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A

MAJOR PROJECT REPORT ON

A HYBRID WIND-SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM USING


DOUBLE PORT INTERFACE IN MICRO GRID

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of


Bachelor of Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Submitted By

K.VINAY
(13281A0279)
Y.VENKATESH CH. MUKHESH
(13281A0281) (13281A0265)
M.JAYANTH MD.SHOAIBUDDIN
(13281A0284) (13281A0255)
Under the Guidance of
Mr. P.RAJU
Asst. Prof.
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
KAMALA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
Sponsored by Vodhithala Education Society, Hyderabad
(Approved by AICTE &Affiliated to J.N.T.U, Hyderabad)
SINGAPUR, KARIMNAGAR -505468 (T.S.)
(2016-2017)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. K.VINAY (13281A0279), Mr. Y.VENKATESH


(13281A0281), Mr. CH.MUKHESH (13281A0265), Mr. .JAYANTH (13281A0284), Mr.
MD.SHOAIBUDDIN (13281A0255)of final year B.Tech has satisfactorily completed the

module of major project entitled A HYBRID WIND-SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM

USING DOUBLE PORT INTERFACE IN MICRO GRID under my supervision and


guidance towards partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor
of Technology in E.E.E to JNTU, Hyd, T.S. during the year 2016-2017.

Project Guide Head of the Department

Mr. P.RAJU Mr.YOGESH.Y.PUNDLIK


Asst.Prof. Assoc. prof.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Before we get into the thick of things we would like to add a few heart-felt words for
the people who guided our project in numerous ways, people who gave us unending support
right from the stage, the project idea was conceived.

We express our immense pleasure with a profound feeling of reverence and gratitude
to our project guide P.RAJU Asst.Prof. Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department,
for his inspiring and valuable guidance throughout this project.

We wish to express our healthy gratitude to project coordinator Mr. B.CHARALU


Asst. Prof. of EEE department for patience & for gratuitous co-operation extended by him &
who has given us valuable suggestions.

We wish to express our gratitude to Mr. YOGESH. YASHWANTH. PUNDLIK


Head of EEE department and all the staff members of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Department for their encouragement and support.

We place our sincere thanks to Prof. K.SHANKER Principal of KAMALA


INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE for his kind co-operation.

We are grateful to the management of KAMALA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


& SCIENCE collage for providing all the facilities required for completing this project work.
Lastly we wish to thank our parents & friends for their co-operation & encouragement in
completing this project.

Presented By,
K.VINAY (13281A0279)
Y.VENKATESH (13281A0281)
CH.MUKHESH KUMAR (13281A0265)
M.JAYANTH (13281A0284)
MD.SHOAIBUDDIN (13281A0255)
ABSTRACT

Renewable energy sources have become a popular alternative electrical energy source
where power generation in conventional ways is not practical. In the last few years the
photovoltaic and wind power generation have been increased significantly. In this study, we
proposed a hybrid energy system which combines both solar panel and wind turbine generator
as an alternative for conventional source of electrical energy like thermal and hydro power
generation. A simple control technique which is also cost effective has been proposed to track
the operating point at which maximum power can be coerced from the PV system and wind
turbine generator system under continuously changing environmental conditions. The entire
hybrid system is described given along with comprehensive simulation results that discover
the feasibility of the system. A software simulation model is developed in Matlab/Simulink.
CONTENTS

Chapter No Title Page No

Acknowledgement
Abstract
List of figures iii

List of abbreviations v

List of symbols vi

1 INTRODUCTION TO HYBRID SYSTEM 1


1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Literature review 2
1.3 Motivation 3
1.4 Objectives 4

2 PV ENERGY SYSTEM 5
2.1 Photovoltaic arrangement 5
2.1.1 Photovoltaic cell 6
2.1.2 Photovoltaic module 6
2.1.3 Photovoltaic array 6
2.2 Working of PV cell 7
2.3 Modeling of pv cell 8
2.4 Shading effect on PV array 12
2.5 Maximum power point tracking 14
2.5.1 Need for MPP tracking 14
2.5.2 MPPT algorithm 14
2.5.3 Perturb and observe algorithm 15
3 POWER ELECTRONICS 17
3.1 History 17
3.2.1 Devices 18
3.2.2 Solid-state devices 20

i
Chapter No Title page No

4 DC-DC CONVERTER 24
4.1 Types of DC-DC converters 24
4.1.1 Buck converter 24
4.1.2 Boost converter 25
4.1.3 Buck-Boost converter 25
4.1.4 The sepic converter 26
5 WIND POWER SYSTEM 28
5.1. History 28
5.2. System configuration 28
5.3. Wind turbine 29
5.3.1 Modeling of wind turbine 30
5.4. Generator 31
5.4.1 Types of generator 31
5.4.2 PMSG 32
5.5 MPPT of wind power 33

6. BATTERY CHARGING 35
6.1. Introduction 35
6.2 Bi-directional converter 35
6.2.1.1 Non-isolated type converter 35
6.2.1.2 Isolated type converter 36
6.3 Bidirectional converter for battery charging 36

7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 38


7.1 Results 38
8. CONCLUSION 42

8.1 Future scope 42

Reference 43

ii
LIST OF FIGURES

Table. No. Name of the table Page No.

