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Ocean

Engineering Notes.

Compiled
by

Ian S. Coote

Part 3

Handbook
for
Ocean Cable Engineering.

Volume 2

Cable Laying and Recovery Calculations.


1st. Edition.

This compilation

Copyright 2009 by Ian S. Coote.

Neither Ian S. Coote, or any of his associates


makes any warranty, express or implied,
or assumes any legal liability or responsibility
for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of
any information, apparatus, product or process
disclosed, or represents that its use would not
infringe privately-owned rights.
Page i

Contents.

Page No.

1. Introduction. 1

1.1 General. 1
1.2 Units. 1

2. General Solution of the Stationary Two-dimensional 2


Model for Cable laying and Recovery.

2.1 Basic Assumptions. 2


2.2 Solution. 2

3. Cable Laying Mechanics. 7

3.1 Steady State Laying on a Flat Bottom. 7


3.2 Normal Drag Force and the Cable Angle ! . 9
3.3 Tangential Drag Force. 11
3.4 Sinking Velocities and Their Relationship to Drag Forces. 12
3.5 Approximate Transient Solution for laying on a Flat 14
Bottom and Negative Slack Effects.
3.6 Laying on a Sloping Bottom. 20
3.6.1 Cable Configuration. 21
3.6.2 Cable Tension. 25
3.6.3 Suspended Cable during Laying. 25
3.6.4 Residual Suspensions. 27
3.7 Laying in a Cross Current. 27
3.8 Tensions Caused by Ship Motions. 32
3.8.1 General Theory. 32
3.8.2 Steady-state Laying or Recovering in a Regular Seaway. 35
3.8.3 Sudden Stop in Pay-out During Laying. 37
3.9 Cable Laying Control and Slack Requirements. 37
3.9.1 Cable Laying Control. 37
3.9.2 Slack Requirement. 40
3.9.2.1 Slack in System Design. 40
3.9.2.2 Slack in Laying 41
3.9.2.3 Determination of Slack. 42

4. Cable Recovery Mechanics. 43

4.1 Cable Grappling. 43


4.2 Raising the Cable Bight to the Surface. 59
4.3 Mechanics of Cable Recovery. 63
4.3.1 Cable Configuration during Recovery. 63
4.3.2 Cable Tension during Recovery. 65
4.4 Cable Torque during the Recovery of Armored Cable. 69
4.4.1 Introduction. 69
4.4.2 Optimum Recovery Conditions. 70
4.4.3 Torque Transfer during Recovery. 71
Page ii

Contents ( Continued ).

Page No.

4.5 Standing to a Cable End. 75


4.5.1 Suspended Cable Configuration. 75
4.5.2 Picking-up Additional Cable. 80
4.5.3 Movement of a Cable Ship Standing-to a Cable End. 84
4.5.4 Holding and Wave Motion Effects. 91

5. Hydrodynamic Properties of Cables. 93

5.1 Drag Forces. 93


5.2 Determination of Transverse Hydrodynamic Properties. 94
5.3 Determination of Cable Incidence Angle using a Sextant. 97

6. Ocean Cable Properties. 98

6.1 Cable Structural Features. 98


6.2 Cable Mechanical Properties. 106
6.2.1 Cable Breaking Strength. 106
6.2.2 Cable Twist ( Tension-torque Relationship ). 106
6.2.3 Cable Elongation ( Tension-torque Relationship ). 109
6.2.4 Cable Bending Stiffness. 111

Appendices.

A. Discussion of the Two-dimensional Stationary A1


Configuration for Zero bottom Tension.

B. Some Approximate Solutions for Laying and Recovery. A5

B.1 Laying. A5
B.2 Recovery. A9

C. Analysis of the Effect of Ship Motion. A11

C.1 Formulation of the Differential Equations. A11


C.2 Perturbation Equations. A15
C.3 Solution of the Perturbation Equations. A17
C.4 Transverse Response. A19
C.5 Second-order Longitudinal Response. A20
C.6 Numerical Results. A24

D. Tension Rise with Time for Suspended Cable. A26

D.1 Formulation of the Solution of the Problem. A26


D.2 Nomograph ( Alignment Chart ) for the Solution of A29
Equation D.1.5.
D.3 Numerical Example. A34
Page iii

Contents ( Continued ).

Page No.

E. Three-dimensional Stationary Model. A35

E.1 General. A35


E.2 Derivation of the Differential Equation. A38
E.3 Perturbation Solution for a Uniform Cross Current. A42

F. Catenary Configurations for Steady-state Conditions. A45

F.1 Basic Catenary Equations. A45


F.2 Non-dimensional Cable Equations. A46
F.3 Slack Calculations. A48
F.4 Derivation of Ship Movement Equations. A49

G. Normal Drag Coefficient and Hydrodynamic Constant. A53

G.1 General. A53


G.2 Calculations. A53
G.3 Normal Drag Coefficients and Hydrodynamic Constants for A55
Various Ocean Cables.
Page iv

Figures.

Page No.

2.2(a) Definition of the coordinates for the two- 3


dimensional stationary model.

2.2(b) Diagram of the forces acting on a cable 3


element.

3.1(a) Forces acting on a cable in normal laying. 7

3.2(a) Variation of the critical angle ! with 11


approximate critical angle ! 0 ( after Zajac ).

3.4(a) Illustration of the vertical sinking rates. 14

3.5(a) Variation of " and # with the critical angle 17


! ( after Zajac ).
3.5(b) Cable geometry of a time t after the onset of 18
negative slack.

3.6.1(a) Cable geometry during straight-line descent 21


and ascent laying.

3.6.1(b) Kinematics of straight-line descent laying. 22

3.6.3(a) Cable suspended while descent laying. 26

3.7(a) Vector diagram showing the resultant velocity 28


on the cable due to cross current.

3.7(b) Distance the laid cable is offset from ships 29


path ( after Zajac ).

3.7(c) Distance behind the ship at which the cable 30


enters the lower stratum.

3.8.1(a) Longitudinal and transverse components 33


P0 and Q0 of ship motion.

3.8.1(b) Variation of half-life distance of SB Type D 33


cable with the period of ship motion ( after
Zajac ).

3.9.1(a) Variation of the shipboard tension with per cent 38


slack for laying SB Type D cable at ship speed
of 6 knots in a depth of two n. miles ( after
Zajac ).
Page v

Figures ( Continued ).

Page No.

4.1(a) Configuration of components during grappling. 44

4.2(a) A cable bight being lifted off the bottom. 60

4.2(b) Cable angle versus per cent slack for various 61


values of bottom friction for an inextensible
cable ( after Gretter ).

4.2(c) Dimensionless tension, dimensionless grapnel 62


force, and grapnel force-cable tension ratio
versus cable angle ( after Gretter ).

4.3.1(a) Recovery of an ocean cable. 64

4.3.1(b) Forces acting on a unit length of cable during 64


recovery.

4.3.2(a) Variation of the tension factor for recovery with 66


critical angle ! ( after Zajac ).

4.3.2(b) Variation of the horizontal distance to the 67


touchdown point during recovery with the
critical angle ! ( after Zajac ).

4.3.2(c) Variation of the distance along the cable to 67


touchdown point during recovery with the
critical angle ! ( after Zajac ).

4.4.2(a) Desired tension, torque, and twist per unit 71


length relationships during recovery.

4.4.3(a) Cable tension, torque, and twist per unit 72


length before commencing recovery.

4.4.3(b) Steady-state tension, torque, and twist per 73


unit length ( No twisting by bow sheaves ).

4.5.1(a) Cable ship standing to a cable end. 75

4.5.1(b) Relationship between distance to touchdown 77


point and length of suspended cable to cable
angle at the surface ! s , for cable ship
standing-to a cable end.

4.5.1(c) The relationship between cable angle at the 78


surface, ! s , and the cable tension at the ship,
Ts , the weight per unit length of the cable in
water, w , and the bottom depth, h .
Page vi

Figures ( Continued ).

Page No.

4.5.2(a) Picking-up cable with the ship stationary. 80

4.5.3(a) Movement of a cable ship standing-to a cable 84


end.

4.5.3(a)(i) Relationship between ship movement d h and 87


cable tension at the ship Ts wh for various
values of slack $ for a rough bottom ( = % )

4.5.3(a)(ii) Relationship between ship movement d h and 88


cable tension at the ship Ts wh for various
values of slack $ for a smooth bottom with
coefficient of friction = 0.2 .

4.5.3(a)(iii) Relationship between ship movement d h and 89


cable tension at the ship Ts wh for various
values of slack $ for a for a smooth bottom with
coefficient of friction = 0.5 .

4.5.3(a)(iv) Relationship between ship movement d h and 90


cable tension at the ship Ts wh for various
values of slack $ for a for a smooth bottom with
coefficient of friction = 1.0 .

5.2(a) Variation of CD with wd for towed cables of 95


smooth exterior ( after Zajac ).

6.1(a) Structural features of deep water ocean cables. 99

6.1(b) Structural features of shallow water ocean cables. 104

6.2.2(a) Cable tension-twist relationship ( cable end 108


unrestrained ) for SD List 1 and List 3BJ cables.

6.2.2(b) Cable tension-twist relationship ( cable end 108


restrained ) for SD List 1 and List 3BJ cables.

6.2.3(a) SD cable elongation, restrained ( & =0 ) and 110


unrestrained ( M t =0 ).

6.2.4(a) Cable bending stiffness. 111

A(a) Qualitative representation of the solution A2


trajectories of the two-dimensional stationary
model.
Page vii

Figures ( Continued ).

Page No.

C.1(a) Model used for the analysis of ship motion. A11

C.1(b) Diagram of forces acting on a cable element in A12


air and in water.

C.6(a) Variation of the transverse motion tension of A24


SB Type D cable with the period of ship motion.

D.1(a) Coordinates for the analysis of tension rise A26


when a cable is completely suspended.

D.2(a) Nomograph for the solution of equation D.1.5. A31

cosh '
D.2(b) Variation of with '. A32
& (' )

&3 (' )
D.2(c) Variation of sin ! with '. A33
&2 (' )

E.1(a) Plan view of the coordinate system for the A36


three-dimensional stationary model.

E.1(b) definition of the spherical coordinates


! ! ! ( A36
and ) and the unit vectors t, u , v .

F.1(a) Cable suspended in the form of a catenary. A46


Page viii

Tables.

Page No.

4.1(a) Estimation of Grappling Bottom Tensions. 45


Table of Ropes & Chains.

4.1(b) Estimation of Grappling Bottom Tensions. 46


Table of Grapnels.

4.1(c) Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth 47


and Ship Speed.

5.2(a) SD Hydrodynamic trial results. 98

G.3(a) Values of Drag Coefficients and Hydrodynamic A55


Constants for Various Ocean Cables.
Page ix

Sources of Material Used.

The following are the identifiable sources from which the material used in this volume has
been derived.

Chapters, Sections.

E. E. Zajac; Dynamics and Kinematics of the Laying and 2, 3, A, B, C, D, E


Recovery of Submarine Cable.
BSTJ, September 1957.

Bell Telephone Laboratory; Submarine Cable Mechanisms 4, 5, 6


and Recommended Laying Procedures, Issue 1
August 1, 1964.*

Ian S. Coote 4.5, F

T. C. Chu & H. C. Chandan; Determination of Fiber Proof-Test 4.3.2, 4.5.4


Stress for Undersea Lightguide Cable
AT&T Technical Journal, Vol. 64, No. 4, April 1985.

Simplex Undersea Cable SL COMMUNICATION CABLE (1999). G

Alcatel, OALC-7 Type 50 and Type 51 Submarine Cables, G


April 2001

Validation of a Real Time Cable Deployment Control System for G


Slack Cable Laying, J.M. Andres, S>R> Jefferies, and
G. Gillenwaters. 1993 IEEE.

* Believed to be the correct title of this source.


Page x
Page 1

1. Introduction.

1.1 General.

This part of the handbook presents the calculations used in the normal working of ocean
cables. The calculations cover laying, grappling, recovery and standing-to a cable end. For
specialized working of ocean cables, these calculations can be used as a base from which any
new calculations can be developed. Supporting information is given on ocean cable
hydrodynamics and the effects of the cable structure.

The appendices give the mathematical basis from which the calculations are derived.

The calculations are based on the classical analysis of the working of ocean cables by Zajac
and others, updated to include more recent work. It should be noted that many of the
calculations have simplifications to allow easy calculation by hand, and many of the results
are in graphical form. However given that cable working has some degree of uncertainty due to
its nature, and that these calculations have stood the test of time, the simplifications have
proven acceptable.

1.2 Units.

The units used in this part are the same as those used in Zajacs original work, that is English
gravitational units. The fathom is now an archaic unit but was widely used at the time of the
initial work, and for practical purposes can be considered as 1/1000 of a n. mile. The Metric
units normally used in cable working can be gravitational or SI units. Given that in most cases
the calculations would now be done on a computer, and the units to be used would be selected
when using the program(s), there is no pressing need to rationalize the units to either
standard English or Metric units.
Page 2

2. General Solution of the Stationary Two-dimensional Model


for Cable Laying and Recovery.

This chapter contains the formulation of the basic model from which the majority of the
calculations used for cable laying and repair are derived. The basic assumptions used are
presented in Section 2.1 and the solution of the model in Section 2.2.

2.1 Basic Assumptions.

The analysis like most analysis of physical problems, are based on idealizations or
mathematical models of the actual physical system. The extent of the validity of these models
must be ultimately determined by experiment and experience. However, we shall try give the
user of this manual indication of when they are clearly applicable and when they are not.

In the model we consider there are two basic idealizations, namely:

(1) No bending stiffness in the cable, ie, it is a perfectly flexible string.

(2) The average forward speed of the ship is constant.

Bending effects are caused by locally large curvatures, and are significant mainly where the
cable leaves the pay out sheaves and at the ocean bottom. However, for a cable with a steel
strength member, bending, even to the small radius of the pay out sheave, typically does not
materially reduce the tension required to break the cable. Hence, in these cases we can expect
an analysis based on the first idealization to give a reasonable idea of when cable rupture will
occur. In laying, ship speeds are normally steady, and with the exception of the fluctuations
caused by wave action which are considered in a later chapter. The second idealization for
cable is also reasonable. In recovery, on the other hand, ship speeds are apt not to be steady,
and the second idealization is more tenuous. But because of the very slow speeds usually
employed, this idealization may in fact be meaningful in recovery as well.

2.2 Solution.

Assume that each cable element is traveling along the stationary cable configuration with
constant speed Vc . Starting at the ocean bottom let s be the are length along the stationary

configuration. We define s to be positive in the direction opposite to the direction of travel of


Page 3

the cable elements. So as figure 2.2(a) indicates, in laying, positive s is directed from the
ocean bottom toward the ship, while in recovery the situation is reversed. We let ! be the
angle between the positive s direction and the direction of the ship velocity.

V V

#s
Recovery Laying
y !
Vc Vc

s x

Figure 2.2(a) Definition of the coordinates for the


two-dimensional stationary model.

2 d!
Vc
ds

T +"T
n "!
"s
! Vt VN
!
T Dt " s Dn " s V
w"s

Fig. 2.2(b) Diagram of the forces acting on a


cable element.
Page 4

Figure 2.2(b) shows the forces acting on an element of the cable, with tension at the point s
being denoted by T. The normal drag force per unit length DN may be written in the form:

CD $ VN VN d
DN =
2

Where CD is the transverse drag coefficient of the cable, $ the fluid mass density, VN the

fluid velocity normal to the cable and d the cable diameter. VN is used to give DN the

proper sign for all ! . Using the relationship VN = V sin ! , we get:

CD $ V 2 d
DN = sin! sin ! (2.2.1)
2

We note that if the pay out speed Vc is greater than or equal to the ship speed V , then the
tangential velocity:

Vt =V c % cos! & 0 (2.2.2)

Hence in normal laying and recovery the unit tangential force DT is always in the positive s
direction.

Vc d! ds. Hence, summing


2
The forces acting on an element produce a centrifugal acceleration

forces along the directions t (tangential), then n (normal), dividing by " s and sending " !
to zero, we obtain:

d! C $V 2 d
( T -$ V )
c c
2

ds
+ D
2
sin ! sin ! % wcos! = 0 (a)

(2.2.3)
dT
+ DT % wsin ! = 0 (b)
ds

Where $c is the mass density per unit length of the cable.

It is seen that ! =# is a solution of 2.2.3(a). This is the straight line solution which is

discussed in section 3.1.


