You are on page 1of 12

40170275

INTO QUEENS
UNIVERSITY BELFAST
Lab report:
Experiment to Investigate the
Conservation of Mass and
Energy using Continuity and
Bernoullis Equation
Student number:40170275
Tutors name:Dr. Felix Hagan
Module code:Fluid Mechanics

1/12
40170275

Contents

1.Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p3-p4

2.Diagram - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p5

3.Procedure - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p5

3.Results - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - p6-p7

5.Calculation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p8

6.Error analysis - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p8

7.Discussion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - p9

8.Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p9

9.Reference - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - p10

2/12
40170275

1.Introduction:
(1) Aims:
The objective of the experiment is to prove that the correlation between the static head and the
keltic head is existing according to Bernoullis equation. During this experiment, Bernoullis
equation and continuity equation should be used to test the conservation of mass and energy
respectively.
(2) Theory:
In a fluid system, such as airflow and current, with the increase in flow velocity,the pressure which
produced by fluid will decrease. Daniel Bernoulli discovered this principle in 1738. And this
principle was called as Bernoullis principle. The content of Bernoullis principle states that when
incompressible fluid flow steady in the duct,with the increase in flow velocity,the static pressure of
fluid will decrease. Inversely, with the decrease of flow velocity, the static pressure of fluid will
increase. However,the total magnitude of static pressure and kinetic pressure of fluid is constant. So
Bernoullis principle is shown as:
p+1/2v+gh=C
This equation is called Bernoullis equation. In this equation, p represents pressure,v represents
flow velocity, represents density,g represents acceleration of gravity, h represents height and C is a
constant number. This equation can also shown as:
p+1/2v+gh=p+1/2v+gh
In this equation,p represents the static pressure at section 1,p represents the static pressure at
section 2.Cause Bernoullis equation is inferred by the conservation of mechanical energy.So only
ideal fluid is available,which viscosity can be ignored and can not be compressed.From the Figure
1,Bernoullis equation can be understood more clearer.

Figure 1: Continuum mechanics


3/12
40170275

When liquid flow,the mechanical energy of liquid flow will exist in three different kinds of
form.The three different kinds of forms are potential energy,pressure energy and kinetic energy.And
these three different kinds of form can be converted to each other.In the ideal situation,which
without flow energy loss.The total energy of these three different kinds of form is constant.Both
sides of the equation,which is shown above,are divided by g.So Bernoullis principle can be
represented like:
p/g+v/2g+h=p/g+v/2g+h
Also,the principle of plane takes off is based on Bernoullis principle.In hydraulics and
fluidics,Bernoullis principle is applied widely.
During this experiment,only water passes through the tube.Based on the conservation of mass,the
total rate of fluid is constant.So the formula is shown below:
Av=AV=constant
From this equation,A is the cross sectional area at section 1,v is the velocity of the flow,A is the
cross sectional area at section 2,v is the velocity of the flow.

4/12
40170275
2.Diagram:

static pressure tapping collection tank


water supply

converging-
diverging
duct

Figure 2:The experiment set-up

3.Procedure:
1.The equipment of this experiment was shown in Figure 2.
2.Firstly,the experiment set-up was checked and a piece of paper was put behind the manometer
tubes.
3.Secondly,the pump was started and a flow of water was initiated through the test rig.
4.Next,the swivel tube was adjusted at the outlet tank to obtain a head of 100mm.

5/12
40170275
5.Thirdly,the height of the water level was marked in each manometer tube on the paper,which was
put behind the manometer tubes before.
6.After this,data was recored on results sheets.
7.Finally,the time taken to fill the measuring tank from 0 to 10 litres was measured and recorded.

