercial lines of coverage for businesses.
Activities include insurance and annuities, life insurance, retirement insurance, health
insurance, and property & casualty insurance.


Reinsurance is insurance sold to insurers themselves, to protect them from catastrophic

losses. Firms in this sector include:

Berkshire Hathaway
Lloyd's of London
Munich Re
Swiss Re

Intermediation or advisory services

Stock brokers (private client services) and discount brokers

Stock brokers assist people in investing, online only companies are called 'discount
brokerages', companies with a branch presence are called 'full service brokerages' or
'private client services. Some of these are:

A.G. Edwards

Various services provided by Banks in India

Banks activities can be characterized

Retail banking,
Dealing directly with individuals and small businesses, and
Investment banking, relating to activities on the financial markets.
most banks are profit-making, private enterprises. However, some are owned by
Government, or are non-profit making.

Various electronic devices provided by banks

ATM Savings Bank

Channel ATM Bank

Working Capital Financing

Working capital products include both fund and non-fund based products. Fund-based
working capital products include cash credit, packing credit, short-term loans payable on
demand, inland/export bills discounting, export and import financing and subscription to
commercial paper. Non-fund based products include documentary credit and bank
General Conditions For Working Capital Facility For CBG Clients
Other Fund-based Products:
MIBOR Linked loans, Commercial papers (CPs), FCNR B loans, Debentures and cash-
flow gap finance are other types of loans available to corporate.

Structured Products
ICICI Banks Structured Products can be broadly classified into Securitization and
Structured Financing.

Securitization involves financing of existing or future identifiable cash flows/receivables,
with limited/full recourse to the company, with over-collateral of 1.5 to 3 times and a
liquidity account equal to 3-6 months. The normal tenure would be between 3-7 years and
the amortization would mirror the cash flow profile of the securitized receivables.
Securitization results in better balance sheet management in terms of capital adequacy
ratio and debt equity ratio, shifting of credit risk for non-recourse structures, liquidity
support and better pricing. A brief outline of the various Securitization deals and their
structure, concluded by ICICI Bank are mentioned below:

Auto Loan Receivables

A pool of identifiable receivables satisfying the criteria specified by ICICI Bank are
purchased by ICICI Bank / Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for a consideration net of over
collateral. ICICI Bank appoints the originator as the Managing and Collection (M&C)

agent to collect the receivables under the contracts and deposit them in a Trust and
Retention (T & R) account. The trustee makes the payments on the due dates to ICICI
Bank from the T & R account.

Credit Card Receivables

A product designed to fund clients who have a high volume of credit card receivables by
discounting future credit card sales. A tight payment structure is created wherein ICICI
Bank recovers its dues by trapping the discounted proceeds directly from the Acquiring
Bank. Employee Housing Loan Portfolio Buyouts The portfolio of housing loans given
by a company to its employees is taken over by ICICI Bank with or without recourse to
the employer. Due to long tenure of loans, risk view is taken based on individual
employees and the property rather than the comfort that is derived from the employer.
The employer is appointed as M&C Agent and ICICI Bank obtains repayment on the pool
of securitized housing mortgages through direct salary deduction by the employer.

Fertilizer Subsidy Receivables

The transaction involves Securitization of existing receivables (due from the Government
of India as subsidy to the company upon sale of fertilizers by the company) and
hypothecation of all the Receivables that would arise in future which would be deemed as
sold as and when they arise. The receivables would be escrowed directly to ICICI Bank
through a collection account and the company would provide adequate instructions to the
Bankers in that regard. The company would also act as M&C (managing and collection)
agent for the transaction. Due to the untimely nature of the payments by the government
and the need to enhance the rating of the structure, liquidity support mechanism may be
required in the form of cash collateral or a standby Letter of Credit from an acceptable

Export Receivables
The export receivables of the company are purchased by an offshore SPV. The offshore
SPV issues pass through Certificates in the international capital markets to raise funds for
the purchase of the receivables. The payments under the export receivables from the

importers (international) are directly credited into the offshore proceeds account of the
company maintained in an international location. The investors receive the payments
directly from the offshore proceeds account of the company. Collateralized Loan
Obligations (CLOs) / Collateralized Bond Obligations (CBOs

A special purpose vehicle (SPV) can be created which purchases the illiquid loans and/or
debentures and issues securities (CLOs/CBOs) to investors. The cash flows from the
underlying assets are used to service the securities issued by the SPV. The structure
leverages on the pooling of large number of low to medium rated assets to raise funds at a
higher rating compared to the underlying assets. This pooling gives benefits of
diversification with respect to industries and creditors and hence the rating of the
securities can be higher than the underlying assets.

Structured Financing
Traditionally Corporate borrowing has been on the basis of strength or weakness of
balance sheet, with the credit quality of the borrower being the single most important
factor. But of late the borrowings are being closely linked to the value of the asset or the
revenue earning capability of the asset - by means of structured finance. Structured
financing involves a customized package from a lender to the borrower.