Page 5

If ! '# and DT varies only with Vt we may divide 2.2.3(b) into 2.2.3(a) and integrate to

obtain the solution for T in the following form:

( T - $ c Vc 2 + ! ( w sin. % DT )
ln * 2- = / d.
( )
(a)
) T0 % $c Vc , !0 w cos. % sin. sin .

(2.2.4)

C D $V cos#
2

0= = (b)
2w sin2 #

Where T0 is the tension corresponding to the angle !0 .

At the cable touchdown point on the ocean bottom only two conditions are possible. If the
angle ! is not zero or 1 there, the cable tension T must be zero. Otherwise a finite tension
would act on an infinite length of cable, producing an infinite acceleration. Hence, either the
tension T must be zero or the angle ! must be zero or 1. The first case normally implies a
straight-line configuration, which has already been discussed. In the other cases, we define
T0 as the tension at the touchdown point, and we let !0 be zero or 1, whichever is

appropriate.

If x, y are the coordinates in the translating ( x, y ) frame of a point along the cable

configuration, then:

dx=ds cos !

dy=ds sin !

Combining these relations with 2.2.3(a), we have:

!
( T- $ V ) 2

/ w ( cos . % 0sin. sin . ) d.


c c
s= (a)
!0

!
( T - $ V ) cos.
2

/ w ( cos . % 0sin. sin . ) d.


c c
x= (b) (2.2.5)
!0
Page 6

!
( T % $ V ) sin .
2

/ w ( cos . % 0sin. sin . ) d.


c c
y= (c)
!0

Equations 2.2.4 and 2.2.5 are an integral representation of the complete solution of the basic
two-dimensional model. In general, the integrals appearing in these equations cannot be
evaluated in terms of elementary functions, and the solution must be obtained by numerical
integration. For ocean cable problems, other approximations allow more convenient ways of
evaluating the integrals 2.2.4 and 2.2.5.

For example, it is more accurate simply to assume that DT is zero. As we indicate in Section

5, this approximation gives negligible deviation from the exact solution if the relative
tangential velocity VT is small. Furthermore, in this situation we obtain from 2.2.3(b):

dT dy
= w sin! = w ,
ds ds

and hence the tension at the ship Ts is very nearly :

Ts = T0 + w h (2.2.6)

Where h is the depth at the touchdown point. Thus if the tangential force is negligible, the
tension at the ship is essentially the bottom tension plus w h, regardless of the nature of the

normal drag forces. This also applies in the three dimensional case as well.

Note: When standing to a cable end ( Section 4.5 ), i.e. the cable shape is a catenary due to the
ship being stationary, this relationship is not accurate enough.
Page 7

3. Cable Laying Mechanics.

This chapter contains the methods for calculating the loads and cable configurations that
occur during the laying of ocean cables. The sections cover steady-state laying on flat and
sloping bottoms, cable drag forces and sinking velocities, transient effects, ship motions,
cross currents, cable laying control and slack requirements.

3.1 Steady State Cable Laying on a Flat Bottom.

The steady state model for laying cable on a flat bottom represents the normal condition for
cable laying. with sufficient slack to maintain the tension at the bottom equal to zero.

We assume that the cable ship is sailing with constant speed, the cable pay-out rate is
constant and the drag of the water on the cable depends only on the relative velocity between
the water and the cable. The frame of reference translates with the ship and the cable
configuration is time independent or stationary.

The solution to these conditions is that the cable is paid out in a straight line from the cable
ship to the bottom. That the straight line is a possible configuration can be seen from figure
3.1(a).

V Ts

#
VN =V cos #
Vt =V sin #
Vt VN
#
DN
Dt V
w

Fig. 3.1(a) Forces acting on a cable in normal laying.


Page 8

In the vector diagram the velocity of the water with respect to the cable is resolved into a
component VN , normal to the cable and a component VT , tangential to it. Associated with VN
and VT are drag forces DN and DT . In the straight line configuration the cable inclination is

such that DN just balances the normal component of the cable weight forces. Summing forces

in the normal direction we get:

w cos# = DN (3.1.1)

while the summation in the tangential direction gives for Ts , the tension at the ship:

Ts = w L sin# % DT L (3.1.2)

Here w is the weight per unit length of the cable, # the cables angle of incidence, DN and

DT the normal and tangential drag forces per unit length of the cable, and L is the inclined

length of the cable. For most ocean cables used concurrently, the force DT L is negligible and

we arrive at:

Ts 2 w L sin# = w h (3.1.3)

where h is the ocean depth at the cable touchdown point. Hence during slack laying, the cable
tension at the ship is very nearly equal to the weight in water of a length of cable equal to the
ocean depth.

By following a cable element during the laying operation, the time-dependent tension T( t )
experienced by the element is given by:

wh h
T( t ) = w h % t, 0 3t 3 (3.1.4)
( h + V tan #
* -
) V tan# ,

Where t is the elapsed time after the cable element leaves the ship and enters the water, and
h V tan # is the time for cable element to travel from the surface to the bottom. At normal
laying speeds in deeper waters, the effect of ship motion and repeater weight are small.

The straight line solution is the simplest and probably the most important from the two
dimensional model.
Page 9

3.2 Normal Drag Force and the Cable Angle #.

The resistance at sufficiently slow speeds to the flow of a fluid around an immersed body
varies as the square of the fluid velocity. This relationship is usually written:

$V N 2 d
DN = CD (3.2.1)
2
where DN is the normal drag force per unit length, CD the normal drag coefficient, $ the

mass density of the fluid and d the diameter of the cable. For the straight-line configuration,
the vector diagram in figure 3.1(a) shows that:

VN = V sin# (3.2.2)

Substituting 3.1.1 and 3.1.2 into 3.2.1 yields:

$V 2 d
w cos# = C D sin2 # (3.2.3)
2

The determination of CD is described in Section 5. The original techniques for determining

CD using towed lengths of cable have been shown to be inaccurate and should only be used if

no other data is available and consideration should be given to corrections along the lines of
those in Section 5.

Although the drag coefficient CD is a fundamental hydrodynamic parameter, it is not the

most convenient description of the effect of the normal component of water velocity. For small
values of the incidence angle #:

cos# 2 1
sin # 2 # ( in radians )

and 3.2.3 is approximately :

2w
#0 V = (3.2.4)
CD $ d
Page 10

where #0 is the approximate value for # . The quantity 2w CD $ d is a constant for a given

cable. It brings together all the basic parameters which influence the magnitude of the
incidence angle #. If the angle # for a given speed is determined accurately with a sextant
during laying, this quantity is easily computed. Because of its importance it is known as the
hydrodynamic constant of the cable and is denoted by H , namely:

2w
H = const (3.2-5)
CD $ d

where H is in degree knots and the constant is equal to:

( 180 1.689 1 2 57.3 1.689 ) to correct for units.

Now from 3.2.4 and 3.2.5 we may write:

#0 V = H

with #0 in degrees and V in knots. The constant H rather than the drag coefficient is used in

cable work.

Where the approximate relationship 3.2.6 is not valid, # can be obtained by solving 3.2.3.
This gives:

1+ 14 ( H * V ) % 12 ( H * V )
4 2
cos# = (3.2-7)

where H * = H 1 180

In terms of #0 we obtain in turn:

1+ 14 ( # 0 1 180 ) % 12 ( # 0 1 180 )
4 2
cos# = (3.2.8)
Page 11

80

60

# 40
in degrees

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
# 0 in degrees

Fig. 3.2(a) Variation of actual critical angle #


with approximate critical angle # 0
( after Zajac ).

This relationship is shown in figure 3.2(a) where the incidence angle # is plotted as a

function of the approximate incidence angle #0 . It is seen that for # <20 0 the difference

between # and #0 is negligible.

Physically # as given by 3.2.7 is the angle the cable assumes in the straight line shape for

velocity V. However in addition, 3.2.7 shows that # can be used as a parameter which
embodies both properties of the cable and the ship speed and is called the critical angle.

3.3 Tangential Drag Force.

The tangential drag force is due to skin friction from flow along the cable and is defined by
the expression:

DT = C f 12 $V t 2 1 d
Page 12

where Cf is the skin friction drag coefficient, $ the fluid mass density, Vt the tangential

flow velocity and d the cable diameter. DT is the tangential drag force per unit length. The

tangential flow velocity is given by:

Vt = Vc %V cos #

where Vc is the pay out rate, V the ship speed and # the critical angle.

( NR )
0.14
From towing cable lengths it has been found that C f =const for smooth covered

cables, where NR is the Reynold's Number defined as NR =V t l 4 , where L is the length

along the cable from the surface to the point at which Cf is being determined and 4 is the

kinematic viscosity of water. Hence for a smooth cable the tangential drag is a function of
position along the cable.

For cables with conventional jute covering it was found that C f =const V 0.52 that is,

independent of the position along the cable.

The ratio of DT to the tangential component of cable weight is given by DT w sin # . For # the

order of 12 ,
0
Vt of 0.6 knots, DT w sin # is about 6%. In most situations Vt will be smaller

and we can neglect DT compared to w sin# , thus simplifying the calculations. It should be

noted that towing techniques to find Cf can provide only rough approximations due to the

restrictions on length compared to actual laying conditions and possible modifications to flow
around the cable during laying as suggested in section 5.

3.4 Sinking Velocities and Their Relationship to Drag Forces.

Sinking velocity was the original technique used to characterize the hydrodynamic forces
acting on a cable. The transverse sinking velocity us is defined as the terminal velocity

attained by a straight, horizontal length of cable sinking in water. Similarly the longitudinal
sinking velocity vs is the terminal velocity of a cable length sinking with its axis constrained

to be vertical. If for a cable the drag forces are only functions of velocity, the parameters w,
us and vs , together with the laws of variation of drag forces with velocity completely define

the hydrodynamic velocity of the cable.

As sinking velocities are still used in modern ocean cable technology, their relationship with
other coefficients is useful.
Page 13

For a cable sinking horizontally at its terminal velocity, its drag force must be equal to its
weight in water, that is:

w = 12 $ us2 CD d (3.4 .1)

2w
5 us = (3.4.2)
CD $ d

Thus the transverse sinking velocity is of identical form as H the hydrodynamic constant.
We can then write the relationship 3.2.6 as:

# 0 V = 180us 1 (3.4.3)

with #0 in degrees., V and us in knots.

For the tangential sinking velocity the concept of relationship to tangential drag forces is
inadequate for smooth cables due to the effect of length, as seen in section 3.3. For jute
covered cables it can be derived, but is of little practical use.

It should be noted that the cable does not sink to the bottom at the transverse sinking velocity
us. The term "vertical cable sinking rate" is ambiguous. There are in fact two vertical sinking

rates which may be important. Although both these rates are approximately equal to us,
neither is identical to it .

Relative to the earth, the resultant velocity VR of a cable element has two components; a

horizontal component of the magnitude of the ship velocity V , and a component inclined at an
angle # of the magnitude of the cable pay out rate Vc , as shown in figure 3.4(a). The

component Vvert of VR given by Vvert =Vc sin# , is the rate at which a cable element sinks

vertically. For a laying depth h , the time ! it takes for a cable element to sink to the bottom
is:

! = 60h Vc tan# minutes (3.4.4)

where h is in n. miles and Vc in knots. This time would be how long a lightweight repeater (

or a heavy one with a parachute ) integral with the cable would take to reach the ocean floor.
Page 14

V.t

#
A V.t

V
#
Vvert VR
A' Vc

P'

Fig. 3.4(a) Illustration of the vertical cable sinking rates.

If the intersection of the cable configuration with a vertical line ( figure 3.4(a) ) is
considered, then in the time t as the ship sails a distance V t, the intersection moves from A

to A, a distance V t tan # . Hence the cable configuration in this sense sinks vertically at the

rate V tan# , and the time ! for the configuration to reach the bottom at a depth h is:

! = 60h V tan# minutes (3.4.5)

where h is in n. miles and V in knots. The time taken for the cable configuration to reach an
anomaly P ( figure 3.4(a) ) on the bottom from the time the ship sails over the anomaly is !.

Hence the vertical sinking rate Vc sin # and V tan# can be both used. At normal ship speeds

sin# 2 tan # 2 # (radians), hence Vc differs little from V and both vertical sinking rates are

indeed approximately equal to us.

3.5 Approximate Transient Solution for Laying on a Flat Bottom and Negative
Slack Effects.

On longer cable lays the ship speed is normally of the order of 4 to 8 knots, with
accompanying values for the critical angle for the cable, #, 0
of less than 30 . For these small

values of # , the effect of the tangential drag on the cable may be neglected to provide a
Page 15

simplification of the general solution. The angle ! that the cable element makes with the
horizontal ( figure 2.2(b) ) is closely given by:

1% ( T0 ( T0 + y ) )
6
! #
tan = tan (3.5.1)
#
1+ ( T0 ( T0 + y ) ) tan4 2
2 2 6

where y and T0 are dimensionless depth and bottom tension, defined by:

y=y h

T0 = T0 w h

with # =H V

H being the hydrodynamic constant of the cable in degree knots and V the ship speed in
knots.

The constant term 6 is defined by:

2-sin2 #
6 = (3.5.2)
sin2 #

For small # , tan 4 # is negligible and 6 large. Further:

T0
0 < <1
T0 + y

Hence, the denominator in 3.5.2 is very nearly unity and ! approaches the critical angle # at

very small values of y, even for relatively large values of T0 of order three or four. Thus in

the laying case, the cable configuration is very close to a straight line except for a short
distance at the ocean bottom.
Page 16

For small #, in figure 3.5(b), the values for the length of cable S, and the distance from the
ship to the touchdown point X, are given by:

S = L +7 T0 w

X = L cos# +8 T0 w (3.5.3)

where L and L cos# are the corresponding distances for S and X for straight line laying at

the same ship speed; and 7 and 8 are functions of the critical angle #, given in figure
3.5(a).

E x a m p l e : SD List 1 cable ( H = 34 degree knots ) is being laid without slack onto a rough

bottom from a cable ship moving at 4 knots. If the pay out rate is decreased so that the slack is
1 per cent negative, what is the subsequent rise of the tension with time at the ship.

This is a transient problem, the average behavior of the cable will be approximated by
assuming it passes through a sequence of stationary configurations. Also, we assume that
because of the rough bottom there is no slippage of cable along the ocean floor.

If 9 is the amount of negative slack, and V the ship speed, then in a time t, an amount

V ( 1- 9 ) t of cable will have been paid out. This amount plus the inclined length L will equal

the amount contained in the curve AOC ( figure 3.5(b) ). We then have:

L +V (1- 9 ) t = S +V t % ( X % L cos# ) (3.5.4)

Substituting 3.5.3 into this equation and solving for T0 we find:

T0 = ( w ( 8 % 7 ))9 V t 60

for T0 in lbf., w in lbs./n. mile, V in knots and t in minutes.

From Ts = T0 + w h (2.2.6) , the tension at the ship, Ts is given by:

w 9Vt
Ts = w h +
8 % 7 60
Page 17

0.4

0.3

7 0.2

0.1

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
# in degrees

0.016

0.012

8 %7 0.008

0.004

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
# in degrees

Fig. 3.5(a) Variation of 7 and 8 with the


critical angle # ( after Zajac ).
Page 18

y
B C
V.t
V

L
t=0 S

# x
A O D
V.t L cos#
X

Fig. 3.5(b) Cable geometry of a time t after


the onset of negative slack.

Now # is given by:

# =H V
= 34/4
= 8.5 degrees

From figure 3.5(a) we get 8 -7 = 0.001. Also we have w = 1926 lb/n. mile so:

( lbs +
Ts = w h + 1284 t
) min,

Hence the tension rises by the rapid rate of 1284 lb/minute. We note that this is independent
of the depth h.

The above does not include the elasticity of the cable. Because the difference between the
lengths of AOC and the sum of the linear segments AD and DC ( figure 3.5(b) ) is small, it
would be expected that the effect of the elasticity of the cable would be important.
Page 19

The effect of elasticity can be roughly approximated by assuming that the curve AOC has
additional length corresponding to the stretching caused by the load T0 acting over the length

L. For a cable made of a single material this stretching would be T0 L EA , where E is the

Young's modulus of the material and A the cross sectional area of the cable. For actual cable

we denote the extensional rigidity of the cable by EA to indicate the value obtained from
tests on a length of actual cable. With this notation we get:

L +V (1% 9 ) t + = S + V t % ( X % L cos# )
T0 L
(3.5.6)
EA

and repeating the above computation we find:

: 9Vt
Ts = w h + (3.5.7)
wh
+ 8 %7 60
EA sin #

where h is in n. miles.