1.1 Block diagram of hybrid system 2

2.1 Overall block diagram of PV energy system 5

2.2 Structure of PV cell 6

2.3 Photovoltaic system 7

2.4 Working of PV cell 8

2.5 Equivalent circuit of Single diode modal of a solar cell 8

2.6 Representation of PV module 10

2.7 IV characteristics 11

2.8 PV characteristics 11

2.9 PV Array in Shaded condition 13

2.10 Effect of partial shading on I-V & P-V characteristics 13

2.11 P-V characteristics (basic idea of P&O algorithm) 15

2.12 Flowchart of Perturb & Observe MPPT algorithm 16

4.1 Circuit diagram of buck converter 24

4.2 Circuit diagram of boost converter 25

4.3 Circuit diagram of buck-boost converter 26

4.4 Basic converter BUCK converter 26

iii
5.1 Overall Block diagram of wind energy system 28

5.2 Major turbine components 29

5.3 Power vs speed characteristics of wind turbine 33

6.1 Circuit diagram of the bidirectional converter 37

7.1 Proposed system 38

7.2 The single phase generator output 39

7.3 Solar MPPT PV output current and reference current Signal 39

7.4 Wind MPPT Generator speed and reference speed signal 40

7.5 Control circuit 40

7.6 Pv module output voltage 41

7.7 wind output voltage 41

iv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

PV Photo Voltaic

MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking

DC Direct Current

MATLAB Matrix Laboratory

P&O Perturb and Observe

IC Incremental Conductance

Fig Figure

PMSG Permanent magnet synchronous generator

MPP Maximum power point

v
LIST OF SYMBOLS

IPV Photocurrent current

IO Reverse saturation current of diode

V Voltage across the diode

A Ideality Factor

VT Thermal Voltage

Rs Series resistance

Rp Shunt resistor of the cell

KI Cells short circuit current temperature coefficient

G Solar irradiation in W/m2

IPV_STC Light generated current under standard test condition

I0_STC Nominal saturation Current

Eg Energy band gap of semiconductor

TSTC Temperature at standard test condition

Q Charge of electrons

ISC_STC Short circuit current at standard test conditions

VOC_STC Short circuit voltage at standard test conditions

KV Temperature coefficient of open circuit voltage

NS Number of series cells

NP Number of parallel cells

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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION TO HYBRID SYSTEM

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Due to the critical condition of industrial fuels which include oil, gas and others,
the development of renewable energy sources is continuously improving. This is the reason
why renewable energy sources have become more important these days. Few other reasons
include advantages like abundant availability in nature, eco-friendly and recyclable. Many
renewable Energy sources like solar, wind, hydal and tidal are there. Among these
renewable sources solar and wind energy are the worlds fastest growing energy resources.
With no emission of pollutants, energy conversion is done through wind and PV cells.
Day by day, the demand for electricity is rapidly increasing. But the available base
load plants are not able to supply electricity as per demand. So these energy sources can be
used to bridge the gap between supply and demand during peak loads. This kind of small
scale stand-alone power generating systems can also be used in remote areas where
conventional power generation is impractical.

In this thesis, a wind-photovoltaic hybrid power generation system model is studied


and simulated. A hybrid system is more advantageous as individual power generation
system is not completely reliable. When any one of the system is shutdown the other can
supply power. A block diagram of entire hybrid system is shown below.

Hybrid generation system uses more than one source, so that we can extract energy
from different sources at the same time which enhances the efficiency. From the working
of PV /Wind hybrid system is understood, different topologies that can be used for the
hybridization of more than one system and also about advantages and disadvantages of
hybrid system. Basic details of PV cell, PV module, PV array and their modeling are
studied. Also, the behavior of PV modules at varying environmental conditions like solar
irradiation and temperature are studied

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MPPT
PV MODULE
DC-DC

BI-DIRECTIONAL
BATTERY LOAD
CONVERTER

MPPT
GEAR BOX GENE RATOR AC TO DC
DC-DC

Fig 1.1: Block diagram of hybrid system

The entire hybrid system comprises of PV and the wind systems. The PV system is
powered by the solar energy which is abundantly available in nature. PV modules,
maximum power point tracing systems make the PV energy system. The light incident on
the PV cells is converted into electrical energy by solar energy harvesting means. The
maximum power point tracking system with Perturb & absorb algorithm is used, which
extracts the maximum possible power from the PV modules. The ac-dc converter is used
to converter ac voltage to dc.

Wind turbine, gear box, generator and an AC DC converter are included in the wind
energy system. The wind turbine is used to convert wind energy to rotational mechanical
energy and this mechanical energy available at the turbine shaft is converted to electrical
energy using a generator. To coerce the maximum power from wind system we used a
maximum power point tracing system.

Both the energy systems are used to charge a battery using bi-directional converter.
Bidirectional converter and the battery form the common additional load to the wind and
PV energy systems.

Hybrid generation systems that use more than a single power source can greatly
enhance the certainty of load demands all the time. Even higher generating capacities can
be achieved by hybrid system. In stand-alone system we can able to provide fluctuation

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free output to the load irrespective of weathers condition. To get the energy output of the
PV system converted to storage energy, and constant power delivered by the wind turbine,
an efficient energy storage mechanism is required, which can be realized by the battery
bank.

1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Due to high demand of energy and limited availability of conventional energy, non-
conventional sources become more popular among researchers. A lot of research work is
going on to enhance the power efficiency of non-conventional sources and make it more
reliable and beneficial.

Hybrid generation system uses more than one source, so that we can extract energy
from different sources at the same time which enhances the efficiency. From the working
of PV /Wind hybrid system is understood, different topologies that can be used for the
hybridization of more than one system and also about advantages and disadvantages of
hybrid system. Basic details of PV cell, PV module, PV array and their modeling are
studied. Also, the behavior of PV modules at varying environmental conditions like solar
irradiation and temperature are studied. Behavior of PV module during partial shading
condition and also how its bad effects can be minimized is explained . Different MPPT
techniques, their advantages and disadvantages and why MPPT control is required is
explained. The wind energy system, its working and also techniques to extracts the
maximum power from the wind energy system is understood .study about different type of
bi-directional converters, their working and how to use them in battery charging and
discharging is carried out.

1.3 RESEARCH MOTIVATION

Recently, the availability of power in India has not just increased but also improved,
although the demand consistently rose more than the supply. Thats why non-conventional
sources have become the center of attraction. Among these fast growing non-conventional
sources the wind energy system and solar photovoltaic system are very common. Now India
has become fifth in installed capacity of both wind and solar power plant. As of 30t h
September 2013 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 19881MW.

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1.4 OBJECTIVES
The main objective of the thesis is to implement a power system that is a hybrid of
both Photovoltaic and wind powers. The step by step objectives are
To study and model PV cell, PV array and PV panels

To study the characteristic curves and effect of variation of environmental
Conditions like temperature and irradiation on them
To study the PV modules behavior under partial shading condition

To trace the maximum power point of operation the PV panel irrespective of the
changes in the environmental conditions

To study and simulate the wind power system and track its maximum power point

Implement hybrid system

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CHAPTER-2

PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEM

History

In 1839, a French physicist Edmund Becquerel proposed that few materials have the
ability to produce electricity when exposed to sunlight. But Albert Einstein explained the
photoelectric effect and the nature of light in 1905. Photoelectric effect state that when
photons or sunlight strikes to a metal surface flow of electrons will take place. Later
photoelectric effect became the basic principle for the technology of photovoltaic power
generation. The first PV module was manufactured by Bell laboratories in 1954.

