92 views

Uploaded by geduyox

Bernoullis Equation Lab Report

- Advanced Numerical Method usedin Composite Materials Modellings
- course out
- Fluid Mechanics Cheat Sheet
- Class 11 - Mathematical Modeling of Pneumatic System
- 2015 Loubser RC and Jensen P
- Objectives MEB Pipe-Flow Revised
- CHE Curriculum Brochure
- Bubble Analysis With CFD
- Course of Multiphase Flow
- UserManualSwelflo.pdf
- 7D162B Pressure Drop for Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Si
- tank draining experiment formal report
- Bernoulli” Theormmem lab
- Entropy Generation Due to Micropolar Fluid Flow Between c 2018 Ain Shams Eng
- Two-phase Concepts
- Compressible Flow
- Wind Tunnel Testing
- 1008008
- Otc 22884
- Chapter 07

You are on page 1of 12

INTO QUEENS

UNIVERSITY BELFAST

Lab report:

Experiment to Investigate the

Conservation of Mass and

Energy using Continuity and

Bernoullis Equation

Student number:40170275

Tutors name:Dr. Felix Hagan

Module code:Fluid Mechanics

1/12

40170275

Contents

1.Introduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p3-p4

2.Diagram - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p5

3.Procedure - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p5

3.Results - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - p6-p7

5.Calculation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p8

7.Discussion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - p9

8.Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p9

9.Reference - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - p10

2/12

40170275

1.Introduction:

(1) Aims:

The objective of the experiment is to prove that the correlation between the static head and the

keltic head is existing according to Bernoullis equation. During this experiment, Bernoullis

equation and continuity equation should be used to test the conservation of mass and energy

respectively.

(2) Theory:

In a fluid system, such as airflow and current, with the increase in flow velocity,the pressure which

produced by fluid will decrease. Daniel Bernoulli discovered this principle in 1738. And this

principle was called as Bernoullis principle. The content of Bernoullis principle states that when

incompressible fluid flow steady in the duct,with the increase in flow velocity,the static pressure of

fluid will decrease. Inversely, with the decrease of flow velocity, the static pressure of fluid will

increase. However,the total magnitude of static pressure and kinetic pressure of fluid is constant. So

Bernoullis principle is shown as:

p+1/2v+gh=C

This equation is called Bernoullis equation. In this equation, p represents pressure,v represents

flow velocity, represents density,g represents acceleration of gravity, h represents height and C is a

constant number. This equation can also shown as:

p+1/2v+gh=p+1/2v+gh

In this equation,p represents the static pressure at section 1,p represents the static pressure at

section 2.Cause Bernoullis equation is inferred by the conservation of mechanical energy.So only

ideal fluid is available,which viscosity can be ignored and can not be compressed.From the Figure

1,Bernoullis equation can be understood more clearer.

3/12

40170275

When liquid flow,the mechanical energy of liquid flow will exist in three different kinds of

form.The three different kinds of forms are potential energy,pressure energy and kinetic energy.And

these three different kinds of form can be converted to each other.In the ideal situation,which

without flow energy loss.The total energy of these three different kinds of form is constant.Both

sides of the equation,which is shown above,are divided by g.So Bernoullis principle can be

represented like:

p/g+v/2g+h=p/g+v/2g+h

Also,the principle of plane takes off is based on Bernoullis principle.In hydraulics and

fluidics,Bernoullis principle is applied widely.

During this experiment,only water passes through the tube.Based on the conservation of mass,the

total rate of fluid is constant.So the formula is shown below:

Av=AV=constant

From this equation,A is the cross sectional area at section 1,v is the velocity of the flow,A is the

cross sectional area at section 2,v is the velocity of the flow.

4/12

40170275

2.Diagram:

water supply

converging-

diverging

duct

3.Procedure:

1.The equipment of this experiment was shown in Figure 2.

2.Firstly,the experiment set-up was checked and a piece of paper was put behind the manometer

tubes.

3.Secondly,the pump was started and a flow of water was initiated through the test rig.

4.Next,the swivel tube was adjusted at the outlet tank to obtain a head of 100mm.

