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Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

The proponents have collected works that are related and relevant to the study of the
problem. The collected studies have been the guide of the proponents on learning more of the
existing system, in which from here, we can derive steps and make necessary action on creating a
new system.

2.1 Foreign Literature

2.1.1 Class Scheduling System

Of all scheduling techniques, block scheduling is perhaps one of the most discussed
concepts associated with school reform. Perhaps the best-known proponent of the block schedule
enumerates the advantages of this system as follows:

Reduces class change movements that occur during the day.

Reduces duplication and inefficiency that occur in the traditional schedule.
Reduces the number of preparations and student work in terms of assignments and test.
Reduces the number of students with whom teachers must interact during the school day.
Reduces the fragmentation of instruction particularly in classes that demand larger time units,
such as science laboratory.
Provides teachers with time and opportunities to introduce innovative instructional strategies.
Provides students with variable amount of time to study.
2.1.2 Time Management Problems at College

According to Chirag of Goa, India there are three time management problems college
students find challenging. Managing workload, procrastination, and getting distracted are the
factors in which students cant focus and

Managing workload. The amount of work you get at college peaks and troughs. One
moment youre gliding along without any concerns, the next youre snowed under with essays,
assignments and projects to prepare for.

Once youve got them its a question of organizing your time so that everything gets done to a
satisfactory standard. The key to managing workload is to write down what has to be done and to
schedule doing something about everything each week. Make an appointment with yourself.
People know how to use daily planners will invariably find this easier.

Procrastination. When you know what to do, but you just cant face the thought of doing it,
youll procrastinate. Alternatively, maybe youre got plenty of time to do it, so you leave it until
the last minute to do. The solution to this is to reduce the resistance youve built up in your mind.
Make your work easier and more manageable by breaking it down into bite size chunks. You can
use time, lines or some other method to measure the amount you actually do. But whatever it is,
make it small enough to face doing.

Getting distracted. Distractions are everywhere, and theyre never going to go away. You
may not be able to eliminate them, but you can avoid them if you know how to stay focused.
Even if you manage to sit down at home or in a study area at college, distractions are still
everywhere. The difference is, theyre on the internet. You need some strategies to limit wasting
time online.

2.1.3 Benefits of Android Operating System

Android OS has many advantages over other Operating Systems which allows for efficient
working of the devices. Android, a Linux based Operating Systems popularity has been on a
steep rise over the past few years of its market existence. This platform currently has
over 600,000 Premium Applications built to meet user specifications. Perhaps this and other
factors add up to the benefits of Android OS when it comes to application usage. The benefits of
Android OS are numerous and as a matter of fact they will definitely continue to rise in future as

Android OS is known for its ability to run Multiple Apps at the same time. It is a seamless
experience running many tasks at the same time with Android Devices. The App Store concept
makes it easier for the users to use software ranging from games to office applications without
wandering throughout the internet. Another benefit of this Open Market Place is its ability to
synchronize with the phone in such cases where devices may be changed. Google play is also
able to sense the type of Android OS version being run by the device thereby fetching only those
applications that are compatible to the device.

2.1.4 Spendee: Tracks Your Expenses with a Gorgeous, Frictionless Interface

Spendee's standout feature is its gorgeous, iOS 7-ready UI. The playful color palette and
custom buttons make it something you'll actually want to use, which is essential for these kinds
of apps. A huge, persistent button at the bottom of the app lets you add new expenses or credits
with just a few taps. After you key in a dollar figure, you assign it to one of a few different broad
categories, and you're done. If it's a recurring expense like your cable bill, you can even tell it to
repeat on a regular basis. As you build up a list of expenses, you can edit or delete them with
intuitive, Mailbox-like swiping gestures.
The more you use Spendee, the more valuable it gets, rewarding your diligence with
attractive charts that show you where your money is going, and how your costs are matching up
with your income. Anyone who uses Mint knows that there's nothing groundbreaking about these
features, but I think adding expenses manually in an app like Spendee can help you keep a better
grasp on where your money is going, and make you think twice before spending it.
(Shep McAllister
2.2 Local Literature