2.1 PHOTVOLTAIC ARRANGEMENT

A photovoltaic energy system is mainly powered by solar energy. The configuration


of PV system is manifested in figure 2.1.

MPPT

PV DC-DC
MODULE CONVERT
ER
DC BUS

LOAD

BI-DIRECTIONAL
BATTERY
CONVERTER

Fig.2.1 Overall block diagram of PV energy system

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2.1.1 PV CELL

Photovoltaic cell is the building block of the PV system and semiconductor material
such as silicon and germanium are the building block of PV cell. Silicon is used for
photovoltaic cell due to its advantages over germanium. When photons hit the surface of
solar cell, the electrons and holes are generated by breaking the covalent bond inside the
atom of semiconductor material and in response electric field is generated by creating
positive and negative terminals. When these terminals are connected by a conductor an
electric current will start flowing. This electricity is used to power a load.

light

Metal grid

n
p

Metal Base

Fig.2.2 Structure of PV cell

2.1.2 PV MODULE

A single cell generate very low voltage (around 0.4), so more than one PV cells can
be connected.2. When we need higher voltage, we connect PV cell in series and if load
demand is high either in serial or in parallel or as a grid (both serial and parallel) to form a
PV module as shown in fig.3current then we connect PV cell in parallel. Usually there are
36 or 76 cells in general PV modules. Module we are using having 54 cells. The front Side
of the module is transparent usually buildup of low-iron and transparent glass material, and
the PV cell is encapsulated.The efficiency of a module is not as good as PV cell, because the glass
cover and frame reflects some amount of the incoming radiation.

2.1.3 PV ARRAY

A photovoltaic array is simply an interconnection of several PV modules in serial


and/or parallel. The power generated by individual modules may not be sufficient to meet

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

the requirement of trading applications, so the modules are secured in a grid form or as an
array to gratify the load demand. In an array, the modules are connected like as that of cells
connected in a module. While making a PV array, generally the modules are initially
connected in serial manner to obtain the desired voltage, and then strings so obtained are
connected in parallel in order to produce more current based on the requirement.

Fig.2.3 Photovoltaic system

2.2 WORKING OF PV CELL

The basic theory involved in working of an individual PV cell is the Photoelectric


effect according to which, when a photon particle hits a PV cell, after receiving energy
from sunbeam the electrons of the semiconductor get excited and hop to the conduction
band from the valence band and become free to move. Movement of electrons create
positive and negative terminal and also create potential difference across these two
terminals. When an external circuit is connected between these terminals an electric current
start flowing through the circuit.

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Fig 2.4 Working of PV cell

2.3 MODELING OF PV CELL

The photovoltaic system converts sunlight directly to electricity without having any
disastrous effect on our environment. The basic segment of PV array is PV cell, which is
just a simple p-n junction device. The fig.2.4 manifests the equivalent circuit of PV cell.
Equivalent circuit has a current source (photocurrent), a diode parallel to it, a resistor In
series describing an internal resistance to the flow of current and a shunt resistance which
expresses a leakage current. The current supplied to the load can be given as.

V IR S V IR S
I I PV I O exp

1




aVT RP

Where

IPVPhotocurrent current,

Fig 2.5 Equivalent circuit of Single diode modal of a solar cell

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PV cell photocurrent, which depends on the radiation and temperature, can be


Expressed as.

I PV I PV _ STC K I T G
G STC

Where

KI cells short circuit current temperature coefficie nt

Gsolar irradiation in W/m2

GSTCnominal solar irradiation in W/m2

IPV_STC Light generated current under standard test condition

The reverse saturation current varies as a cubic function of temperature, which is


represented as

T 3 qEg 1 1
I
exp

STC
IO O _ STC

T
T aK STC T
Where

I0_STC Nominal saturation current

Eg Energy band gap of semiconductor

TSTCtemperature at standard test condition

q Charge of electrons
The reverse saturation current can be further improved as a function of temperature as
follows

K
I SC _ STC I T
I O
T
K
V
1
OC _ STC V
exp
aVT

ISC_STC short circuit current at standard test condition

VOC_STC short circuit voltage at standard test condition

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Many authors proposed more developed models for better accuracy and for
different purposes. In some of the models, the effect of the recombination of carriers is
represented by an extra diode. Some authors also used three diode models which included
influences of some other effects that are not considered in previous models. But due to
simplicity we use single diode model for our work.

Efficiency of a PV cell does not depend on the variation in the shunt resistance R p
of the cell but efficiency of a PV cell greatly depends on the variation in series resistance
Rs. As Rp of the cell is inversely proportional to the shunt leakage current to ground so it
can be assumed to be very large value for a very small leakage current to ground.

As the total power generated by a single PV cell is very low, we used a combination
of PV cells to fulfill our desired requirement. This grid of PV cells is knows as PV array.
The equations of the PV array can be represented as

N S N S
V IR V IR
P
S S
N
N
P

I I PV N P I O N P exp aV N
1 NS
T S R
P N
P

NS Number of series cells

NP Number of parallel cells

N
P

N
RS S

NP
Id NP

I N NS
PV P NS R
P NP

Fig.2.6 Representation of PV module

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A small change in series resistance can affect more on the efficiency of a PV cells
but variation in shunt resistance does not affect more. For very small leakage current to
ground, shunt resistance assumed to be infinity and can be treated as open. After
considering shunt resistance infinity, the mathematical equation of the model can be
expressed as.


V N S
IR
S

N

P
I I PV N P I O N P exp 1

aVT N S






I-V and P-V characteristics of PV module are shown in figures 2.7 and 2.8 respectively.

Fig. 2.7 IV characteristics Fig. 2.8 PV characteristics

The two key parameters which are used to relate the electrical performance are
the open-circuit voltage of the cell VOC and short-circuit current of the cell Isc.