Dealer financing
Dealers of large corporate can be provided finance which can be either with a limited
recourse (on a first loss basis) to the corporate or based on the creditworthiness of the
dealer and its relationship with the manufacturer. The various structures are: Bill
discounting / Web-based financing with/without recourse, Cash credit / Demand loan
facilities, Financing for auto dealers with incentives for conversion into retail loans.

EPC Contract Financing

Corporate are provided assistance to finance the gap between the inflows and outflows of
the contract; and Performance guarantees and advance payment guarantees given on
behalf of the client to the Contractor/Owner.

Investment Monetization
A product designed to cater to the requirement of the business groups to streamline the
cross-holdings within themselves. A Trust would be set up which would acquire the intra-
group cross holdings from the various companies in the group at current market prices.
To fund this, the Trust would issue Pass-through Certificates (PTCs) to ICICI Bank. The
take-out would be a put option with the identified holding company of the group where
ICICI bank could sell the PTCs to put-provider at a pre-determined price on a fixed date.
The security could be pledge of additional shares.

Trade financing (long term)

This product leverages on the long-term relationships those companies have with clients
or explicit off take agreements, which go a long way in reducing market risk for their
products. The company can access long term funds on the basis of these strong
relationships or agreements. The product can be structured as a long-term loan with
escrow of the receivables originating from supplies to these customers or as a
Securitization of these future trade receivables. Typically the quantum of these
receivables would be such as to provide a margin over the debt servicing during each
period. The customers would need to be instructed to directly pay the moneys into an
escrow account, which would be used for debt servicing or for payment against the future
receivables securitization. Depending on the past track record and the coverage provided
by the receivables, additional credit enhancements like cash collateral for a limited
amount may be specified.

Financial Services provided by ICICI Bank

Transaction banking
Cash management
General banking
Trade finance
Treasury solutions
Investment solutions
Capital market
Security management
International banking services
Agricultural business
Corporate finance


Financial Services provided by PNB Bank
PNB India or Punjab National Bank of India was established by Lala Lajpat Rai in the
pre-independence India in 1895 in Punjab, with Lahore as its head office. Today it is the
second largest public sector bank in India. It was nationalized in 1969 along with 13 other
major commercialbanks.

PNB has over 4500 branches and offices bringing the Punjab National Bank to your
doorstep. Around 2400 offices come under the network of Centralized Banking Solution
or CBS. A need for centralized banking system prompted PNB to go computerized and
what followed was the establishment of CBS in Punjab National Bank branches in all the
leading cities like Delhi, Pune,Chennai, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Chandigarh, Gurgaon,
Hyderabad, Jalandhar, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Noidaand Bangalore.

Internet Banking Services are provided to all customers in the CBS branches. A branch
and ATM locator is also available on the official website of Punjab National Bank. For an
overview of the annual report or the bank profile, the site can be resourceful.

Savings Account - with specialized services to students and salary accounts

Current Account

Fixed Deposits - special or multi-benefit fixed deposits, Recurring Fixed Deposits

(RFD) and flexi- RFD's

Credit schemes - housing or home loan, car loan and finance, personal and
professional loan, educational loan for higher education, loans against property
mortgage and credit cards

ATM cum Debit Card

Nomination facility

Specialized baking services for farmers and women in rural areas, and financial
assistance to small-scale industries (SSI's). For this, 31 specialized branches have been
allotted the task of providing finance to the SSI's.


Cash Management,

EXIM finance and Gold Card Scheme beneficial to exporters

Finance for Business or Trade.


Debit cum ATM Card acceptable at 99270 merchant establishment across India

Internet banking or simply net banking services available for all CBS Branches

Online payment system for railway reservation or utility payment including

telephone, mobile, electricity, insurance and other bills

Forex services beneficial to both traders and NRI's

PPF Accounts for senior citizens

Various services provide by SBI to its customers

The Financial Services Business has a wide range of services. In addition to home loans
from SBI Mortgage, individual and business loans from SBI Equal Credit, and financial
products from SBI Lease, we offer settlement and consulting services and engage in the
agency business for financial products.


A customized list of information based on individual needs helps customers make
intelligent decisions about loans from several financial institutions, insurance products,
and other financial services.


Home loans and consumer loans are mainly provided through the Internet

Financial Research and Advisory:

Customers receive neutral information about investment trusts, assessment and ranking of

financial products, and investment in the Japan 401k pension plan.
Financial Solution Business:
Customers can find solutions that combine finance and information technology such as
online settlement infrastructure and online trading tools.

Other Business:
Other operations include insurance and home loan agencies, debt collection, and art
brokerage and sales.

Advance into Banking Business:

The SBI Group and The Sumitomo Trust and Banking are combining their management
resources to establish an Internet bank with full-fledged features, from settlement of
accounts and operations management to fund-raising.