5/12

40170275

5.Thirdly,the height of the water level was marked in each manometer tube on the paper,which was

put behind the manometer tubes before.

6.After this,data was recored on results sheets.

7.Finally,the time taken to fill the measuring tank from 0 to 10 litres was measured and recorded.

4.Results:

Tapping Distance Flow area Static Velocity v Dynamic Total Error for

number from (mm) head(m) m/s head Head(m) Total

inlet(mm) From v/2g(m) (dynamic head

manomet +Static) (%)

er

1 43 102.56 0.409 0.895 0.041 0.450 10.0

2 68 90.11 0.393 1.018 0.053 0.446 10.8

3 93 77.66 0.371 1.181 0.071 0.442 11.6

4 118 65.22 0.327 1.407 0.101 0.428 14.4

5 143 52.77 0.258 1.739 0.154 0.412 17.6

6 168 40.32 0.141 2.275 0.264 0.405 19.0

7 193 52.77 0.203 1.739 0.154 0.357 28.6

8 218 65.22 0.256 1.407 0.101 0.357 28.6

9 243 77.66 0.281 1.181 0.071 0.352 29.6

10 268 90.11 0.295 1.018 0.053 0.348 30.3

11 293 102.56 0.318 0.895 0.041 0.359 28.2

6/12

40170275

Head/m

0.5

0.48

0.46

0.44

0.42

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34

0.32

0.3

0.28

0.26

0.24

0.22

0.2

0.18

0.16

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

Distance/mm

Figure 3:Head against Distance from inlet

7/12

40170275

5.Calculation:

Density of water=1000kg/m

The time taken to fill the measuring tank from 0 to 10 litres are 10.65s and 11.15s.The average of

the time is:

(10.65+11.15)/2=10.9s

Time to collect water(secs)=10.9s

Because 1L=10m , hence:

Because 1mm=10m,hence:

102.56mm=102.56*10m

Velocity=9.174*10m/s/102.56*10m=0.895m/s(3 d.f.)

6.Error analysis:

During this experiment,the exact error is 0.5.As the formula shown below

% error in Total head=(0.5-0.450)/0.5*100=10 %

According to the same method, remaining results can be calculated.

8/12

40170275

7.Discussion:

After we calculated the total head,the magnitude of total head of different distance from inlet is

different.Compared with tapping 1 and tapping 11,although the value of flow area,velocity and

dynamic head is the same,the total head of tapping 1 and tapping 11 is different. Compared with

tapping 2 and tapping 10,tapping 3 and tapping 9 and so on,the same problem existed.We can see

that,from the error for total head is really high.It means that this problem effect the final results and

error is existed during this experiment.

1.Cause pipe inner surface cannot frictionless absolutely.When fluid flow through the pipe,fluid and

pipe will produce frictional resistance.This frictional resistance will consume the fluid pressure.That

is the reason why after fluid flow through a certain length pipe,the pressure of fluid will decrease.To

explain this phenomenon,the formula is shown below:

This equation is called drag equation.From this equation, is the drag force, is the density

of the fluid,

v is the velocity of the object relative to the fluid, is the drag coefficient-a dimensionless

number and A is the cross sectional area.

2.When we mark the height of the water level on the paper,which was put behind the manometer

tubes before,it is impossible to keep the same level with water level entirely accurate.

Improvement:

1. To solve the problem of the frictional resistance,we can shorten the distance from the inlet.Then,

the error will be decreased,the final results will become more accurate.

2.To solve the problem of marking,we can mark on the manometer tubes,and measure the static

head when we finish the experiment.

8.Conclusion:

In this experiment,with the measurement of static head, the relationship between the static head

and the keltic head is existing according to Bernoullis equation.

