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Romeo & Juliet Scholar Packet

Units Essential Question: Does passion help or hinder us?


Romeo and Juliet Unit Guide

Incomplete, missing, or late assignments will be affect your grade. This packet will get a completion score, based on the rubric.
Pages PACKET PAGE DESCRIPTION & EXPECTATIONS Score

2 Phil.ChairsNotes UsetemplateonfirstpagetotakenotesonPhil.Chairsactivity 5

3-4 MyShakespeare CompletetheTPCASST 4

5-7 LovesVocabulary Completetheclosereadingpacket. 4

8-11 BeautifulBrains Annotatethetext. 4

12-18 LiteraryTerms Defineeachwordandprovidetextualevidenceforthe*starred 4


words

19 AnnotatedSampleSonnet Followannotationguidelinesondocument. 4

20 ShakespeareanSonnet Yourgradedroughdraftofyoursonnet. 4

21-24 VocabularyAcquisition Defineeachwordintheboxprovided. 4

25-29 ReadingCheckQuestions Answerallquestionsinadifferentcolor. 4

30-31 Four Types of Love 4

32-34 EvidenceCollector 4
Extra R&JProloguePractice Completetheannotationrequirementsoftheprologue. 5

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complete. Pages are Pages are Work is effort notes taken on further
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1
TheTragedyofRomeoandJuliet
Philosophical Chairs Notes

Statements Responses Discussion Notes

Teenagers generally In taking a closer look at (topic)_______, I agree/disagree _____(your


make good decisions position)________. My views are based on (What influences your
beliefs?)_______________. Furthermore,
________(elaborate)_________.
It is possible to fall in Concerning/In regards to____(topic)_______, I agree/disagree
love at first sight _____(your position)________. This is clear by (What influences your
beliefs?)________. Thus, ________(elaborate)_________.
Seeking revenge is In regards to____(topic)_______, I agree/disagree _____(your
necessary when an position)________. I base this on (What influences your
enemy has harmed beliefs?)________. Therefore, ________(elaborate)_________.
someone you love

Parents have a right In regards to____(topic)_______, I agree/disagree _____(your


to make decisions position)________. I base this on (What influences your
for their teens lives. beliefs?)________. Therefore, ________(elaborate)_________.

Reflection:

2
TPCASTT: My Shakespeare Hes in every star crossed lover, in every thought that
By Kate Tempest ever set your teeth on edge, in every breathless hero,
stepping closer to the ledge, his is the method in our
TITLE: Before reading, what prediction can you make madness, as pure as the driven snowhis is the hair
about the content of the poem based on its title? 30. standing on end, he saw that all that glittered was
not gold. He knew we hadnt slept a wink, and that our
Shes going to talk about Shakespeare.
hearts were upon our sleeves, and that the beast with
two backs had us all upon our knees as we fought fire
with fire, he knew that too much of a good thing, can
35. leave you up in arms, the pen is mightier than the
sword, still his words seem to sing our names as they
strike, and his is the milk of human kindness, warm
Annotation Directions enough to break the icehis, the green eyed monster,
Number lines by 5 in a pickle, still, discretion is the better part of valor, his
Circle and define unknown terms 40. letters with their arms around each others
Underline or highlight instances of repetition shoulders, swagger towards the ends of their
Circle any allusions to Shakespeare that you sentences, pleased with what theyve done, his words
recognize
are the setting for our storieshe has become a poet
who poetics have embedded themselves deep within
45. the fabric of our language, hes in our mouths, his
Hes in every lover who ever stood alone words have tangled round our own and given rise to
beneath a window, expressions so effective in expressing how we feel, we
In every jealous whispered word, cant imagine how wed feel without them.
In every ghost that will not rest.
5. Hes in every father with a favorite, Seehes less the tights and gartersmore the sons
Every eye that stops to linger 50. demanding answers from the absence of
On what someone else has got, and feels the their fathers.
tightening in their The hot darkness of your last embrace.
Chest. Hes in the laughter of the night before, the tightened
jaw of the
10. Hes in every young man growing boastful, 55. morning after,
Every worn out elder, drunk all day; Hes in us. Part and parcel of our Royals and our
muttering false prophecies and squandering rascals.
their lot. Hes more than something taught in classrooms, in
Hes therein every mix-up that spirals far out language thats
of controland 60. hard to understand,
15. never seems to end, Hes more than a feeling of inadequacy when we sit
even when its beginnings are forgot. for our exams,
Hes in every wise woman, every pitiful villain,
Hes in every girl who ever used her wits. Every great king, every sore loser, every fake tear.
Whoever did her best. 65. His legacy exists in the life that lives in everything
In every vain admirer, hes written,
20. Every passionate, ambitious social And me, I see him everywhere, hes my Shakespeare.
climber,
And in every misheard word that ever led to
tempers fraying,
Every pawn that moves exactly as the player
wants it to,
25. And still remains convinced that its not
playing.

ATTITUDE: The subject of this poem is clearly Shakespeares


influence. With what tone does Tempest address this subject?
Choose from one of the following and explain your interpretation of
tone in one TS/S/M/Ma/CS paragraph:
PARAPHRASE: Paraphrase the literal contents of this
poem in 1-3 sentences: Reverential Defensive Obsequious Impassioned
Laudatory

3
He is in every person, basically. Even foolish people, The tone Tempest uses to address this subject is a
and people who keep denying things. reverential tone. For example, on lines 58-60 and
lines 65-66, Tempest writes, Hes more than
something taught in classrooms, in language
thats hard to understand...His legacy exists in the
life that lives in everything hes written (Tempest
CONNOTATION: pg 3). This means that Shakespeare is higher than
Find one example of each form of repetition and write your
example underneath the term. just something taught in classrooms, and that his
legacy is in everything hes written. It matters
Alliteration: Repetition of the same sound at the because words like hes more than or his
beginning of two or more stressed syllables. legacy give a sort of respectful tone to her
Example:
words, like she greatly respects Shakespeare and
his works (which is probably why she wrote this
article). With her words, there is a sort of
Part and parcel of our Royals and our reverential tone in her article.
rascals.

SHIFT: Many poems contain an important shift. This could be a shift


Assonance: Repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded
in focus where the author moves from describing to reflecting. This
and followed by different consonants, in the stressed
could be a shift in point of view where the author moves from 3rd to
syllables of adjacent words.
1st person. Is there a similar shift in this poem? If so, where and
why does this shift occur?
Example:

There is a shift that occurs right after And still


On what someone else has got remains convinced that its not playing, when she
starts using 2nd person as well. This shift possibly
Consonance: The repetition of consonants in words occurred because she was getting to the most
stressed in the same place (but whose vowels differ). influential and meaningful part of the poem, where
Also, a kind of inverted alliteration, in which final
she wanted to include the audience as well.
consonants, rather than initial or medial ones, repeat in
nearby words.
THEME/MESSAGE: What is the message of Tempests poem?
Example:
Support your claim with evidence in one TS/S/M/Ma/CS paragraph.

Hes in every star crossed lover, in every I think the message of Tempests poem is that the
thought that ever set your teeth on edge, in past is also in the present. In lines 17-18 and
every breathless hero, 65-66, she writes, Hes in every girl who ever
used her wits. Whoever did her best...His legacy
exists in the life that lives in everything hes
written (Tempest pg 3). This means that the past,
like Shakespeare, still exists in the present. It
matters because Shakespeare still influences
people today, and that the past affects and is
present in the future. The past, like Shakespeare,
still influences, affects, and is present even today,
in everyone.

4
Name:
Teacher:
Class,Period:
Date:
LovesVocabulary
ByDianeAckerman

SWBAT:Determinetheauthorsclaimaboutlovethroughanalyzingfigurativelanguagewithintheessay.

StepOne:FirstRead
Whileyourteacherreadsthetextaloud,numberparagraphsintheleft-handmarginandhighlightwordsyoudonotunderstand.Afterthefirstreadis
completed,wewilldefinetermstogetherasaclass.

StepTwo:SecondRead
Completethecomprehensionquestionsrelatedtofigurativelanguagewithapartner/smallgroupinordertolocatetheauthorsclaimaboutlove.

1. Loveisthegreatintangible.Inournightmares,wecancreate CONTRAST:Highlightimagesassociatedwithhate
beastsoutofpureemotion.Hatestalksthestreetswith inonecolor.Highlightimagesassociatedwithlovein
drippingfangs,fearfliesdownnarrowalleywaysonleather anothercolor.Whydoestheauthorcontrastlovewith
wings,andjealousyspinsstickywebsacrossthesky.In hateinthisparagraph?
daydreams,wecanmaneuverwithpoise,foilinganopponent,
scoringhighonfieldsofglorywhilecrowdscheer,cuttingfast Theauthorcontrastslovewithhateinordertoshow
totheheartofanadventure.Butwhatdreamstateislove? thatwhilehatecreatesasortofhorribleanddark
Franticandserene,vigilantandcalm,wrung-outandfortified, scenewhilelovecreatesasortofeitherfighting,
explosiveandsedatelovecommandsavastarmyofmoods. good,orcalmfeeling.
Hopingforvictory,limpingfromthelatestskirmish,lovers
enterthearenaonceagain.Sittingstill,weareasdaringas
gladiators.

2.WhenIsetaglassprismonawindowsillandallowthesuntoflood SYMBOL:Highlighttheeffectsoftheprismupon
throughit,aspectrumofcolorsdancesonthefloor.Whatwecallwhite lightinonecolor.Highlighttheeffectsofartupon
isarainbowofcoloredrayspackedintoasmallspace.Theprismsets loveinanothercolor.
themfree.Loveisthewhitelightofemotion.Itincludesmanyfeelings
which,outoflazinessandconfusion,wecrowdintoonesimpleword.Art Whyislovelikeaglassprism?Loveislikeaglassprism
istheprismthatsetsthemfree,thenfollowsthegyrations[1]ofoneor becauseitsetstheemotionsthatcomewithlovefree.
afew.Whenartseparatesthisthicktangleoffeelings,lovebaresits
bones.Butitcannotbemeasuredormapped.Everyoneadmitsthatloveis
wonderfulandnecessary,yetnoonecanagreeonwhatitis.Ionceheard Whyisartlikeaglassprism?Artislikeaglassprism
asportscastersayofabasketballplayer,Hedoesalltheintangibles. becauseitsetstheemotionsfree.
Justwatchhimdohisdance.Asloftyastheideaoflovecanbe,no
imageistooprofanetohelpexplainit.Yearsago,Ifellinlovewith
someonewhowasbothasportandapastime.Attheend,hemade
fade-awayjumpshotsinmylife.But,forawhile,lovedidallthe
intangibles.Itletsusdoourfinestdance.