The maximum power can be stated as

Pmax Vmax I max

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The parameters used for the modeling of PV module are shown in table 2.1

Sl.no. Parameter Value

1 Imp 7.61 A

2 Vmp 26.3 V

3 Isc 8.21 A

4 Pmax 200.143 W

5 Voc 32.9 V

6 Kv -0.1230 V/K

7 Ki 0.0032 A/K

8 Ns 54

9 Np 4

TABLE 2.1

Parameters of the PV array at 250C, 1000w/m2

2.4. SHADING EFFECT

When a module or a part of it is shaded it starts generating less voltage or current as


compared to unshaded one. When modules are connected in series, same current will flow
in entire circuit but shaded portion cannot able to generate same current but have to allow
the same current to flow, so shaded portion starts behaving like load and starts consuming
power. When shaded portion starts to act as load this condition is known as hot-spot
problem. Without appropriate protection, problem of hot-spot may arise and, in severe
cases, the system may get damaged. To reduce the damage in this condition we generally
use a bypass diode. Block diagram of PV array in shaded condition is shown below.

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Fig 2.9 PV Array in Shaded condition

Due to partial shading or total shading PV characteristic become more non-linear,


having more than one maximum power point . So for this condition tracking of the
maximum power point become very tedious. We can easily see the effect of shading on PV
characteristics in the fig shown below.

Fig. 2.10 Effect of partial shading on I-V & P-V characteristics

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There is wastage of power due to the loss contributed by reverse current which
results in overheating of shaded cell.

2.5 MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING

Maximum power point tracing (MPPT) system is an electronic control system that
can be able to coerce the maximum power from a PV system. It does not involve a single
mechanical component that results in the movement of the modules changing their
Direction and make them face straight towards the sun. MPPT control system is a
completely electronic system which can deliver maximum allowable power by varying the
operating point of the modules electrically.

2.5.1 NECESSITY OF MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING

In the Power Vs Voltage characteristic of a PV module shown in fig 2.8 we can


observe that there exist single maxima i.e. a maximum power point associated with a
specific voltage and current that are supplied. The overall efficiency of a module is very
low around 12%. So it is necessary to operate it at the crest power point so that the
maximum power can be provided to the load irrespective of continuously changing
environmental

Conditions. This increased power makes it better for the use of the solar PV module. A
DC/DC converter which is placed next to the PV module extracts maximum power by
matching the impedance of the circuit to the impedance of the PV module and transfers it
to the load. Impedance matching can be done by varying the duty cycle of the switching
elements.

2.5.2. MPPT ALGORITHM


There are many algorithms which help in tracing the maximum power point of the PV
module. They are following:

a. P&O algorithm

b. IC algorithm

c. Parasitic capacitance

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d. Voltage based peak power tracking

e. Current Based peak power tracking

2.5.3. PERTURB AND OBSERVE

Each and every MPPT algorithm has its own advantages and disadvantages. Perturb and
observe (P&O) method is widely used due its simplicity. In this algorithm we introduce a
perturbation in the operating voltage of the panel. Perturbation in voltage can be done by
altering the value of duty-cycle of dc-dc converter.

MPP

POWER(Watts)

VOLTAGE (volts)
.

Fig. 2.11 P-V characteristics (basic idea of P&O algorithm)

Fig 2.11 show the p-v characteristics of a photovoltaic system, by analyzing


the p-v characteristics we can see that on right side of MPP as the voltage decreases the
power increases but on left side of MPP increasing voltage will increase power. This is the
main idea we have used in the P&O algorithm to track the MPP . The flow chart of P&O
algorithm is manifested in figure 2.12.

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D D D D D D D D D D D D

Fig.2.12 Flowchart of Perturb & Observe MPPT algorithm

As we can see from the flow chart first of all we measure voltage and current, by
using these values we calculate power, calculated power is compared with previous one
and accordingly we increase or decrease the voltage to locate the Maximum Power Point
by altering the duty cycle of converter.

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CHAPTER-3
POWER ELECTRONICS

The application of solid state electronics in which the electric power is controlled
and converted is called power electronics. As it deals with designing, computation, control,
and integration of electronic systems where energy is processed with fast dynamics which
is non linear time varying, it is referred in electrical and electronic engineering as a research
subject.
Mercury arc valves are the first electronic devices with high power. The conversion
is performed in modern systems with thyristors, diodes, transistors which are the
semiconductor switching devices, pioneered in the 1950s by R.D.Middle Brook and others.
In power electronics processing of substantial amounts of electrical energy is done in
contrast to electronic systems concerned with transmission and processing of signals and
data. The most typical power electronics device found in many consumer electronic
devices, such as battery chargers, personal computers, television sets, etc is an AC/DC
converter. Its power ranges from tens of watts to several hundred watts. The variable speed
drive which is used to control an induction motor is the common application in
industry.VSDs power ranges from few hundred watts to tens of megawatts
.
3.1 History
Power electronics had started with the development of the mercury arc rectifier
which was invented by Peter Cooper Hewitt in 1902.It converts alternating current (AC) to
direct current (DC).A research had started and continued on applying of thyratrons and grid
controlled mercury arc valves for power transmission from 1920s. A valve with grading
electrodes was developed by Uno Lamm which made mercury arc valves useful for
transmission of high voltage direct current.
In 1947 Walter Brattain and john Bardeen invented the bipolar point contact
transistor at Bell labs under the direction of William Shockley. The bipolar junction
transistor which was invented by Shockley, improved the performance and stability of
transistors, and reduced the costs of transistors. In the 1950s, semiconductor power diodes
were invented which replace the vacuum tubes. In 1956 there was great increase in the
range of power electronics applications with the introduction of the silicon controlled

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rectifier (SCR) by general electric. The switching speed of bipolar junction transistors was
allowed for high frequency DC/DC converters in1960s. Power MOSFET became available
from 1976 and the Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) was introduced in 1982
Types of Systems
The power conversion systems are classified based on the type of input and output
power as follows:
AC to DC (rectifier)
DC to AC (inverter)
DC to DC (DC to DC converter)
AC to AC (AC to AC converter)