2.2.1 Time Management

According to some Filipino sociologists, this tardiness habit is a carryover of the practice
during the colonial times of Spanish officials delaying their attendance in formal functions to
show their ascendancy over those who came earlier. It was the kastilaloys subtle way of
saying that they have more important things to attend to so they should not be expected to be as
prompt as the punctual attendees.
Fifty years of American rule, which emphasized time discipline, were not enough to wean
Filipinos away from this deplorable vestige of Spanish colonialism.
Road traffic is often blamed for failure to get to appointments on time. This is acceptable if
road congestion during business hours and the early evening is an unknown factor in Metro
Manila and other urban centers in the country.
But only the dumb and deaf can truthfully say that road congestion is a fortuitous event.
Until new roads are constructed to accommodate the new motor vehicles that Filipinos buy every
year, traffic in the metropolis will remain horrendous.
Unless you are the president of the Philippines or one of those obnoxious personalities who
think they enjoy superior rights in road usage, sufficient allowance just have to be made for
inefficient or disorderly traffic flow in our midst.
Businessmen who are worth their salt anticipate and make provisions for foreseeable delays
in getting to their appointments, rather than curse or use them as an excuse.
They know that if they are late for their appointments, the person theyre doing or plan to do
business with may entertain serious doubts about their capability to live up to their contractual
obligations in the future. First impressions last.
Odd but true, it has been said that if you want something done quickly and properly, give it
to someone who is busy or has a lot of things on his plate. He will find a way to do the extra job
without sacrificing his other responsibilities.
The lazy or unproductive person will always find a reason for not being able to do the job,
or failing to deliver the desired output.
Notice how the countrys top business executives are able to hold several management
positions at the same time without losing their focus or becoming nervous wrecks.
Their secret? Time management. They know the difference between the essential and
nonessential, and they carefully allocate the 24 hours in a day that all of us have.
In business meetings, the efficient businessman sticks to the agenda and avoids, as much as
possible, discussions on extraneous matters unless they are relevant to the matters at hand.
When the companys top honchos are sticklers to time and treat tardiness as no laughing
matter, expect their employees to be equally conscious of the need to perform their work within
the allotted times.
Contrary to popular belief, management gurus are not impressed by business executives who
habitually work late at night, on weekends or holidays and, in the process, neglect their personal
lives, including their families.
Unless theyre workaholics, or people who live to work and not the other way round,
something must be wrong somewhere with the way they use their waking hours or run their
Regardless of a persons status or station in life, the way he attends to his appointments or
pre-arranged activities is indicative of the worth he gives to the other person or persons.
By coming on time, he is sending a clear message to his counterpart that he respects him and
values his time. That he considers it rude, if not a sign of poor character, to make him wait and
feel unsure on whether or not the appointment will push through as earlier arranged.
Of course, apologies can be offered or excuses, both real and imagined, can be made for
being late. The punctual party can only grin and bear it. But deep within him, he knows that his
tardy counterpart did not consider him important enough to be worth leaving early to get to the
appointment on time.
Noticeably, when living in the Philippines, Filipinos are prone to observing Filipino time
in their daily activities. But when theyre abroad, that behavior seems to disappear.

2.2.2 Effective Scheduling

Scheduling is the art of planning your activities so that you can achieve your goals and
priorities in the time you have available. When it's done effectively, it helps you: Understand
what you can realistically achieve with your time. Make sure you have enough time for essential
tasks. Add contingency time for "the unexpected." Avoid taking on more than you can handle.
Work steadily toward your personal and career goals. Have enough time for family and friends,
exercise and hobbies. Achieve a good work-life balance.
Time is the one resource that we can't buy, but we often waste it or use it ineffectively.
Scheduling helps you think about what you want to achieve in a day, week or month, and it keeps
you on track to accomplish your goals.
Set a regular time to do your scheduling at the start of every week or month, for example.
There are a number of different tools to choose from. A simple and easy way to keep a schedule
is to use a pen and paper, organizing your time using a weekly planner. You can also use apps
and software such as Google Calendar, MS Outlook and Business Calendar. Choose a
scheduling tool that suits your situation, the current structure of your job, your personal taste, and
your budget.
The most important thing when choosing your planner is that it lets you enter data easily,
and allows you to view an appropriate span of time (day/week/month) in the level of detail that
you need.