3.Love.Whatasmallwordweuseforanideasoimmenseand DENOTATION:Highlighttheoriginandliteral
powerfulithasalteredtheflowofhistory,calmedmonsters,kindled meaningofthewordlove.
worksofart,cheeredtheforlorn,turnedtoughguystomush,consoled
theenslaved,drivenstrongwomenmad,glorifiedthehumble,fueled
nationalscandals,bankruptedrobberbarons,andmademincemeatof
kings.Howcanlovesspaciousnessbeconveyedinthenarrowconfinesof Whydoestheauthorsupposethattheetymologyof
onesyllable?Ifwesearchforthesourceoftheword,wefindahistory thetermiswithoutaknownorigin?
vagueandconfusing,stretchingbacktotheSanskritlubhyati(he
desires).Imsuretheetymologyramblesbackmuchfartherthanthat, Theauthorsupposedthattheetymologyofloveis
toaone-syllablewordheavyasaheartbeat.Loveisanancientdelirium,a withoutaknownoriginbecausethetextissupposedto
desireolderthancivilization,withtaproots[2]stretchingdeepintodark conveyawideconceptthatcantbetracedback,or
andmysteriousdays. maybeitjustcantbetracedbacktoitsorigin.


4.Weusethewordloveinsuchasloppywaythatitcanmean CONNOTATION:Highlightthelinewhichcontains
almostnothingorabsolutelyeverything.Itisthefirstconjugation[3] connotativemeaningsofthetermlove.
studentsofLatinlearn.Itisauniversallyunderstoodmotiveforcrime.
Ah,hewasinlove,wesigh,well,thatexplainsit.Infact,insome Inyourownexperience,doesthetermlovepossess
EuropeanandSouthAmericancountries,evenmurderisforgivableifit thesameconnotationsthattheauthorproffers?Why
wasacrimeofpassion.Love,liketruth,istheunassailabledefense. orwhynot?
Whoeverfirstsaidlovemakestheworldgoround(itwasananonymous Inmyexperience,lovedoespossessthesame
Frenchman)probablywasnotthinkingaboutcelestialmechanics,butthe connotationsthattheauthorproffersbecause
wayloveseepsintothemachineryoflifetokeepgenerationafter sometimes,lovecanbeapositiveforce.Forinstance,if
generationinmotion.Wethinkofloveasapositiveforcethatsomehow youwanttofeelloved,orhavesomeonewhowilltreat

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ennoblestheonefeelingit.Whenafriendconfessesthathesinlove,we youoryoutreatsomeonewell.Itisalsoapositive
congratulatehim. feeling.However,sometimesitcanbenegativeaswell
indomesticviolence,crimes,andactsofjealousy.

5.Infolkstories,unsuspectingladsandlassesingestalovepotionand IMAGERY:Highlightinstancesofloveas
quicklylosetheirhearts.Aswithallintoxicants,lovecomesinmany multifarious,orofmanyvarietiesandtypes.
guisesandstrengths.Ithasamixedbouquet,andmayincludesome
piquantingredients.[4]Onestasteinlovewillhavealottodowithones
culture,upbringing,generation,religion,era,gender,andsoon.Ironically,
althoughwesometimesthinkofitastheultimateOneness,loveisnt Ofalltheimageswhichsuggestthemultifariousness
monotoneoruniform.Likeabatik[5]createdfrommanyemotionalcolors, oflove,whichcomesclosesttoyourowninterpretation
itisafabricwhosepatternandbrightnessmayvary.Whatismy oftheterm.Why?
goddaughtertothinkwhenshehearshermothersay:IloveBen&
JerrysCherryGarciaicecream;Ireallylovedmyhighschool Ofalltheimagesthatsuggestthemultifariousnessof
boyfriend;Dontyoujustlovethissweater?Idlovetogotothelake love,theonethatcomesclosesttomyown
foraweekthissummer;Mommylovesyou.Sinceallwehaveisone interpretationofthetermisMommylovesyou.When
word,wetalkaboutloveinincrementsorunwieldyratios.Howmuchdo Ithinkoflove,Iusuallythinkofitplatonicallyor
youloveme?achildasks.BecausetheparentcantanswerI(verbthat romantically,likeacouplelovingeachother,notabout
meansunconditionalparentallove)you,shemayflingherarmswide,asif peoplelovingthings.
welcomingthesunandsky,stretchingherbodytoitslimit,spreadingher
fingerstoencompassallofCreation,andsay:Thismuch!Or:Thinkof
thebiggestthingyoucanimagine.Nowdoubleit.Iloveyouahundred
timesthatmuch!

6.WhenElizabethBarrettBrowningwroteherfamoussonnetHowdoI CLICHE:Highlightsentenceswhichaddtotheauthors
lovethee?shedidntcountthewaysbecauseshehadanarithmetical argumentforloveasdifficulttospeakofduetoa
turnofmind,butbecauseEnglishpoetshavealwayshadtosearchhard dearthofwordswhichmayactsynonymously.
forpersonalsignalsoftheirlove.Asasociety,weareembarrassedby
love.Wetreatitasifitwereanobscenity.Wereluctantlyadmittoit.
Evensayingthewordmakesusstumbleandblush.Whyshouldwebe Writeyourfirstlineofalovepoemthatdoesnot
ashamedofanemotionsobeautifulandnatural?Inteachingwriting utilizeclichs:
students,Ivesometimesgiventhemtheassignmentofwritingalove
poem.Beprecise,beindividual,andbedescriptive.Butdontuseany Shesaid,
clichs,Icautionthem,oranycursewords.Partofthereasonforthis Iloveyou;
assignmentisthatithelpsthemunderstandhowinhibitedweareabout SoIfeltcompelledtosay,
love.Loveisthemostimportantthinginourlives,apassionforwhichwe Ilovemetoo;
wouldfightordie,andyetwerereluctanttolingeroveritsname.
Withoutasupplevocabulary,wecanteventalkorthinkaboutitdirectly. Pleasedontreadthis;_;
Ontheotherhand,wehavemanysharpverbsforthewaysinwhich
humanbeingscanhurtoneanother,dozensofverbsforthesubtle JohnDonnesTheFleaactsasevidenceforoneof
gradationsofhate.Buttherearepitifullyfewsynonymsforlove.Our theauthorsclaims.Forwhichclaimdoesthispoemact
vocabularyofloveandlovemakingissopaltrythatapoethastochoose asevidence?
amongclichs,profanities,oreuphemisms.Fortunately,thishasledto
somerichlyimaginedworksofart.Ithasinspiredpoetstocreatetheir Thatbecauselovehassolittlevocabulary,ithas
ownprivatevocabularies.Mrs.Browningsentherhusbandapoetic inspiredartistsorpoetstocreatetheirownprivate
abacus[6]oflove,whichinaroundaboutwayexpressedthesumofher vocabularies.
feelings.Otherlovershavetriedtocalibratetheirloveinequally
ingeniousways.InTheFlea,JohnDonnewatchesafleasuckbloodfrom
hisarmandhisbeloveds,andrejoicesthattheirbloodmarriesinthe
fleasstomach.

7.Yes,loversaremostoftenreducedtocomparativesandquantities.Do CAUSALITY:Highlightthenegativeconsequencesof
youlovememorethanher?weask.WillyoulovemelessifIdontdo love.
whatyousay?Weareafraidtofacelovehead-on.Wethinkofitasa
sortoftrafficaccidentoftheheart.Itisanemotionthatscaresus Theauthorclaimsthatlovingapersonistobereduced
morethancruelty,morethanviolence,morethanhatred.Weallow toextremevulnerability.Whatreasondoestheauthor
ourselvestobefoiledbythevaguenessoftheword.Afterall,love offerasaproblemwithlovethatcausesonetostrip
requirestheutmostvulnerability.Weequipsomeonewithfreshly naked?
sharpenedknives;stripnaked;theninvitehimtostandclose.Whatcould
bescarier? Lust.

8.IfyoutookawomanfromancientEgyptandputherinanautomobile EXTENDEDMETAPHOR:Highlightphrases
factoryinDetroit,shewouldbeunderstandablydisoriented.Everything associatedwiththenotionofsamenessor
wouldbenew,especiallyherabilitytostrokethewallandmakelight similarity.
floodtheroom,touchthewallelsewhereandfilltheroomwithsummers
warmbreezesorwintersblast.Shedbeastonishedbytelephones,
computers,fashions,language,andcustoms.Butifshesawamanand Theauthorbeginsthisparagraphwithacomparison
womanstealingakissinaquietcorner,shewouldsmile.People betweenawomanfromAncientEgyptandaman
everywhereandeverywhenunderstandthephenomenonoflove,justas workingatafactoryinDetroit.Howdoesthis
theyunderstandtheappealofmusic,findingitdeeplymeaningfulevenif extendedmetaphorconnecttotheultimateclaimthat
theycannotexplainexactlywhatthatmeaningis,orwhytheyrespond intheSerengetioftheheart,timeandnationare
viscerallytoonecomposerandnotanother.OurEgyptianwoman,who irrelevant?
prefersthebirdliketwitteringofasistrum,[7]andatwentieth-century
man,whopreferstheclashingjawsofheavymetal,shareapassionfor Thecomparisonconnectstotheultimateclaimby
musicthatbothwouldunderstand.Soitiswithlove.Values,customs,and sayinghowevenifeverythingisnewtosomeone,people

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protocolsmayvaryfromancientdaystothepresent,butnotthemajesty wouldunderstandthephenomenonoflove,andhow
oflove.Peopleareuniqueinthewaytheywalk,dress,andgesture,yet timeandnationareirrelevantwhenrecognizinglove.
wereabletolookattwopeopleonewearingabusinesssuit,theothera
sarong[8]andrecognizethatbothofthemareclothed.Lovealsohas
manyfashions,somebizarreand(toourtaste)shocking,othersmore
familiar,butallarepartofaphantasmagoria[9]weknow.Inthe
Serengeti[10]oftheheart,timeandnationareirrelevant.Onthatplain,
allfiresarethesamefire.

9.Rememberthefeelingofanelevatorfallinginyourchestwhenyou IMAGERY:Highlightimageryassociatedwith
saidgood-byetoalovedone?Partingismorethansweetsorrow,itpulls heartbreakandpain.
youapartwhenyouaregluedtogether.Itfeelslikehungerpains,andwe
usethesameword,pang.PerhapsthisiswhyCupidisdepictedwitha Howdoesimageryinthisparagraphconnecttothe
quiverofarrows,becauseattimeslovefeelslikebeingpiercedinthe paragraphsoverallargumentthatloveisawholesome
chest.Itisawholesomeviolence.Commonaschildbirth,loveseemsrare violence?
nonetheless,alwayscatchesonebysurprise,andcannotbetaught.Each
childrediscoversit,eachcoupleredefinesit,eachparentreinventsit. Imageryinthisparagraphconnectstotheparagraphs
Peoplesearchforloveasifitwereacitylostbeneaththedesertdunes, overallargumentbymakingloveseemlikeaviolent
wherepleasureisthelaw,thestreetsarelinedwithbrocadecushions, conceptbecausebeingpiercedinthechestissorta
andthesunneversets. violent.