3.2.1 Devices
The capabilities and economy of power electronics system are determined by the
active devices that are available. Their characteristics and limitations are a key element in
the design of power electronics systems. Formerly, the mercury arc valve, the high-vacuum
and gas-filled diode thermionic rectifiers, and triggered devices such as the thyratron and
ignitron were widely used in power electronics. As the ratings of solid-state devices
improved in both voltage and current-handling capacity, vacuum devices have been nearly
entirely replaced by solid-state devices.
Power electronic devices may be used as switches, or as amplifiers. An ideal
switch is either open or closed and so dissipates no power; it withstands an applied voltage
and passes no current, or passes any amount of current with no voltage drop. Semiconductor
devices used as switches can approximate this ideal property and so most power electronic
applications rely on switching devices on and off, which makes systems very efficient as
very little power is wasted in the switch. By contrast, in the case of the amplifier, the current
through the device varies continuously according to a controlled input. The voltage and
current at the device terminals follow a load line, and the power dissipation inside the
device is large compared with the power delivered to the load.
Several attributes dictate how devices are used. Devices such as diodes conduct
when a forward voltage is applied and have no external control of the start of conduction.
Power devices such as silicon controlled rectifiers and thyristors (as well as the mercury
valve and thyratron) allow control of the start of conduction, but rely on periodic reversal
of current flow to turn them off. Devices such as gate turn-off thyristors, BJT and MOSFET

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transistors provide full switching control and can be turned on or off without regard to the
current flow through them. Transistor devices also allow proportional amplification, but
this is rarely used for systems rated more than a few hundred watts. The control input
characteristics of a device also greatly affect design; sometimes the control input is at a
very high voltage with respect to ground and must be driven by an isolated source. As
efficiency is at a premium in a power electronic converter, the losses that a power electronic
device generates should be as low as possible. Devices vary in switching speed. Some
diodes and thyristors are suited for relatively slow speed and are useful for power
frequency switching and control; certain thyristors are useful at a few kilohertz.
Devices such as MOSFETS and BJTs can switch at tens of kilohertz up to a few
megahertz in power applications, but with decreasing power levels. Vacuum tube devices
dominate high power (hundreds of kilowatts) at very high frequency (hundreds or
thousands of megahertz) applications. Faster switching devices minimize energy lost in the
transitions from on to off and back, but may create problems with radiated electromagnetic
interference. Gate drive (or equivalent) circuits must be designed to supply sufficient drive
current to achieve the full switching speed possible with a device. A device without
sufficient drive to switch rapidly may be destroyed by excess heating.
Practical devices have non-zero voltage drop and dissipate power when on, and take
some time to pass through an active region until they reach the "on" or "off" state. These
losses are a significant part of the total lost power in a converter. Power handling and
dissipation of devices is also a critical factor in design. Power electronic devices may have
to dissipate tens or hundreds of watts of waste heat, even switching as efficiently as possible
between conducting and non-conducting states. In the switching mode, the power
controlled is much larger than the power dissipated in the switch. The forward voltage drop
in the conducting state translates into heat that must be dissipated. High power
semiconductors require specialized heat sinks or active cooling systems to manage their
junction temperature; exotic semiconductors such as silicon carbide have an advantage over
straight silicon in this respect, and germanium, once the main-stay of solid-state electronics
is now little used due to its unfavorable high temperature properties.
Semiconductor devices exist with ratings up to a few kilovolts in a single device.
Where very high voltage must be controlled, multiple devices must be used in series, with
networks to equalize voltage across all devices. Again, switching speed is a critical factor
since the slowest-switching device will have to withstand a disproportionate share of the

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overall voltage. Mercury valves were once available with ratings to 100 kV in a single unit,
simplifying their application in HVDC systems. The current rating of a semiconductor
device is limited by the heat generated within the dies and the heat developed in the
resistance of the interconnecting leads. Semiconductor devices must be designed so that
current is evenly distributed within the device across its internal junctions (or channels);
once a "hot spot" develops, breakdown effects can rapidly destroy the device. Certain SCRs
are available with current ratings to 3000 amperes in a single unit.

3.2.2 SOLID-STATE DEVICES


DIODE

Uni-polar, uncontrolled, switching device used in applications such as rectification


and circuit directional current control. Reverse voltage blocking device, commonly
modeled as a switch in series with a voltage source, usually 0.7 VDC. The model can be
enhanced to include a junction resistance, in order to accurately predict the diode voltage
drop across the diode with respect to current flow. Up to 3000 amperes and 5000 volts in a
single silicon device. High voltage requires multiple series silicon devices.
SILICON-CONTROLLED RECTIFIER(SCR)

This semi-controlled device turns on when a gate pulse is present and the anode is
positive compared to the cathode. When a gate pulse is present, the device operates like a
standard diode. When the anode is negative compared to the cathode, the device turns off
and blocks positive or negative voltages present. The gate voltage does not allow the device
to turn off Up to 3000 amperes, 5000 volts in a single silicon device.
THYRISTOR

The thyristor is a family of three-terminal devices that include SCRs, GTOs, and
MCT. For most of the devices, a gate pulse turns the device on. The device turns off when
the anode voltage falls below a value (relative to the cathode) determined by the device
characteristics. When off, it is considered a reverse voltage blocking device.
GATE TURN-OFF THYRISTOR(GTO)

The gate turn-off thyristor, unlike an SCR, can be turned on and off with a gate
pulse. One issue with the device is that turn off gate voltages are usually larger and require
more current than turn on levels. This turn off voltage is a negative voltage from gate to

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source, usually it only needs to be present for a short time, but the magnitude s on the order
of 1/3 of the anode current. A snubber circuit is required in order to provide a usable
switching curve for this device. Without the snubber circuit, the GTO cannot be used for
turning inductive loads off. These devices, because of developments in IGCT technology
are not very popular in the power electronics realm. They are considered controlled, uni-
polar and bi-polar voltage blocking.
TRIAC

The triac is a device that is essentially an integrated pair of phase-controlled


thyristors connected in inverse-parallel on the same chip. Like an SCR, when a voltage
pulse is present on the gate terminal, the device turns on. The main difference between an
SCR and a Triac is that both the positive and negative cycle can be turned on independently
of each other, using a positive or negative gate pulse. Similar to an SCR, once the device
is turned on, the device cannot be turned off. This device is considered bi-polar and reverse
voltage blocking.
BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR(BJT)

