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Chapter Outline Introduction Skin Epidermal Derivatives Thermoregulation: Homeostasis of Body Temperature Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalance
Notes I. Introduction A. An organ consists of a group of tissue that performs a specific function. B. The tissues comprising the skin are the epithelium of the epidermis and the connective tissues of the dermis. C. A system is a group of organs working together toward common goals. D. The integumentary system consists of the skin and its derivatives, such as hair, nails, glands, and nerve endings. II. Structure of the Skin A. Objective: 1. Be able to complete this sentence: The medical specialty that deals with diagnosing and treating skin disorders is _______________________ B. Introduction 1. Objective:
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a) Give the names of the two main layers of the skin and indicate which one is on top and which one is on bottom. b) Give the name of the layer that is below the skin. 2. Epidermis the epithelial layer on top 3. Dermis the connective tissue layer under the epidermis 4. Subcutaneous layer (also called the superficial fascia or hypodermis) – Is not part of the skin; consists of areolar and adipose tissue.
C. Physiology 1.
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D. Epidermis 1. Cells of the Epidermis a) Objective: What is the purpose of the keratinocytes and melanocytes? b) Keratinocytes (ker a TIN o sites) produce the protein keratin that helps keep the skin waterproof and protect the underlying tissues. c) Melanocytes (MEL a no sites) produce melanin, which transfer granules of melanin to keratinocytes. Melanin absorbs UV light. The melanin granules cluster to form a protective veil over the nucleus on the skin side surface. This protects the DNA from the damaging UV light. d) Langerhans cells interact with white blood cells called helper T cells in immune responses. Are located in the epidermis. e) Merkel cell found in the deepest layer (stratum basale) of the epidermis of hairless skin, where they are attached to keratinocytes. Merkel cells make contact with the flattened portion of the ending of a sensory neuron, called a tactile (Merkel) disc, and are thought to function in the sensation of touch.
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2. Layers of the Epidermis a) Objective: Be able to list the layers of the epidermis and identify their features. b) ______________________________ – consists mostly of a single layer of cells that multiply and move upward. Consists mostly of keratinocytes. c) ______________________________ – several layers of cells thick. Keratinocytes are somewhat flattened and irregular in shape. d) ______________________________ – three to five layers thick. The process of keratinization begins in this layer (to be described below). The cells contain a substance (keratohyalin) that is a precursor to the keratin. e) _______________________________– this layer is present only in thick skin (e.g., palms and soles of feet). f) _______________________________– 2530 layers thick of flat, dead cells full of keratin. Cells are continually shed. g) Layers of the skin can be remembered by using this mnemonic device – Can Little Girls Speak German? (corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, germinativum) 3. Keratinization and Growth of the Epidermis Keratinization is the process of a cell accumulating keratin, along with the disappearance of the nucleus, cytoplasm and organelles, and death of the cell. E. Dermis 1. This is a layer of connective tissue consisting of collagen fibers and elastic fibers and a few of the following cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, and adipocytes.
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2. Structures embedded in the dermis Blood vessels, nerves, glands and hair follicles. 3. Papillary region a) This region contains fingerlike projections called dermal papilla. b) Some dermal papillae contain tactile receptors called corpuscles of touch. 4. Reticular region a) Mostly interlacing bundles of collagen fibers and coarse elastic fibers. There is adipose tissue, hair follicles nerves, oil glands and the ducts of sweat glands between the fibers. The combination of collagen and elastic fibers give the skin strength, extensibility and elasticity. (Extensibility is the ability to stretch and elasticity is the ability to return to the original length. Small tears can occur in the dermis during pregnancy, obesity and edema. Small tears in the dermis are initially red and remain visible later as silvery white streaks called stretch marks or striae.) F. The Structural Basis of Skin Color 1. Objective: a) Give the names of the three pigments that contribute to skin color and indicate the color that each produces 2. Three pigments melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin a) Melanin (1) Causes skin to range from pale yellow to red to tan to black (2) May cluster in patches giving freckles. Age (liver) spots can also develop.
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(3) Mole or nevus – is a benign localized overgrowth of melanocytes b) Hemoglobin – gives a pink to red color. Represents the amount of oxygen traveling through capillaries in the dermis. c) Carotene – yelloworange pigment; 3. Albinism an inherited inability to produce melanin 4. Skin Color Clues a) Objective: Describe the appearance of the skin in each of the following conditions and indicate the causes of each: cyanosis (cyanotic skin), jaundice, erythema, and pallor. b) Cyanosis – c) Jaundice – d) Erythema – e) Pallor – III. Accessory Structures of the Skin A. Hair 1. Primary function – 2. Anatomy
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B. Skin Glands 1. Sebaceous (Oil) glands a) Objective: What is the name of the substance secreted by the sebaceous glands and what is the purpose of it? b) The sebaceous glands secrete an oil called _______________ c) The purpose of the oil is _______________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands a) Objective: Be able to describe the principal function of sweat?
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3. Ceruminous Glands a) Objective: Where are ceruminous glands located and what is the purpose of the substance secreted by them? b) Location in body ______________________________ c) Purpose of cerumen _________________________________ ___________________________________________________ C. Nails IV. Functions of the Skin A. Objective: Describe each of the functions of the skin (given below). B. Thermoregulation C. Blood reservoir dermis houses 810% of the entire blood supply. Dilation of the blood vessels results in a loss of heat and constriction results in retaining heat. D. Protection from physical abrasion, bacterial invasion, dehydration, and UV radiation. E. Cutaneous Sensations temperature, touch, pressure and pain F. Excretion and Absorption G. Synthesis of vitamin D UV radiation activates a precursor molecule in the skin. Enzymes in the liver and kidney then modify the molecule, finally producing calcitriol, the most active form of vitamin D. Calcitriol contributes to the homeostasis of body fluids by aiding absorption of calcium in foods. V. Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalance
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A. Burns 1. Protection by the skin is disrupted with a burn. The three ways that burns do this are: a) permit microbial invasion and infection b) loss of fluid c) loss of thermoregulation 2. Firstdegree burn a) Amount of skin burned only the surface epidermis b) Appearance redness but no blisters. c) Healing period Generally, two or three days 3. Seconddegree burn a) Amount of skin burned entire epidermis and possibly parts of the dermis b) Appearance redness, blisters, edema. c) Healing period three to four weeks if no infection 4. Thirddegree burn
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a) Amount of skin burned epidermis, dermis and epidermal derivatives are destroyed. b) Appearance vary in appearance; marblewhite, mahogany colored to charred, dry wounds. Marked edema. Burned region is numb because sensory nerve endings have been destroyed. c) Healing period Skin regeneration is low. B. Skin Cancer 1. The most prevalent lifethreatening skin cancer in women in young women are malignant melanomas. C. Acne Inflammation of the sebaceous glands. D. Pressure sores 1. Also known as decubitus ulcers or bedsores. 2. Caused by a constant deficiency of blood supply to tissues that are subjected to extended pressure against an object. Results in tissue ulceration. Small breaks in the epidermis become infected and the subcutaneous and deeper tissues are damaged. E. Warts caused by a virus (papillomavirus). Most warts are noncancerous.
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F. Athlete's foot G. Chickenpox H. Shingles I. Cold sore J. Contusion (bruise) K. Blisters L. Measles, German (Rubella) M. Measles, red (Rubeola) N. Impetigo O. Ringworm P. Spotted fever, Rocky Mountain Q. Ectoparasite, Phthirius pubis (crab) Ectoparasites often inhabit the surface of our bodies, harvesting nutrients from skin, secretions, andsometimes blood. They spread from one person to another by physical contact.
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