10.Ifitssoobviousandpopular,thenwhatislove?Ibeganresearching CONNOTATION:Theauthorstatesthatmuchof
thisbookbecauseIhadmanyquestions,notbecauseIknewatthe thevocabularyoflove,andtheimageryloversuse,has
outsetwhatanswersImightfind.Likemostpeople,IbelievedwhatI notchangedforthousandsofyears.
hadbeentold:thattheideaoflovewasinventedbytheGreeks,and
romanticlovebeganintheMiddleAges.Iknownowhowmisguidedsuch
hearsayis.Wecanfindromanticloveintheearliestwritingsofourkind. Listatleasttenimagesorphrasesthatarepopularly
Muchofthevocabularyoflove,andtheimageryloversuse,hasnot associatedwithlove.Thefirsttwohavebeendonefor
changedforthousandsofyears.Whydothesameimagescometomind you.
whenpeopledescribetheirromanticfeelings?Custom,culture,and
tastesvary,butnotloveitself,nottheessenceoftheemotion. Cupidandhisarrows
Roses
Kisses
Mapleleaf(ancientlovesymbolfromChina
andJapan)
Engagementrings
Valentinegifts
Rosequartz
Heart
Maleandfemalesymbolstucktogether
Dove(representsbothloveandpeace)

AuthorsClaim:Afterreadingandannotatingthisarticle,whatdoyousupposeisthemainclaimthisauthormakesabout
love?SupportyourclaimwithevidenceusingaTS,S,M,Ma,CSparagraph.

Afterreadingandannotatingthisarticle,Isupposethatthemainclaimthisauthormakesaboutloveisthatloveisan
emotionthatcreatesmanydifferentfeelingsandthatitcanbeexpresseddifferently.Forexample,onparagraphs2and
5,itsays,Loveisthewhitelightofemotion.Itincludesmanyfeelingswhich,outoflazinessandconfusion,wecrowd
intoonesimpleword...Sinceallwehaveisoneword,wetalkaboutloveinincrementsorunwieldyratios.Thismeansthat
lovecanmakepeoplefeeldifferentfeelings,likejealousyorsorrow,andloveisexpressedinbothacasualIloveice
cream,andameaningfulIloveyou.Thisevidencesupportstheclaim,anditmattersbecausetheauthortalksabout
howpeoplethinkofloveassomethingpositive,whenitcanbesomethingnegativeaswell,andhowpeopleneedto
understandmoreaboutlove.Inconclusion,lovecomeswithdifferentfeelings,anditcanbeexpressedindifferentways.



Annotatethetextby:
Numbereachparagraph
UnderlineMainIdea

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*SupportingDetails*
BoxUnknownWords
WritecommentsconnectingideastoLovesVocabularyandthePPTontheFiveLoves

BeautifulBrains
Moody.Impulsive.Maddening.Whydoteenagersactthewaytheydo?Viewedthroughtheeyesofevolution,theirmostexasperatingtraits
maybethekeytosuccessasadults.

ByDavidDobbs
Althoughyouknowyourteenagertakessomechances,itcanbeashocktohearaboutthem.
1. OnefineMaymorningnotlongagomyoldestson,17atthetime,phonedtotellmethathehadjustspentacouplehoursatthestate
policebarracks.Apparentlyhehadbeendriving"alittlefast."What,Iasked,was"alittlefast"?Turnsoutthisproductofmygenes
andlovingcare,theboy-manIhadswaddled,coddled,cooedat,andthenpushedandpulledtothebrinkofmanhood,hadbeenflying
downthehighwayat113milesanhour.
2. "That'smorethanalittlefast,"Isaid.
3. Heagreed.Infact,hesoundedsomberandcontrite.HedidnotobjectwhenItoldhimhe'dhavetopaythefinesandprobablyfora
lawyer.HedidnotarguewhenIpointedoutthatifanythinghappensatthatspeedadogintheroad,ablowntire,asneezehe
dies.Hewasinfactalmostirritatinglyreasonable.Heevenprofferedthatthecopdidtherightthinginstoppinghim,for,asheputit,
"Wecan'tallgoarounddoing113."
4. Hedid,however,objecttoonething.Hedidn'tlikeitthatoneoftheseveralcitationshereceivedwasforrecklessdriving.
5. "Well,"Ihuffed,sensinganopportunitytofinallyyellathim,"whatwouldyoucallit?"
6. "It'sjustnotaccurate,"hesaidcalmly."'Reckless'soundslikeyou'renotpayingattention.ButIwas.Imadeadeliberatepointof
doingthisonanemptystretchofdryinterstate,inbroaddaylight,withgoodsightlinesandnotraffic.Imean,Iwasn'tjustgunning
thething.Iwasdriving.
7. "Iguessthat'swhatIwantyoutoknow.Ifitmakesyoufeelanybetter,Iwasreallyfocused."
8. Actually,itdidmakemefeelbetter.Thatbotheredme,forIdidn'tunderstandwhy.NowIdo.
9. Myson'shigh-speedadventureraisedthequestionlongaskedbypeoplewhohaveponderedtheclassofhumanswecallteenagers:
WhatonEarthwashedoing?Parentsoftenphrasethisquestionmorecolorfully.Scientistsputitmorecoolly.Theyask,Whatcan
explainthisbehavior?Buteventhatisjustanotherwayofwondering,Whatiswrongwiththesekids?Whydotheyactthisway?The
questionpassesjudgmentevenasitinquires.
10. Throughtheages,mostanswershaveciteddarkforcesthatuniquelyaffecttheteen.Aristotleconcludedmorethan2,300yearsago
that"theyoungareheatedbyNatureasdrunkenmenbywine."AshepherdinWilliamShakespeare'sTheWinter'sTalewishes"there
werenoagebetweentenandthree-and-twenty,orthatyouthwouldsleepouttherest;forthereisnothinginthebetweenbutgetting
wencheswithchild,wrongingtheancientry,stealing,fighting."Hislamentcolorsmostmodernscientificinquiriesaswell.G.
StanleyHall,whoformalizedadolescentstudieswithhis1904Adolescence:ItsPsychologyandItsRelationstoPhysiology,
Anthropology,Sociology,Sex,Crime,ReligionandEducation,believedthisperiodof"stormandstress"replicatedearlier,less
civilizedstagesofhumandevelopment.Freudsawadolescenceasanexpressionoftorturouspsychosexualconflict;ErikErikson,as
themosttumultuousoflife'sseveralidentitycrises.Adolescence:alwaysaproblem.
11. Suchthinkingcarriedintothelate20thcentury,whenresearchersdevelopedbrain-imagingtechnologythatenabledthemtoseethe
teenbraininenoughdetailtotrackbothitsphysicaldevelopmentanditspatternsofactivity.Theseimagingtoolsofferedanewway
toaskthesamequestionWhat'swrongwiththesekids?andrevealedananswerthatsurprisedalmosteveryone.Ourbrains,it
turnedout,takemuchlongertodevelopthanwehadthought.Thisrevelationsuggestedbothasimplistic,unflatteringexplanationfor
teens'maddeningbehaviorandamorecomplex,affirmativeexplanationaswell.
12. ThefirstfullseriesofscansofthedevelopingadolescentbrainaNationalInstitutesofHealth(NIH)projectthatstudiedovera
hundredyoungpeopleastheygrewupduringthe1990sshowedthatourbrainsundergoamassivereorganizationbetweenour12th
and25thyears.Thebraindoesn'tactuallygrowverymuchduringthisperiod.Ithasalreadyreached90percentofitsfullsizebythe
timeapersonissix,andathickeningskullaccountsformostheadgrowthafterward.Butaswemovethroughadolescence,thebrain
undergoesextensiveremodeling,resemblinganetworkandwiringupgrade.
13. Forstarters,thebrain'saxonsthelongnervefibersthatneuronsusetosendsignalstootherneuronsbecomegraduallymore
insulatedwithafattysubstancecalledmyelin(thebrain'swhitematter),eventuallyboostingtheaxons'transmissionspeeduptoa
hundredtimes.Meanwhile,dendrites,thebranchlikeextensionsthatneuronsusetoreceivesignalsfromnearbyaxons,growtwiggier,
andthemostheavilyusedsynapsesthelittlechemicaljuncturesacrosswhichaxonsanddendritespassnotesgrowricherand
stronger.Atthesametime,synapsesthatseelittleusebegintowither.Thissynapticpruning,asitiscalled,causesthebrain's
cortextheouterlayerofgraymatterwherewedomuchofourconsciousandcomplicatedthinkingtobecomethinnerbutmore
efficient.Takentogether,thesechangesmaketheentirebrainamuchfasterandmoresophisticatedorgan.
14. *Thisprocessofmaturation,oncethoughttobelargelyfinishedbyelementaryschool,continuesthroughoutadolescence.*Imaging
workdonesincethe1990sshowsthatthesephysicalchangesmoveinaslowwavefromthebrain'sreartoitsfront,fromareasclose
tothebrainstemthatlookafterolderandmorebehaviorallybasicfunctions,suchasvision,movement,andfundamentalprocessing,
totheevolutionarilynewerandmorecomplicatedthinkingareasupfront.Thecorpuscallosum,whichconnectsthebrain'sleftand
righthemispheresandcarriestrafficessentialtomanyadvancedbrainfunctions,steadilythickens.Strongerlinksalsodevelop
betweenthehippocampus,asortofmemorydirectory,andfrontalareasthatsetgoalsandweighdifferentagendas;asaresult,weget