HDFC Bank began operations in 1995 with a simple mission: to be a "World-class

Indian Bank". We realised that only a single-minded focus on product quality and
service excellence would help us get there. Today, we are proud to say that we are well on
our way towards that goal.

Various services provide by HDFC Bank to its customers

Credit Cards
Debit Cards
Prepaid Cards
Personal Loan
Home Loan
Two Wheeler Loan
New Car Loans
Loan against property

Commercial vehicle loan
Construction equipment
Net Banking
Mobile Business
Phone Banking
E-mail statement
Bill Pay
Visa Money transfer
Excise & Service Tax Payment, Mutual Fund, Insurance, Bonds, etc.


Narayana & Brahmanandam (1990) in their study, A Study of Customer Services in

Commercial Banks have studied customer services in banks by analysing physical
facilities, reputation of bank, complaints and suggestion system, staff behaviour besides
their diverse services like account operations, cheque operations, draft and money
transfer operations etc. The authors have concluded that the banks which are good in the
said services are enjoying more satisfied customers in comparison to the banks which are
lagging in the same.

O.B. Sayeed (1974) in his Ph.D. research examined correlates of organizational health
productivity and effectiveness in the SBI. The 90 study is related to productivity and
effectiveness. It is focus on the psychological aspect. There is neither a single
comprehensive study on Critical Evaluation of Indian Banking Sector (with reference to
Private Sector and Public Sector Banks) (1998-99 to 2002-03) nor any attempt has been
made to analyse contents of its profitability, productivity and financial efficiency after the
new generated private banks arrived. Hence present study is a humble effort to bridge the
gap in the existing literature.

S.G. Shah (1979) in his paper analysed weakness of the banks and pointed out the
specific areas where action could be taken to improve profitability. He revealed that
rising expense and overheads increase in wasteful work practices, declines in productivity
were major weakness. He suggested these following areas for improving profitability of
bank (i) To evolve measures that could widen the spread between the cost of funds,
services, and administration and the return on them. (ii) To developed supplementary
sources of income. (iii) To find profit centers and cost centers in the bank (iv) To assess
the extent to which these elements of the structure could be influence by policy and
planning or by changing the nature of operations. (v) To recognize the element that
controls or settles the income and cost structure at each such center and for the bank as a

Makrand (1979) studied the performance of public sector banks. He selected six
quantitative indicators for performance index. Which were branch expansion priority
sector lending, deposit mobilization export credit net profit to working funds and wages
and cost of business development? The main recommendations of his study were (i)
counseling and expert opinion to the priority sector lending on diversified activities is
needed. (ii) The lower level 65 staff should also actively be involved in priority sector
lending activities. (iii) Necessary lending power should be vested with the branch

M.R. Vyas (1991) studied financial performance of regional rural banks in Rajasthan. He
analysed the financial performance with the help of quick ratio, credit deposit ratio, and
profit to proprietors capital ratio and working capital analysis. He concluded that
regional rural banks had a bright future as an effective instrument in the economic growth
and up-liftment of down trodden sections of Indian society particularly in rural area.4

M.N. Mishra (1992) in his paper evaluated the profitability of scheduled commercial
banks taking into account the interest and non - interest income and interest expenditure,
manpower expenses and other expenses. The Author has identified that the growing pre
emption of funds in the form of statutory liquidity ratio, cash reserve ratio, faster increase
of expenses as compared to the income, advances, and total investment than interest
income and few more factors have contributed to the declining profitability of Indian
commercial banks.

Subramanian and Swami (1994) in their paper, Comparative performance of publc

sector banks in india Prjanan, have analyzed and compared the efficiency in six public
sector banks, four private sector and three foreign banks for the year 1996-97.
Operational efficiency is calculatedin terms of total business and salary expenditure per
employee. The analysis revealed that higher per employee salary level need not result in
poor efficiency and business per employee efficiency co-efficient was also calculated.
Among the PSBs, Bank of Baroda registered the high efficiency and operating profit per
employee. Among the private sector banks Indus Bank followed by Citibank Registered
highest and second highest operating profit per employee respectively. However, among
the Nationalized Banks there existed wide variations in efficiency.

S.G. Hundekar (1995) studied the productivity aspects of the regional rural banks. He
examines growth and working of regional rural banks. He studied operational efficiency,
profitability and productivity in rural oriented Bijapur gramin bank. He concluded that
Bijapur gramin banks operating profitability has been very poor over the study period
because of its ineffectiveness in controlling the burden.