The BJT cannot be used at high power; they are slower and have more resistive
losses when compared to MOSFET type devices. To carry high current, BJTs must have
relatively large base currents, thus these devices have high power losses when compared to
MOSFET devices. BJTs along with MOSFETs, are also considered unipolar and do not
block reverse voltage very well, unless installed in pairs with protection diodes. Generally,
BJTs are not utilized in power electronics switching circuits because of the I2R losses
associated with on resistance and base current requirements. BJTs have lower current gains
in high power packages, thus requiring them to be set up in Darlington configurations in
order to handle the currents required by power electronic circuits. Because of these multiple
transistor configurations, switching times are in the hundreds of nanoseconds to
microseconds. Devices have voltage ratings which max out around 1500 V and fairly high
current ratings. They can also be paralleled in order to increase power handling, but must
be limited to around 5 devices for current sharing.
POWER MOSFET

The main benefit of the power MOSFET is that the base current for BJT is large
compared to almost zero for MOSFET gate current. Since the MOSFET is a depletion
channel device, voltage, not current, is necessary to create a conduction path from drain to

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source. The gate does not contribute to either drain or source current. Turn on gate current
is essentially zero with the only power dissipated at the gate coming during switching.
Losses in MOSFETs are largely attributed to on-resistance. The calculations show a direct
correlation to drain source on-resistance and the device blocking voltage rating, BVdss.
Switching times range from tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred microseconds,
depending on the device. MOSFET drain source resistances increase as more current flows
through the device. As frequencies increase the losses increase as well, making BJTs more
attractive. Power MOSFETs can be paralleled in order to increase switching current and
therefore overall switching power. Nominal voltages for MOSFET switching devices range
from a few volts to a little over 1000 V, with currents up to about 100 A or so. Newer
devices may have higher operational characteristics. MOSFET devices are not bi-
directional, nor are they reverse voltage blocking.
INSULATED-GATE BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR(IGBT)

These devices have the best characteristics of MOSFETs and BJTs. Like MOSFET
devices, the insulated gate bipolar transistor has high gate impedance, thus low gate current
requirements. Like BJTs, this device has low on state voltage drop, thus low power loss
across the switch in operating mode. Similar to the GTO, the IGBT can be used to block
both positive and negative voltages. Operating currents are fairly high, in excess of 1500 A
and switching voltage up to 3000 V.The IGBT has reduced input capacitance compared to
MOSFET devices which improves the Miller feedback effect during high dv/dt turn on and
turn off.
MOS-CONTROLLED THYRISTOR(MCT)

The MOS-controlled thyristor is thyristor like and can be triggered on or off by a


pulse to the MOSFET gate. Since the input is MOS technology, there is very little current
flow, allowing for very low power control signals. The device is constructed with two
MOSFET inputs and a pair of BJT output stages. Input MOSFETs are configured to allow
turn on control during positive and negative half cycles. The output BJTs are configured to
allow for bidirectional control and low voltage reverse blocking. Some benefits to the MCT
are fast switching frequencies, fairly high voltage and medium current ratings (around
100 A or so).

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INTEGRATED GATE-COMMUTATED THYRISTOR(IGCT)

Similar to a GTO, but without the high current requirements to turn on or off the
load. The IGCT can be used for quick switching with little gate current. The devices high
input impedance largely because of the MOSFET gate drivers. They have low resistance
outputs that don't waste power and very fast transient times that rival that of BJTs. ABB
has published data sheets for these devices and provided descriptions of the inner workings.
The device consists of a gate, with an optically isolated input, low on resistance BJT output
transistors which lead to a low voltage drop and low power loss across the device at fairly
high switching voltage and current levels.
An example of this new device from ABB shows how this device improves on GTO
technology for switching high voltage and high current in power electronics applications.
According to ABB, the IGCT devices are capable of switching in excess of 5000 VAC and
5000 A at very high frequencies, something not possible to do efficiently with GTO
devices.

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CHAPTER-4

DC-DC CONVERTER
4.1 TYPES OF DC-DC CONVERTER

DC-DC converter is an electrical circuit whose main application is to transform a dc


voltage from one level to another level. It is similar to a transformer in AC source, it can
able to step the voltage level up or down. The variable dc voltage level can be regulated by
controlling the duty ratio (on-off time of a switch) of the converter.

There are various types of dc-dc converters that can be used to transform the level of
the voltage as per the supply availability and load requirement. Some of them are discussed
below.

1. Buck converter
2. Boost converter
3. Buck-Boost converter

Each of them is explained below.

4.1.1 BUCK CONVERTER:

The functionality of a buck converter is to reduce the voltage level. The circuit
diagram of the buck converter is manifested in figure 4.1.

Fig. 4.1 circuit diagram of buck converter

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

When the switching element is in state of conduction the voltage appearing across
the load is Vin and the current is supplied from source to load. When the switch is off the
load voltage is zero and the direction of current remains the same. As the power flows from
source side to load side, the load side voltage remains less than the source side voltage. The
output voltage is determined as a function of source voltage using the duty ratio of the gate
pulse given to the switch. It is the product of the duty ratio and the input voltage

4.1.2 BOOST CONVERTER:

The functionality of boost converter is to increase the voltage level. The circuit
configuration of the boost converter is manifested in figure 4.2.

Fig. 4.2 circuit diagram of boost converter

The current carried by the inductor starts rising and it stores energy during ON time
of the switching element. The circuit is said to be in charging state. During OFF condition,
the reserve energy of the inductor starts dissipating into the load along with the supply. The
output voltage level exceeds that of the input voltage and is dependent on the inductor time
constant. The load side voltage is the ratio of source side voltage and the duty ratio of the
switching device.

4.1.3 BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER:

The functionality of a buck-boost converter is to set the level of load side voltage to
Either greater than or less than that of the source side voltage. The circuit configuration of
the buck-boost converter is manifested in figure 4.3.

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

Fig. 4.3 circuit diagram of buck-boost converter

When the switches are in the state of conduction, the current carried by the inductor
starts rising and it stores energy. The circuit is said to be in charging state. While the
switches are in the OFF state, this stored energy of the inductor is dissipated to the load
through the diodes. The output voltage can be varied based on the On-time of the switches.

The buck-boost converter acts as both buck and boost converters depending on the
duty cycle of the switches. For the duty ratio less than 50% it acts as a buck converter and
for the duty ratio exceeds than 50% it acts as boost converter.