8
betteratintegratingmemoryandexperienceintoourdecisions.Atthesametime,thefrontalareasdevelopgreaterspeedandricher
connections,allowingustogenerateandweighfarmorevariablesandagendasthanbefore.
15. *Whenthisdevelopmentproceedsnormally,wegetbetteratbalancingimpulse,desire,goals,self-interest,rules,ethics,andeven
altruism,generatingbehaviorthatismorecomplexand,sometimesatleast,moresensible.Butattimes,andespeciallyatfirst,the
braindoesthisworkclumsily.It'shardtogetallthosenewcogstomesh.*
16. BeatrizLuna,aUniversityofPittsburghprofessorofpsychiatrywhousesneuroimagingtostudytheteenbrain,usedasimpletest
thatillustratesthislearningcurve.Lunascannedthebrainsofchildren,teens,andtwentysomethingswhiletheyperformedan
antisaccadetask,asortofeyes-onlyvideogamewhereyouhavetostopyourselffromlookingatasuddenlyappearinglight.You
viewascreenonwhichtheredcrosshairsatthecenteroccasionallydisappearjustasalightflickerselsewhereonthescreen.Your
instructionsaretonotlookatthelightandinsteadtolookintheoppositedirection.Asensordetectsanyeyemovement.It'satough
assignment,sinceflickeringlightsnaturallydrawourattention.Tosucceed,youmustoverridebothanormalimpulsetoattendto
newinformationandcuriosityaboutsomethingforbidden.Braingeekscallthisresponseinhibition.
17. Ten-year-oldsstinkatit,failingabout45percentofthetime.Teensdomuchbetter.Infact,byage15theycanscoreaswellasadults
ifthey'remotivated,resistingtemptationabout70to80percentofthetime.WhatLunafoundmostinteresting,however,wasnot
thosescores.Itwasthebrainscansshetookwhilepeopletookthetest.Comparedwithadults,teenstendedtomakelessuseofbrain
regionsthatmonitorperformance,spoterrors,plan,andstayfocusedareastheadultsseemedtobringonlineautomatically.Thislet
theadultsuseavarietyofbrainresourcesandbetterresisttemptation,whiletheteensusedthoseareaslessoftenandmorereadily
gaveintotheimpulsetolookattheflickeringlightjustasthey'remorelikelytolookawayfromtheroadtoreadatextmessage.
18. Ifofferedanextrareward,however,teensshowedtheycouldpushthoseexecutiveregionstoworkharder,improvingtheirscores.
Andbyage20,theirbrainsrespondtothistaskmuchastheadults'do.Lunasuspectstheimprovementcomesasrichernetworksand
fasterconnectionsmaketheexecutiveregionmoreeffective.
19. Thesestudieshelpexplainwhyteensbehavewithsuchvexinginconsistency:beguilingatbreakfast,disgustingatdinner;masterful
onMonday,sleepwalkingonSaturday.*Alongwithlackingexperiencegenerally,they'restilllearningtousetheirbrain'snew
networks.*Stress,fatigue,orchallengescancauseamisfire.AbigailBaird,aVassarpsychologistwhostudiesteens,callsthisneural
gawkinessanequivalenttothephysicalawkwardnessteenssometimesdisplaywhilemasteringtheirgrowingbodies.
20. Theslowandunevendevelopmentalarcrevealedbytheseimagingstudiesoffersanalluringlypithyexplanationforwhyteensmay
dostupidthingslikedriveat113milesanhour,aggrievetheirancientry,andgetpeople(orgetgotten)withchild:*Theyactthatway
becausetheirbrainsaren'tdone!*Youcanseeitrightthereinthescans!
21. Thisview,astitlesfromtheexplosionofscientificpapersandpopulararticlesaboutthe"teenbrain"putit,presentsadolescentsas
"worksinprogress"whose"immaturebrains"leadsometoquestionwhethertheyareinastate"akintomentalretardation."
22. Thestoryyou'rereadingrightnow,however,tellsadifferentscientifictaleabouttheteenbrain.Overthepastfiveyearsorso,even
asthework-in-progressstoryspreadintoourculture,thedisciplineofadolescentbrainstudieslearnedtodosomemore-complex
thinkingofitsown.Afewresearchersbegantoviewrecentbrainandgeneticfindingsinabrighter,moreflatteringlight,one
distinctlycoloredbyevolutionarytheory.Theresultingaccountoftheadolescentbraincallittheadaptive-adolescentstorycasts
theteenlessasaroughdraftthanasanexquisitelysensitive,highlyadaptablecreaturewiredalmostperfectlyforthejobofmoving
fromthesafetyofhomeintothecomplicatedworldoutside.
23. Thisviewwilllikelysitbetterwithteens.Moreimportant,itsitsbetterwithbiology'smostfundamentalprinciple,thatofnatural
selection.Selectionishellondysfunctionaltraits.Ifadolescenceisessentiallyacollectionofthemangst,idiocy,andhaste;
impulsiveness,selfishness,andrecklessbumblingthenhowdidthosetraitssurviveselection?Theycouldn'tnotiftheywerethe
period'smostfundamentalorconsequentialfeatures.
24. Theansweristhatthosetroublesometraitsdon'treallycharacterizeadolescence;they'rejustwhatwenoticemostbecausetheyannoy
usorputourchildrenindanger.AsB.J.Casey,aneuroscientistatWeillCornellMedicalCollegewhohasspentnearlyadecade
applyingbrainandgeneticstudiestoourunderstandingofadolescence,putsit,"We'resousedtoseeingadolescenceasaproblem.
Butthemorewelearnaboutwhatreallymakesthisperiodunique,themoreadolescencestartstoseemlikeahighlyfunctional,even
adaptiveperiod.It'sexactlywhatyou'dneedtodothethingsyouhavetodothen."
25. Toseepastthedistracting,dopeyteenagerandglimpsetheadaptiveadolescentwithin,weshouldlooknotatspecific,sometimes
startling,behaviors,suchasskateboardingdownstairwaysordatingfastcompany,butatthebroadertraitsthatunderliethoseacts.
26. Let'sstartwiththeteen'sloveofthethrill.Wealllikenewandexcitingthings,butwenevervaluethemmorehighlythanwedo
duringadolescence.Herewehitahighinwhatbehavioralscientistscallsensationseeking:thehuntfortheneuralbuzz,thejoltofthe
unusualorunexpected.
27. Seekingsensationisn'tnecessarilyimpulsive.Youmightplanasensation-seekingexperienceaskydiveorafastdrivequite
deliberately,asmysondid.*Impulsivitygenerallydropsthroughoutlife,startingataboutage10,butthisloveofthethrillpeaksat
aroundage15.*Andalthoughsensationseekingcanleadtodangerousbehaviors,itcanalsogeneratepositiveones:Theurgetomeet
morepeople,forinstance,cancreateawidercircleoffriends,whichgenerallymakesushealthier,happier,safer,andmore
successful.
28. Thisupsideprobablyexplainswhyanopennesstothenew,thoughitcansometimeskillthecat,remainsahighlightofadolescent
development.Aloveofnoveltyleadsdirectlytousefulexperience.Morebroadly,thehuntforsensationprovidestheinspiration
neededto"getyououtofthehouse"andintonewterrain,asJayGiedd,apioneeringresearcherinteenbraindevelopmentatNIH,
putsit.
29. Alsopeakingduringadolescence(andperhapsaggrievingtheancientrythemost)isrisk-taking.*Wecourtriskmoreavidlyasteens
thanatanyothertime.Thisshowsreliablyinthelab,whereteenstakemorechancesincontrolledexperimentsinvolvingeverything
fromcardgamestosimulateddriving.*Anditshowsinreallife,wheretheperiodfromroughly15to25bringspeaksinallsortsof

9
riskyventuresanduglyoutcomes.Thisagegroupdiesofaccidentsofalmosteverysort(otherthanworkaccidents)athighrates.
Mostlong-termdrugoralcoholabusestartsduringadolescence,andevenpeoplewholaterdrinkresponsiblyoftendrinktoomuchas
teens.Especiallyincultureswhereteenagedrivingiscommon,thistakesagorytoll:IntheU.S.,oneinthreeteendeathsisfromcar
crashes,manyinvolvingalcohol.
30. Arethesekidsjustbeingstupid?That'stheconventionalexplanation:They'renotthinking,orbythework-in-progressmodel,their
punydevelopingbrainsfailthem.
31. Yettheseexplanationsdon'tholdup.AsLaurenceSteinberg,adevelopmentalpsychologistspecializinginadolescenceatTemple
University,pointsout,even14-to17-year-oldsthebiggestrisktakersusethesamebasiccognitivestrategiesthatadultsdo,and
theyusuallyreasontheirwaythroughproblemsjustaswellasadults.Contrarytopopularbelief,theyalsofullyrecognizethey're
mortal.And,likeadults,saysSteinberg,"teensactuallyoverestimaterisk."
32. Soifteensthinkaswellasadultsdoandrecognizeriskjustaswell,whydotheytakemorechances?Here,aselsewhere,theproblem
lieslessinwhatteenslackcomparedwithadultsthaninwhattheyhavemoreof.*Teenstakemorerisksnotbecausetheydon't
understandthedangersbutbecausetheyweighriskversusrewarddifferently:Insituationswhereriskcangetthemsomethingthey
want,theyvaluetherewardmoreheavilythanadultsdo.*
33. AvideogameSteinbergusesdrawsthisoutnicely.Inthegame,youtrytodriveacrosstowninaslittletimeaspossible.Alongthe
wayyouencounterseveraltrafficlights.Asinreallife,thetrafficlightssometimesturnfromgreentoyellowasyouapproachthem,
forcingaquickgo-or-stopdecision.Yousavetimeandscoremorepointsifyoudrivethroughbeforethelightturnsred.Butif
youtrytodrivethroughtheredanddon'tbeatit,youloseevenmoretimethanyouwouldhaveifyouhadstoppedforit.Thusthe
gamerewardsyoufortakingacertainamountofriskbutpunishesyoufortakingtoomuch.
34. Whenteensdrivethecoursealone,inwhatSteinbergcallstheemotionally"cool"situationofanemptyroom,theytakerisksatabout
thesameratesthatadultsdo.Addstakesthattheteencaresabout,however,andthesituationchanges.InthiscaseSteinbergadded
friends:Whenhebroughtateen'sfriendsintotheroomtowatch,theteenwouldtaketwiceasmanyrisks,tryingtogunitthrough
lightshe'dstoppedforbefore.Theadults,meanwhile,drovenodifferentlywithafriendwatching.
35. ToSteinberg,thisshowsclearlythatrisk-takingrisesnotfrompunythinkingbutfromahigherregardforreward.
36. "Theydidn'ttakemorechancesbecausetheysuddenlydowngradedtherisk,"saysSteinberg."Theydidsobecausetheygavemore
weighttothepayoff."
37. ResearcherssuchasSteinbergandCaseybelievethisrisk-friendlyweighingofcostversusrewardhasbeenselectedforbecause,over
thecourseofhumanevolution,thewillingnesstotakerisksduringthisperiodoflifehasgrantedanadaptiveedge.Succeedingoften
requiresmovingoutofthehomeandintolesssecuresituations."Themoreyouseeknoveltyandtakerisks,"saysBaird,"thebetter
youdo."Thisresponsivenesstorewardthusworkslikethedesirefornewsensation:Itgetsyououtofthehouseandintonewturf.
38. AsSteinberg'sdrivinggamesuggests,teensrespondstronglytosocialrewards.Physiologyandevolutionarytheoryalikeoffer
explanationsforthistendency.Physiologically,adolescencebringsapeakinthebrain'ssensitivitytodopamine,aneurotransmitter
thatappearstoprimeandfirerewardcircuitsandaidsinlearningpatternsandmakingdecisions.Thishelpsexplaintheteen's
quicknessoflearningandextraordinaryreceptivitytorewardandhiskeen,sometimesmelodramaticreactiontosuccessaswellas
defeat.
39. Theteenbrainissimilarlyattunedtooxytocin,anotherneuralhormone,which(amongotherthings)makessocialconnectionsin
particularmorerewarding.Theneuralnetworksanddynamicsassociatedwithgeneralrewardandsocialinteractionsoverlapheavily.
Engageone,andyouoftenengagetheother.Engagethemduringadolescence,andyoulightafire.
40. Thishelpsexplainanothertraitthatmarksadolescence:Teenspreferthecompanyofthosetheirownagemorethaneverbeforeor
after.Atonelevel,thispassionforsame-agepeersmerelyexpressesinthesocialrealmtheteen'sgeneralattractiontonovelty:Teens
offerteensfarmorenoveltythanfamiliaroldfamilydoes.
41. Yetteensgravitatetowardpeersforanother,morepowerfulreason:toinvestinthefutureratherthanthepast.Weenteraworldmade
byourparents.Butwewilllivemostofourlives,andprosper(ornot)inaworldrunandremadebyourpeers.Knowing,
understanding,andbuildingrelationshipswiththembearscriticallyonsuccess.Sociallysavvyratsormonkeys,forinstance,
generallygetthebestnestingareasorterritories,themostfoodandwater,moreallies,andmoresexwithbetterandfittermates.And
nospeciesismoreintricatelyanddeeplysocialthanhumansare.
42. Thissupremelyhumancharacteristicmakespeerrelationsnotasideshowbutthemainshow.Somebrain-scanstudies,infact,
suggestthatourbrainsreacttopeerexclusionmuchastheyrespondtothreatstophysicalhealthorfoodsupply.Ataneurallevel,in
otherwords,weperceivesocialrejectionasathreattoexistence.Knowingthismightmakeiteasiertoabidethehysteriaofa
13-year-olddeceivedbyafriendorthegloomofa15-year-oldnotinvitedtoaparty.Thesepeople!welament.Theyreacttosocial
upsanddownsasiftheirfatesdependeduponthem!They'reright.Theydo.
43. Excitement,novelty,risk,thecompanyofpeers.*Thesetraitsmayseemtoadduptonothingmorethandoingfoolishnewstuff
withfriends.*Lookdeeper,however,andyouseethatthesetraitsthatdefineadolescencemakeusmoreadaptive,bothasindividuals
andasaspecies.That'sdoubtlesswhythesetraits,broadlydefined,seemtoshowthemselvesinvirtuallyallhumancultures,modern
ortribal.TheymayconcentrateandexpressthemselvesmorestarklyinmodernWesterncultures,inwhichteensspendsomuchtime
witheachother.Butanthropologistshavefoundthatvirtuallyalltheworld'sculturesrecognizeadolescenceasadistinctperiodin
whichadolescentsprefernovelty,excitement,andpeers.Thisnear-universalrecognitionsinksthenotionthatit'saculturalconstruct.
44. Cultureclearlyshapesadolescence.Itinfluencesitsexpressionandpossiblyitslength.Itcanmagnifyitsmanifestations.Yetculture
doesnotcreateadolescence.Theperiod'suniquenessrisesfromgenesanddevelopmentalprocessesthathavebeenselectedforover
thousandsofgenerationsbecausetheyplayanamplifiedroleduringthiskeytransitionalperiod:producingacreatureoptimally
primedtoleaveasafehomeandmoveintounfamiliarterritory.
45. Themoveoutwardfromhomeisthemostdifficultthingthathumansdo,aswellasthemostcriticalnotjustforindividualsbutfor