2.2.3 Smart Budgeting for College Students

College school students typically get P150 to P250 (excluding transport allowance) per day.
Students from exclusive schools like Ateneo and DLSU receive where surrounding places to
eat tend to be more expensive receive higher allowance. The allowance covers P50 to P100 for
lunch, P30 to P50 for merienda, P20 on average for photocopies, and P50 to P80 for school
requirements like printing, buying pens, etc.

Students outside of Manila, especially those living in municipalities usually get about P100
to P150 per day (excluding transport allowance). Transport allowance is easy to compute,
Emma, mother of a college student, says that she gives her son, Paulo, P250 per day which
is P100 higher than his allowance when he was in high school. This is to account for more
photocopies and requirements in college. Donna, a college student from a single income family
notes that she only receives P100 as an allowance. Even if she deems this insufficient, she notes
that she understands that with the death of her father, it means less resources and she needs to
make do with what is given. Her siblings who are in high school in Ibaan, Batangas receive P30,
which is enough for the needs of a student in a public high school.
The frequency of giving the allowance is another issue. Students who live with their parents
usually receive their allowances daily or weekly. Students who move to study away from their
homes receive theirs weekly or monthly. Consider the cost in terms of time and transaction
charges when deciding the frequency of remiting allowance for children who live away from
It is a good idea to teach kids budgeting skills as early as when they are high school. There
is nothing more real than the pain of a grumbling stomach to teach them about handling their
finances well.

2.2.4 Philippine budget system improvement

The Philippines obtained a favorable score in the International Monetary Funds Fiscal
Transparency Evaluation but there is still room for further improvement in some key areas
particularly the budget system, the multilateral lender said.
The objective of the FTE was to assess the Philippines fiscal reporting, forecasting and
budgeting, and fiscal risks analysis and management practices against the standards set by the
IMFs draft FTE. The IMF said the governments public financial management reform strategy
has helped initiate a wide variety of reforms which are beginning to bear fruit.
For one, the countrys fiscal reporting was seen to be relatively comprehensive, frequent and
timely with many areas of good and advanced practices.The IMF, however, noted a number of
weaknesses in the quality and integrity of fiscal data, partly reflecting multiple agencies having
responsibilities for fiscal reporting.
It is said while external auditing of individual government entities is the responsibility of the
Commission on Audit (COA), it is also assigned the task of compiling the government annual
financial reports, which is contrary to international standards. Apart from these, the IMF noted
the Philippine budget systems unusually large amount of complexity and flexibility, which
complicate fiscal reporting and give rise to vulnerabilities.
The structure of the budget is complex as it encompasses a large number of earmarking,
special purpose funds, and automatic appropriations permanently authorized by other laws,In
addition, the existing budget framework allows for the government to significantly alter the
composition of expenditure during the course of the fiscal year, the IMF said.
To address the countrys fiscal transparency gaps, the government must focus on publishing
a set of budget documents that provides the public with the means to track the operations of
government from one year to the next and over the course of the year; and compare the budget to
the final accounts on a transparent basis.
Other reforms include better allocation of resources to priority areas over the medium-term,
delineating more rigorously the governments policy activities from purely commercial activities
and ensuring that consolidated financial reports are audited in a fully-independent manner. High-
quality reporting on public finances is fundamental to fiscal transparency. It provides a sound
basis for analyzing and understanding the governments financial position and performance, for
forecasting and budgeting, for designing appropriate fiscal policies and managing risks, and for
holding governments to account.