As the voltage can be stepped both up and down, we use buck-boost converter for
our convenience in our work.

4.1.4 THE SEPIC CONVERTER

The previous chapter discussed the single stage conversion Buck and Boost
converters along with the two-stage Buck-Boost converter. This chapter offers a few
additional topologies.

Fig.4.4 basic converter: BUCK converter

Buck converter is that of a basic Buck converter. From the voltage source C1 , the
converter charges the current sink constituted by the inductor-diode (L-D). The current is
further converted into voltage without a switching stage (amplification) at C 2. The

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

canonical switching cell is approached if the capacitors C1 and C2 are combined to be


represented by a single capacitor C. the basic building block of DC-DC converters. The
Boost converter is realized if the positions of D and T are interchanged. Now power flows
in from the right. Here, the energy stored in the inductor during each ON period of switch
T is transferred to the Capacitor during its OFF period.

The CUK converter as the dual of the Buck-Boost converter has current input and
current output stages. The basic SEPIC is a modification of the basic Boost and the CuK
topologies. Consider the Boost converter. At steady state, the average voltage across the
input inductor is zero. Equating the inductor voltages for the period when the switch T is
ON with that when it is OFF,

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

CHAPTER-5

WIND POWER SYSTEM

5.1 HISTORY
Some 5000 years ago, firstly wind power was used to navigate ships in the Nile.
The Europeans used it to pump water and grind grains in 1700s and 1800s.The first
windmill which generated electricity was installed in 1890 in U.S. A grid connected wind
turbine generator with a capacity of as 2 MW was commissioned in 1979 on Howard Knob
Mountain nearby Boon. A 3-MW turbine was commissioned in 1988 on Berger Hill in
Orkney, Scotland. The electric power developed from wind is used in lighting the buildings
which are at remote places and not connected to the grid. Today wind power generators are
available in small size suitable for standalone system and larger utility-generators that could
be connected to the electricity grids. In 2003, the worldwide wind power capacity was about
39,294 MW and India wind power capacity was 1550 MW.

5.2 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION


The schematic diagram of the wind energy system is manifested in figure below.

GEAR GENERA MPPT


BOX TOR
DC-DC

BI-DIRECTIONAL
BATTERY LOAD
CONVERTER

Fig. 5.1 Overall Block diagram of wind energy system

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This system comprises of a wind turbine which transforms winds kinetic energy into
rotating motion, a gear box to match the turbine speed to generator speed, a generator which
converts mechanical energy into electrical energy, a rectifier which converts ac voltage to
dc, a controllable dc-dc converter to trace the maximum power point, a battery is charged
and discharged through bi-directional converter.

5.3 WIND TURBINE


Generally a wind turbine consists of a set of rotor blades rotating around a hub, a
gearbox-generator set placed inside the nacelle. The basic components of a wind turbine
system are shown in figure below.

Blade

Wind

Gearbox

Nacelle

Hub

Tower

Control

Foundation

Fig. 5.2 Major turbine components

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

Based on axes the wind turbines are categorized into two kinds: the vertical axis wind
turbine and the horizontal axis wind turbine.

5.3.1 MODELING OF WIND TURBINES

A wind turbine converts kinetic energy of air i.e. wind power into mechanical power
i.e. rotating motion of the turbine that can be used directly to run the machine or generator.
Power captured by wind turbine blade is a concomitant of the blade shape, the pitch angle,
speed of rotation, radius of the rotor . The equation for the power generated is shown below.

1
PM 2 CP , R2V 3
Where
PM Power captured by wind turbine
Air density

Pitch angle (in degrees)


R Blade radius (in meters)
V Wind speed (in m/s)
The term is the tip-speed ratio, given by the equation

R
V
Where
- Rotor speed of rotation (in rad/sec)

CP can be expressed as the function of the tip-speed ratio ( )

16.5
1 116 1
CP
2 0.4 5 exp

1

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid




1
1 1 0.035
3
0.089 1

Where
CP Wind turbine power coefficient
Tip- speed ratio

1Constant

5.4 GENERATOR
The shaft of the wind turbine is mechanically coupled to the rotor shaft of the
generator, so that the mechanical power developed by the wind turbine.(by kinetic energy
to mechanical energy conversion) is transmitted to the rotor shaft. This rotor structure has
a rotor winding (either field or armature).In both the cases, we get a moving conductor in
a stationary magnetic field or a stationary conductor in moving magnetic field. In either
case, electric voltage is generated by the generator principle.

5.4.1 TYPES OF GENERATORS

Generators can be basically classified on the type of current. There are alternating
current generators and direct current generators. But in either case, the voltage generated is
alternating. By adding a commutator, we convert it to direct current. So for convenience,
we go for alternating current generator.

In the AC generators, we can further classify them based on the rotor speed. There
are synchronous generators (constant speed machine) and asynchronous generators
(variable speed machine or the induction machine).

In the synchronous generators we have salient pole rotor and the cylindrical (non-
salient pole) rotor. Based on the speed requirement/availability, we can go for cylindrical
rotor for high-speeds and salient pole rotor for low speeds.

Another classification is based on the magnetic field. The magnetism can be done
by either permanent magnet or an electro-magnet. In order to reduce the supply

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

requirement, we go for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) for the
power generation using wind energy.

An induction motor running with negative slip can operate as an induction


generator. But this generator is not self-exciting and this has to be excited by a source of
fixed frequency. It already needs an exciter for stator. So this machine has to be fed by two
supplies and hence it is called doubly fed induction machine or generator.

So doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and permanent magnet synchronous


generator (PMSG) are suitable for wind power generation. We are using PMSG in our
work.

5.4.2 PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR

A synchronous machine generates power in large amounts and has its field on the
rotor and the armature on the stator. The rotor may be of salient pole type or cylindrical
type.

In the permanent magnet synchronous generator, the magnetic field is obtained by


using a permanent magnet, but not an electromagnet. The field flux remains constant in
this case and the supply required to excite the field winding is not necessary and slip
rings Are not required. All the other things remain the same as normal synchronous
Generator.