10
aspeciesthathasshownanunmatchedabilitytomasterchallengingnewenvironments.Inscientificterms,teenagerscanbeapainin
theass.Buttheyarequitepossiblythemostfully,cruciallyadaptivehumanbeingsaround.Withoutthem,humanitymightnothave
soreadilyspreadacrosstheglobe.
46. Thisadaptive-adolescenceview,howeveraccurate,canbetrickytocometotermswiththemoresoforparentsdealingwithteens
intheirmosttrying,contrary,orflat-outscarymoments.It'sreassuringtorecastworrisomeaspectsassignsofanorganismlearning
howtonegotiateitssurroundings.Butnaturalselectionswingsasharpedge,andtheteen'ssloppiermomentscanbringunbearable
consequences.Wemaynotruntheriskofbeingkilledinritualisticbattlesorbeingeatenbyleopards,butdrugs,drinking,driving,
andcrimetakeamightytoll.Mysonlives,andthrives,sanscar,atcollege.Someofhishighschoolfriends,however,diedduring
theirdrivingexperiments.Ourchildrenwieldtheiradaptiveplasticityamidsmallbuthorrificrisks.
47. Weparents,ofcourse,oftenstumbletoo,aswetrytowalktheblurrylinebetweenhelpingandhinderingourkidsastheyadaptto
adulthood.TheUnitedStatesspendsaboutabilliondollarsayearonprogramstocounseladolescentsonviolence,gangs,suicide,
sex,substanceabuse,andotherpotentialpitfalls.Fewofthemwork.
48. Yetwecananddohelp.Wecanwardoffsomeoftheworld'sworsthazardsandnudgeadolescentstowardappropriateresponsesto
therest.Studiesshowthatwhenparentsengageandguidetheirteenswithalightbutsteadyhand,stayingconnectedbutallowing
independence,theirkidsgenerallydomuchbetterinlife.Adolescentswanttolearnprimarily,butnotentirely,fromtheirfriends.At
somelevelandatsometimes(andit'stheparent'sjobtospotwhen),theteenrecognizesthattheparentcanoffercertainkernelsof
wisdomknowledgevaluednotbecauseitcomesfromparentalauthoritybutbecauseitcomesfromtheparent'sownstrugglesto
learnhowtheworldturns.Theteenrightlyperceivesthatshemustunderstandnotjustherparents'worldbutalsotheonesheis
entering.Yetifallowedto,shecanappreciatethatherparentsoncefacedthesameproblemsandmayrememberafewthingsworth
knowing.
49. Meanwhile,intimesofdoubt,takeinspirationinonelastdistinctionoftheteenbrainafinalkeytobothitsclumsinessandits
remarkableadaptability.Thisistheprolongedplasticityofthoselate-developingfrontalareasastheyslowlymature.Asnotedearlier,
theseareasarethelasttolaydownthefattymyelininsulationthebrain'swhitematterthatspeedstransmission.Andatfirst
glancethisseemslikebadnews:Ifweneedtheseareasforthecomplextaskofenteringtheworld,whyaren'ttheyrunningatfull
speedwhenthechallengesaremostdaunting?
50. Theansweristhatspeedcomesatthepriceofflexibility.Whileamyelincoatinggreatlyacceleratesanaxon'sbandwidth,italso
inhibitsthegrowthofnewbranchesfromtheaxon.AccordingtoDouglasFields,anNIHneuroscientistwhohasspentyearsstudying
myelin,"Thismakestheperiodwhenabrainarealaysdownmyelinasortofcrucialperiodoflearningthewiringisgetting
upgraded,butoncethat'sdone,it'shardertochange."
51. Thewindowinwhichexperiencecanbestrewirethoseconnectionsishighlyspecifictoeachbrainarea.Thusthebrain'slanguage
centersacquiretheirinsulationmostheavilyinthefirst13years,whenachildislearninglanguage.Thecompletedinsulation
consolidatesthosegainsbutmakesfurthergains,suchassecondlanguages,farhardertocomeby.
52. Soitiswiththeforebrain'smyelinationduringthelateteensandearly20s.Thisdelayedcompletionawithholdingof
readinessheightensflexibilityjustasweconfrontandentertheworldthatwewillfaceasadults.
53. Thislong,slow,back-to-frontdevelopmentalwave,completedonlyinthemid-20s,appearstobeauniquelyhumanadaptation.It
maybeoneofourmostconsequential.Itcanseemabitcrazythatwehumansdon'twiseupabitearlierinlife.Butifwesmartened
upsooner,we'dendupdumber.

Romeo and Juliet


Literary Terms Assignment

1.) Define each of these literary terms in the box below.


2.) Give a quote or example from this play for EACH term that has a * next to it.

Terms Definitions Textual Evidence

11
1. Play A play is a form of literature written by a
playwright, usually consisting of dialogue
between characters, intended for theatrical
performance rather than just reading.

2. Tragedy* a form of drama based on human Romeo drinks the poison


suffering that invokes an She [Juliet] stabs herself with
accompanying catharsis or pleasure in
Romeos dagger and dies
audiences.

3. Comedy* is entertainment consisting of jokes and For then she could stand high-lone.

satire, intended to make an audience Nay, by throod,


She could have run and waddled all
laugh.
about,
For even the day before, she broke
her brow,
And then my husband (God be with
his soul,
He was a merry man) took up the
child.
Yea, quoth he, Dost thou fall upon
thy face?
Thou wilt fall backward when thou
hast more wit,
Wilt thou not, Jule? And, by my
holidam,
The pretty wretch left crying and said
Ay.
To see now how a jest shall come
about!
I warrant, an I should live a thousand
years,
I never should forget it. Wilt thou not,
Jule?
quoth he.

4. Act is a division or unit of a drama. The


number of acts in a production can

12
range from one to five or more,
depending on how a writer structures
the outline of the story.

5. Scene is a part of an act defined with the


changing of characters.

6. props formally known as (theatrical) property, is


an object used on stage or on screen
by actors during a performance or
screen production.

7. stage directions* Part of the script of a play that tells the [Enter SAMPSON and GREGORY, of the
house of Capulet, armed with
actors how they are to move or to
swords and bucklers]
speak their lines. Enter, exit, and
exeunt are stage directions.

8. Historical approach uses the social implications, cultural


events and intellectual levels that
produced a work in an attempt to
understand it.

9. dramatic foil* a character who may be similar or in Rosaline a dramatic foil to Juliet

parallel circumstances compared to (Now old desire doth in his deathbed lie,
And young affection gapes to be his heir.
the main character of the story.
That fair for which love groaned for and
would die
With tender Juliet matched, is now not
fair)

10.blank verse* verse without rhyme, especially that which And, when I shall die,

uses iambic pentameter. Take him and cut him out in little stars,
And he will make the face of heaven so
fine
That all the world will be in love with
night
And pay no worship to the garish sun.