Zacharias Thomas (1997) studied on Performance effectiveness of Nationalized Bank-

A Case Study of Syndicate Bank Thesis studied the performance effectiveness of
Nationalized Bank by taking Syndicate Bank as case study in his Ph.D. thesis. Thomas
has examined various aspects like growth and development of banking industry,
achievements of Syndicate Bank in relation to capital adequacy, quality of assets,
Profitability, Social Banking, Growth, Productivity, Customer Service and also made a
comparative analysis of 'the performance effectiveness of Syndicate Bank in relation to
Nationalized bank. A period of ten years from 1984 to 1993-94 is taken for the study.
This study is undertaken to review and analyze the performance effectiveness of
Syndicate Bank and other Nationalized banks in India using an Economic Managerial-
Efficiency Evaluation Model (EMEE Model) developed by researcher. Thomas in this
study found that Syndicate Bank got 5th Position in Capital adequacy and quality of
assets, 15th in Profitability, 14th Position in Social Banking, 8th in Growth, 7th in
Productivity and 15th position in Customer Service among the nationalized banks.
Further, he found that five nationalized banks showed low health performance, seven low
priority performance and eleven low efficiency performance in comparison with
Syndicate Bank.

Berry Wilson (1997) Has studied on Bank Capital and Bank Structure: A Comparative
Analysis of the US, UK and Canada This study investigates a 100-year history of the
asset-risk and capital structure choices of the publiclytraded banks located in the UK,
Canada and US. These three countries were chosen because their diverse regulatory and
banking structures, while sharing common legal and cultural institutions. For example,
the US has historically fostered small banks, and a regulatory system split between
national and 67 state regulators. In contrast, Canada has sought financial-sector stability
through a small number of large nationally-branched banks that have acted cooperatively

with bank rescues during periods of crisis, prior to the presence of their central bank.
Finally, the UK established an early tradition of internationally-diversified banking assets
and developed a "life-boat" support system orchestrated by the Bank of England. These
differences in bank structures and regulatory framework form the basis of our analysis.

V.K. Bhatasana (1999) studied the appraisal of financial performance of State Bank of
India (1980 1995) particularly productivity and profitability of State Bank of India
during the study period, he observed adequacy of capital fund, growth in deposits, branch
expansion in rural area and less borrowing from Reserve Bank of India in this study
period of State Bank of India improved the productivity & profitability of State Bank of
India among public sector banks.

SBI Research Department (2000) Performance analysis of 27 Public sector banks

Economic Research Department of State Bank of India, is to analyze the Performance of
the 27 Public Sector Banks for the year 1999-2000 vis-avis the preceding year. Selecting
four different categories of indicatorsBusiness Performance, Efficiency, Vulnerability and
labor productivity indicators, carried out the analysis. Altogether, 39 indicators were
selected for this purpose. For the purpose of analysis, 27 PSBs disaggregated into four
groups, namely, the SBI, ABs (7), the SBGs (8), the NBs (19). During 1999- 2000, the
PSBs exhibited better show in terms of several parameters studied above. Nevertheless,
the problems of NPAs and capital adequacy remain to be taken care of. Researchers in
this paper opinioned that greater operational flexibility and functional autonomy should
be given to PSBs especially to strengthen their capital base. Further, they felt that since
net interest margin will continue to remain compressed in a deregulated interest rate
regime, a lot of effect would have to be made to mitigate this through generation of
noninterest income. As far as NPAs are concerned, they believe' that, the outdated laws
and regulations that pose hindrance to banks in getting back their dues need to be suitably

Prashanta Athma (2000) Performance of Public Sector Banks A Case Study of State
Bank of Hyderabad made an attempt to evaluate the performance of Public Sector
Commercial Banks with special emphasis on State Bank of Hyderabad. The period of the
study for evaluation of performance is from 1980 to 1993-94, a little more than a decade.

In this study, Athma outlined the Growth and Progress of Commercial Banking in India
and. analyzed the trends in deposits, various components of profits of SBH, examined the
trends in Asset structure, evaluated the level of customer satisfaction and compared the
performance of SBH with other PSBs, Associate Banks of SBI and SBI. Statistical
techniques like Ratios, Percentages, Compound Annual rate of growth and averages are
computed for the purpose of meaningful comparison and analysis. The major findings of
this study are that since nationalization, the progress of banking in India has been very
impressive. All three types of Deposits have continuously grown during the study period,
though the rate of growth was highest in fixed deposits. A comparison of SBH
performance in respect of resource mobilization with other banks showed that the average
growth of deposits of SBH is higher than any other bank group. Profits of SBH showed
an increasing trend indicating a more than proportionate increase in spread than in
burden. Finally, majority of the customers have given a very positive opinion about the
various statements relating to counter service offered by SBH.