Here the tension rise depends on the depth h.

As most cables twist under load, one cannot define a single extensible rigidity because of
coupling between pulling and twisting. Thus how much the cable will stretch under tension
depends on how much it is restrained from twisting at the ship and at the bottom. Instead of
trying to determine these restraints, we consider the cases of no restraint to twisting and
complete restraint to twisting.

For SD List 1 cable:

E A = 2.4;10 6 lbs. twist restrained.

= 2.0;10 6 lbs. twist unrestrained.

If we take h = 1 n. mile and h = 2 n. miles we find for these values

h = 1 n. mile:

Ts = w h +172 ( lbs / min ) t twist unrestrained.

Ts = w h + 200 ( lbs / min ) t twist restrained.


Page 20

h=2 n. miles:

Ts = w h + 92 ( lbs / min ) t twist unrestrained.

Ts = w h +109 ( lbs / min ) t twist restrained.

Compared to the inelastic computation, we see the elasticity markedly reduces the rate of
tension build up. Nevertheless, even for the case of no restraint of twisting at a depth of 2 n.
miles, the rise is a relatively high 92 lbs./min. Hence, at least over rough bottom, the tension
would quickly indicate the onset of negative slack, although sensitivity of this indication
decreases quickly with increasing depth.

3.6 Laying on a Sloping Bottom.

3.6.1 Cable Configuration.

Ocean bottom topography is not everywhere flat and horizontal as postulated in the basic
model. On the continental slopes and mid-ocean ridges, slopes may reach thirty or forty
degrees. Furthermore where the bottom is steep, it is most likely to be rocky or craggy since
erosion will tend to remove mud or sand from slopes. Therefore it is important to determine
the amount of cable to be paid out to cover a bottom of varying depth. The basic model is
extended to cover the case of a sloping bottom.

If the cable tension at the bottom is zero as in the basic model then the cable configuration is
a straight line, regardless of how the cable is paid out. ( Section 3.1 )

When the cable is paid out with slack relative to the bottom, then the zero touchdown
condition is fulfilled, and cable mechanics are simple.

Two sloping bottom laying types exist, downhill or descent laying and uphill or ascent laying.
For the analysis the bottom will be considered to have constant slope since any bottom contour
can be approximated by straight-line segments.

Laying on a descending bottom requires the cable pay out rate to exceed the ship speed, figure
3.6.1(a). Laying on an ascending bottom requires the angle of incidence of the cable, # , which
for a given cable depends only on ship speed, to exceed the ascent angle of the bottom, 6 , as

shown in figure 3.6.1(a). Hence the critical parameters are cable pay out speed and ship
speed.
Page 21

Descent Laying

< #

Ascent laying
#>6

#
6

Ascent laying
6 >#

# 6

Fig. 3.6.1(a) Cable geometry during straight-line


descent and ascent laying.
Page 22

V.t

< #
9
b a

Fig. 3.6.1(b) Kinematics of straight-line


descent laying.

During descent laying we see from figure 3.6.1(b) that in a time t an amount of cable equal to

a+b must be paid out. Hence the required pay-out rate Vc is ( a+b ) t. By straightforward

trigonometry:

a+ b sin# +sin <


Vc = = V (3.6.1.1)
t sin ( # +< )

where < is the angle of descent and # is the straight-line incidence angle.

In accordance with usual terminology we define slack = as:

= = ( Vc % V ) V (3.6.1.2)

Slack is composed of two parts; a fill f , which is the amount of slack required for cable to

cover the bottom, and an excess, equal to =- f which is laid to provide a margin of safety and

to allow for repair operations. Substituting Vc from 3.6.1.1 into 3.6.1.2 the expression for fill
Page 23

f is obtained. This result can be transformed to the form:

# < f
tan tan = (3.6.1.3)
2 2 2+ f

The quantities #, < and f are normally all small and we may make the approximations:

# #
tan 2
2 2
< <
tan 2
2 2
f f
2
2 +f 2

For #, < < 30 0 and f < 0.06 , the error in each of these approximations is less than 3 per cent.

Hence with good accuracy we can write 3.6.1.3 as:

f = #< 2 (3.6.1.4)

where # and < are in radians.

Further we have that # in degrees is approximately # =H V , where H, the cable

hydrodynamic constant, is in degree knots. Substituting this expression into 3.6.1.4 and
converting < to degrees, we get for the fill:

H<
f = (3.6.1.5)
6566V

and using this expression for f in 3.6.1.2. with no excess:

H<
Vc % V = (3.6.1.6)
6566

with Vc , V , in knots, H in degree knots and < in degrees for 3.6.1.5 and 3.6.1.6.
Page 24

Thus, the increment in the required pay-out rate to compensate for the descending bottom is
essentially a function only of the descent angle < and is independent of ship speed.

In the case of an ascending bottom for which # >6 figure 3.6.1(a), positive bottom slack may

be obtained with a pay out of less than ship speed. The allowable decrement in pay-out rate is
given by:

H6
V % Vc = (3.6.1.7)
6566

with Vc , V in knots, H in degree knots and 6 in degrees.

This is the same as the increment required for descent laying. Likewise the fill f in this

case is:

H6
f =- (3.6.1.8)
6566V

The only way to avoid the situation shown in the lower drawing of figure 3.6.1(a) where # <6
is to sail slowly enough to maintain an incidence angle a greater than the angle of rise 6 . From
# = H V , we can obtain a maximum ship speed to ensure # > 6 from:

V =H 6 (3.6.1.9)

E x a m p l e : List 1 SD cable ( H =34 degree knots ) is being laid with an excess slack of 6 per
cent on a flat bottom. The lay encounters a down slope of 10 degrees, what is the total slack
and pay out rate required to ensure coverage of the bottom for a ship speed of 4 knots.

H<
f =
6566V
34 ;10
=
6566; 4
= 0.013

Hence the total slack for the down slope is:


Page 25

= = 0.06+f
= 0.06 +0.013
= 7.3%

and pay-out rate:

Vc %V
= =
V
Vc = V ( 1+ = )
= 4 ( 1+ 0.073)
= 4.29knots

3.6.2 Cable Tension.

When a cable is laid with excess onto a bottom of constant slope, then the variation of mean
tension at the ship can be directly calculated. During descent laying the increase in depth 9
after a time t is given by ( from figure 3.6.1(b) ):

sin # sin <


9= Vt
sin ( # +< )

Hence the rate of rise of mean shipboard tension is:

dT w 9 sin # sin <


= = wV ( 3.6.2.1 )
dt t sin ( # +< )

Similarly, during an ascent lay for which the bottom is less steeply inclined than the

cable ( # > 6 ) , the rate of decrease in shipboard tension is:

dT sin # sin 6
= % wV (3.6.2.2)
dt sin ( # % 6 )

3.6.3 Suspended Cable during Laying.

It is possible during descent or ascent laying for the cable to become suspended, that is the
condition of zero tension at the bottom is no longer true.
Page 26

Figure 3.6.3(a) shows the condition during descent laying, where the pay out rate of additional
fill slack is insufficient to allow the cable to lie on the bottom down the slope, and sliding of
the cable along the ocean floor is not occurring.

Cable supported
by hydrodynamic
Cable forms forces
catenary

Fig. 3.6.3(a) Cable suspended while descent laying.

It is possible, as shown in the appendices, to calculate the tension change in the cable at the
ship as the ship travels along. In practice the indication that the cable is being laid with
insufficient excess is normally required and this case can be calculated from 3.6.2.1 by

putting < =90 0 .

dT w 9 sin#
= = wV
dt t cos# (3.6.3.1)
= wV tan#

Hence if the rate of tension rise is greater than this value, when laying on a down slope, then
the cable is being suspended and not effectively covering the bottom.

In the case of ascent laying where the ship speed is too rapid, resulting in 6 ># , as shown in

figure 3.6.1(a), then as the cable is laid over the crest there will be a sudden decrease in
shipboard tension. If the bottom is rough, the the cable would remain suspended on the face of
Page 27

the rise, but if the cable can slide along the bottom, then the cable will slide back over the
crest causing the shipboard tension to rise again rapidly. Hence in ascent laying if there is a
sudden decrease in shipboard laying tension, it would indicate the cable was not effectively
covering the bottom, particularly if the decrease in tension was in proportion to the height of
the rise compared to the water depth before it.

3.6.4 Residual Suspensions.

If the cable is not paid out rapidly enough, the ship speed is excessive, or small rises or
descents not found in surveying exist, then the cable can be left with residual suspensions
after it has been laid. The exact nature of these suspensions will depend on the magnitude of
the initial error, the coefficient of friction of the cable along the bottom and the elasticity of
the cable.

While it is possible to estimate the magnitude of the tension in a residual suspension if one
knows the factors causing the suspension, as is shown in the appendices, in practical cable
laying it would not be done. The main aim is to ensure that no residual suspensions exist as
they normally are subject to excessive wear at the ends of the suspension, particularly in
shallow water, and cause cable failure in a relatively short time after laying.

It is therefore essential that during the survey phase of the route engineering that the bottom
contours are accurately determined and that the errors that can occur with the sounding
system(s) used are known, so that the slack and ship speed requirements can be determined to
prevent residual suspensions, That is, in simple terms the less accuracy in the surveying, the
more excess slack is required to ensure effective cover of the bottom.

During laying, the information presented from the sensors must be closely watched for
anomalies that could cause residual suspensions and carefully logged for future reference.

3.7 Laying in a Cross Current.

Ocean cables are often laid with cross currents and it is useful to determine the distance that
the laid cable will be displaced from the ship's track. From this data either the ship's track
can be adjusted to keep the laid cable within specified bounds or the plotted track of the laid
cable adjusted to provide a more accurate track.

Significant cross currents are commonly confined to a region near the ocean surface, and this
analysis is for a surface cross current of velocity Vw with a direction < relative to the ships
Page 28

track, as shown in figure 3.7(a), and depth h' . The ship speed is V and total water depth h.

V' Vw

> <

%V V

Fig. 3.7(a) Vector diagram showing the resultant velocity


on the cable due to a cross current.

The resultant velocity V' of the water with respect to the cable in the surface current has the
magnitude:

V' = ( V -Vw cos < ) 2 + ( V w sin <) 2 (3.7.1)

and is inclined to the ship's reverse track at angle > given by:

Vw sin <
tan> = (3.7.2)
V % Vw cos <

Associated with V' we have the critical angle #' given by:

# ' 2 H V'

The displacement from the ship's track of the laid cable, e, and the distance behind the ship
where the cable leaves the cross current, d , are given by

( "# h % h' ?A ( h'+


2 ctn 2 # ' C+
A
d = h' * ctn # '- @1% ) 1% , D- (3.7.3 (a))
) 2 cos # ' h' AB
2
h AE,
Page 29

1> ( h % h' ?A ( h'+ ctn 2 # ' CA+


ctn # ' * 1% tan # ' @1% 1%
2
e = h' D- (3.7.3(b))
) h,
BA EA,
180 ) h'

where "# = # - # ' , is the difference of lower and upper stratum critical angles.

For practical applications, curves to evaluate d and e are given in figures 3.7(b) and 3.7(c).

12 0 #'= 5
0
#' =5

10

Asymptote for h' h F 1


8

57.3 e
6 0

> h'
10
0
10 0
12
0 0
12 14
4 0
14
0 16
0
16
0 20

2
0
20

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
h' h

Fig. 3.7(b) Distance the laid cable is offset


from ships path ( after Zajac ).
Page 30

20 0
#' =5

16
0
10
0
( 1 d + 57.3 12 12

* % - 14
0

) tan #' h' , "# 16


0

8
0
20

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16
h' h

Fig. 3.7(c) Distance behind the ship at which the cable


enters the lower stratum ( after Zajac ).

E x a m p l e : List 1 SD cable ( H = 34 degree knots ) is being laid at a depth of 1 n mile at a


resultant ground speed of 6 knots due east. There is a cross current of 1 knot with a depth of
0.1 n. miles running 0300 , Find the displacement of the cable track from the ship's track and

the distance of the touchdown point aft of the ship.

Here < = 60 0 and from 3.7.1 we obtain V'=5.57 knots.

h' h = 0.1 1
= 0.1

# = 34 5.57
= 6.1 deg rees

By interpolation from figures 3.7(b) and 3.7(c) we get:

57.3 e
= 8.4
> h'
Page 31

( 1 d + 57.3
* tan # ' % h' - "# = 4.4
) ,

Equation 3.7.2 yields > = 8.90 and "# is given by:

34 34
"# = %
V V'
34 34
= %
6 5.57
= % 0.4 degrees

Hence we have:

> h'
e = 8.4
57.3
8.4 ; 8.9; 0.1
=
57.3
= 0.13 n.miles

( 1 "# +
d = h' % 4.4
) tan # ' 57.3,
( 1 0.4 +
= 0.1 + 4.4
) 0.107 57.3 ,
= 0.1( 9.35+ 0.03)
= 0.94 n.miles

Now from the bottom of the current to the ocean floor is:

h - h' = 1.0-0.1
= 0.9 n.miles

and

34
#=
6
= 5.67 degrees
Page 32

Therefore the distance between the bottom of the current and the ocean floor where the cable
touches down is given by:

h-h'
d' =
tan #
0.9
=
0.099
= 9.09 n.miles

Hence the cable track is 0.13 n. miles to the north of the ship's track and the cable touches
down 10.03 n. miles aft of the ship.

3.8 Tensions Caused by Ship Motions.

3.8.1 General Theory.

In the basic stationary model a perfectly calm sea is postulated. However, in reality, wave
action gives rise to a random motion of the ship which, in turn, induces variations in the cable
tension around those corresponding to the basic model.

To analyze this effect, we assume that the mean forward velocity of the ship and the mean pay-
out or haul-in rate are constant, and that the mean tension at the ship and the mean direction
of the cable as it enters the water are those given by the stationary model. In a reference frame
moving with the mean velocity, we resolve the ship displacement into a longitudinal component
P0 ( see figure 3.8.1(a) ) along the mean or stationary direction, and a transverse component

Q0 perpendicular to the stationary direction.

Intuitively, we might expect tension caused by the transverse displacement, Q0 , to be

negligible compared to those of the longitudinal displacement P0 . The analysis given in the

appendices yields this result, unless ship motions are so severe as to rarely occur.

In addition, the analysis shows that for the transverse disturbance, Q0 , the amplitude of the

responding transverse cable motion decreases exponentially after the cable enters the water
because of the damping action of the water drag forces. The "half-life" distance for SB type D
cable, that is, the distance along the cable at which the amplitude of the harmonic transverse
motion is damped to one half its surface value, is plotted in figure 3.8.1(b) as a function of the
Page 33

period of the motion for various depths h and ship velocities V. The rapidity of the damping
is evident.

V Q0
P0

#s
x

Fig. 3.8.1(a) Longitudinal and transverse components


P0 and Q0 of ship motion.

240

Ocean depth = 1 n. mile Ship speed = 6 knots


200

h inn. miles
160
V inknots 3

Half - distance 120 9

6 1
in feet 3

80 0.5

40
(i) (ii)
0
0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 16
Period of transverse shipmotion in seconds

Fig. 3.8.1(b) Variation of half-life distance of SB Type D cable


with the period of ship motion ( after Zajac ).
Page 34

For cable tensions, the most important ship displacement is the longitudinal component P0 ,
directed along the stationary direction of the cable. The one dimensional wave equation:

G2 p 1 G2 p
% =0 (3.8.1.1)
G x 2 c12 G t 2

describes the longitudinal motion. In this equation p is the deviation in the longitudinal

displacement from the mean pay-out or haul-in displacement, and the remaining symbols are
defined as ( figure 3.8.1(a) ).

x = distance from the mean ship position along the


stationary cable configuration.
t = time.

c = EA $ c
EA = extensional rigidity of the cable.
$c = mass per unit length of the cable in air.

#s = steady state incidence angle of the cable at the ocean surface.

The additional tension Tp , due to the ship motion is in turn given by:

Gp
Tp = EA (3.8.1.2)
Gx

Following the convention used in section 3.5, we assume that by using the limiting values for

EA obtained by complete restraint to twisting and no restraint to twisting during pulling,


that the bounds on actual displacements and tension can be obtained.