13
11.sonnet* a poem of fourteen lines using any of a Chorus

number of formal rhyme schemes, in Two households, both alike in dignity,

English typically having ten syllables per In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,
line.
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.
From forth the fatal loins of these two foes
A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life;
Whose misadventured piteous overthrows
Do with their death bury their parents' strife.
The fearful passage of their death-mark'd
love,
And the continuance of their parents' rage,
Which, but their children's end, nought could
remove,
Is now the two hours' traffic of our stage;
The which if you with patient ears attend,
What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to
mend.

12.iambic pentameter * a line of verse with five metrical feet, each Chorus

consisting of one short (or unstressed) ...In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,

syllable followed by one long (or stressed)


syllable, for example Two households,
both alike in dignity.

13.couplet* two lines of verse, usually in the same meter Chorus

and joined by rhyme, that form a unit. The which if you with patient ears attend,
What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to
mend.

14.pun* a joke exploiting the different possible Mercutio


meanings of a word or the fact that there
That dreamers often lie
are words that sound alike but have
different meanings.

15.aside* an aside happens when a character's Juliet


(aside) My only love sprung from my
dialogue is spoken but not heard by
only hate! Too early seen unknown,
the other actors on the stage. and known too late! Prodigious birth
of love it is to me, That I must love a
loathed enemy.

14
Juliet
16.monologue* which is the speech or verbal
Shall I speak ill of him that is my husband?
presentation that a single character Ah, poor my lord, what tongue shall smooth thy
name
presents in order to express his/her
When I, thy three-hours wife, have mangled it?
collection of thoughts and ideas aloud. But wherefore, villain, didst thou kill my cousin?
That villain cousin would have killed my husband.
Often this character addresses directly
Back, foolish tears, back to your native spring!
to audience or another character. Your tributary drops belong to woe,
Which you, mistaking, offer up to joy.
My husband lives, that Tybalt would have slain;
And Tybalt's dead, that would have slain my
husband.
All this is comfort; wherefore weep I then?
Some word there was, worser than Tybalt's death,
That murd'red me. I would forget it fain;
But O, it presses to my memory
Like damnd guilty deeds to sinners' minds!
'Tybalt is dead, and Romeo--banishd!'
That 'banishd,' that one word 'banishd,'
Hath slain ten thousand Tybalts. Tybalt's death
Was woe enough, if it had ended there;
Or, if sour woe delights in fellowship
And needly will be ranked with other griefs,
Why followd not, when she said 'Tybalt's dead,'
Thy father, or thy mother, nay, or both,
Which modern lamentation might have moved?
But with a rearward following Tybalt's death,
'Romeo is banishd'--to speak that word
Is father, mother, Tybalt, Romeo, Juliet,
All slain, all dead. 'Romeo is banishd'--

17.soliloquy* an act of speaking one's thoughts aloud when Romeo


by oneself or regardless of any hearers, ...It is the east and Juliet is the
especially by a character in a play. sun

18.dialogue* conversation between two or more people as Benvolio


a feature of a book, play, or movie. It was. Whats making you so sad and
your hours so long?
Romeo
I dont have the thing that makes time
fly.

19.foreshadowing* be a warning or indication of (a future event). I fear too early, for my mind misgives
Some consequence yet hanging in the
stars

15
Shall bitterly begin his fearful date
With this nights revels, and expire the
term
Of a despised life closed in my breast
By some vile forfeit of untimely death...

20.situational irony* is a literary device that you can easily Romeo

identify in literary works. Simply, it Ill go along, no such sight to be shown,


But to rejoice in splendor of mine own
occurs when incongruity appears
(He goes there expecting to see Rosaline
between expectations of something to
and instead falls in love with Juliet)
happen, and what actually happens
instead.

21.verbal irony* is when words express something Juliet

contrary to truth or someone says the I will not marry yet; and, when I do, I
swear
opposite of what they really feel or
it shall be Romeo, whom you know I
mean. Verbal irony is often sarcastic.
hate,
rather than Paris

22.dramatic irony* is defined as when an audience watching Tybalt


Patience perforce with willful choler meeting
a play understands what's going on in
Makes my flesh tremble in their different
a situation while the characters are
greeting
unaware of what is happening. I will withdraw, but this intrusion shall
Now coming sweet, convert to bitterest gall

23.oxymoron* a figure of speech in which apparently Romeo

contradictory terms appear in conjunction O heavy lightness, serious vanity


Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms!
Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick
health...

24.imagery* visually descriptive or figurative language, Romeo

especially in a literary work. Oh, she doth teach the torcheds to burn
bright!
It seem she hangs upon the cheek of night
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope ear,
Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear.

16
So shows a snowy dove trooping with
crows...

25.personification* the attribution of a personal nature or human Juliet


characteristics to something nonhuman, or for thou wilt lie upon the wings of the
the representation of an abstract quality in night, whiter than new snow on a
human form. raven's back; come, gentle night,
come, loving black browed night

26.alliteration* is the repetition of the same consonant From forth the fatal loins of these two

sounds at the beginning of words that foes

are in close proximity to each other

27.metaphor* a figure of speech in which a word or phrase What light through yonder window
is applied to an object or action to which it breaks?
is not literally applicable. It is the east, and Juliet is the sun

28.simile* a figure of speech involving the comparison of Is love a tender thing? It is too rough,
one thing with another thing of a different Too rude, too boisterous, and it pricks
kind, used to make a description more
like a thorn
emphatic or vivid

29.allusion* an expression designed to call something to Well, in that hit you miss: she'll not
mind without mentioning it explicitly; an be hit
indirect or passing reference.
With Cupid's arrow; she hath
Dian's wit.

30.hyperbole* exaggerated statements or claims not meant the brightness of [Juliet's] cheek
to be taken literally. would shame those stars,
As daylight doth a lamp; her eyes in
heaven
Would through the airy region stream
so bright
That birds would sing and think it
were not night

EXTRA: Confidant* One to whom secrets or private matters Benvolio


are disclosed. 2. A character in a Groan! Why, no. But sadly, tell me
drama or fiction, such as a trusted who.

17
friend or servant, who serves as a Romeo
device for revealing the inner thoughts ...In sadness, cousin, I do love a
or intentions of a main character. woman.

EXTRA: antithesis* literal meaning opposite, is a rhetorical Romeo


device in which two opposite ideas are Alas that love, whose view is
put together in a sentence to achieve a muffled still,
contrasting effect. Should without eyes see pathways
to his will!

Sonnet 73
By William Shakespeare

Annotation Guidelines:

1. Number the lines


2. Label the lines according to rhyme scheme & use different colors next to each line

18
(A, B, A, B)
1. Underline the main theme or key ideas
2. Highlight and define unknown words
3. Highlight transition words
4. Paraphrase each quatrain in a comment

1 That time of year thou mayst in me behold A

2 When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang B

3 Upon those boughs which shake against the cold, A

4 Bare ruin'd choirs, where late the sweet birds sang. B

5 In me thou seest the twilight of such day C

6 As after sunset fadeth in the west, D

7 Which by and by black night doth take away, C

8 Death's second self, that seals up all in rest. D

9 In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire E

10 That on the ashes of his youth doth lie, F

11 As the death-bed whereon it must expire E

12 Consumed with that which it was nourish'd by. F

13 This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong, G

14 To love that well which thou must leave ere long. G

Sonnet#8
ThematicTopic:SUMMERVACATION

1 Moving quickly, the small chime of a bell; A

2 A small, young girl races across a small B

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3 Village in China; as street vendors sell A

4 Steaming dumplings, meat buns, and a toy ball; B

5 Sunlight leans down as that same young girl walks C

6 With her grandma to the market and on D

7 a train with her brother to whom she talks; C

8 And soon, in the distance, the train is gone; D

9 Steps upon steps, hiking on the vast walls; E

10 Steps upon steps, walking up to the sky; F

11 A thousand footsteps, echoing in halls E

12 Long before her, in her hometown nearby; F

13 After, on an airplane in which she sleeps G

14 Comfortably; the memories she keeps; G

RUBRIC (CHECKLIST TO GET YOUR FINAL


12X12 PAPER)

14 Lines

Correct Rhyme Scheme

10 Syllables Per Line

Use of Literary Devices


(metaphor, simile, personification,
assonance, assonance, imagery,
etc.)

Romeo & Juliet


Vocabulary
Research and define each of the words in the boxes below. Tackle these vocab words as we read, so you can see how
they are used in context (in other words, dont do them all at once).

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ACT I

1. Pernicious: having a harmful effect, especially in a gradual or subtle way.

2. Augmenting: make (something) greater by adding to it; increase.

3. Grievance: a real or imagined wrong or other cause for complaint or protest, especially unfair treatment.

4. Transgression: an act that goes against a law, rule, or code of conduct; an offense.

5. Heretics: a person believing in or practicing religious heresy.

6. Posterity: future generations

7. Exquisite: extremely beautiful and, typically, delicate.

8. Fray: (of a fabric, rope, or cord) unravel or become worn at the edge, typically through constant rubbing.

ACT II

1. Kinsman: (in anthropological or formal use) a man who is one of a person's blood relations.

2. Cunning: having or showing skill in achieving one's ends by deceit or evasion.

3. Variable: not consistent or having a fixed pattern; liable to change.

4. Procure: obtain (something), especially with care or effort.

21
5. Vile: extremely unpleasant.

6. Sallow: (of a person's face or complexion) of an unhealthy yellow or pale brown color.

7. Waverer: To exhibit irresolution or indecision; vacillate:

8. Lamentable: (of circumstances or conditions) deplorably bad or unsatisfactory.

9. Unwieldy: difficult to carry or move because of its size, shape, or weight.

ACT III

1. Gallant: (of a person or their behavior) brave; heroic.

2. Fay: a fairy.

3. Martial: of or appropriate to war; warlike.

4. Agile: able to move quickly and easily.

5. Exile: a person banished from his or her native land. 4. prolonged separation from one's country or
home, as by force of circumstances: wartime exile.

6. Tedious: too long, slow, or dull: tiresome or monotonous.

7. Eloquence: the practice or art of using language with fluency and aptness.

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8. Fickle: changing frequently, especially as regards one's loyalties, interests, or affection.

9. Abhors: regard with disgust and hatred.

ACT IV

1. Pensive: engaged in, involving, or reflecting deep or serious thought.

2. Vial: a small container, typically cylindrical and made of glass, used especially for holding liquid medicines.

3. Enjoined: instruct or urge (someone) to do something.

4. Dismal: depressing; dreary

5. Loathsome: causing hatred or disgust; repulsive.

6. Pilgrimage: a pilgrim's journey.

ACT V

1. Remnants: a small remaining quantity of something.

2. Penury: extreme poverty; destitution.

3. Haughty: arrogantly superior and disdainful.

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4. Sepulcher: a small room or monument, cut in rock or built of stone, in which a dead person is laid or buried.

