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ABSTRACT supplied by battery will be just to fulfill

the copper losses of winding and power
The main objective of our project to required to magnetize the windings.
design and construct an electrically
operated engine i.e. Electromagnetic INTRODUCTION
Engine. Our engine is totally different
from ordinary IC Engine, because of the With the diminishing fossil fuel
inventory advancement in operating resources and unabated increase in
principles. We have changed the energy costs and environmental
operating principle of IC Engine by concerns, engines using alternate energy
using electromagnetic effect instead of sources such as bio-fuel, solar power,
combustion of fossil fuels. This engine wind power, electric power, stored
works on the principle of magnetic power, etc. are being developed around
repulsion between two magnets. This the world. However, such engines have
electromagnetic engine consists of two many limitations. Production of bio-fuel
magnets, one of them is an takes enormous resources and they still
Electromagnet and other one is a pollute the environment. They do not
Permanent Magnet. Permanent Magnet meet the ever increasing energy demand
acts as piston and Electromagnet is as well. Similarly, the solar power is not
located at the top of the cylinder instead efficient. Added to all, the initial capital
of spark plug and valve arrangement in and subsequent maintenance costs for
IC Engines. In this way this engine does machines that use alternate energy
not contain any spark plug and fuel sources are very high. Hence, in the
injection system. The Electromagnet is absence of a viable alternative, until
energized by a battery source of suitable now, switching to new technology by
voltage and the polarities of changing from traditional Internal
electromagnet are set in such a way that Combustion engines has been a
it will repel the permanent magnet i.e. challenge. Magnetism is the basic
piston from TDC to BDC, which will principle of working for an
result in the rotary motion of crank shaft. electromagnetic engine. The general
When the piston is at BDC the supply of property of magnet i.e. attraction and
Electromagnet is discontinued, the repulsion forces is converted into
permanent magnet which was repelled to mechanical work. A magnet has two
BDC will come back to its initial poles. A north pole and a south pole.
position i.e. TDC. This procedure When like poles are brought near each
completes one revolution of crank shaft other they repel and attract when like
i.e. our output work. The total power poles are brought together. This principle
is being used in the electromagnetic is a class of physical phenomenon that
engine. includes forces exerted by magnets on
In this engine, the cylinder head is an other magnets. By principle of
electromagnet and a permanent magnet magnetism, when like poles of a magnet
is attached to the piston head. When the is brought together they repel away from
electromagnet is charged, it attracts or each other. When unlike poles are
repels the magnet, thus pushing then brought near each other they attract. This
piston downwards or upwards thereby is same for the case of an electromagnet
rotating the crankshaft. This is how and a permanent magnet too. So the idea
power is generated in the is to modify the piston head and cylinder
electromagnetic engine. It utilizes only head into magnets so that force can be
repulsive force that allows the field to generated between them.
dissipate completely, and have no This working of the electromagnetic
restrictive effects on the rising piston. engine is based on attraction & repulsive
The electromagnetic engine should force of the magnet. The engine greatly
ideally perform exactly the same as the resembles the working of a two-stroke
internal combustion engine. The power engine. To start, let us begin from the
of the engine is controlled by the situation, when piston is located in the
strength of the field and the strength of lower position. The coil is connected
the field is controlled by the amount of through the battery, the copper coil is
windings and the current that is being energized to produce the magnetic field
passed through it. If the current is the piston in side of the large power
increased the power generated by the Neodymium Iron Boron magnets, the
engine also increases accordingly. The piston moved upper and lower the fly
current that is used to charge the wheel connected through the piston link
electromagnet is taken from a DC source the copper coil energized the piston
like a lead acid battery. move upward and copper coil is de-
The main advantages of electromagnetic energized the piston move to downward.
engine are that it is pollution free. Also it With the help of relay and control unit.
is easy to design an electromagnetic The continuous process through piston is
engine because there are no complicated move to (up and down) with also rotated
parts. Since the engine doesnt have the fly wheel. The arrangement has
combustion, valves, water cooling shown in the figure no.3.10.
system, fuel pump, fuel lines, air and Electromagnetic engines working are
fuel filters and inlet and exhaust based on the principle of interaction
manifolds etc. can be eliminated from between the magnetic field Permanent
the engine. The main challenge faced in magnet is fixed in the piston and iron
designing an electromagnetic engine is material is connected to copper coil. So
that it has to be as efficient as an internal that the iron material is converted into
combustion engine. electromagnet when the power supply is
WORKING PRINCIPLE given to it. When piston is located in the
lower position, the coil is connected
The working of the electromagnetic through the battery. The copper coil is
engine is based on the principle of energized to produce the magnetic field.
magnetism. A magnet has two poles a When the copper coil energized the
north pole and a south pole. Magnetism piston move upward and copper coil is
de-energized the piston move to
downward, with the help of relay and
control unit. The continuous process
through piston is move to (up and down)
with also rotated the fly wheel.


Parts of crankshaft
Diameter = 58mm
Width = 13.4mm

4- Solenoid coil (ac coil)

Type: push-pull
Stroke: 15mm
Attractive force: 14.7N (1.5Kgf)
Weight: 1.0kg

Rods in crankshaft
Length of long rods = 65mm
Length of small rods = 35mm

Bearing (608)
ELECTROMAGNET engine is used as a
future engine because it has the entire
thing that a person wants for its
transportation. It can be easily start at
their area where transportation demand
is more because it uses less amount of
energy as other engine.

