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CHAPTER 7 - ADJECTIVES

I Definition and Description


An adjective is a word that goes with a noun to tell us something more | about that

noun.

II Types
There are five types of adjectives:

(a) Adjectives of Quality


(b) Adjectives of Quantity
(c) Possessive Adjectives
(d) Interrogative Adjectives
(e) Demonstrative Adjectives

III Usage and Function

A. Adjectives of Quality

An adjective that describes more about the person or thing such as the colour,
size, shape or condition is called an adjective of quality. I It generally answers
the question What kind of...?.
A yellow flower (What kind of colour?)

A big book (size)

A square box (shape)

A clean room (condition)

B. Adjectives of Quantity

An adjective of quantity is used to indicate an exact or an unspecified quantity or


amount. It generally answers the question How many? for countable nouns or
How much? for uncountable nouns.

There are six girls in the group.


(How many? Six - exact)

He hasfewfiends.
(How many? Few - unspecified)

There is some soup left.


(How much? Some - unspecified)

Handy Tips

Use Jew, fewer, many, several for countable nouns.

Use a little, little, much, less for uncountable nouns.


The words a lot of, some and any are used with both countable and uncountable
nouns.

He has a lot of books, (books - countable)

There is a lot of sand on theJoor. (sand - uncountable)

The word some is used in positive statements or when we expect the hearer to
say Yes.
The word any is used in questions as well as in negative statements.

Do you have any books? ()

Yes, I have some books. ()

No, I dont have some books. (X )

No, I don't have any books. ( )

C. Possessive Adjectives

A possessive adjective shows that something belongs to a person or a thing.


Possessive adjectives are always used before nouns. They answer the question
Whose?.

This is my cat. (Whose cat?)

I like your dress.


Have you seen his puppy?

That is her father.

We are cleaning our room.

They are painting their house.

The parrot ruffled its feathers.

Handy Tips

Its is the possessive adjective for animals, things and babies.

The baby is asleep in its cot.

You cannot sit on this chair. One of its legs is broken.

Note that a possessive adjective goes with a noun but a possessive pronoun
stands alone.
This is his bag. (possessive adjective - goes with the noun, bag)

This is his. (possessive pronoun - stands alone)

D. Interrogative Adjectives

An interrogative adjective is used to ask a question. It is before a noun.


What car does your father diive?
Which cat ate thefish?

Whose dress is this?


Handy Tips

An interrogative adjective is not the same as an interrogative pronoun.

What book did you buy? (interrogative adjective)

What did you buy? (interrogative pronoun)

Which bag is hers? (interrogative adjective)

Which is her bag? (interrogative pronoun)

Whose money was stolen? (interrogative adjective)

Whose was it? (interrogative pronoun)

E. Demonstrative Adjectives

A demonstrative adjective is a word that is used to point out a person or a thing. It


answers the question Which?. It is used before a noun.
This dog is small.

That dog is big.

These plates are dirty.

Those boxes are heavy.

Handy Tips
Always remember that an adjective goes with a noun while a pronoun stands
alone. Compare the demonstrative adjective and the demonstrative pronoun
below.
This orange is juicy, (demonstrative adjective)

This is a juicy orange, (demonstrative pronoun)

IV Forms
A. Comparison of Adjectives

1. Adjectives have three degrees of comparison.

a) Positive Degree

b) Comparative Degree

c) Superlative Degree

2. The positive degree is the simple form. It is used simply to describe the
noun.
Mr Hugo is a strong man.

3. The comparative degree is used to compare two nouns.

Mr Sumo is stronger than Mr Hugo.

4. The superlative degree is used to compare more than two nouns.


Mr Bingo is the strongest of the three men.

Handy Tips

Many adjectives form the comparative and superlative using er and est.

Positive Comparative Superlative


thick thicker thickest
long longer longest

If the adjective ends with a consonant with a vowel before it, the consonant of the
positive degree is doubled before adding er or est.
Positive Comparative Superlative
Hot hotter hottest
big bigger biggest

If the adjective ends with the letter e} form the comparative by adding r and the
superlative by adding st.
Positive Comparative Superlative
Nice nicer nicest
Brave braver bravest

If the adjective ends with the letter y, change the y to ier and test for the
comparative and superlative.