I M Pandey (2001) Capital Structure and the Firm Characteristics: Evidence from an
Emerging Market. This study examines the determinants of capital structure of
Malaysian companies utilizing data from 1984 to 1999. We classify data into four sub-
periods that correspond to different stages of Malaysian capital market. Debt is
decomposed into three categories: shortterm, long-term and total debt. Both book value
and market value debt ratios are calculated. The results of pooled OLS regressions show
that profitability, size, growth, risk and tangibility variables have significant influence on
all types of debt. These results are normally consistent with the results of fixed effect
estimation with the exception that risk variable loses its significance. Unlike the evidence
from the developed markets, investment opportunity 69 (market-to-book value ratio) has
no significant impact on debt policy in the emerging market of Malaysia. Our results are
generally robust to time periods, but the significance of some variables changes over
time. Profitability has a persistent and consistent negative relationship with all types of
debt ratios in all periods and under all estimation methods. This confirms the capital
structure prediction of the pecking order theory in an emerging capital market.13

Ram Mohan TT (2003) Long run performance of public and private sector bank
stocks has made an attempt to compare the three categories of banksPublic, Private and
Foreign-using Physical quantities of inputs and outputs, and comparing the revenue
maximization efficiency of banks during 1992- 71 2000. The findings show that PSBs
performed significantly better than private sector banks but not differently from foreign
banks. The conclusion points to a convergence in performance between public and
private sector banks in the post-reform era, using financial measures of performance.17

Singh R (2003) Profitability management in banks under deregulate environment has

analyzed profitability management of banks under the deregulated environment with
some financial parameters of the major four bank groups i.e. public sector banks, old
private sector banks, new private sector banks and foreign banks, profitability has
declined in the deregulated environment. He emphasized to make the banking sector
competitive in the deregulated environment. They should prefer noninterest income


Research is an art of scientific investigation. In other words research is a scientific and

systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. The logic behind taking
research methodology into consideration is that one can have knowledge regarding the
method and procedure adopted for achievements of objective of the project. With the
adoption of this others can also evaluate the results too.
The methodology adopted for studying the objective of the project was surveying the
bank account holders of the yamunanagar district. So keeping in view the nature of
requirement of the study to collect all the relevant information regarding the comparison
of public sector banks and the private sector banks direct personal interview method with
the help of structured questionnaire was adopted for collection of primary data.
Secondary data has been collected through the various magazines and newspaper and by
surfing on internet and also by visiting the websites of Indian Banking Association.

SAMPLE DESIGN A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a
given population.It refers to the techniques or the procedures that the researchers would
adopt in selecting items for the samples. Sample design may as well lay down the number
of items to be included in the sample i.e the size of the sample. Sample design is
determine before data are collected. Here we select the population as sample in our
sample design. The selected respondents should be as representatives of the total
population. Research is common refers to search for knowledge. It is the pursuit of truth
with the help of study, observation, composition and experiment.
Research methodology is a systematic way to solve the research problems. It helps in
studying the various steps that are adopted by the researcher to study the research
problems along with the logic behind the It describe mail what must be done, how will be
done. What data will be needed and how the data will be analyzed.

Scope of the study:

Financial services provided by Banks to its Employer



5. E



Step 1. Formulating the research problem:

Objective of our study is to know about various financial services provided by various
banks to firms or companies. And also to know about how a bank satisfy its customers in
the todays competition era where employers analyze the most beneficial banks among
the companies.

Step 2. Review concepts, theories and previous research findings:

The researcher should go for literature survey connected with the problem. He should
consult journals, bibliography etc. the information of literature is collected from
academic journals, government report, book, library etc.

Step 3. Preparing the research design.

Research design is a conceptual framework within which research is to be conducted. The
functions or objectives of research design are to provided for collection of relevant
The research approach that has been selected for undertaking the assigned project is:
Exploratory and Descriptive
This study is exploratory in nature and includes:
Informal interviews with the industry experts.
Bank magazines.
Newspapers and books.

Step 4. Determine the sample design

The sampling methodology used is convenience and judgmental sampling.
30 companies (employers) taking financial services from banks.

. This research has been carried out in respect of four different banks. These are:
Public Bank (SBI & PNB)
Private Bank (ICICI, HDFC)
For the purpose of research study both primary data as well as secondary data has been
oPrimary data
oSecondary data
Primary Sources:
Four data collection the following methods will be adopted:
(i) Questionnaires.
(ii) Personal Interviews.
(iii) Telephone Interviews.
Secondary Sources:
The secondary sources will be collected in the following formats:
Analysis of data:

Collection of data is of use until it is properly recorded, organized and deeply analyzed.
Analysis of the data is done either manually or by the use of the computer. Various
statistical and mathematical techniques are used for data analysis.
Tools for Data Analysis:
Coding, Editing, Tabulation, Pie Charts & Bar Diagram.

Collection is the last step in the research process in which theory or thesis is formulated
and final report.

This study related to the various financial services provided by banks to the
It shows that which bank is more economically beneficial for the companies.
This study shows how a bank satisfied its customers (companies)
It shows that how the companies make contact with the banks-personally or
This study shows why a company take these financial services from its banks.
It shows which bank is more popular for its services.