In solving 3.8.1.1 it is assumed that the cable is semi-infinite, that is, although damping of
the cable is normally so small that we neglect it, we assume that because of the cables great
length, that the damping is sufficient to cause complete decay of the disturbance initiated at
the ship, and that such a disturbance is not reflected from the ocean floor. Under these
conditions, the additional tension Tp is given by:

dP
Tp = % EA $c , (3.8.1.3)
dt
Page 35

where P = P0 + P1 with d P1 d t being in turn the increment in pay-out rate or decrement in

haul-in rate from the mean.

3.8.2 Steady-state Laying or Recovering in a Regular Seaway.

In this case we assume that in a frame of reference traveling at the mean horizontal ship
velocity, ship surging ( to and fro forward motion ) is zero and the combined heave and pitch
motion at the bow or stern sheave is normal to the ocean surface and is given by:

t
W = Asin21
H

where A is the amplitude and H is the period.

Further for steady state laying, the deviation P1 in the pay-out or haul-in rate is zero, hence

P = P0 = W sin# s and ( dP dt ) max = ( 2 1 H ) Asin # s


Hence:

21
(T )p max
=% EA $c
H
A sin# s (3.8.2.1)

During recovery by conventional means, the surface incidence angle #s , is in general much

larger than that which occurs during laying. Since stationary tensions are also much larger
during recovery, recovery is the condition for which the strength of the cable should be
designed.

Here we have considered a regular seaway, something that does not happen in nature. It is
possible to use stochastic techniques to describe ship motion, and hence the magnitudes of the
ship motion tensions, but for simple calculations during cable working the above can be used
to get an estimate of the level of tension fluctuations.

Example: For a period of 6 seconds and an amplitude of 15 ft at the bow sheaves, find for SD

List 1 cable ( H = 34 degree knots, EA = 2.4;10 6 lbs. twist restrained, 2.0; 106 lbs. twist

unrestrained, $ c = 0.317 lbs./ft )

i) (T )p
max
for laying at a constant pay-out rate and a ship speed of 6 knots.
Page 36

ii) (T )
p
max
for recovery at constant haul-in rate with surface incidence angle of 60

degrees.

We have:

E A $c = 2.4;10 6 ; 0.317 32.2


= 154 lbs / ft / sec twist restrained
= 2.0;10 6 ; 0.317 32.2
= 140 lbs / ft / sec twist unrestrained

For laying:

# s = 5.67 degrees

( dP dt ) max = 1.03 ft/second

(T )
p max
= 154 ;1.03
= 159 lbs twist restrained
= 140;1.03
= 144 lbs twist unrestrained

For recovery:

# s = 60 degrees

( dP dt ) max = 13.6 ft/second

(T )
p max
= 154 ;13.6
= 2094 lbs twist restrained
= 140;13.6
= 1904 lbs twist unrestrained
Page 37

3.8.3 Sudden Stop in Pay-out During Laying.

If during cable laying, the cable pay-out is suddenly stopped due to cable machinery failure
or fouling of the cable, a sharp rise in tension will occur. For a calm sea we have P0 = 0 and

hence:

dP dt = P1 = % V cos# s
and

Tp = EA $c V cos # s (3.8.3.1)

The value for Tp pertains only to this initial rise, while the tension wave is being transmitted

to the ocean bottom. If the stoppage occurs in 3 n. miles depth, a typical transit time for the
tension wave to reach the bottom is of order 9 seconds. On reaching the bottom, the wave will
be reflected, violating one of the initial assumptions and 3.8.1.2 would no longer hold. In
reality the cable tension at the ship would continue to rise and some action would be required
to prevent breaking of the cable.

3.9 Cable Laying Control and Slack Requirements.

3.9.1 Cable Laying Control.

The primary requirement in laying cable is the control of the slack, both to ensure effective
cover of the bottom and to prevent excessive amounts of cable being laid. From the previous
parts of this section it can be seen that slack can be determined from cable tension at the ship
or by ship speed and cable pay-out rate.

The change in tension at the ship due to slack being laid can be calculated from the change in
tangential drag caused by the effect of slack on the cable pay-out rate ( equation 3.1.2 ).
Figure 3.9.1(a) shows the variation of tension with slack for SB type D cable for a ship speed
of 6 knots and a water depth of 2 n. miles.

As can be seen in the figure, a variation in slack from 3 to 6 per cent causes the tension to
change by only 220 lbs. in a mean tension of about 8100 lbs. This small change could easily be
obscured by ship motion effects and dynamometer system " noise".
Page 38

9000

8600
wh
8200
Tension
in pounds
7800

7400

7000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Percent slack

Fig. 3.9.1(a) Variation of the shipboard tension with per cent


slack for laying SB Type D cable at ship speed of
6 knots in a depth of two n. miles ( after Zajac ).

Similarly, small residual suspensions can occur with essentially no indication in tension
readings at the ship. Hence, although tension readings can give a valuable check on how the
cable is covering the bottom, it is difficult to use them to provide exact enough data for the
control of cable slack.

Since it is not possible to use cable tension at the ship to accurately determine slack, the
alternative technique of measuring ship speed and cable pay-out rate must be used, that is:

Vc % V
= =
V

The cable pay-out rate Vc , can be measured at the cable machinery, however it is normally

more accurate to measure distance, that is the length of cable paid out, and determine cable
pay-out rate from this. For a plain drum type cable machinery, one revolution of the drum
gives a pay-out distance of:

ld = 1 ( Dd + dc ) (3.9.1.1)

where ld is the distance of cable paid out for one revolution of the drum, Dd is the diameter

of the drum and dc is the diameter of the cable. For Dd and dc in inches:
Page 39

Dd + dc
ld = n. miles (3.9.1.2)
23209

For self fleeting drums which have a polygon form:

l d = Ld + 1 dc

Where Ld is the measured circumference of the drum over the self fleeting belts. For Ld and
dc in inches:

Ld dc
ld = + n. miles (3.9.1.4)
6076.1 23209

Thus by counting the revolutions of the cable machinery drums by a digital counter ( or
revolutions of the sprockets on linear cable machinery ) it is possible to get accurate distance
and hence by using an accurate time base the incremental cable pay-out rate.

Ship speed and distance traveled along the track are more difficult to measure accurately.
Older cable ships use the taut wire technique, corrected for bottom contours, however modern
cable ships now use a wide range of radio, acoustic and satellite navigation aids, which not
only give distance and ship speed, but also accurate track data.

Thus by using short, accurate time intervals " t, it is possible to get accurate slack given by:

"ld "t -"l "t


== (3.9.1.5)
"l "t

where "ld is the cable paid out and "l is the distance the ship travels along the track in the

time interval "t .

The other factor needed to control the cable laying is a knowledge of bottom contours, so that
for a given ship speed one can compute the required cable pay-out rate(s). Also, with
foreknowledge of the bottom, one can anticipate steep bottom ascents and decrease ship speed
accordingly.

The bottom contours would be determined during the route surveys, but as a check during
laying and to ensure full control, the depth of the bottom would be measured by an echo
Page 40

sounder on the cable ship. Since the cable ship is normally far ahead of the touchdown point of
the cable, one can make the necessary adjustments to the slack to compensate for the bottom
slopes.

Note: For deeper depths, the echo sounder should be of the narrow beam type otherwise
anomalies and bottom slope will not be accurately depicted. If this is not available, bottom
slope will have to be corrected by hand plotting, or other means.

3.9.2 Slack Requirement.

3.9.2.1 Slack in System Design.

In the system design slack is the difference between the length of cable laid, or to be laid,
along the section of the bottom to the length of the cable track over the section, that is:

"lc % "lt
=s = (3.9.2.1.1)
"lt

where =s is the slack ( system design ), "lc , the actual cable length in the section and "lt the

length of the cable track over the section.

Hence the total length of the cable laid, or to be laid, and the total track length are given by:

l c = I "lc (3.9.2.1.2)

l t = I "lt (3.9.2.1.3)

As can be seen the slack in the system design is always greater than or equal to zero.

If we take the excess slack as s, then for a flat bottom section, where no fill is required:

=s = s (3.9.2.1.4)

On a sloping section of constant gradient, <, the fill slack required to cover the bottom is

given by simple trigonometry:

1-cos <
f =
cos <
Page 41

So for a sloping bottom the slack is given by:

1% cos <
=s = +s (3.9.2.1.5)
cos <

3.9.2.2 Slack in Laying.

In laying cable slack is related to the ship's speed and cable pay-out rate as well as the
bottom contours. Slack during laying is defined:

Vc %V
==
V

where = is the slack ( laying ), Vc is the cable pay-out rate and V is the ship' s speed. As

with the system design the slack consists of two parts, the fill f and the excess s, that is:

= = f +s

The fill slack in laying is different from system design as it is effected by the laying
dynamics, the excess is related to track length only and thus is the same for system design
and laying. However, the final result after laying results in the same configuration as
determined in the system design.

On a flat bottom where f =0 , the system design slack and the laying slack are identical.

However on descending and ascending bottoms, as shown in section 3.6.1, the laying fill slack
is a function of ship speed, bottom slope and the cable hydrodynamic coefficient. For a
descending bottom:

H<
== +s (3.9.2.2.1)
6566V

and for an ascending bottom:

H6
==- +s (3.9.2.2.2)
6566V

with H in degree knots, < and 6 in degrees and V in knots.


Page 42

By equating the two expressions for slack, we obtain the cable pay-out rate for a given ship's
speed:

Vc = ( 1+ s ) V flat bottom section


( H< +
= * 1+ + s - V descendingbottom section (3.9.2.2.3)
) 6566V ,
( H6 +
= * 1% + s - V ascendingbottom section
) 6566V ,

It should be noted that in burying cable as it is laid, the only slack is fill slack and this is
controlled by measuring the distance the plow travels along the bottom and adjusting the cable
pay-out to prevent negative or excess slack occurring.

3.9.2.3 Determination of Slack.

Of the two portions of slack, the fill slack is determined by the laying dynamics and bottom
contours. The excess slack, however is free to be adjusted by the system designer(s), with the
previously noted exception of cable burial during laying where no excess slack is permitted.

In determining the amount of excess slack, three factors are of importance, The first is the
accuracy of the depth contours from the route survey and during laying. An allowance must be
made to ensure that an amount of excess slack is incorporated to cover these inaccuracies.

The second factor is the allowance of slack to allow the lifting of a bight of cable to the surface
for repair work. This is a function of the water depth and cable strength and can be
determined using the technique in section 4.2. Typical excess slack varies from about 6 per
cent in deep water to around 2 per cent in the shore end sections and shallow water. It should
be noted that modern systems are not designed to have a bight raised to the surface for repair
due to small repeater spacings ( large coaxial cables ), or are designed with little excess slack
( optical fiber cables ). These are cut through first and each end raised separately. Slack for
these systems can be 2 per cent in deep water.

The third factor is the accuracy of the ship navigation and positioning and the cable speed and
distance measuring equipment. On proper cable ships these are normally neglected as they are
very small due to the fitting of the necessary equipment and experience of the ship's officers
and crew. On auxiliary vessels, equipment of this standard is not normally fitted and some
allowance must be made in the determining of excess slack.
Page 43

4. Cable Recovery Mechanics.

This chapter contains methods for calculating the loads and configurations of grapnel rope and
ocean cables that occur in cable recovery, and the torque effects in armored cables during
recovery.

4.1 Cable Grappling.

In order to raise ocean cable from the bottom of the ocean for repair, it is necessary to grapple
for the cable. When grappling it is important, of course, that sufficient grapnel rope be paid
out in order to place the grapnel in continuous contact with the bottom in a favorable position
for hooking the cable. On the other hand, it is undesirable to pay out large amounts of excess
grapnel rope because of the additional time involved, the wear of the additional rope in contact
with the bottom, and its contribution to the insensitivity of the tension indication when the
cable is hooked.

The required length of grapnel rope for a given operation depends on the depth of water, the
rope weight and hydrodynamic properties, the bottom tension usually related to the weight of
the grapnel and chain and the ship speed through the water. Table 4.1(c) gives the tabulation
of grappling rope length for 6x3 and 8x3 grapnel rope as a function of ocean depth, ship speed
and bottom tension, with figure 4.1(a) showing the configuration. This table was computed
from the results of a grapnel experiment conducted on the BTL 1963 SD Hydrodynamic Trial.
The tables are based on the maintenance of 50 fathoms of grapnel rope in addition to the chain
and grapnels in contact with the bottom. Tables 4.1(a) and 4.1(b) gives a guide for the
estimation of bottom tension from the grapnel(s), grapnel rope and chain.

E x a m p l e : It is desired to grapple for a cable in water that is 1200 fathoms deep ( 1.185 n.
miles ). With a ship speed of 0.8 knots, 6x3 grapnel rope is used to tow 10 fathoms of 1 1/8
inch chain, a Rennie's. and a Sliding Prong grapnel in series.
Page 44

Ts
V

Grapnel
Grapnel(s) rope
h
Touchdown
Chain point
50 Sg
fms
T0
Xg

Fig. 4.1(a) Configuration of components during grappling.

From tables 4.1(a) and 4.1(b) the estimated bottom tension is found as:

Rennie's ( 30 ton ) 200


Sliding Prong ( Short ) 315
10 fathoms of 1 1/8 chain 500
50 fathoms of 6x3 rope 50

Total l065 lbs.

Since table 4.1(c) tabulates rope length for bottom tension of only 600, 900 and 1200 pounds
and since a greater tension results in more rope being used, the 1200 pound bottom tension
will be used, In the column labeled 0.80 knots and the row labeled 1200 fathoms depth it is
found that:

X g = 1311 fathoms
Sg = 1718 fathoms

Sg refers to the amount of rope that should be paid out to keep the grapnel' s chain and 50
Page 45

fathoms of rope on the bottom, while Xg refers to the horizontal distance from the ship to the

junction of the grapnel rope and the chain ( see figure 4.1(a) ).

The approximate tension at the ship may be calculated from equation 2.2.6. that is:

Ts 2T0 + : h

where Ts is the tension at the ship, T0 the tension at the bottom, : the weight per unit length

of the grapnel rope in water and h the water depth, so:

Ts = 1065+ 3.25; 1200


=1065+3900
=4965 lbf

Table 4.1(a)

Estimation of Grappling Bottom Tension.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Table of Ropes & Chains.

Type Weight Est. Bottom Tension


(Pounds/Fathom) (Pounds/Fathom)
________________________________________________________________
1 7/8" Chain 45 30
2 1" Chain 60.6 40
3 1 1/8" Chain 76 50
4 1 1/4" Chain 90 55
5 6x3 Grapnel Rope 3.25 1.0
6 8x3 Grapnel Rope 4.35 1.1
________________________________________________________________
Page 46

Table 4.1(b)

Estimation of Grappling Bottom Tension.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Table of Grapnels.