5. Ambiguities: the quality of being open to more than one interpretation; inexactness.

6. Scourge: a whip used as an instrument of punishment or a person or thing that causes great trouble or
suffering.

7. Pestilence: a fatal epidemic disease, especially bubonic plague.

ROMEO & JULIET:Reading Check and Study Guide


Answer all questions in a different color!

ACT I
READING COMPREHENSION

Prologue:
1. In what city does this play take place? Verona
2. Why are Romeo and Juliet called star-crossd lovers? Because their love was doomed to fail

Scene 1:
3. Who is fighting at the beginning of the first scene? Gregory and Sampson vs. Abram and another servant of Abrams
4. Who tries to break up the fighting? Benvolio
5. What threat does the Prince make to Lord Montague and Lord Capulet? If they ever cause another fight, theyll be executed
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6. Benvolio and Montague describe the way Romeo has been acting. What do they have to say about him? That he has been crying by
himself in the sycamore grove on the west side of the city, and when the sun rises (since it was before sunrise before) he locks himself in his
bedroom. He also hasnt told anyone the reason why.
7. Why is Romeo so sad? Explain. He is sad because Rosaline, the woman he loves, is abstaining from sex.
8. What is Benvolios advice to Romeo? To look at other beautiful girls.

Scene 2:
9. Why does Capulet think it will be easy for Montague and him to keep the peace? Because Montague has also sworn an oath, and that old
men like them could keep the peace.
10. What does Paris ask about Capulet? If he can marry Juliet
11. What is Capulets first answer? That shes still very young and to wait two summers before marrying her
12. A bit later Capulet appears to change his mind about Paris question. What does he then tell Paris? If Paris managed to charm her, then
they may marry
13. What problem does the servant have? He cant read
14. What is the name of the woman Romeo loves? Rosaline
15. What do Romeo and Benvolio decide to do? Go to the feast

Scene 3:
16. How old is Juliet? 13
17. When Lady Capulet asks Juliet how she feels about marriage, what is Juliets answer? That it is an honor she doesnt dream of
18. Following Juliets answer, what does Lady Capulet then tell Juliet? To start thinking about marriage now since when she was Juliets age,
she was already her mother, and that younger girls are already mothers.

Scene 4:
19. According to Mercutio, who or what is Queen Mab, and what does she or it do? The fairies midwife and she rides through the brains of
lovers and make them dream about love.
20. What does Mercutio say about dreams? Products of a brain doing nothing. They are nothing but silly imagination.
21. What is Romeos mood at the end of this scene? Explain. More hopeful, and energetic because even though his gut feeling tells him that
bad things might happen, he still goes because of Benvolios and Mercutios advice.

Scene 5:
22. What does Romeo think of Juliet the first time he sees her? That she teaches the torches to burn bright, that she is like a rich jewel on an
Africans ear, her beauty is too good for this world and that she outshines all the other women like a white dove in the middle of a bunch of
crows
23. How does Tybalt recognize Romeo? By his voice
24. When Tybalt is ready to seize Romeo and throw him out of the party, what does Capulet say to Tybalt? That Romeo is a virtuous and
well-behaved young man and that he carries himself like a dignified gentleman.
25. How does Romeo find out Juliets last name? By asking the nurse
26. How does Juliet find out Romeos last name? By asking the nurse

ACT II

Answer all questions in a different color!

READING COMPREHENSION

Scene 1:
1. What does Mercutio say about blind love? That it cant hit the target

Scene 2:
There are no questions for this scenejust read and annotate!

Scene 3:
2. What has Friar Laurence been out gathering in his basket? Poisonous weeds and medicinal flowers
3. Explain lines 21-22: Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied,/And vice sometime by action dignified? Something good like medicinal
flowers can be bad if it is misused, and something bad can be turned good if used by good hands, I think.
4. When Friar Laurence sees Romeo, what comment does Friar Laurence make about seeing Romeo so early in the morning? That Romeo
might be worried about something because he got up in the morning early, and then has a second guess that he didnt sleep in his bed last
night.
5. What does Friar Laurence mean when he says to Romeo, Young mens love then lies not truly in their hearts, but in their eyes? That they
lust, rather than love.

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6. Friar Laurence agrees to perform the marriage ceremony for Romeo and Juliet for what reason? So that the Montagues and Capulets hate
can become love instead.

Scene 4:
7. According to Mercutio, what kind of man is Tybalt? Tybalt is tougher than the prince of cats and that he is really, really good at
swordfighting.
8. What is the nurse saying to Romeo in lines 157 163? That she wont take a penny and that Juliet will be there.
9. How is Juliet to arrange to meet Romeo? Within an hour, one of Romeos men will come to the nurse behind the abbey wall and give her
a rope ladder. Then, hell climb up the walls at night.

Scene 5:
10. The nurse is supposed to be gone only a half hour, but she is actually gone for how long? Three hours since nine.
11. How is the nurse behaving that is frustrating to Juliet? She wont tell whether the news is good or bad, and keeps complaining about her
back. Also, she wont tell Juliet anything about the marriage.

Scene 6:
12. What does Friar Laurence mean when he says, Therefore, love moderately; long love doth so? He means to not love too much, because
too much love can make someone sick, and to love moderately because that is the key to long-lasting love.

ACT III
Answer all questions in a different color!
READING COMPREHENSION

Scene 1:
1. At the beginning of the scene, why does Benvolio think that there will be a fight? Because its hot outside and the Capulets are wandering
around. If they bump into them, theyll certainly get into a fight, since when its hot outside, people become angry and hot-blooded.
2. What does Mercutio accuse Benvolio of in lines 15-30? Basically, Mercutio is calling Benvolio a fighter just like him, and Benvolio retorts
by saying that if he had Mercutios habit of fighting, his chance of dying would be much higher.
3. When Tybalt and Mercutio first begin arguing, what does Benvolio try to get them to do? To talk in a private place, or talk it over rationally,
or just to go away, since everybody could see them.
4. What does Tybalt call Romeo? A villain
5. Why wont Romeo fight Tybalt? Because he doesnt know what he has done wrong, and because he has been wed to Juliet, Tybalt is
technically Romeos kinsman.
6. What does Mercutio think is the reason Romeo refuses to fight? Romeo is a traitor?
7. Why does Mercutio keep repeating, A plague o both your houses? He wants both of the families to fall because he is not in any of the
houses, and because he says that they are the cause of his downfall.
8. What does Romeo say that Juliets love has done to him? Made him weak like a woman, and softened his bravery.
9. Why does Romeo call himself fortunes fool? Because he has awful luck and he feels like a greater force (fate) is acting against him.
10. When Benvolio relates to the Prince what happened, what does he say Romeo tried to before Mercutio was killed? Tried to speak politely
to Tybalt and told him how silly his argument is, and mentioned that the prince would disapprove of the fight. He said it gently and calmly,
kneeling down out of respect.
11. What does Lady Capulet accuse Benvolio of? Why? Lying because he is part of the Montague family
12. What is Romeos punishment for killing Tybalt? He is to be exiled from Verona

Scene 2:
13. Why is Juliet so impatient for the nurse to return? Because the nurse has news about Romeos visit to her
14. Describe Juliets rapidly changing attitudes toward Romeo in this scene. She hated him for a moment when she found out that he killed
Tybalt, but then refuted herself and said that Romeo is good, and that he is her husband so she shouldnt hate him.
15. What piece of news has upset Juliet the most? The fact that Romeo was banished
16. What does the nurse promise to do? Bring Romeo to comfort her

Scene 3:
17. Explain Romeos reaction to the news of his banishment. He wants to die because he says that exile was worse than death and he is
weeping and blubbering
18. Romeo tells Friar Laurence that the priest cannot know or understand how Romeo feels. Why? Hes caught up with his own problems, and
thinks that nobody else can understand how he feels? Cause hes a madman and Friar is a wise man?
19. What argument does Friar Laurence use to prevent Romeo from killing himself? He tells Romeo about Juliet and how he is blessed to be
alive
20. What does the nurse give to Romeo? A ring

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Scene 4:
21. What does Capulet tell his wife to say to Juliet? About Pariss love for her

Scene 5:
22. As Romeo is preparing to leave Juliet, what argument does she use to convince him to stay? Tries to convince Romeo that the daylight is
not daylight and that its still night and that the light is from something else
23. Later, why does Juliet think Romeo should leave? Because she sees more daylight so Romeo has to leave else he gets captured
24. Just as Romeo is about to descend the rope ladder and leave Juliet, what does Juliet say about the way Romeo looks? He looks pale
25. Why does Lady Capulet think Juliet is crying? Tybalts recent death
26. When Lady Capulet threatens to send someone to Mantua to poison Romeo, what does Juliet say? That shell never be satisfied until she
sees Romeo dead and that she want to take revenge herself
27. After Lady Capulet breaks the news about Paris, what is Juliets response? She is not happy and says that she would not marry Paris
28. If Juliets mother does not arrange to delay the marriage, what will Juliet do? Shell kill herself
29. What is Capulets reaction to Juliets threats? Hes super angry and threatens that he will disown her and throw her out to the streets
30. What is the nurses advice to Juliet? To marry Paris instead
31. How does Juliets attitude toward the nurse change? She says that she wont confide in the Nurse anymore and that she wont listen to her.
Therefore, she doesnt trust the nurse anymore
32. What scheme does Juliet devise to get rid of the nurse and to get out of the house? To take her life

ACT IV

Answer all questions in a different color!