To make a detailed study of various financial services provide by banks to the

companies in India.
To analyze companies view point regarding their banks.
To study effective and most popular bank among companies regarding its
To find out the rate of interest of banks and reaction of companies on it.
To make analysis on the economic benefits provided by various banks.


This study has been conducted with a variety of important objectives in mind. The
following provides us with the chief objectives that have tried to achieve through the
study. The extent to which these objectives have been met could judged from the
conclusions and suggestions, which appear in the later of this study.

o To identify the various financial services provided by the bank to the

o To study the customers expectations regarding banks & its services.
o To make comparative study of different banks i.e. ICICI, HDFC, PNB, SBI
o To study the level of customer satisfaction regarding different banks.
o To find the banking sector largely preferred by the customers.
o To find out the factors which influences the customers to choose a bank.
o To study the problems faced by the customers in public as well as private
sector banks and also to compare between them.


Due to constraints of time and resources the study is likely to suffer from certain
limitations. Some of them are mentioned below so that the findings of the study are
understood in proper perspective.
The limitations of the study are

1) Some of the respondents of the survey were unwilling to share information.

2) The research was carried out in a short period of time so. Therefore the sample size
and other parameters were selected accordingly so as to finish the work in given time
3) The information given by the respondents might be biased because some of them
might not be interested in providing correct information.
4) The officials of the bank supported me a lot but did not have sufficient time to clear all
the points elaborately.
5) Since the sample unit is a semi urban place i.e. Yamunanagar district with less
presence of private sector banks, hence the result is likely to tilt a bit towards the public
sector banks.



Table -4.1
Responses Respondents
YES 80
NO 20
Total 100

Figure 4.1
Analysis &Interpretation: The average time taken to access formal financial services
such as a bank branch, an ATM or a post office branch is not more than half an hour in
DIST. Yamunanagar. The level of connectivity is also high, reflected by the number of
adults using mobile phones. Finally, documentation, a key to access formal financial
services, is not an issue anymore; 98% of the adults have some kind of identity proof. As
a result of this, 93% of the households are formally financially served. While 86% of the
households are served directly by the banks, the rest depend on the so-called business
correspondents, who provide last-mile connectivity with the consumers on behalf of
banks. Around 35% of the households have access to other formal channels such as non-
banking financial companies, including microfinance institutions, and only 2% depend
solely on informal sources such as money lenders.
Neither the age nor the level of education influences the choice of financial products,
but gender does. Around 70% of males are banking with the formal channel in contrast
with 58% of females.

Services Respondents
Credit 60
Custody 10
Insurance 20
Advisory 10
Total 100

Figure 4.2

Most of the banks provides credit facilities to their customers.
Then is insurance service which provided by banks.
Then is same ratio of custody & advisory services.


Table -4.3

Services Respondents
Total 100

Figure 4.3
Advantages of Traditional Banking
What people see is what they get. In a traditional bank, as opposed to online banking,
customer physically present check his account for deposit, get cash handed back to them,
place items into or take them out of bank safety deposit boxes.

Advantages of Online Banking

Customer convenience is the number one advantage of online banking. Like the

traditional banks ATM, online banking is available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
However, people can do their banking from the comfort of their own home
Analysis: Online Banking vs Traditional Banking
In the end, the type of banking people prefer is really just that, personal preference. Some
people just want to continue to interact with the tellers they know at their neighborhood
bank. Or, they like the security of actually seeing where their checks are deposited or the
feeling of cash in their hands.
If, on the other hand, time is a precious commodity, people who are a multi-tasker or just
like the convenience and control of doing their banking over the Internet, then online
banking is right for them


Table -4.4
Time Period Respondents
Daily 10
Weekly 30
Monthly 60
Total 100

Figure 4.4
Mostly companies & Firms using financial services on monthly basis (60%)
Rest are taking these services on weekly and daily basis (30%&10%)


Table 4.5

Responses Respondents
YES 95
NO 5
Total 100

Figure 4.5


ICSI analysed customer data that was collected in the last months of financial year, 2015
and early 2016. It measured customers cumulative satisfaction based on their
anticipation of the quality of goods and services. The nationwide research, conducted on
12 commercial banks across length and breadth of India included Axis Bank, Bank of
Baroda, Bank of India (BOI), Canara Bank, Citibank, HDFC, HSBC, ICICI, Kotak
Mahindra Bank, Punjab National Bank, State Bank of India and Standard Chartered

Bank Names Customer Satisfaction Scores

Axis Bank 68

Bank of Baroda 68

Bank of India 65

Canara Bank 66

Citibank 73

HDFC Bank 68

HSBC Bank 76

ICICI Bank 70

Kotak Mahindra Bank 71

Punjab National Bank 67

Standard Chartered Bank 74

State Bank of India 62

Thus from the above discussion it is concluded that a large no. of people are satisfied
with the services provided by their banks