Type Weight Air-Water Estimated Bottom


(pounds) Tension (pounds)

_______________________________________________________________
1 Bat fish 1600 - 1380 600*
2 Chisel Point Medium 336 - 281 210
Long 560 - 485 350
3 Spear Point Medium 336 - 281 210
Long 560 - 485 350
4 5-Prong Short 252 - 218 160
Common Medium 336 - 281 210
Long 560 - 485 350
5 Common Cutting 550 - 477 350*
6 Cut and Hold Both 1625 - 1408 1010
Ends
7 BPO Cut and Hold 5500 - 4766 600**
8 BPO Cutting 4000 - 3466 600**
9 Detrenching 26 inch 3500 - 3033 17000
36 inch 8500 - 7366 34000
10 Flat fish 400 - 346 200*
11 Combination Flatfish 300 - 260 200*
12 Cutter Flatfish 550 - 477 250*
13 Gifford 30 ton 224 - 194 140
50 ton 450 - 390 280*
Vee Jaw 224 - 194 140*
14 List 1 Jamming 200 - 173 100*
15 Lucas Cut and Hold 504 - 436 315
16 Rennie's 30 ton 324 - 280 200*
50 ton 690 - 598 430*
17 Rouilliard 896 - 776 560
18 Sand Light 253 - 219 160*
Medium 396 - 343 210*
Heavy 550 - 477 350*
19 Sliding Short 504 - 436 315
Prong Long 584 - 506 410*

______________________________________________________________
* estimated from similar grapnels
** estimated from configuration
Page 47
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 6x3 Grappling Rope

1.45 in. Diameter, 3.25 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 61 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 600.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 197 185 198 187 200 189 202 191
100 271 240 275 245 280 251 286 258
150 337 283 343 291 351 302 362 316
200 398 319 408 332 420 349 435 369
250 458 351 470 369 486 392 506 420
300 516 380 531 404 551 434 577 470
350 573 408 591 437 616 475 647 519
400 629 433 650 470 679 515 717 568
450 685 458 709 501 743 554 786 616
500 740 482 768 531 806 592 856 664
550 795 505 826 561 869 631 925 711
600 850 527 884 591 932 669 994 759
650 905 549 942 620 995 707 1063 806
700 959 570 1000 648 1057 744 1131 854
750 1013 591 1057 677 1120 782 1200 901
800 1067 612 1115 705 1182 819 1269 948
850 1121 632 1172 733 1244 856 1338 995
900 1175 652 1229 761 1307 893 1406 1042
950 1229 671 1286 788 1369 930 1475 1090
1000 1282 691 1343 816 1431 967 1544 1137
1100 1389 729 1457 870 1555 1041 1681 1231
1200 1496 766 1571 924 1679 1114 1818 1324
1300 1603 803 1684 978 1803 1187 1955 1418
1400 1709 839 1798 1032 1927 1260 2092 1512
1500 1815 875 1911 1085 2051 1333 2229 1606
1600 1921 911 2024 1138 2174 1406 2366 1700
1700 2027 946 2137 1191 2298 1479 2504 1793
1800 2133 981 2250 1243 2422 1552 2641 1887
1900 2239 1016 2363 1296 2545 1624 2778 1981
2000 2345 1050 2476 1348 2669 1697 2915 2074
2100 2451 1084 2589 1401 2793 1769 3052 2168
2200 2556 1118 2702 1453 2916 1842 3189 2262
2300 2662 1152 2815 1505 3040 1915 3326 2355
2400 2767 1186 2927 1557 3163 1087 3463 2449
2500 2873 1220 3040 1609 3287 2059 3600 2543
2600 2978 1253 3153 1661 3410 2132 3737 2636
2700 3084 1287 3265 1713 3534 2204 3874 2730
2800 3189 1320 3378 1764 3657 2277 4011 2824
2900 3294 1353 3490 1816 3781 2349 4148 2917
3000 3400 1386 3603 1868 3904 2422 4285 3011
Page 48
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 6x3 Grappling Rope

1.45 in. Diameter, 3.25 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 61 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 600.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM, FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 205 194 208 198 212 202 216 206
100 293 267 301 277 311 288 322 300
150 374 331 389 349 406 368 424 389
200 453 392 475 418 499 447 526 478
250 531 452 560 487 592 525 627 566
300 608 511 645 556 685 604 728 654
350 685 569 729 624 777 682 829 742
400 762 627 813 692 870 760 931 830
450 838 685 898 760 963 838 1032 918
500 915 743 982 827 1055 915 1133 l006
550 991 800 1066 895 1148 993 1234 1094
600 1067 858 1150 963 1240 1071 1335 1182
650 1144 916 1235 1031 1333 1149 1437 1270
700 1220 973 1319 1098 1426 1227 1538 1358
750 1296 1031 1403 1166 1518 1305 1639 1446
800 1372 1088 1487 1234 1611 1383 1740 1534
850 1448 1145 1571 1302 1703 1461 1841 1622
900 1524 1203 1655 1369 1796 1539 1943 1710
950 l600 1260 1740 1437 1888 1617 2044 1797
1000 1677 1318 1824 1505 1981 1694 2145 1885
1100 1829 1432 1992 1640 2166 1850 2347 2061
1200 1981 1547 2160 1775 2351 2006 2550 2237
1300 2133 1662 2329 1911 2536 2162 2752 2413
1400 2285 1776 2497 2046 2721 2318 2954 2589
1500 2437 1891 2665 2182 2907 2473 3157 2765
1600 2590 2006 2843 2317 3092 2629 3359 2941
1700 2742 2121 3002 2452 3277 2785 3562 3117
1800 2894 2235 3170 2588 3462 2941 3764 3293
1900 3046 2350 3339 2723 3647 3097 3966 3469
2000 3198 2465 3507 2858 3832 3252 4169 3645
2100 3350 2579 3675 2994 4017 3408 4371 3821
2200 3503 2694 3844 3129 4202 3564 4573 3997
2300 3655 2809 4012 3265 4388 3720 4776 4173
2400 3807 2923 4180 3400 4573 3875 4978 4349
2500 3959 3038 4348 3535 4758 4031 5180 4524
2600 4111 3153 4517 3671 4943 4187 5383 4700
2700 4263 3267 4685 3806 5128 4343 5585 4876
2800 4415 3382 4853 3942 5313 4499 5788 5052
2900 4568 3497 5022 4077 5498 4654 5990 5228
3000 4720 3611 5190 4212 5683 4810 6192 5404
Page 49
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 6x3 Grappling Rope

1.45 in. Diameter, 3.25 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 61 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 900.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 225 216 226 217 228 219 230 221
100 310 284 313 287 317 292 322 298
150 382 336 387 342 395 351 404 362
200 448 379 456 390 467 404 480 421
250 512 418 522 433 537 452 555 476
300 573 453 586 473 604 498 627 528
350 632 486 649 511 671 542 699 580
400 691 516 710 546 737 585 770 630
450 749 545 771 581 802 626 841 680
500 806 573 831 615 866 667 911 729
550 863 600 891 647 930 707 981 778
600 919 625 951 679 994 747 1050 827
650 975 650 1010 711 1058 786 1120 875
700 1030 674 1068 741 1121 825 1189 923
750 1085 698 1127 772 1184 864 1258 971
800 1140 721 1185 802 1247 902 1327 1018
850 1195 744 1243 832 1310 940 1396 1066
900 1250 766 1301 861 1373 978 1465 1114
950 1305 788 1359 890 1436 1016 1534 1161
1000 1359 809 1417 919 1498 1054 l603 1208
1100 1468 851 1532 976 1623 1129 1741 1303
1200 1576 892 1647 1032 1748 1203 1878 1397
1300 1683 932 1761 1088 1873 1278 2016 1492
1400 1791 972 1876 1144 1997 1352 2153 1586
1500 1898 1011 1990 1199 2121 1425 2291 1680
1600 2005 1049 2104 1253 2246 1499 2428 1774
1700 2112 1087 2218 1308 2370 1572 2565 1868
1800 2219 1124 2331 1362 2494 1646 2702 1962
1900 2326 1161 2445 1415 2618 1719 2839 2056
2000 2432 1198 2558 1469 2741 1792 2976 2149
2100 2538 1234 2672 1522 2865 1865 3114 2243
2200 2645 1270 2785 1576 2989 1938 3251 2337
2300 2751 1306 2898 1629 3113 2011 3388 2431
2400 2857 1341 3011 1682 3237 2084 3525 2524
2500 2963 1377 3124 1735 3360 2157 3662 2618
2600 3069 1412 3237 1787 3484 2230 3799 2712
2700 3175 1447 3350 1840 3608 2302 3936 2806
2800 3281 1481 3463 1893 3731 2375 4073 2899
2900 3387 1516 3576 1945 3855 2448 4210 2993
3000 3412 1550 3689 1997 3978 2520 4347 3087
Page 50
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 6x3 Grappling Rope

1.45 in. Diameter, 3.25 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 61 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 900.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 232 223 235 226 238 229 241 233
100 328 305 335 313 344 322 353 333
150 414 375 427 390 441 406 457 425
200 496 440 515 463 536 487 560 514
250 576 503 602 533 630 567 662 603
300 655 563 687 603 724 646 763 691
350 733 623 772 672 817 724 865 780
400 810 682 857 740 909 802 966 868
450 888 741 942 808 1002 880 1067 956
500 964 800 1026 877 1095 958 1169 1044
550 1041 858 1111 945 1188 1036 1270 1132
600 1118 916 1195 1013 1200 1114 1371 1220
650 1194 974 1279 1080 1373 1192 1472 1308
700 1271 1032 1364 1148 1465 1270 1573 1396
750 1347 1089 1443 1216 1558 1348 1675 1484
800 1423 1147 1532 1284 1651 1426 1776 1572
850 1500 1205 1616 1352 1743 1504 1877 1660
900 1576 1262 1701 1419 1836 1582 1978 1748
950 1652 1320 1785 1487 1928 1660 2079 1836
1000 1728 1377 1869 1555 2021 1738 2181 1923
1100 1881 1492 2037 1690 2206 1894 2383 2099
1200 2033 1607 2206 1826 2391 2049 2585 2275
1300 2185 1722 2374 1961 2576 2205 2788 2451
1400 2338 1837 2542 2097 2761 2361 2990 2627
1500 2490 1951 2711 2232 2946 2517 3192 2803
1600 2642 2066 2879 2367 3132 2672 3395 2979
1700 2794 2181 3047 2503 3317 2828 3597 3155
1800 2946 2296 3216 2638 3502 2984 3800 3331
1900 3099 2410 3384 2774 3687 3140 4002 3507
2000 3251 2525 3552 2909 3872 3296 4204 3683
2100 3403 2640 3721 3044 4057 3451 4407 3859
2200 3555 2754 3889 3180 4242 3607 4609 4035
2300 3707 2869 4057 3315 4427 3763 4811 4211
2400 3859 2984 4226 3450 4613 3919 5014 4387
2500 4012 3098 4394 3586 4798 4075 5216 4563
2600 4164 3213 4562 3721 4983 4230 5418 4738
2700 4316 3328 4730 3857 5168 4386 5621 4914
2800 4468 3443 4899 3992 5353 4542 5823 5090
2900 4620 3557 5067 4127 5538 4698 6026 5266
3000 4772 3672 5235 4263 5723 4853 6228 5442
Page 51
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 6x3 Grappling Rope

1.45 in. Diameter, 3.25 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 61 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 1200.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 250 242 251 243 252 244 254 246
100 343 320 346 323 350 328 354 333
150 421 380 426 386 433 394 441 403
200 492 431 500 440 509 452 521 466
250 559 475 569 488 582 505 598 525
300 624 516 636 533 653 555 674 581
350 686 553 701 574 722 602 747 635
400 747 588 765 614 789 647 820 688
450 807 620 828 652 865 692 892 739
500 866 652 890 688 922 735 963 790
550 924 682 951 724 987 777 1034 840
600 982 710 1012 758 1052 818 1104 890
650 1039 738 1072 792 1117 859 1174 939
700 1096 765 1132 825 1181 900 1244 988
750 1152 791 1191 857 1245 940 1314 1037
800 1208 817 1251 889 1309 979 1384 1085
850 1264 842 1310 920 1373 1019 1453 1134
900 1320 866 1369 951 1436 1058 1523 1182
950 1375 890 1427 982 1499 1096 1592 1230
1000 1431 914 1486 1012 1562 1135 1661 1278
1100 1541 960 1602 1072 1688 1212 1799 1373
1200 1650 1004 1718 1131 1814 1288 1937 1468
1300 1759 1048 1834 1189 1939 1363 2075 1563
1400 1868 1090 1949 1247 2065 1438 2213 1658
1500 1976 1132 2064 1304 2189 1513 2350 1752
1600 2084 1173 2179 1360 2314 1588 2488 1846
1700 2192 1213 2294 1416 2439 1662 2625 1941
1800 2300 1253 2408 1471 2563 1736 2763 2035
1900 2407 1292 2522 1527 2688 1810 2900 2129
2000 2514 1331 2636 1582 2812 1884 3037 2223
2100 2621 1369 2750 1636 2936 1957 3175 2317
2200 2728 1407 2864 1691 3060 2031 3312 2411
2300 2835 1445 2978 1745 3184 2104 3449 2505
2400 2942 1482 3092 1799 3308 2178 3586 2599
2500 3049 1519 3205 1853 3432 2251 3723 2693
2600 3155 1556 3319 1906 3556 2324 3860 2787
2700 3262 1592 3432 1960 3680 2397 3998 2880
2800 3368 1629 3545 2013 3804 2470 4135 2974
2900 3474 1665 3659 2067 3928 2543 4272 3068
3000 3580 1071 3772 2120 4051 2616 4409 3162
Page 52
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 6x3 Grappling Rope

1.45 in. Diameter, 3.25 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 61 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 1200.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 256 248 258 251 261 253 264 257
100 360 339 366 346 373 354 381 363
150 450 415 462 427 474 442 489 458
200 536 484 553 503 572 525 593 549
250 618 549 641 576 667 606 696 639
300 699 612 728 647 761 686 798 728
350 778 674 814 717 855 765 900 817
400 857 735 900 787 948 844 1001 905
450 935 794 985 856 1041 923 1103 993
500 1012 854 1070 925 1134 1001 1204 1082
550 1090 913 1154 993 1227 1079 1305 1170
600 1167 972 1239 1061 1320 1157 1407 1258
650 1244 1030 1324 1129 1412 1235 1508 1346
700 1320 1088 1408 1197 1505 1313 1609 1434
750 1397 1146 1492 1265 1598 1391 1710 1522
800 1474 1204 1577 1333 1690 1469 1811 1610
850 1550 1262 1661 1401 1783 1547 1913 1698
900 1627 1320 1745 1469 1875 1625 2014 1786
950 1703 1378 1830 1537 1968 1703 2115 1874
1000 1779 1436 1914 1605 2061 1781 2216 1962
1100 1932 1551 2082 1740 2246 1937 2419 2137
1200 2085 1666 2251 1876 2431 2093 2621 2313
1300 2237 1781 2419 2011 2616 2248 2823 2489
1400 2389 1896 2588 2147 2801 2404 3026 2665
1500 2542 2011 2756 2282 2986 2560 3228 2841
1600 2694 2126 2924 2418 3171 2716 3430 3017
1700 2846 2241 3093 2553 3357 2872 3633 3193
1800 2999 2356 3261 2688 3542 3027 3835 3369
1900 3151 2470 3429 2824 3727 3183 4037 3545
2000 3303 2585 3598 2959 3912 3339 4240 3721
2100 3455 2700 3766 3095 4097 3495 4442 3897
2200 3607 2815 3934 3230 4282 3650 4645 4073
2300 3760 2929 4103 3365 4467 3806 4847 4249
2400 3912 3044 4271 3501 4652 3962 5049 4425
2500 4064 3159 4439 3636 4838 4118 5252 4601
2600 4216 3274 4608 3772 5023 4274 5454 4776
2700 4368 3388 4776 3907 5208 4429 5656 4952
2800 4521 3503 4944 4042 5393 4585 5859 5128
2900 4673 3618 5112 4178 5578 4741 6061 5304
3000 4825 3732 5281 4313 5763 4897 6264 548O
Page 53
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 8x3 Grappling Rope

1.65 in. Diameter, 4.36 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 67 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 600.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 179 166 181 168 182 170 184 172
100 248 213 251 218 256 224 261 231
150 310 249 315 257 323 268 332 281
200 368 279 376 292 387 309 401 328
250 425 307 436 324 450 347 469 374
300 481 331 494 355 512 384 536 418
350 536 355 552 383 574 419 602 462
400 591 376 609 411 635 454 668 505
450 645 397 666 438 695 489 734 548
500 699 418 722 465 756 523 800 591
550 752 437 779 491 816 557 865 633
600 806 456 835 516 877 590 931 676
650 859 474 891 542 937 624 997 718
700 912 493 947 567 997 657 1062 760
750 965 510 1003 591 1057 690 1127 802
800 1018 528 1058 616 1117 723 1193 845
850 1071 545 1114 640 1176 756 1258 887
900 1124 562 1169 664 1236 789 1323 929
950 1177 579 1225 688 1296 821 1389 971
1000 1229 595 1280 712 1356 854 1454 1013
1100 1334 628 1391 760 1475 919 1585 1097
1200 1439 660 1502 807 1594 984 1715 1180
1300 1544 691 1612 854 1713 1048 1845 1264
1400 1649 722 1722 901 1832 1113 1976 1348
1500 1754 753 1833 947 1951 1177 2106 1431
1600 1858 783 1943 993 2070 1242 2237 1515
1700 1963 814 2053 1039 2189 1306 2367 1599
1800 2067 843 2163 1085 2308 1370 2497 1682
1900 2171 873 2273 1131 2427 1435 2628 1766
2000 2276 903 2383 1177 2545 1499 2758 1850
2100 2380 932 2493 1222 2664 1563 2888 1933
2200 2484 961 2603 1268 2783 1627 3019 2017
2300 2588 990 2713 1313 2902 1691 3149 2100
2400 2692 1019 2822 1359 3021 1755 3279 2184
2500 2796 1048 2932 1404 3139 1819 3410 2267
2600 2900 1077 3042 1449 3258 1883 3540 2351
2700 3004 1105 3152 1494 3377 1947 3670 2434
2800 3108 1134 3261 1539 3495 2011 3800 2518
2900 3212 1162 3371 1585 3614 2075 3931 2601
3000 3316 1191 3481 1630 3733 2139 4061 2685
Page 54
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 8x3 Grappling Rope