The EMF generated by a synchronous generator is given as follows

E 4.44 f t

Where,

F is the frequency

is the flux

t is the number of turns

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5.5 MPPT OF WIND POWER

Wind power verses wind speed characteristics of wind power system is shown in fig
below
W

P
n
d

o
i

Pmax


Wind speed (rad/sec)

Fig. 5.3 Power vs. speed characteristics of wind turbine

At maximum power point


dp
0
d

From chain rule

dP dP dD dV d
W e d dD
dVW de d

Where
P Wind power
Rotor speed
e Generator- phase voltage angular speed.

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

VW Rectifier output voltage D

Duty cycle of converter


For buck-boost converter
V
1 D W
D V
0

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

CHAPTER-6
BATTERY CHARGING

6.1 INTRODUCTION

Battery is a storage device which is stores the excess power generated and uses it
to supply the load in addition to the generators when power is required. Both PV and wind
energy systems (described in the previous chapters) are integrated i.e. connected to a
common DC bus of constant voltage and the battery bank is also connected to the DC bus.
Any power transfer whether from generator to battery bank or generator to load or from
the battery bank to the load takes place via this constant voltage DC bus. As the power flow
associated with the battery is not uni-directional, a bidirectional converter is needed to
charge and/or discharge the battery in case of excess and/or deficit of power respectively.

6.2 BI-DIRECTIONAL DC-DC CONVERTERS

Bi-directional DC-DC converters are called so due to their ability of allowing the
power flow in both the directions, depending on the requirement. There are many
applications for the bidirectional converter such as Hybrid Vehicles, Uninterruptable Power
Supplies (UPS) and also storage systems powered by Fuel cells and also renewable energy
systems

6.2.1 CLASSIFICATION

Based on the isolation between the input and output side, the bidirectional
converters are classified into two types. They are

1. Non Isolated type

2. Isolated type

6.2.1.1 NON-ISOLATED BI-DIRECTIONAL DC-DC CONVERTERS

A basic non-isolated bidirectional converter can be derived from the unidirectional


converters by using bi-directional switches. Basic buck and boost converters do not allow

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The bidirectional power flow due to the presence of the diodes that are
unidirectional devices. This problem can be solved by using a MOSFET or IGBT with an
anti-parallel diode which allows flow of current in both the directions.

The various non-isolated type bidirectional DC-DC converters are

1. Multilevel converter
2. Switched capacitor converter
3. Cuk/Cuk type
4. Sepic/Zeta type
5. Buck-Boost converter
6. Coupled inductor converter
7. Three-level converter

6.2.1.2 ISOLATED BIDIRECTIONAL DC-DC CONVERTERS

The isolated type converters can operate in wide power ranges. The electrical
isolation is achieved by using a power transformer in the circuit. But the transformer
operates only for AC supply. Introducing AC link in the circuit increases the complexity
of the circuit. Based on the configuration, the isolated bidirectional DC-DC converters can
be categorized into two types:
1. A current fed isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter

2. A voltage fed isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter

The various isolated type bidirectional converters are:

1. Fly-back converter

2. Forward fly-back converter


3. Half bridge converter

4. Full bridge converter

6.3 BI-DIRECTIONAL CONVERTER FOR BATTERY CHARGING

As mentioned earlier, the bidirectional converter has many applications and here in
the work, the converter is used for charging and discharging the battery based on the surplus
and deficit of the power respectively.

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

When there is a surplus of energy, i.e. the supply is greater than demand then the
battery is charged, allowing the converter to operate in forward direction. When there is a
deficit in power i.e. the supply is less than demand then the battery starts discharging
supplying the deficit of power to the load. This requires the converter to operate in reverse
direction. Charging/discharging of the battery is done by the help of a bidirectional
converter [20].

Fig. 6.1 Circuit diagram of the bidirectional converter

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CHAPTER-7

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

7.1 RESULTS

Fig .7.1 proposed system

The proposed multi-input rectifier stage can support individual as well as


simultaneous operation. The specifications for the design example are given in TABLE
I.Figure 10 illustrates the system under the condition where thewind source has failed and
only the PV source (Cuk converter mode) is supplying power to the load. Figure 11
illustrates the system where only the wind turbine generates power to the load (SEPIC
converter mode). Finally, Figure 12 illustrates the simultaneous operation (Cuk-SEPIC
fusion mode) of the two sources where M2 has a longer conduction cycle.

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

Fig .7.2 The single phase generated output

Fig .7.3 Solar MPPT PV output current and reference Current signal

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

Fig. 7.4 Wind MPPT Generator speed and reference speed signal

Fig 7.5 Control circuit

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

Fig 7.6 Pv module output voltage

Fig .7.7 wind output voltage

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A hybrid Wind-solar energy system using Double port Interface in micro Grid

CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSIONS

PV cell, module and array are simulated and effect of environmental


conditions on their characteristics is studied Wind energy system has been studied and
simulated Maximum power point of operation is tracked for both the systems using P&O
algorithm Both the systems are integrated and the hybrid system is used for battery charging
and discharging

8.1 FUTURE SCOPE

MPP can be tracked using different algorithms

Battery charge controller can be designed for more reliable operation and better
battery life

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References
1.1 S.A. Papathanassiou, G.A. Vukas and M.P. Papadopoulos, USE OF POWER ELECTRONICS
CONVERTERS IN WIND AND PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS, Proceedings of IEEE
International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, July, 1995
1.2 F. Blaabjerg, Zhe Che and S.B. Kjaer, Power Electronics as Efficient Interface in Dispersed
Power Generation Systems, IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics,
1.3 J.M. Carrasco, L.G. Franquelo, J.T. Bialasiewicz, E. Galvan, R.C. Portillo Guisado, M.A.
Partin Prats, J.I. Leon and M. Moreno-Alfonso, Power-Electronics Systems for Grid Integration of
Renewable Energy Sources: A survey, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics,
1.4 R. Bilinton and R. Karki, Capacity Expansion of Small Isolated Power Systems Using PV and
Wind Energy, IEEE Transaction on Power Systems,
1.5 R. W. Erickson, Some Topologies of High Quality Rectifiers in the Proc. of the First
International Conference..
1.6 D. S. L. Simonetti, J. Sebastian, and J. Uceda, The Discontinuous Conduction Mode
Sepic and Cuk Power Factor

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