Positive Comparative Superlative


pretty prettier prettiest
funny funnier funniest

Some adjectives form the comparative and superlative by adding words more and
most.
(a) Words ending in ful, less, ing or ed
Positive Comparative Superlative
helpful more helpful most helpful
useless more useless most useless
willing more willing most willing
annoyed more annoyed most annoyed

(b) Words with three syllables or more


Positive Comparative Superlative
wonderful more wonderful most wonderful
significant more significant most significant

(c) Others
Positive Comparative Superlative
normal more normal most normal
afraid more afraid most afraid

Some adjectives have irregular forms.


Positive Comparative Superlative
good better best
bad worse worst
many/much more most
little less least

Use as ... as for positive degree, than for comparative degree and the for
superlative degree.
This box is as big as that box. (positive degree)

This box is bigger than that box. (comparative degree)

This box is the biggest of all. (superlative degree)

B. Formation of Adjectives

1. Some adjectives are formed from nouns.


Noun Adjective
child childish
success successful
Germany German

2. Some adjectives are formed from verbs.


Verb Adjective
love lovely
accept acceptable

3. Adjectives are also formed from other adjectives.


Adjective Adjective
red reddish
sick sickly

Handy Tips

When a sentence has more than one adjective, the position of the adjectives
generally follow this order:

(a) Opinion pretty clever


(b) Size or Shape small round
(c) Age old young
(d) Colour blue pink
(e) Origin or Race Chinese Australian
(f) Material or Type cotton musical

o My mother bought a red, silk, beautiful dress. ( X )


o My mother bought a beautiful, red, silk dress. ( )
CHAPTER 8 - ADVERBS
I. Definition and Description

1) An adverb is a word that tells us something more about a verb, an jj adjective or


another adverb.

Adverb
a) She arrived yesterday

Verb Adjective

b) The Princess is
very beautiful

Adverb
Adverb
c) It happened
quit suddenly

Adverb

2) An adverb tells us where, how, when, how often or to what degree II an action is
done.

II. Types
There are five main types of adverbs:
a) Adverbs of Place

b) Adverbs of Manner

c) Adverbs of Time or Frequency


d) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity

e) Relative Adverbs

III. Usage and Function


(A) Adverbs of Place
An adverb of place shows where an action is done or happens.
She is waiting outside. (Where is she waiting?)

The boy found the purse there. (Where did the boy find the purse?)

(B) Adverbs of Manner


An adverb of manner shows how or the manner an action is done.
The old man walked slowly. (How did the old man walk?)

Sandra writes neatly. (How does Sandra write?)


(C) Adverbs of Time or Frequency
An adverb of time or frequency tells us when or how often an action happens
or is done.
Jessica left yesterday. (When did Jessica leave?)
Encik Mydin seldom cuts the grass. (How often does Encik Mydin cut the
grass?)

(D) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity


An adverb of degree or quantity answers the question. To what degree? or
How much?.
He is very sorry. (To what degree?)
The little boy eats too much. (How much?)
(E) Relative Adverbs
Words like when, where, how and why are relative adverbs when they are not
used in questions.
The morning when she arrived was sunny.
This is the place where he fell.
I wonder how she did it.
She wants to know why he lied.

IV. Forms
(A) Comparison of Adverbs
Like adjectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison.
a) Adverbs that end in ly usually form the comparative and superlative by adding the
words more and most.
Positive Comparative Superlative
strongly more strongly most strongly
easily more easily most easily

b) Some adverbs (mostly of one syllable) add er and est to form the comparative and
superlative.
Positive Comparative Superlative
long longer longest
soon sooner soonest
c) Some adverbs have the same form of comparison as adjectives.
Positive Comparative Superlative
bad worse worst
well better best
little less least
much more most

(B) Formation of Adverbs


Adverbs are usually formed from adjectives by adding ly.
o Vijay talks in a loud voice, (adjective - loud)
o Vijay talks loudly, (adverb - loudly)
o Josie has a happy smile, (adjective - happy)
o Josie smiles happily, (adverb - happily)

Handy Tips

Some adverbs and adjectives use the same word. To determine whether the word is an
adverb or an adjective, remember this:
An adjective goes with a noun.
An adverb goes with a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
Wool' Choong is a fast runner.
(The word fast goes with the noun runner so fast is an adjective here.)
Wooi Choong runs fast.
(The word fast goes with the verb runs so fast is an adverb here.)