1.65 in. Diameter, 4.36 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 67 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 600.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 187 175 190 179 194 183 197 187
100 268 239 276 249 285 259 295 271
150 344 296 358 313 373 332 390 352
200 418 351 438 376 461 403 485 432
250 491 404 518 438 547 474 580 513
300 564 457 597 500 634 545 674 593
350 637 510 676 561 721 616 768 673
400 709 562 756 623 807 687 863 753
450 781 614 835 684 894 758 957 833
500 853 666 914 745 981 828 1052 913
550 925 717 993 807 1067 899 1146 993
600 997 769 1072 868 1154 970 1240 1073
650 1069 821 1151 929 1240 l040 1335 1153
700 1141 873 1230 990 1327 1111 1429 1233
750 1213 924 1309 1051 1413 1182 1523 1313
800 1285 976 1388 1113 1500 1252 1618, 1393
850 1356 1027 1467 1174 1586 1323 1712 1473
900 1428 1079 1546 1235 1673 1393 1806 1553
950 1500 1131 1626 1296 1760 1464 1901 1633
1000 1572 1182 1704 1357 1846 1535 1995 1713
1100 1716 1285 1862 1480 2019 1676 2184 1873
1200 1859 1389 2020 1602 2192 1817 2373 2033
1300 2003 1492 2178 1724 2365 1959 2561 2193
1400 2147 1595 2336 1847 2539 2100 2750 2353
1500 2290 1698 2494 1969 2712 2241 2939 2513
1600 2434 1801 2652 2091 2885 2383 3127 2673
1700 2577 1904 2810 2214 3058 2524 3316 2833
1800 2721 2007 2968 2336 3231 2665 3505 2993
1900 2865 2110 3126 2458 3404 2807 3693 3153
2000 3008 2213 3284 2581 3577 2948 3882 3313
2100 3152 2316 3442 2703 3750 3089 4071 3473
2200 3295 2419 3600 2825 3924 3230 4260 3633
2300 3439 2522 3758 2948 4097 3372 4448 3794
2400 3583 2625 3916 3070 4270 3513 4637 3954
2500 3726 2729 4074 3192 4443 3654 4826 4114
2600 3870 2832 4232 3315 4616 3796 5014 4274
2700 4013 2935 4390 3437 4789 3937 5203 4434
2800 4157 3038 4548 3559 4962 4078 5392 4594
2900 4301 3141 4706 3682 5135 4220 5581 4754
3000 4444 3244 4864 3804 5308 4361 5769 4914
Page 55
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 8x3 Grappling Rope

1.65 in. Diameter, 4.36 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 67 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 900.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 204 193 205 194 206 196 208 198
100 280 251 283 254 287 259 292 265
150 347 295 352 302 359 310 367 321
200 409 332 417 342 426 356 439 372
250 469 365 479 379 492 398 508 421
300 527 394 539 414 556 438 577 467
350 584 422 599 446 619 477 644 513
400 641 448 658 477 681 514 712 558
450 696 472 716 507 743 550 778 602
500 751 496 774 536 805 586 845 646
550 806 518 831 564 866 622 911 689
600 861 540 888 592 927 657 977 733
650 915 561 945 619 988 691 1043 776
700 969 581 1002 646 1049 726 1109 818
750 1023 601 1059 672 1109 760 1175 861
800 1077 621 1115 698 1169 793 1240 904
850 1130 640 1171 724 1230 827 1306 946
900 1184 659 1227 749 1290 861 1372 989
950 1237 678 1283 775 1350 894 1437 1031
1000 1290 696 1339 800 1410 927 1503 1073
1100 1396 732 1451 850 1530 994 1633 1159
1200 1502 767 1562 899 1650 1059 1764 1242
1300 1608 801 1674 947 1769 1125 1895 1326
1400 1714 834 1785 996 1889 1190 2025 1410
1500 1819 868 1896 1043 2008 1256 2156 1494
1600 1924 900 2006 1091 2128 1321 2287 1578
1700 2029 933 2117 1138 2247 1386 2417 1662
1800 2134 964 2227 1186 2366 1451 2548 1746
1900 2239 996 2338 1232 2485 1515 2678 1829
2000 2344 1027 2448 1279 2604 1580 2808 1913
2100 2448 1058 2559 1326 2723 1644 2939 1997
2200 2553 1089 2669 1372 2842 1709 3069 2080
2300 2658 1120 2779 1419 2961 1773 3200 2164
2400 2762 1150 2889 1465 3080 1838 3330 2248
2500 2867 1180 2999 1511 3199 1902 3460 2331
2600 2971 1210 3109 1557 3318 1966 3591 2415
2700 3075 1240 3219 1603 3437 2031 3721 2499
2800 3180 1270 3329 1649 3556 2095 3851 2582
2900 3284 1300 3439 1694 3674 2159 3982 2666
3000 3388 1329 3549 1740 3793 2223 4112 2749
Page 56
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 8x3 Grappling Rope

1.65 in. Diameter, 4.36 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 67 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 900.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 210 200 213 203 216 206 219 210
100 298 272 304 280 312 289 321 299
150 377 334 389 348 403 364 418 382
200 454 391 471 413 491 437 513 463
250 528 447 552 476 579 509 608 543
300 602 501 632 539 666 580 703 624
350 676 555 712 601 753 651 797 704
400 748 608 791 663 839 722 892 784
450 821 661 871 725 926 793 986 864
500 894 713 950 786 1013 864 1080 944
550 966 765 1029 848 1099 935 1175 1024
600 1038 818 1108 909 1186 1005 1269 1104
650 1110 870 1188 970 1273 1076 1364 1184
700 1182 922 1267 1032 1359 1147 1458 1264
750 1254 973 1346 1093 1446 1217 1552 1344
800 1326 1025 1425 1154 1532 1288 1647 1424
850 1398 1077 1504 1216 1619 1359 1741 1504
900 1470 1129 1583 1277 1706 1429 1835 1584
950 1542 1180 1662 1338 1792 1500 1930 1664
1000 1614 1232 1741 1399 1879 1571 2024 1744
1100 1758 1335 1899 1522 2052 1712 2213 1904
1200 1902 1439 2057 1644 2225 1853 2402 2065
1300 2046 1542 2215 1766 2398 1995 2590 2225
1400 2189 1645 2373 1889 2571 2136 2779 2385
1500 2333 1748 2531 2011 2744 2277 2968 2545
1600 2477 1852 2689 2133 2917 2419 3156 2705
1700 2620 1955 2847 2256 3090 2560 3345 2865
1800 2764 2058 3005 2378 3264 2701 3534 3025
1900 2908 2161 3163 2500 3437 2842 3722 3185
2000 3051 2264 3321 2623 3610 2984 3911 3345
2100 3195 2367 3479 2745 3783 3125 4100 3505
2200 3338 2470 3637 2867 3956 3266 4289 3665
2300 3482 2573 3795 2990 4129 3408 4477 3825
2400 3626 2676 3953 3112 4302 3549 4666 3985
2500 3769 2779 4111 3234 4475 3690 4855 4145
2600 3913 2883 4269 3357 4648 3832 5043 4305
2700 4056 2986 4427 3479 4822 3973 5232 4465
2800 4200 3089 4585 3601 4995 4114 5421 4625
2900 4344 3192 4743 3724 5168 4256 5610 4785
3000 4487 3295 4901 3846 5341 4397 5798 4945
Page 57
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 8x3 Grappling Rope

1.65 in. Diameter, 4.36 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 67 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 1200.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 225 215 226 216 227 218 229 219
100 308 282 311 285 315 289 319 295
150 380 333 385 339 391 347 398 356
200 446 376 453 385 462 397 473 411
250 509 414 518 427 530 443 545 463
300 569 448 581 465 596 486 615 512
350 628 480 642 501 661 528 684 560
400 686 509 702 535 724 567 752 607
450 743 537 762 567 788 606 820 652
500 800 563 821 599 850 644 887 697
550 856 588 880 629 912 681 954 742
600 912 613 938 659 974 717 1021 786
650 967 636 996 688 1036 753 1088 830
700 1022 659 1053 717 1097 789 1154 874
750 1077 681 1111 745 1158 824 1220 917
800 1131 703 1168 772 1219 859 1286 960
850 1185 724 1225 800 1280 893 1352 1003
900 1239 745 1282 826 1341 928 1418 1046
950 1293 765 1338 853 1402 962 1484 1089
1000 1347 785 1395 879 1462 996 1550 1132
1100 1455 824 1507 931 1583 1064 1681 1217
1200 1561 862 1620 983 1703 1131 1812 1302
1300 1668 899 1732 1033 1823 1198 1943 1386
1400 1774 935 1844 1083 1943 1264 2074 1471
1500 1881 971 1955 1133 2063 1330 2205 1555
1600 1986 1005 2067 1182 2183 1396 2336 1639
1700 2092 1040 2178 1230 2303 1462 2466 1723
1800 2198 1074 2289 1279 2422 1527 2597 1807
1900 2303 1107 2400 1327 2542 1592 2728 1891
2000 2409 1140 2511 1375 2661 1658 2858 1975
2100 2514 1173 2621 1422 2780 1723 2989 2059
2200 2619 1205 2732 1470 2900 1788 3119 2143
2300 2724 1237 2843 1517 3019 1853 3250 2227
2400 2829 1269 2953 1564 3138 1917 3380 2311
2500 2934 1301 3064 1611 3257 1982 3511 2394
2600 3039 1332 3174 1658 3376 2047 3641 2478
2700 3143 1363 3285 1704 3495 2111 3771 2562
2800 3248 1394 3395 1751 3614 2176 3902 2646
2900 3353 1425 3505 1797 3733 2240 4032 2729
3000 3457 1456 3615 1844 3852 2305 4163 2813
Page 58
Table 4.1(c)

Grapnel Rope Length Versus Ocean Depth and Ship Speed.


(after Hale and Reinold)

Grappling Table for 8x3 Grappling Rope

1.65 in. Diameter, 4.36 Pounds/Fathom - Hydrodynamic Constant = 67 Deg Kt


Bottom Tension = 1200.0 Pounds

Ship Speed in knots


Depth 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
FM. Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg Sg Xg
FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM. FM.
50 230 221 233 224 235 227 238 230
100 324 301 330 307 337 315 345 324
150 407 367 418 380 430 394 444 409
200 486 428 502 447 520 469 540 492
250 563 486 584 513 609 542 636 573
300 638 542 666 576 697 614 731 654
350 713 598 746 640 784 686 826 735
400 786 652 826 702 871 757 920 815
450 860 705 906 764 958 828 1015 895
500 933 759 985 826 1045 899 1109 975
550 1006 812 1065 888 1132 970 1204 1055
600 1078 864 1144 950 1218 1041 1298 1135
650 1151 917 1224 1011 1305 1111 1392 1216
700 1223 969 1303 1073 1392 1182 1487 1296
750 1295 1021 1382 1134 1478 1253 1581 1376
800 1368 1073 1461 1195 1565 1324 1676 1456
850 1440 1125 1540 1257 1651 1394 1770 1536
900 1512 1177 1619 1318 1738 1465 1864 1616
950 1584 1229 1699 1379 1824 1536 1959 1696
1000 1656 1281 1778 1441 1911 1606 2053 1776
1100 1800 1385 1936 1563 2084 1748 2242 1936
1200 1944 1488 2094 1686 2257 1889 2430 2096
1300 2088 1592 2252 1808 2430 2030 2619 2256
1400 2232 1695 2410 1930 2604 2172 2808 2416
1500 2375 1798 2568 2053 2777 2313 2997 2576
1600 2519 1902 2726 2175 2950 2454 3185 2736
1700 2663 2005 2884 2298 3123 2596 3374 2896
1800 2807 2108 3042 2420 3296 2737 3563 3056
1900 2950 2211 3200 2542 3469 2878 3751 3216
2000 3094 2314 3358 2665 3642 3020 3940 3376
2100 3238 2418 3516 2787 3815 3161 4129 3536
2200 3381 2521 3674 2909 3989 3302 4318 3696
2300 3525 2624 3832 3032 4162 3444 4506 3856
2400 3669 2727 3990 3154 4335 3585 4695 4016
2500 3812 2830 4148 3276 4508 3726 4884 4176
2600 3956 2933 4306 3399 4681 3867 5072 4336
2700 4099 3036 4464 3521 4854 4009 5261 4496
2800 4243 3139 4622 3643 5027 4150 5450 4656
2900 4387 3243 4780 3766 5200 4291 5639 4816
3000 4530 3346 4938 3888 5373 4433 5827 4976
Page 59

4.2 Raising a Cable Bight to the Surface.

It is sometimes possible to safely raise a bight of cable to the surface for repair with an
ordinary grapnel. Quite often however, particularly in deep water, a cable bight cannot be
raised to the surface without parting, When this is the case it becomes necessary to cut the
cable near the bottom before bringing it to the surface. A cut and hold grapnel can be used for
this operation or the cable can be cut on the bottom with a cutting grapnel and the end(s) then
brought to the surface with an ordinary grapnel.

If a cable bight could be raised to the surface without exceeding a tension well below the
tensile strength of the cable, it would be the preferred method of recovery. The use of an
ordinary grapnel is in general simpler to use than a cut and hold grapnel or cutting grapnel. It
is therefore necessary to be able to determine if a cable bight can be brought to the surface for
the purpose of deciding what kind of grapnel to use for a particular repair operation. A
procedure for accomplishing this is outlined below.

Figure 4.2(a) shows a cable bight being lifted off the bottom. At the normal low grappling
rates, inertia and drag forces can be neglected. The cable on either side of the grapnel takes
the form of a catenary which is tangent to the ocean bottom. If the grapnel is picked up
vertically, the two sides of the bight will be identical in shape.

The measured length along the cable between the two tangent points is greater than the
horizontal distance measured along the ocean bottom between these two points. The excess
cable comes from the slack originally laid in the section of cable between the two tangent
points and the cable pulled along the bottom against friction by the cable tension at the
tangent points. Stretch or extension of the cable resulting from tension in the cable is small
and may be neglected. Thus the height to which the cable bight can be lifted without exceeding
the breaking strength of the cable depends on the magnitude of that breaking strength, the
cable slack, the weight per unit length of the cable, the ocean depth and the frictional
properties of the bottom. The cable properties are fairly well known from calculations and
experiments. A reasonable approximation of the slack can be obtained if good cable laying
records are available. The bottom friction, on the other hand, is a parameter which is most
difficult to obtain a realistic value.

The cable angle at the grapnel !g ( figure 4.2(a) ) can be shown to be independent of the height

to which the bight is lifted and is, in fact, only a function of the slack and bottom friction.
Figure 4.2(b) gives the cable angle at the grapnel as a function of slack for various values of
bottom friction.
Page 60

Tg

!g
Tcg Tcg
h

Fig. 4.2(a) A cable bight being lifted off the bottom.


Page 61

90
=0.1
80
0.3
70
1.0

60
J
50
Cable angle !g ( ) 40
in degrees
30
! g = Angle between cable and horizontal at grapnel
= Coefficient of bottom friction
20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
percent slack

Fig. 4.2(b) Cable angle versus per cent slack for


various values of bottom friction for
an inextensible cable ( after Gretter ).

Once the cable angle !g is known, the cable tension at the grapnel Tcg and the grapnel rope

tension Tg ( figure 4.2(a) ) can be determined from the application of the catenary equations.

These expressions are:

Tcg 1
= (4.2.1)
wh 1-cos! g

Tg 2sin ! g
= (4.2.2)
wh 1-cos! g

Dimensionless cable tension and grapnel force given by equations 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 are plotted
in figure 4.2(c).
Page 62

14
Tcg = Cable tension at Tg = Grapnel rope
grapnel tension
12 ! g = Cable angle at h= Ocean depth
grapnel
w= Weight perunit length of cable in sea water
10 2.0
Grapnel
8 1.6
Dimension % force
less % Cable
6 1.2
tension tension
(T w h ) 4 T
G T 0.8 ratio
( )
TCG G
wh
Tg Tcg
2 0.4
T
CG
wh
0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

( )
Cable angle !g in degrees

Fig. 4.2(c) Dimensionless tension, dimensionless grapnel


force, and grapnel force - cable tension ratio
versus cable angle ( after Gretter ).