9/12

40170275

9.Reference:

Mannymax(2007)Bernoullis law derivation diagram,available at:https://commons.wikimedia.org/

wiki/File:BernoullisLawDerivationDiagram.svg (Accessed:1st November 2015)

10/12

40170275

11/12

40170275

12/12

- Advanced Numerical Method usedin Composite Materials ModellingsUploaded byIoan Sorin Leoveanu
- course outUploaded bySures Rez
- Fluid Mechanics Cheat SheetUploaded bytalatbilal
- Class 11 - Mathematical Modeling of Pneumatic SystemUploaded byapi-26676616
- 2015 Loubser RC and Jensen PUploaded byEverton Carpanezi
- Objectives MEB Pipe-Flow RevisedUploaded byAnastasia Monica Khunniegalshottest
- CHE Curriculum BrochureUploaded byFanny Dimasruhin
- Bubble Analysis With CFDUploaded bymcusseglio3931
- Course of Multiphase FlowUploaded byArindam Dey
- UserManualSwelflo.pdfUploaded byRidho
- 7D162B Pressure Drop for Double Pipe Heat Exchanger SiUploaded byparagmhamunkar
- tank draining experiment formal reportUploaded byapi-420768272
- Bernoulli” Theormmem labUploaded byNur Afiqa
- Entropy Generation Due to Micropolar Fluid Flow Between c 2018 Ain Shams EngUploaded byAnonymous u9WmSgap
- Two-phase ConceptsUploaded byDinkar
- Compressible FlowUploaded byjfernandez_estela
- Wind Tunnel TestingUploaded bySumit Malik
- 1008008Uploaded byLasandu Wanniarachchi
- Otc 22884Uploaded byyusuf2mail
- Chapter 07Uploaded byMuhammad Shofiyansyah
- Lab Report Fluid for Bernoullis(4)Uploaded byMuhammad Ashman
- Assignment-1_iit madrass_cht.pdfUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- exp6Uploaded byIbrahim
- Fulltext StampedUploaded byAbderrahim Ouberri
- IJETR031241Uploaded byerpublication
- A GENERAL METHOD FOR CALCULATING HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES.pdfUploaded bySabareesh BS
- 03 Lect 16 InternalUploaded byIMAGENIERIA S.A.C. GUSTAVO
- teoria.docxUploaded byCarolina Gaibor
- Worksheet 1Uploaded byShang Hao Long
- DesignUploaded bymartc35

- esq_lewisstructuresUploaded byalagarn
- Manual_KMR1050B_10478110Uploaded bybyronchq
- 14MW DG(LS 11 kV ISO GD01-A0312-07-0300).pdfUploaded byPandiyan
- 2001 10 Mqw1 Cff Quality Tp RayUploaded byswabi826462
- A Brief Overview of the Principles of ThermobarometryUploaded byjunior.geologia
- Procedures of Experiments and reading materials for the experiments offer by NN Ghosh in CE II (1).pdfUploaded byshreyas patel
- OCPDUploaded byyankuroku
- PDE_Syllabus_S10Uploaded bylenin_eda
- Daily Lesson Log Grade 10 11th WeekUploaded byDENNIS NABOR MUÑOZ
- 101 Answer KeyUploaded byVictor Rosales
- Modelling Vaporous Cavitation on Fluid TransientsUploaded byAl-Kawthari As-Sunni
- Carbon-14Uploaded bydoxorubicin
- Nsec2012 PaperUploaded byvishnu
- Course OutlineUploaded byLillian Muwina
- Nucleic Acid StructureUploaded bynadirapp
- Hooke's Law LabUploaded byTrevor Leach
- Electrochemical-determination-of-tartrazine-using-a-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-ionic-liquid-supported-Pt-nanoparticles.pdfUploaded byYuhelmi Ayu
- Org Chem Lab ManualUploaded byMae
- Heat TransferUploaded by789456123QWEASDZXC
- 32Uploaded byil26
- Conversion Factors - Gas IndustryUploaded byKailas Nimbalkar
- Stochastic Integration With JumpsUploaded byUmer Shaikh
- Physics as Unit 1Uploaded byMuaaz Iqbal
- ESL-IE-84-04-137Uploaded bymareazzurroo
- Legendre Equation ProblemsUploaded byShahbaz Ahmed
- Gauss–Bonnet theoremUploaded byJose Luis Condori
- Exp 04 - Coefficient of FrictionUploaded byTony
- 5129_w05_erUploaded bymstudy123456
- CHAPTER 5 - DIFFUSION IN SOLIDS.pdfUploaded byEdith Alarcon Castillo
- Determination of plancks constant using the photoelectric effectUploaded byJp Swanepoel