The concept of developing an
ELECTROMAGNET engine has been
executed. We have designed properly
WORKING our project according to our idea as we
We are using ac solenoid coil in our
project to give angular motion to our want, which would be the precursor for
crank shaft. We design special crank the future developments.
shaft according to the solenoid coil. Use The results of the project are as: -
bearing (608) on both side of crank shaft
for support it on base and we use chain DESIGNING & CALCULATION
and sprocket for transmit power to gear No of electromagnet = 4
box. We attach solenoid coil with crank Force by 1 electromagnet =
shaft. Now we fix complete body frame 14.7N
on the ply board base with help of Total force = 414.7N = 58.8N
bearing. We use 220v ac current to drive Power consumed by 1
our 4 ac coil at 4 different angles; we fix electromagnet = V I
one common wire of ac supply in all 4 V= Voltage =220v
coils and rest of 4 wire of coil is fixed on I = Current = 1.4 A
circular copper disk and then we fix Power = VI =2201.4 = 380 W
other ac supply on crankshaft as shown Total power consumed by 4
below diagram. electromagnets = 380 W
Torque = force crank radius =
yet to determine
Output power = 2 NT /60
N = speed
T = torque
Efficiency = (Output/Input)


The prototype of an electromagnetic
Now we cross crank shaft rode from engine which works on the principle of
copper disk as shown and connect crank magnetism was successfully designed
shaft supply with copper disk with help and fabricated. Experimental analysis
of simple wire for complete coil current. was successfully performed on the
prototype. The results obtained from the
experiment are as follows.
Prototype of an engine which electromagnet will be less and
works on the principle of results in less force.
magnetism was successfully The fabrication work and the
manufactured. design are not perfect. There
It uses electricity as its input. No might be some misalignments
fuel is consumed, which was the and it might cause a drop in
primary goal. output.
The prototype creates no
pollution and is eco-friendly.
The prototype is a two stroke
engine. The electromagnetic engine has various
Only the repulsive force between advantages over the internal combustion
the magnet and electromagnet is engines. The main advantage is, no fuel
used for power generation. is being used in the engine. This results
Acceleration is done by in no pollution which is very desirable in
controlling the timer which the present day situation. As there is no
controls the relay. combustion taking place inside the
Maximum efficiency obtained cylinder there is only very little heat
was 21.22% at 229 rpm for an generation. This eliminates the need for
input current of 1.2A. a cooling system. As magnetic energy is
being used the need for air filter, fuel
Maximum output power obtained
tank, supply system, fuel filter, fuel
was 20.7W at 249 rpm for an injector, fuel pump, valves etc. are
input current of 1.7 A eliminated and the design of the engine
is made simple. Also by the use of
The efficiency and power output of the materials like Aluminum, titanium etc.
engine was less than what was expected. we can reduce the weight of the engine.
The reason for less power and efficiency Also existing transmission systems can
are be used in the electromagnetic engine.
The windings of the Less noise is produce during working.
electromagnet are not perfect. The disadvantage of the electromagnetic
The windings are not machine engine is its high initial cost. The
wound. It was wound with hands electromagnet and permanent magnet
on a lathe. So windings are not can be very costly. Also the power of the
tight and there is air gap. The permanent magnet will decrease during
field generated will not be as time and the permanent magnet has to be
strong as expected. replaced during regular intervals. The
The windings are not laminated. engine is not as flexible as the internal
It will result in copper losses and combustion engine. The power source is
hysteresis losses. battery. The number of batteries will
The use of relay limits the flow vary according to the requirement. In
of current as it offers a high power engines, the number of
resistance. So with less current batteries will increase which may
flow, the field generated by the increase the total weight of vehicle and
consume a lot of space. Also the
batteries needs to be charged regularly Estimation of Automobile
which is difficult and time consuming. Emissions and Control Strategies
So the engine is not dependable The in India (2009)
prototype is an idea which uses the 2. Sherman S. Blalock; Electro-
property of an electromagnet by virtue of magnetic reciprocating engine;
which it changes the polarity of its poles US 4317058 A
whenever the direction of current is 3. Leland W. Gifford;
changed. This variation in polarity is Reciprocating electromagnetic
utilized to attract or repel the permanent engine; US 5457349 A
magnet attached to the piston. The usage 4. Radhakrishna Shesha Iyengar
of relay and timer will limit the output of Tagore; Magnetic Pistons
the engine. By using an ECU in the Engine; 2010;US 7,667,356 B2
engine instead, power can be obtained 5. V. Ganesan; Tata McGraw-Hill
on each stroke which will result in an Education; Internal Combustion
increased output. Also, by inserting more Engines
permanent magnets in series on the 6. S.S. Rattan; Tata McGraw-Hill
piston will enhance the output of the Education; Theory of Machines
engine. By slight modification in design 7.
and by the use of better hands the engine net (accessed on 18 - 02 - 2014)
can be modified to generate more power, 8.
thereby increasing its efficiency, so that romagnet (accessed on 18 - 02 -
it can be used in commercial vehicles 2014)
and other applications 9.
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