E x a m p l e : List 1 SD cable ( w= 1926 lb/n. mile in water, tensile strength 19500 lbf. ) at a

depth of 1 n. mile is to be raised to the surface for repair, What choice of grapnel is
recommended? Assume a coefficient of bottom friction of 0.3, a tension safety factor of 3, and
that the cable was laid with 10 per cent slack.

With a safety factor of 3, the allowable cable tension at the grapnel Tcg is equal to 6500 lbf.

For a depth of 1 n. mile wh is equal to 1926 lbf. and Tcg w h is consequently equal to 3.37.

With this value of Tcg w h we obtain a grapnel angle !g of 45 degrees from figure 4.2.(c).

From figure 4.2(b) with =0.3 and !g = 45 degrees, we see that the cable must have been laid

with at least 6 per cent slack in order to be raised to the surface. Since 10 per cent slack was
originally laid, the cable bight can be raised to the surface, hence an ordinary grapnel would
be recommended.
Page 63

4.3 Mechanics of Cable Recovery.

4.3.1 Cable Configuration during Recovery.

Ocean cable is recovered from the bow of the cable ship as illustrated in figure 4.3.1(a) for
bow working or double ended cable ships, or over the stern in stern working cable ships. The
general shape of the resulting cable configuration may readily be determined by observing the
direction of the forces acting on a cable element during recovery.

The velocity of a cable element with respect to the water VR ( figure 4.3.1(a) ) is equal to the

vector sum of the cable element haul-in velocity Vc ( with respect to the ship ) and the cable

ship velocity Vs . VN , the normal component of VR with respect to a cable element, will be

directed upward. Consequently, the normal cable drag DN , which is proportional to the square
of VN , will act downward as shown in figure 4.3.1(b). Thus the normal drag DN and the normal

component of the cable weight per unit length ( wcos! ) act in the same direction during

recovery. If a straight-line configuration were possible, these would be the only forces acting
normal to the cable element and for force equilibrium their summation would have to be equal
to zero. Since both forces act in the same direction, their summation cannot equal zero and
therefore the straight-line configuration is not possible. Thus, during recovery the cable
configuration will be curved as illustrated in figure 4.3.1(a).

A cable element with curvature ( figure 4.3.1(b) ) will have a component of cable tension
acting normal to the cable. The summation of this normal component of tension together with
the normal drag and normal weight per unit length must then be equal to the centripetal
acceleration of the cable element times its mass. This equation will then dictate the resulting
shape of the cable configuration.

Since the cable configuration during recovery is not a straight line the cable tension at the
bottom T0 is not zero. This implies a higher tension at the ship during recovery than normal

laying. The tension at the ship will depend on the cable properties, the ship speed, the ocean
depth and the cable angle at the surface. Because of the relatively high tensions involved in
recovery, it is important to have an understanding of the tension dependance on these
quantities.
Page 64

Vs

#s

Vc
VR Vc
! VN
!
Vs

Fig. 4.3.1(a) Recovery of ocean cable.

n
T +"T
DN

DT
!
!
w T

Fig. 4.3.1(b) Forces acting on a unit length of cable during recovery.


Page 65

4.3.2 Cable Tension during Recovery.

Two equations of motion of a cable element may be obtained for recovery as well as for the
general laying situation by summing the normal and tangential forces acting on a cable
element. The solution of these equations must, in general, be obtained by numerical
integration ( see section 2.2 ). However, if the tangential cable drag and the centrifugal force
are neglected together with further simplifying assumptions, the tension at the ship Ts may be

approximately expressed in a non-dimensional closed form as:

1 6
Ts %1 ( cos# +cos# s +
= * tan2 #
1-cos # cos# s -,
(4.3.2.1)
Ts )

where:

Ts
Ts =
wh

and

2-sin2 #
6 =
sin2 #

The cable angle at the ship is denoted by #s . Here we use the angle # as a parameter

characterizing the cable properties and ship speed ( # 2 H Vs ).

Equation 4.3.2.1 is valid only for the steady state recovery situation where the cable haul-in
rate Vc is identically equal to the ship speed Vs . ( This statement is based on the assumption

that cable ahead of the touchdown point is not pulled along the bottom. Otherwise, the cable

haul-in rate Vc would be equal to Vs ( 1+ =s ) ).) A difference between the haul-in rate and the

ship speed would produce a cable transient that could result in tensions greater or less than
those given by equation 4.3.2.1 under otherwise similar conditions. However, if it is desired
to change the cable angle at the ship, for example to increase # a for the purpose of
decreasing cable tension, it would be necessary to alter the cable haul-in rate ( or
alternatively the ship speed ). When the desired change has been made in the cable angle, the
cable haul-in may again be set equal to the ship speed in order to maintain a steady-state
configuration.
Page 66

Equation 4.3.2.1 is plotted in figure 4.3.2(a) in the form of Ts w h versus # for various

surface incidence angles #s . It is seen that the recovery tensions are in fact considerably

higher than the laying tension of approximately w h.

The cable tension at the ship increases with ship speed ( # 2 H Vs ) as well as with decreasing

values of the cable angle at the ship # s . From figure 4.3.2(a), it can be seen that the maximum

allowable ship speed ( minimum # ) and hence maximum cable haul-in rate for a given tension
occurs when the cable angle at the ship is equal to 90 degrees. ( This assumes that the
maximum allowable cable angle #s is restricted to 90 degrees ) Since it desirable to recover

cable as rapidly as possible, it would appear that the best recovery situation is one where the
cable angle is equal to 90 degrees and the ship speed set to maintain the cable tension safely
below the tensile strength of the cable.

The distance along the cable S and the horizontal distance L, both measured from the cable
touchdown point to the ship during recovery, have been obtained by numerical integration and
are shown in figures 4.3.2(b) and 4.3.2(c ).

5
0
# s = 40
4
Ts w h
0
50
3
0
60
2 0
70
0
80
0
90
1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
# in degrees

Fig. 4.3.2(a) Variation of the tension factor for recovery


with critical angle # ( after Zajac ).
Page 67

3 0
# s = 40
Lh
2 50
0

0
60
0
70
1 0
80
0
90

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
# in degrees

Fig. 4.3.2(b) Variation of the horizontal distance to the


touchdown point during recovery with the
critical angle # ( after Zajac ).

0
3 # s = 40

sh 50
0

2 60
0

0
70
0
80
0
1 90

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
# in degrees

Fig. 4.3.2(c) Variation of the distance along the cable to


the touchdown point during recovery with
the critical angle # ( after Zajac ).
Page 68

By following a cable element during recovery we get the recovery time for a cable element as:

S
tr =
vc

where S is the length of the catenary and vc the cable recovery speed.

Not including the effects of wave motion and repeater weight, from 4.3.2.1 we get the cable

tension as Mwh where the magnification factor M , which indicates the difference in tension
between laying and recovery, as:

1
M= 1 (4.3.2.2)
( 2 cos # +cos # s + 6
1- * tan #
) 1-cos # cos # s -,

with # s, #, 6 being as before.

Hence the tension T( t ) experienced by a cable element as it is recovered from the bottom

varies from

T(0) = T0
to

T( t r ) = w h M + Tw + Tr

where Tr is the weight in water of a cable carried point mass such as a repeater and Tw is the

additional tension due to wave motion, and can be expressed by:

21 t
Tw = EA $c v y cos cos# s
H

with EA being the cable tensile stiffness, $c the cable mass per unit length, vy the maximum

ship vertical velocity, H the period of the wave motion, and #s the recovery angle. In normal

recovery #s is kept close to 90 0


to reduce the tension and cos# s 21 .
Page 69

E x a m p l e : SD List 1 cable is to be recovered from a depth of two n. miles ( w=1926 lb/n.

mile, H =34 degree knots ). Under steady-state conditions, what would be the tension at the

ship for surface angles #s of 50, 70 and 90 degrees at ship speeds of 0.5 and 1 knot?

For a ship speed of 0.5 knots, the approximate value of # is # =H Vs =68 0 , and for 1 knot

# =H Vs = 340 . The exact values of # are 59 degrees and 33 degrees, respectively, obtained

from figure 3.2(a). From figure 4.3.2(a) with the two values of a we may obtain Ts : h . In this

example the :h value for a depth of 2 n. miles is 3852 pounds and, hence, the value of Ts : h
and Ts are as follows:

Vs # #s Ts : h Ts
0.5 59 50 3.4 13096 pounds
59 70 2.2 8474 pounds
59 90 1.5 5778 pounds
1.0 33 50 5.0 19260 pounds
33 70 3.5 13482 pounds
33 90 2,7 10400 pounds

It will be noted from these results that a slight increase in ship speed or a decrease in cable
angle #s at the ship can significantly increase the cable tension, to the point that at the ship

speed of 1 knot and a cable angle # s = 50 degrees, the cable is nearly at breaking point.

4.4 Cable Torque during the Recovery of Armored Cable.

4.4.1 Introduction.

Armored ocean cable may form kinks at the cable touchdown point and may also fail to coil
properly when being recovered from deep water. Turns or loops may be placed in the cable at
the touchdown point if torque exists in the cable at that point. These turns may then be pulled
into kinks as the cable is raised to the surface, which may eventually result in weakening the
cable to the point of causing it to part. The refusal of cable to coil properly is evidenced by
the cable coiling itself in a series of small turns. These two effects result from the tendency of
armored cable to twist or unlay when subject to tension and the twisting action of the bow
sheave.

The tension-twist characteristics of armored cable are described by a linearized model of the
twist, per unit length and will be used here to illustrate the recovery problem.
Page 70

When a cable tends to port or starboard of the plane of the bow sheave, the first point a cable
touches as it is picked up is the side of the sheave. As the sheave revolves the friction force
between the cable and the sheave applies a torque to the cable that causes it to roll into the
bottom of the sheave. With the usual left-hand lay cable tending to starboard, cable inboard of
the sheave will be laid up and cable outboard will be unlayed. When a cable tends to port the
opposite effects are observable.

4.4.2 Optimum Recovery Conditions.

In order to recover cable in deep water that will be undamaged and suitable for further use,
kinking of the cable must be avoided. The prevention of kinking can only be guaranteed when
the torque in the cable outboard of the bow sheave is equal to zero.

It is also desired to be able to coil cable properly after recovery. If cable is to coil properly,
its twist per unit length must be zero when it is relieved of tension. This requires that the
twist per unit length must also be zero on the high tension side of the cable engine ( Ts =: h ),

From the twist per unit length K where:

K =K 11 M t % K12 T (4.4.2.1)

with K =0 we see that the necessary torque in the cable at this point must be equal to

(K 12 K 11 ) Ts to ensure proper coiling of the cable. K 11 and K 12 are influence coefficients.

The desired tension, torque, and twist per unit length relationships are illustrated in figure
4.4.2(a), noting that the vertical cable configuration is an oversimplification of the true
recovery configuration. Clearly there is a difference between the desired value of cable torque
inboard and outboard of the bow sheave. The desired condition can only be satisfied if the bow
sheave is used to apply torque to the cable so as to reduce the twist per unit length to zero (
i.e. lay the cable up in order to return it to a normal lay inboard of the bow sheave ). For left-
hand lay this may be accomplished by causing the cable to tend to starboard during recovery.
The amount of twisting is believed not to be a straight-line function of the angle of the cable
lead. A small tend is sufficient for a substantial amount of twisting, but the increase in
twisting will fall off rapidly as the tend increases.

A difficulty arises in attempting to apply a prescribed amount of torque or twist to a cable


with a bow sheave. There is no way of knowing when the correct amount of torque is being
applied. As we shall soon see, the cable may still coil properly even though torque exists in
Page 71

L K =0 L K=0
N N
N T =0 N T =Ts
NM M t =0 NM M t =K 12 Ts K 11

z z z

Zero
torque

0 w h+ % 0 + % 0 +
Tension (T ) Torque ( M t ) Unit twist (K )

Fig. 4.4.2(a) Desired tension, torque, and twist per unit length
relationships during recovery.

the cable outboard of the bow sheave. Furthermore, wind and sea conditions may prevent the
maintenance of a suitable tend to the cable. Regardless of the uncertainty involved, an attempt
to maintain a starboard tend during recovery will in any case reduce the cable torque at the
ocean bottom and offer the best chance of successful recovery. This method has been found to
be successful in many deep water recoveries. In any case, even in shallow water cable should
never be allowed to tend to port as the danger of kinking is even greater than it would be for
the case of no twisting at the bow sheave.

When recovering a torsionally free cable, the cable should not be permitted to tend to either
port or starboard.

4.4.3 Torque Transient during Recovery.

As already noted, the cable torque and hence, the twist per unit length may vary as a function
of the length of the cable recovered. As an illustration of the torque transient, a situation will
Page 72

be considered where an end of cable ( originally with zero twist per unit length ) is lifted
from the ocean bottom without permitting the end to rotate. It will be assumed that bottom
friction will prevent cable in contact with the bottom from twisting.

When the end of the cable is on board prior to commencing pick up, the tension, torque, and
twist per unit length will be shown as in figure 4.4.3(a). The resulting twist per unit length
along the cable can best be understood by considering the behavior of an element of cable at
the ship and at the ocean bottom. At the ship the element of cable will attempt to unlay
(negative twist as a result of the tension in the cable at that point Ts =: h ). On the other

hand, an element of cable near the bottom is under zero tension and consequently will have no
tendency to unlay. In fact, the cable near the bottom will resist the unlaying of the cable at
the ship end, in doing so, will be laid up. Because of the assumed linear behavior of the cable,
cable below the point z=h 2 will be laid up ( positive twist ).

z z z

L M t =0
N
M K=0
%0 wh+ %0 + % 0 +
Tension (T ) Torque ( M t ) Unit twist (K )

Fig. 4.4.3(a) Cable tension, torque, and twist per unit length
before commencing recovery.

When picking up is commenced, with no twisting action of the bow sheave, cable will be
recovered at the ship with negative twist ( unlaid ) as the cable is picked up off the bottom
with zero twist or normal lay ( because of bottom friction ). The number of cable turns
initially in the length of suspended cable must then equal the number of turns in the
suspended cable, after a length of cable has been recovered, plus the number of turns removed
from the cable during this interval. From figure 4.4.3(a) the number of turns originally in the
suspended cable is zero since the areas above and below the ordinate of twist per unit length
Page 73

are equal. Thus, the number of turns in the cable configuration after a length of cable is
recovered is equal to the negative of the number of turns removed. As picking up is
commenced negative turns are removed at the ship ( negative twist ) so that positive turns are
accumulating in the length of suspended cable. Thus, the twist per unit length K must

increase in a positive sense and from the torque/twist characteristics for cables we see that
the cable torque must also increase. As recovery is continued the twist per unit length will
increase until the cable outboard of the bow sheave has normal lay ( zero twist ). At this point
turns are no longer being removed and hence turns will no longer accumulate in the length of
suspended cable. A steady-state condition will then have been reached ( figure 4,.4.3(b) ).

z z z

%0 wh+ %0 + % 0 +

Tension (T ) Torque ( M t ) Unit twist (K )

Fig. 4.4.3(b) Steady-state tension, torque, and twist per unit length
( No twisting by bow sheaves ).

If we denote the cable twist at the ship by Ks . The number of turns removed at the ship as a

length of cable "x is recovered will be Ks " x . Thus, % Ks " x turns will be placed in the

suspended length and dividing this by the ocean depth, h, gives the change in twist per unit
length " Ks ( constant along the length of the cable. ). Thus we have:

Ks " x
" Ks = % (4.4-3.1)
h

Letting "x approach zero, we obtain the first order differential equation:
Page 74

d Ks 1
+ K =0 (4.4-3.2)
dx h s

The solution of equation 4.4.3.2 is of exponential form and is:

Ks = K s(0) exp (- x h) (4.4.3.3)

Where K s (0 ) is the initial cable twist at the ship. Equation 4.4.3.3 indicates that 63 per cent

of the change from initial to final condition will take place during the recovery of a length of
cable equal to the depth of water, then 63 per cent of the remainder during the next similar
length, and so on.

From figures 4.4.3(a) and 4.4.3(b) we see that at no time at the beginning, during, or at the end
of the transient is the cable torque equal to zero at the touchdown point. Thus, it is possible to
form loops at the touchdown point under these conditions. In addition, during the cable

transient, the cable will not coil properly ( M t ' (K12 K11 ) Ts ). The cable will, however, coil

properly when the final steady-state condition is reached as the cable twist per unit length at
the ship will then be zero. Thus we see that there is no correlation between the ability of the
cable to coil properly and the cable torque outboard of the bow sheave.