READING COMPREHENSION

Scene 1:
1. Why is Friar Laurence reluctant to marry Paris to Juliet? Because he already married Romeo and Juliet
2. How does Paris explain the sudden haste of the marriage plans? Because Juliet is grieving way too much about Tybalt and she will stop
crying is someone is with her
3. What is ironic about the conversation between Juliet and Paris? Juliet states that she will love him, not you (Paris). Paris doesnt know what
she is talking about, but Juliet does.
4. If Friar Laurence cannot help her, what does Juliet threaten to do? Use the knife to kill herself
5. Why does Friar Laurence think that Juliet will accept his plan? Because he knows that if shes willing to kill herself to not be in a marriage
with Paris, then she could wrestle with death to escape the shame (so basically he knows shes desperate)
6. Explain in detail the friars plan for Juliet. To go home, be merry. Give consent to marry Paris. Tomorrow night, make sure youre alone in
your bedroom and take the vial by mixing it with liquor and drink.You will look like youre dead for 42 hours. Youll be put into the tomb of
the Capulets, and then Romeo will come and when you wake up, Romeo will whisk you away to Mantua.
Lit Term: Verbal Irony

Scene 2:
7. What does Juliet say that makes her father happy? That she is sorry and that she treated Paris with modesty.
8. How does Capulet change the wedding plans (specifically, which day)? What implication does this have/complication does this change
foreshadow? He changes it to Wednesday, in the morning. How will the letters to Romeo get to him on time? And what if Juliet wakes up
earlier than she was supposed to?
Lit Term: Monologue

Scene 3:
9. How does Juliet show her maturity and independence in this scene? She goes through with everything without giving anything away and
does not argue or complain
10. If the potion does not work, what will Juliet do? Kill herself with a knife
11. What are the three fears Juliet has as she is about to drink the potion? 1. What is the potion is poison? 2. What if she wakes up before
Romeo comes? 3. Spirits in the tomb
Lit Term: Soliloquy

Scene 4:
12. What is happening in this brief scene? They are preparing for the wedding, and Capulet sends the nurse to wake Juliet up

Scene 5:
13. Describe the imagery Shakespeare uses in describing Juliets death? (lines 25-29, approximately) Shes cold, her blood has stopped and
her joints are stiff. Shes been dead for some time. Shes dead, like a beautiful flower, killed by unseasonable frost
14. Who finds Juliets dead body and how does this person react? The Nurse and she yells for help and some brandy

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15. What does Friar Laurence say to comfort the Capulet family? How is this an example of dramatic irony? (lines 65-83, approximately)
That she is in the arms of Heaven (shes in a better place) and to put her in the Capulets tomb
16. What were the Capulets planning before this tragic event? What event are the Capulets now preparing for? A wedding. Now planning
for a funeral
Lit Terms: Imagery, Simile, Personification

ACT V

Answer all questions in a different color!

READING COMPREHENSION

Scene 1:
1. What news does Balthasar bring Romeo? That Juliet is dead
2. What does Romeo mean when he says, Then I defy you, stars!? He intends to rebel against fate and die
3. What actions does Balthasars news prompt Romeo to do? To kill himself

Scene 2:
4. What does Friar John tell Friar Laurence? That he went to visit another poor friar in order to ask him to accompany him, but then the town
health officials sealed up the building they were in because it was suspected of being hit with the plague, so Friar John couldnt deliver the
letter.
5. After hearing this news from Friar John, what does Friar Laurence intend to do? Go to the tomb, as Juliet will wake up in three hours.
Then, hell write to Mantua again, and keep her in his cell until Romeo comes.

Scene 3:
6. Why is Paris at Juliets tomb? To grieve for her
7. Romeo gives Balthasar two reasons for entering the Capulets tomb. What are those two reasons?
1.) Partly to behold his beloved wifes face
2.) Mainly to take a precious ring from her dead finger to use it for something important
8. Why does Paris think that Romeo has come to the tomb? To take revenge on the dead bodies
9. What is it about Juliet that should have told Romeo that she was not dead? Her lips and cheeks are still red
10. Why doesnt Friar Laurence stay in the tomb with Juliet after she awakens? Because he hears the watch coming and he doesnt want to get
caught
11. Why does Juliet kiss Romeo after he is dead? Because there might still be some poison on his lips so she could die along with him
12. When Montague first arrives on the scene, what does he tell those gathered? That his wife died of grief for Romeos exile
13. Relate the events that lead to Romeo and Juliets death as they are told by Friar Laurence near the plays end. Friar Lawrence married
Romeo and Juliet on Tybalts death day. Romeo was then banished, and that Juliet was sad because of that, not Tybalts death. Then, Capulet
arranged a marriage with Juliet and Paris, so she came to Friar Lawrence for help and threatened to kill herself if he didnt. So he gave her a
sleeping potion that made her seem like she was dead, and, in the meantime, he wrote to Romeo to get Juliet. However, Friar John was held up
by an accident, so Friar Lawrence came to the tomb to get Juliet when she wakes up in hopes to hide her in his cell until Romeo comes. Then,
he already found Romeo and Paris dead, and Juliet woke up. A noise scared him away, and Juliet killed herself.
14. What information does Romeos letter give? Confirms the Friars account of the story, and talks about how Romeo purchased poison in
order to die with Juliet.
15. How do Montague and Capulet plan to honor the memories of their children? Raise a statue of pure gold in Verona of Romeo and Juliet

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TypesofLove
Questions and Key Points Class Notes

What will SWBAT do? Evaluate authors purpose about love by synthesizing
information found in multiple texts

What is Loves Vocabulary *Both Loves Vocabulary by Diane Ackerman and


by Diane Ackerman and Beautiful Brains by David Dobbs attempt to understand
Beautiful Brains by David one motive for the intangible aspect of love while David
Dobbs about? Dobbs desire is to understand the teenage brain and their
thought process

What is eros? Considered a passionate and romantic love. The individual


ponders with the possibility and ideal aspects of love. The
beloved is often viewed as a perfect human form or
unattainable. The lover is blinded towards any character
flaws of the other, which could lead to a lovers faulty
judgement

What is philia? A type of love shared between two people often referred to
as friendship or goodwill. Aristotle's belief goodwill is

29
expressed by:
1. Ones usefulness to the other
2. Ones pleasantries
3. Ones virtue or rational
Friendship is founded on companionship, dependability,
and trust.
Plato mentions that the best kind of friendship is that which
lovers form for each other (it is born of eros). The love one
has for the other depends ad then will intensify the love
connection. It is a love that turns passion into a deep
philosophical love; a love where two people become
bonded and connected spiritually.
Note: This love is for both a partner for life and friendship-it
is the ability to connect with someone on a higher level
where ideas and values are shared

What is storge? A love pertaining to parents and their children. It differs


from philia and eros due to all it encompasses. A parent is
to a guardian and protector to the child. The love a parent
has is so deep and unconditional regardless of the childs
actions. THe child reciprocates this love and desires the
parents protection and love. They trust a parent
unconditionally.

What is agape? A universal love that is considered a deep connection and


a love for humanity. This love connects the person to
others in acts of charity and where the individual sees his
part in the world. It is better known as altruism.
Agape or altruism gives the individual a euphoric feeling. It
also encourages the individual to seek healthier mental
and physical aspects for their life in connection to their part
in the world. They begin to see the deep connection to
others and desire to share in the joys of being human

What is philautia? Self love often refers to vanity. It could be healthy for
self-esteem, but is could cloud judgement due to what the
Greeks called hubris, which means arrogance (inflated
sense of ones status, abilities, or accomplishments).
Vanity and arrogance often lead the individual to his or her
own demise.
Healthy self love is our cognitive ability to be both logical
and reasonable in judgement of self and our abilities.

Summary: Eros is passionate or romantic love. Philia is shared between two people
often referred to as friendship or goodwill. It is expressed through ones pleasantries,
ones usefulness to the other, and ones rational or virtue. Storge is a love pertaining to
parents and their children. Agape is a universal love that is considered a deep
connection and a love for humanity. Philautia is basically self love, or vanity.

30
____________________
M___.________________
English 1___/Period___
___ _____________ 2017

Students will be able to synthesize the attributes or characteristics of love represented in multiple texts in an
analytical essay. This collection explores the many facets of love - joy, pain, passion, and conflict, to name just a few.
Look back at the anchor text, Romeo and Juliet, and at the other texts in the collection. Consider the attributes or
characteristics of love that are represented in each text. Use the evidence collector to determine the type of love
represented in each text. You will need to use the following text below to determine your point of view and two
additional text:

Dobbs, David. Beautiful Brains. National Geographic Magazine. 2011. Two Additional Texts
Ovid. Pyramus and Thisbe
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet.
Tempest, Kate. My Shakespeare.

Prompt: Love is a powerful instrument in our life. Evaluate each text, determine the types of love in each
and synthesize the authors purpose in displaying specific types of love.

Textual Evidence Collection:

Text Text Evidence Type of Love

31
Romeo Oh, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! Eros
It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night
and Juliet
Like a rich jewel in an Ethiopes ear,
Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear.
So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows
As yonder lady o'er her fellows shows.
The measure done, Ill watch her place of stand,
And, touching hers, make blessd my rude hand.
Did my heart love till now? Forswear it, sight!
For I ne'er saw true beauty till this night.

Romeo MERCUTIO Philia


and Juliet Tut, duns the mouse, the constables
own word.
If thou art dun, well draw thee from the
mire,
Orsave your reverencelove,
wherein thou stickst
Up to the ears. Come, we burn
daylight, ho!

Romeo Montague storge


and Juliet But I can give thee more,
For I will raise her statue in pure gold,
That whiles Verona by that name is
known,
There shall no figure at such rate be
set
As that of true and faithful Juliet.
CAPULET
As rich shall Romeos by his ladys lie,
Poor sacrifices of our enmity.

Dobbs, Turns out this product of my storge


David. genes and loving care, the
Beautiful boy-man I had swaddled, coddled,
cooed at, and then pushed and
Brains.
pulled to the brink of manhood,
National had been flying down the highway
Geographi at 113 miles an hour.
c
Magazine.
2011.

Tempest, Hes in every star crossed lover Eros

Kate. My

32
Shakespear

e.

Ovid. They owed their first encounters to Eros


their living close beside each other
Pyramus
but with time, love grows.
and Theirs didindeed they wanted to be
Thisbe wed, but marriage was forbidden by
their parents...She cried: Dear boy,
you died by your own hand: your love
has killed you. But I, too, command
the force to face at least this task: I
can claim love, and it will give me
strength enough to strike myself. Ill
follow you in death; and men will say
that Iunfortunate was both the
cause and comrade of your fate.

Ovid. They owed Philia, then eros


Pyramus their first encounters to their
and living close
Thisbe beside each other but with
time, love grows.
Theirs didindeed they
wanted to be wed,

33
Romeo & Juliet: Prologue

Complete for the following:

Number the Lines


Rhyme Scheme
Iambic Pentameter USE (u for unstressed and use / for stressed)
Paraphrase Each Line
Highlight Unfamiliar Words and Define in a Comment

u / u / u / u / u /
1. Two households, both alike in dignity, A

u / u /u / u / u /

2. In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, B

U / u / u / u / u /

3. From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, A

U /u / u /u / u /

4. Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. B

U / u /u / u / u /

5. From forth the fatal loins of these two foes, C

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U / u / u / u / u /

6. A pair of star-crossed lovers take their life, D

U / u / u / u /u /

7. Whose misadventured piteous overthrows C

U / u / u / u /u /

8. Doth with their death bury their parents strife. D

U / u / u / u / u /

9. The fearful passage of their death-marked love, E

U / u / u / u / u /

10. And the continuance of their parents rage, F

U / u / u / u / u /

11. Which, but their childrens end, naught could remove, E

U / u / u / u / u /

12. Is now the two hours traffic of our stage, F

U / u / u / u / u /

13. The which if you with patient ears attend, G

U / u / u / u / u /

14. What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend. G

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