Table 4.6
Economically beneficial Respondents
Online 60
Personally 40
Total 100

Figure 4.6

Online banking is more economically beneficial for the companies (60%)


Table 4.7

Banks Respondents
SBI 40
PNB 20
BOI 10
Total 100

Figure 4.7

State Bank of India is the largest bank in the public sector and ICICI is in the private
sector. The market expansion of SBI is more as compare to ICICI bank. SBI enter into the
rural market and making more and more customer. SBI also comes with the new services
and attract to the customers. By analysis of the financial performance of SBI and ICICI
bank we can say that the SBI is financially sound as compare to the ICICI bank. SBI have
more profitability because it enters into the industry as well as commercial market also
and regularly it improving their service quality level. The ICICI bank also the leader in
the private market and it is equal competitor of the SBI but SBI is performing better
because the trustworthiness of people are more towards SBI as compare to ICICI bank.

On the part of NPA, again SBI has fewer bad debts as compare to ICICI; the reason may
be the sound image of SBI in the eyes of customers. SBI is leading and has also many
rural and urban branches, it also gives strength to SBI and makes it enable to cover the
advance given which in turn reduce the bad debts of SBI whereas in case of ICICI, it
needs to work hard to recover the amount given as advance. The data also reveals that
ICICI has circulated more advances to the customers as compare to SBI, this also one
reason which increases the bad debts of ICICI. Market test ratio calculation and graph
reveals that the again the market position of SBI is much better than the ICICI. The one
reason can be that SBI is public sector bank; and the second reason can be that the SBI is
the oldest bank has captured the large market which again improve and increases its
market position.


Banks Respondents
SBI 35

PNB 20
BOI 15
Total 100

Figure 4.8

Large no. of companies takes financial services from SBI.

There is tough competition between PNB (public) & ICICI (pvt.)


Banks Respondents
SBI 30
PNB 40
BOI 15
Total 100

Bank Interest Rate*

State Bank of India 9.70% - 13.45%

Bank of Baroda 9.90% - 12.40%

United Bank of India 9.90% - 13.50%

Central Bank of India 11.45% - 11.95%

Bank of Maharashtra 11.25% - 12.50%

Canara Bank 11.60% - 13.60%

Dena Bank 11.25 %

Indian Overseas Bank 11.45 - 12.95%

Punjab National Bank 10.00% - 13.00%

Figure 4.9

Interpretation: The Bank of india aims at providing financial support from the bank to
deserving/ meritorious students for pursuing higher education in India and abroad. The
main emphasis is that every meritorious student is provided with an opportunity to pursue
education with the financial support on affordable terms and conditions.
PNB provides loan at lower rate of interest to its customers (companies).
Next one is SBI to provide finance at lower rate of interest.


Table 4.10
Basis of Services Respondents
Total 100

Figure 4.10

Most of the companies/ Firms take financial services from their bank due to good
services provided by their banks
Other major factor to take the services is economic aspect of the bank.


Maximum no .of companies and Firms take financial services from banks.
Rest of the companies and Firms using their own funds for operations
Most of the companies & Firms contact their bank from online (55%) and rest of
the companies & Firms contact their banks personally (45%).
A huge no. of companies & Firms is satisfied with the services provided by their
Most of the companies & firms take its finance services from SBI and then is
same ratio of PNB & ICICI.
PNB provides loan at lower rate of interest to its customers (companies) and next
one is SBI to provide finance at lower rate of interest
Most of the banks provides credit facilities to their customers and then is
insurance service which provided by banks and then is same ratio of custody &
advisory services.
Mostly companies & Firms using financial services on monthly basis (60%) and
rest are taking these services on weekly and daily basis .
Online banking is more economically beneficial for the companies (60%).
Large no. of companies takes financial services from SBI and there is tough
competition between PNB (public) & ICICI (pvt.). Most of the companies/ Firms
take financial services from their bank due to good services provided by their
Other major factor to take the services is economic aspect of the bank.


As the study shows that there is tough competition in banking sector so banks
should concentrate on different aspects to retain the existing customers as well as
attracting new ones.
Bank should be provided more electronic services which saves the precious time
of the customers(companies).
All the banks (public & pvt.) should improve the network coverage all over the
The banks should make available the additional supplementary services like bank
cards, ATM, custody services.
Companies & Firms should consider all factors such as interest rate,
supplementary services, banks image etc.while taking decision for apply for
financial services to any bank.
Banks should try to build a good image in the service sector.



Bank staff should be customer friendly and highly motivated to serve the
normal customers.
As far as possible the bank should reduce the documentation process while
providing loan.
Computerization should be done in banks at all levels and the operators
should be properly trained.
Token system should be introduced so as to reduce the waiting line in the
Proper ambience in the banks can develop a healthy work culture.
Should be flexible in providing interest of the deposited money.
Quick services should be provided.