CHAPTER 9 - SENTENCES, PHRASES AND CLAUSES

Sentences

I Definition and Description


1. A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense.

2. A sentence may be divided into two parts: the subject and the predicate. The
subject is the thing or person that we speak about and the predicate tells us
something about the subject.
Subject Predicate

The kitten is hungry.

The king of that country Is a good and wise ruler


3. A sentence may also contain an object. The object of a sentence is usually the thing or
person to which or whom the action of the verb is done.

The cat ate the fish.


(The word fish is the object of the verb ate.)

The teacher helps the child.

(The word child is the object of the verb helps.)

II Types
There are four types of sentences:
(a) Declarative Sentences
(b) Imperative Sentences
(c) Interrogative Sentences
(d) Exclamatory Sentences

III Usage and Function

(a) Declarative Sentences


A declarative sentence is a statement of fact or opinion. A statement begins with a
capital letter and ends with a full stop (.).
David is in the Navy.

She visits her grandparents twice a month.

(b) Imperative Sentences

An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. This kind of sentence begins with a
capital letter and ends, with a full stop (.) or an exclamation mark (!).

Open the door at once! (command)

Please help me carry this box. (request)

(c) Interrogative Sentences

An interrogative sentence asks a direct question. A direct question begins with a capital letter and
ends with a question mark (?).

What are you doing?


Why is Rajan late?

(d) Exclamatory Sentences

An exclamatory sentence shows strong or sudden feeling. It begins with a capital letter and ends with
an exclamation mark (!).

What a surprise!

How exciting!

Handy Tips

Sometimes, a sentence consists of only one word (as in a command) and does not contain a subject as
the subject is understood.

Sit!
Statements can be turned into questions. In the same way, questions can also be turned into statements.
The tense does not change.

It is Peters book. Is it Peters book?

Was she going to sing? She was going to sing.

Phrases and Clauses

I Definition and Description

Phrases

1. A phrase is a group of words that makes sense but is not complete.

2. A phrase does not have a subject or predicate of its own. It does not have a finite verb.
into the house

at nine o clock

for RM2.00

3. A phrase forms part of a sentence and becomes complete when other words (including a verb) are
added to it.

The little boy went into the house.

she sleeps at nine o'clock.

I bought that book for RM2.00

Clauses

1. A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence. It is actually a small sentence inside a
bigger sentence.
2. A clause has a subject and a predicate of its own. It also has a finite verb.

3. A sentence may be divided into a main clause and a subordinate clause. A sentence may also contain
several clauses.

She does not know what / want.

The girl whom you saw is rushing to work because she is late.

Main Clause Subordinate Clause

She does not know What I want

The girl is rushing to work a) whom you saw

b) because she is late

4. From the above sentences, we can see that a main clause can stand alone as its meaning is clear

5. The subordinate clause cannot stand alone as its meaning is incomplete. It needs the main clause for
its full meaning.

II Usage and Function

1. Nouns, adjectives and adverbs are often used in phrases and clauses.

Did you see the happiness on her face? (noun phrase)

He knows that she is very happy. (noun clause)

The boy with the brown dog lives down the street. (adjective phrase)

The boy who has a brown dog lives down the street. (adjective clause)

She worked in a careful manner. (adverb phrase)


I slept while she was working. (adverb clause)

2. A phrase can be changed into a clause and a clause can also be ! changed into a phrase.

The window in my room is shut. (phrase)

The window which is in my room is shut. (clause)

The boy who is riding the red bicycle is my brother. (clause)

The boy on the red bicycle is my brother. (phrase)

Handy Tips

We can tell a clause from a phrase because a clause has a verb but a phrase does not. If a phrase
contains a word which looks like a verb (verb + ing), that word is not a real verb because we cannot
give it a tense.

The girl sitting on the sofa is my cousin.


(phrase - sitting is not a verb)

The girl who is sitting on the sofa is my cousin.

(clause - is sitting is a verb)