4.Results:

Table 1:The data for measurement of the static head

Tapping Distance Flow area Static Velocity v Dynamic Total Error for
number from (mm) head(m) m/s head Head(m) Total
inlet(mm) From v/2g(m) (dynamic head
manomet +Static) (%)
er
1 43 102.56 0.409 0.895 0.041 0.450 10.0
2 68 90.11 0.393 1.018 0.053 0.446 10.8
3 93 77.66 0.371 1.181 0.071 0.442 11.6
4 118 65.22 0.327 1.407 0.101 0.428 14.4
5 143 52.77 0.258 1.739 0.154 0.412 17.6
6 168 40.32 0.141 2.275 0.264 0.405 19.0
7 193 52.77 0.203 1.739 0.154 0.357 28.6
8 218 65.22 0.256 1.407 0.101 0.357 28.6
9 243 77.66 0.281 1.181 0.071 0.352 29.6
10 268 90.11 0.295 1.018 0.053 0.348 30.3
11 293 102.56 0.318 0.895 0.041 0.359 28.2

6/12
40170275

Total Head Static head Dynamic head


Head/m
0.5

0.48

0.46

0.44

0.42

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34

0.32

0.3

0.28

0.26

0.24

0.22

0.2

0.18

0.16

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Distance/mm
Figure 3:Head against Distance from inlet
7/12
40170275
5.Calculation:

The experiment has given that:

Density of water=1000kg/m

Quantity of water collected(litres)=1L

The time taken to fill the measuring tank from 0 to 10 litres are 10.65s and 11.15s.The average of
the time is:
(10.65+11.15)/2=10.9s
Time to collect water(secs)=10.9s
Because 1L=10m , hence:

volumetric flow(m/s)10m/10.9s=9.174*10m/s(3 d.f.)

Because 1mm=10m,hence:

102.56mm=102.56*10m

If static head from manometer is 0.409m and flow area is 102.56mm,

Velocity=9.174*10m/s/102.56*10m=0.895m/s(3 d.f.)

Dynamic head=0.895/2*9.81=0.041m(3 d.f.)

Total head=0.409m+0.041m=0.450m(3 d.f.)

According to the same method,remaining results can be calculated.

6.Error analysis:
During this experiment,the exact error is 0.5.As the formula shown below
% error in Total head=(0.5-0.450)/0.5*100=10 %
According to the same method, remaining results can be calculated.

8/12
40170275

7.Discussion:

After we calculated the total head,the magnitude of total head of different distance from inlet is
different.Compared with tapping 1 and tapping 11,although the value of flow area,velocity and
dynamic head is the same,the total head of tapping 1 and tapping 11 is different. Compared with
tapping 2 and tapping 10,tapping 3 and tapping 9 and so on,the same problem existed.We can see
that,from the error for total head is really high.It means that this problem effect the final results and
error is existed during this experiment.

1.Cause pipe inner surface cannot frictionless absolutely.When fluid flow through the pipe,fluid and
pipe will produce frictional resistance.This frictional resistance will consume the fluid pressure.That
is the reason why after fluid flow through a certain length pipe,the pressure of fluid will decrease.To
explain this phenomenon,the formula is shown below:

This equation is called drag equation.From this equation, is the drag force, is the density
of the fluid,

v is the velocity of the object relative to the fluid, is the drag coefficient-a dimensionless
number and A is the cross sectional area.

2.When we mark the height of the water level on the paper,which was put behind the manometer
tubes before,it is impossible to keep the same level with water level entirely accurate.

Improvement:
1. To solve the problem of the frictional resistance,we can shorten the distance from the inlet.Then,
the error will be decreased,the final results will become more accurate.
2.To solve the problem of marking,we can mark on the manometer tubes,and measure the static
head when we finish the experiment.

8.Conclusion:

In this experiment,with the measurement of static head, the relationship between the static head
and the keltic head is existing according to Bernoullis equation.

9/12
40170275
9.Reference:
Mannymax(2007)Bernoullis law derivation diagram,available at:https://commons.wikimedia.org/
wiki/File:BernoullisLawDerivationDiagram.svg (Accessed:1st November 2015)

10/12
40170275

11/12
40170275

12/12