24 hours banking should be introduced so as to facilitate the customers who dont

have time in day time or week days.
More ATM coverage should be provided for convenience of the customers.
Should reduce the amount while opening a new saving bank account.
Should maintain a proper recruitment policy like the PSU to attract genuine talent
to work for the customers. Rather than recruiting on internal recommendation
they should follow the IBPS for recruitment to get better talent and better services
from their employees.
Should enhance the number of branches in rural areas to attract more customers.
Should advertise extensively regarding their operations and services to garner
faith in them.


Credit is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the success of an urban informal

sector enterprise. Banks should do what they can to provide related services. In this
context, the work done by Canara and Syndicate Banks to establish Rural Development
and Self Employment Training Institutes (RUDSETIs), can be replicated even for urban
areas. In addition, attempts should be made to identify and direct infrastructure
investments and common facilities in areas where there is a possibility of servicing a
large number of urban informal sector producers such as handloom and handicraft
clusters and agro-processing zones

India needs an Apex Bank for Urban Development (ABUD) urgently to address many
issues of complexity in urban micro credit. Concluding the series, the following points
will thus help design an ABUD.

Conduct research and be a depository of knowledge related to urban micro

finance in India.

Train banks, NGOs, urban local bodies, and self help groups

Frame and steer national policy on urban micro credit

Act as a refinancing agency

Design programmes with feasible implementation structures

Monitor and evaluate both financial and social developments of urban micro

Coordinate the interests and functions of Indian and international stakeholders

1. O.B.Sayeed Correlated of Organizational Health, Productivity and
Effectiveness: A Study of some organizational and managerial personality
variables related to productivity and effectiveness of some branches of State
Bank of India Ph. D. Thesis, Submitted to University of Udaipur, Rajashthan,
2. . S.G.Shah Bank Profitability: The real issue, The Journal of The Indian
Institute of Bankers, Vol.50, No.5, Sep. 1979.
3. . Makrand Social Priority Index of public sector banks, Allahabad
Publications, Calcutta 1979.
4. . M.R.Vyas Financial Performance of Regional Rural Banks in Rajasthan,
Arihant Publisher, 1991.
5. . M.N.Mishra Evaluated the Profitability of Scheduled Commercial Banks,
Indian Journal of Banking and Finance, Vol.5 1992.
6. . Subramanian and Swami Comparative performance of publc sector banks in
india Prjanan, Vol. XXII
7. . S.G. Hundekar Productivity Aspects of the Regional Rural Banks, Printwell
Rupa Offset Printers Jaipur, 1995.
8. . Zacharias Thomas Performance Effectiveness of Nationalized Bank- A Case
Study of Syndicate Bank, Ph. D. Thesis, Submitted to Kochin University,
9. Berry Wilson Bank Capital and Bank Structure: A Comparative Analysis of
the US, UK and Canada, CDC Asset Management, America, 1997.
10. V.K. Bhatasana Appraisal of Financial Performance of State Bank of India,
Ph.D. Thesis, Submitted to Saurashtra University, Rajkot 1999.
11. . SBI Research Department Performance analysis of 27 Public sector banks,
SBI Monthly Review Performance, Vol. xxxix 2000.
12. . Prashanta Athma Performance of Public Sector Banks A Case Study of
State Bank of Hyderabad, Ph. D. Thesis, Submitted to Usmania University,
13. . I.M.Pandey Capital Structure and the Firm Characteristics: Evidence from an

Emerging Market IMA Working Paper No. 2001-10-04. 79
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performance of commercial banks in India, in Andhra University,
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Environment, IBA Bulletin No. 25, 2003.

Primary Sources:
Personal Interaction with staff members
Telephone Interviews

Secondary Sources:

Some other Bank sites

State Bank of India
Punjab National Bank

Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology,New Delhi, New Age International (P)
Ltd., 1985, 2004
Shekhar, K.C., Banking Theory & Practice,Vikas Publication, 9th Edition

Economic Times
Business Standard
Hindustan Times

Journals & Magazines

Business Today
Business & Marketing


Name: Age:
Company/Firm name: Earnings:

Q.1 Do you take any financial services from bank?

Yes NO

Q. 2 Which bank do you prefer for these financial services?




Q. 3 Which bank provides loans at lower rate of interest?



Q. 4 What kind of services you get from your bank?

Credit Custody
Custody Insurance

Q. 5 Are you satisfied with the services provided by your bank?

Yes No

Q. 6 How often do you take services from banks?

Daily Weekly Monthly

Q. 7 How you take these services?

Online personally

Q. 8 Which one is more economically beneficial?

Online personally

Q. 9 Which bank provides you maximum services?



Q. 10 On what basis do you take services from a particular bank?

Economical proximity

Provides good services others

Your Suggestions______________________________________________