If now, instead of picking up with no twisting action of the bow sheaves cable is allowed to
tend to starboard by the correct amount, the desired conditions for proper recovery ( figure
4.4.2(a) ) will be achieved after an initial cable transient. Cable inboard of the bow sheave
will be laid up by the required amount while the cable outboard of the sheave will be unlaid.
On the other hand, if cable is allowed to tend to port, the cable outboard of the bow sheave will
be laid up and the cable torque will be larger than it would be for the case of no twisting by
the bow sheave. This would result in further increasing the possibility of throwing turns in
the cable at the touchdown point. In this case, as well, the cable would coil properly when
steady-state conditions are reached.

The initial transient condition can be avoided if, when the cable is initially raised from the
bottom, the end is permitted to rotate freely. The cable will then be torque free outboard of
the bow sheave. As recovery is commenced, if the cable is tended to starboard by the correct
amount, the cable torque outboard of the sheave will remain zero and the cable will continue to
coil properly. The desired initial conditions may be satisfied by fitting grapnels with swivels
or using a grapnel line of opposite lay to that of the cable so that the cable end may be free to
rotate as it is raised. When recovering conventional armored cable in deep water over a
Page 75

thousand turns of cable end will normally be required to render the cable torque free.

In actual recovery, the cable will not generally be vertical and cable tension will exist at the
cable touchdown point. The tension will act to prevent the throwing of turns with consequent
kinks, even if some torque does exist at the touchdown point. However, since pitching of the
cable ship can act to periodically reduce the bottom tension somewhat, it is important to
attempt to avoid excessive bottom torque. The bottom tension may also go to zero if recovery is
halted and the cable ship is allowed to ride up on the touchdown point. If this occurs small
values of bottom torque may be sufficient to form loops. For this reason stoppages should be
avoided, if possible, during recovery or if they are unavoidable, it may be wise to maintain
shipboard tension greater than the :h value of the cable so that a finite bottom tension will

remain in the cable.

4.5 Standing-to a Cable End.

4.5.1 Suspended Cable Configuration.

The shape of the suspended cable configuration can be easily shown to be a catenary, given no
currents and that the ship is stationary or virtually so, as shown in figure 4.5.1(a).

y Ts

#s

S
s
T0
x

Fig. 4.5.1(a) Cable ship standing-to a cable end.


Page 76

The only measurements that can be made on the ship to determine the shape of the catenary
are the cable tension, the cable angle, and bottom depth. As cable tension is the most
important component, either cable angle or bottom depth are required. Cable angle is the
easiest to use, but in many circumstances cannot be readily measured. Depth under the ship is
normally readily available and unless the bottom has a steep slope, is adequate. The other
factor required is the weight of the cable per unit length in water, w.

Using cable angle at the ship # s , and the cable tension at the ship Ts , we get:

T0 = Ts cos# s
(4.5.1.1)
Tv = Ts sin # s

where T0 is the horizontal tension component and Tv is the vertical tension component at the

ship. T0 is constant throughout the catenary and is the bottom tension.

The length of the suspended cable S is given by:

Tv
S=
w
(4.5.1.2)
T
= s sin # s
w

which gives for the distance from the touchdown point to the point where the cable reaches the
surface X:

T0 ( S w+
X= sinh-1 * - (4.5.1.3)
w ) T0 ,

and for the water depth of touch down point h:

T0 ( (w X+ +
h= * T - %1-
w *)
cosh (4.5.1.4)
) 0 , ,

The horizontal force ( tension at the touchdown point ) T0 is given by:

T0
w
=
1
2h
( S2 % h2 ) (4.5.1.5)
Page 77

Figure 4.5.1(b) shows X h and S h in relation to #s which can be used where bottom depth

is known.

Where only the shipboard tension Ts , the water depth h , and the weight per unit length of the

cable in water are known, which is the most likely situation, then we get:

S 2 Ts
= %1 (4.5.1.7)
h wh

2
S h
1
X h
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
# s in degrees

Fig. 4.5.1(b) Relationship between distance to touchdown point


and length of suspended cable to cable angle at
the surface # s , for cable ship standing-to a cable
end.
Page 78

X 1 ( ( S+
2
+ ( 2 (S h) +
= * %1- sinh -1 * - (4.5.1.8)
h 2 ) ) h, ) (S h) %1 ,
2
,

and

( 2 (S h) +
# s = tan -1 * -
) (S h) %1 ,
2

( 2 Ts +
2 %1 (4.5.1.9)
* wh -
= tan-1 * -
* 2Ts % 2 -
* wh -
) ,

Figure 4.5.1(c) shows the relationship of #s to Ts w h which can then be used with figure

4.5.1(b) can be used to get X h and S h.

90

80

70

#s 60
in degrees

50

40

30
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
Ts w h

Fig 4.5.1(c) The relationship between the cable angle at the surface, # s , and the
cable tension at the ship, Ts , the weight per unit length of the
cable in water, w , and the bottom depth, h .
Page 79

Note: The approximate relationship defined in earlier sections

Ts 1
=
wh 1% cos# s

can also be used to determine #s , as in most practical circumstances it differs only slightly

from the above accurate formula.

Example: SD list 1 cable ( w = 1926 lb/n. mile in water, ( tensile strength 19500 lbf ) is at a
tension of 4000 lbf in 1 n. mile of water. How far away is the cable touchdown point from the
ship and how much cable is suspended?

Ts = 4000 lbf

: h = 1926;1
= 1926 lbf

This gives

Ts 4000
=
: h 1926
= 2.077

From figure 4.5.1(c) we get the cable angle #s

# s = 59 0

From figure 4.5.1(b) we get for # s =59 0

S X
= 1.82 = 1.4
h h

Therefore for h = 1 n. mile, the distance to touchdown and the length of cable suspended are
respectively:
Page 80

X = 1.4 n. miles

S = 1.82 n. miles

4.5.2 Picking-up Additional Cable.

While standing-to a cable end ( or ends ) it is sometimes necessary to pick-up additional


cable, without moving the ship, to provide enough slack inboard of the bow sheaves to allow
effective jointing, etc. It is not possible to provide a set of curves to give a direct solution, due
to the infinite number of possible configurations, so a simple procedure is outlined below.
From figure 4.5.2(a) it can be seen the conditions are initially tension Ts1 cable angle # s1 ,
cable length suspended S1 , and distance from ship to touchdown point X 1 in a water depth h.

Ts1
Ts2

# s2
# s1

S2 S1
T02 T01

X1
X2

Fig. 4.5.2(a) Picking-up cable with ship stationary


Page 81

If # s1 is not able to be easily measured the it can be determined from Ts1 and h using figure

4.5.1(c), and then S1 and X 1 can be found from figure 4.5.1(b).

To pick-up cable, the tension is increased to Ts2 and the cable angle becomes # s2 , then a new

S2 and X2 can be found from figure 4.5.1(b). Hence the length of cable recovered from

changing the shape of the catenary is:

"Sa = S2 % S1 (4-5.2.1)

If slack has been laid and it was not pulled out in raising the cable end to the surface,ie the
bottom is rough and no sliding of the cable along the bottom can occur, then an additional
amount of cable will be picked up from the section raised from the bottom, given by:

" Sb = = ( S 2 % S1 ) (4.5.2.2)

where = is the slack laid.

If the cable can slide along the bottom and slack was laid and not pulled out during raising the
cable end to the surface, then the change in bottom tension will pull an additional amount of
cable equal to:

= ( T01 % T02 )
"Sc =
w

and using T0 =
w
2h
( S2 % h2 )

=
" Sc = ( S 2 % S12)
2h 2
(4.5.2.3)

where is the coefficient of friction between the cable and the ocean bottom.

Three conditions exist, the first with no slack, or the slack has been pulled out, the length
picked up, "S is:

"S = "Sa (4.5.2.4)


Page 82

The second is with slack on a rough bottom,, ie. no sliding of the cable along the bottom, giving

" S = "Sa + " S b (4.5.2.5)

The third is where there is both slack and the cable can slide along the bottom, giving

"S = " Sa + " S c (4.5.2.6)

E x a m p l e : SD List 1 cable ( w=1926 lb/n. mile in water, tensile strength 19500 lbf ) is

being joined in a water depth of 4 n,miles. It is desired to bring additional cable inboard from
one bight to allow easier joining. If the tension in this bight is 8500 lbf, how much cable can
be brought inboard if a safety factor of two is required, assuming the ship does not move due
to the increase in tension in the bight? Original slack laid was 6% and the coefficient of
friction of the cable on the bottom in 0.2.

Ts1 = 8500 lbf

Ts2 = 19500 / 2
= 9750 lbf

from 4.5.1.1

wh = 1926; 4
= 7704lb

Ts1
= 1.10
wh

Ts2
= 1.27
wh

Therefore

# s1 = 850
Page 83

# s2 = 780

From figure 4.5.1(b)

S1 = 4 ;1.06
= 4.24n.miles

S2 = 4;1.22
= 4.88 n.miles

Giving:

"Sa = S1 % S 2 = 0.64 n.miles

Now assuming that the slack has not been pulled out

= = 0.06

= 0.2

From 4.5.2.3

0.06 ( 4.882 - 4.24 2 )


"Sc =
2 ; 4 ; 0.2
= 0.22 n.miles

Therefore the total amount of cable able to be brought inboard from this bight is:

"S = 0.64 +0.22


= 0.86n. miles

or

" S= 0.64 n.miles if no slack was on the bottom


Page 84

which can be seen to be more then adequate, so that the typical length needed to allow for
easier joining will keep tension in the bight will below that for a safety factor of two.

4.5.3 Movement of a Cable Ship Standing-to a Cable End.

We consider the movement of a cable ship from a position directly above the cable touchdown
point, A in figure 4.5.3(a) to a point B , a distance d away. Initially no slack or sliding of the
cable along the bottom is permitted. The measurable parameters are normally the tension at
the ship Ts , and the bottom depth h ( and if conditions permit the cable angle #s ), with the

weight per unit length of the cable in water being w.

TsA TsB

90 0 #s

T0 C

e d
X

Fig. 4.5.3(a) Movement of cable ship standing-to a cable end.

From figure 4.5.3(a) we see that for the distances along the cable CA and CB to be equal, we get
for CA:

S = e+ h (4.5.3.1)
Page 85

and for CB:

T0 ( w X+
S= sinh * - (4.5.3.2)
w ) T0 ,

For cable tensions at A and B we get:

TsA = w h (a)

(4.5.3.3)

TsB = Tv 2 + T0 2 (b)

T0 being the tension at C for CB ( Zero tension on the bottom for CA ) given by:

T0 =
w 2
2h
( e + 2eh ) (4.5.5.4)

with the vertical component Vs given by:

Tv = w ( e + h ) (4.5.3.5)

Making non-dimensional and substituting we get ( for zero slack ):

2
( e + (1 ( ( e+ ( e + ++
2 2
Ts
= +1 + * * +2
) h , -, -,
(4.5.3.6)
wh ) h , ) 2 ) ) h,

and

( +
(e +
* 2 +1 -
X 1 ( ( e+ ( e+ + )h , -
2
-1 *
= +2
h 2 *) ) h , ) h , -,
sinh (4.5.3.7)
* ( ( e+ 2 ( e + + -
* * ) , + 2) , - -
)) h h ,,
Page 86

and for the distance e along the bottom:

e X d
= % (4.5.3.8)
h h h

If the cable is laid with slack = , then in a distance l along the bottom there will be ( 1+= ) l
length of cable. Thus for a given d , e and X will be reduced.

The result for slack laid on a bottom where sliding does not occur will be given by replacing
e h with e' h , where e' h is given by:

= ( 1% = )
e' e
h h

If we allow the cable to slide across the bottom with being the coefficient of friction of the

cable on the bottom, then using eh we can get a value for T0 w h to calculate the amount of

cable slack pulled out, and use this for a new e' h to calculate an approximate solution, ie.:

e' e = T0
= %
h h wh

The relation between d h and Ts wh is plotted in figure 4.5.3(b) for various values of slack

= , and coefficients of bottom friction . We note that if the cable ship moves towards point A
from position B , then cable is laid on the bottom without slack, unless it is paid out from the
ship. Also if it is likely that the slack has been pulled out in the previous working of the
cable, then the = =0 , =J solution should be used.
Page 87

7.0

==0
6.0

= = 0.03
5.0
= = 0.06
= = 0.10

Ts w h 4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
d h

Figure 4.5.3(b)(i) Relationship between ship movement d h and cable tension


at the ship Ts w h for various values of slack = for a rough
bottom ( = J ) .
Page 88

7.0

==0
6.0

5.0

Ts w h 4.0
= = 0.03
= = 0.06
= = 0.10
3.0

2.0

1.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
d h

Figure 4.5.3(b)(ii) Relationship between ship movement d h and cable tension


at the ship Ts w h for various values of slack = for a
smooth bottom with coefficient of friction = 0.2 .
Page 89

7.0

==0
6.0

5.0

= = 0.03
Ts w h 4.0
= = 0.06
= = 0.10

3.0

2.0

1.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

d h

Figure 4.5.3(b)(iii) Relationship between ship movement d h and cable tension


at the ship Ts w h for various values of slack = for a
smooth bottom with coefficient of friction = 0.5 .
Page 90

7.0

==0
6.0

5.0
= = 0.03
= = 0.06
Ts w h 4.0 = = 0.10

3.0

2.0

1.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

d h

Figure 4.5.3(b)(iv) Relationship between ship movement d h and cable tension


at the ship Ts w h for various values of slack = for a
smooth bottom with coefficient of friction = 1.0 .
Page 91

E x a m p l e : SD List 1 cable ( w = 1926 lb/n. mile in water, tensile strength = 19500 lbf ) is
suspended vertically under the bow sheaves in 3.5 n. miles of water. How far can the ship move
back from the cable track if a safety factor of two is to be maintained? The slack is 3% and the
coefficient of friction of the cable on the bottom is 0.2.

TsB = 19500 / 2
=9750 lbf

w h=3.5 ; 1926
=6741lb

Hence using 4.5.1.1

TsB
= 1.45
wh

From figure 4.5.3(b)(ii)

d
= 0.36
h

and hence:

d = 3.5 ; 0.36
= 1.26 n. miles

4.5.4 Holding and Wave Motion Effects.

After a cable is recovered it is held for some time to allow testing, splicing into an onboard
cable, or splicing into a cable end that has been previously recovered in a repair operation.

Ideally the optimum configuration is with the cable vertical, that is # s =90 0 , which is easy to

do when spicing into an onboard cable. In this case the shipboard tension Ts = w h . However

when splicing into a cable that has been recovered the most likely situation is that # s < 90 0
for both cables, the #s for both cables should be such that the tension in both cables is the

same so that when the splice is released the cable will tend to sink vertically. The tension in
this case for the cable(s) can be calculated using the methods in 4.5.1
Page 92

The other effect that may need to be considered when standing-to a cable end is the effect of
wave motion on the tension. From 4.3.3 this is given by:

21 t
Tw = EA $c v y cos cos# s
H

Thus the maximum tension is given by:

Tmax = Ts + Tw

For determining if the cable could be near breaking point, the value for vy should be

determined from the maximum vertical velocity for the bow or stern sheaves in sea conditions

prevailing. If the fatigue of the cable is the consideration required then the vy would be based

on the average vertical velocity. In optical fiber cables this can become important if the

splicing times become long.


Page 93

5 . Hydrodynamic Properties of Cables.

This chapter contains the method for determining values for the hydrodynamic properties of
ocean cables and data from cable laying trials.

5.1 Drag Forces.

The normal and tangential drag forces, which are proportional to the square of the normal and
tangential cable velocities respectively, are given in sections 3.2 and 3.3 as:

DN = 1
2 CD $ dV N 2 (5.1.1)

and

DT = 1
2 C f $1 dVt 2 (5.1.2)

where $ is the mass density of the fluid, CD and Cf are the transverse and tangential drag

coefficients, and d is the cable diameter. On substituting equation 5.1.1 into equation 3.2.2.
the hydrodynamic constant H may be alternately written as:

2w
H = const (5.1.3)
CD $ d

The transverse sinking speed Us as previously noted is:

1
Us = H (5.1.4)
180 0

where w is the weight per unit length of the cable, H is expressed in degree knots, Us in

knots and the constant in the expression for H is to correct for units.

Thus the transverse cable hydrodynamic properties, on which the cable critical angle # is
dependent, may be expressed in terms of either the transverse drag coefficient CD the
Page 94

hydrodynamic constant H, or the transverse sinking speed Us . With a knowledge of any of

these quantities, the other two may be computed.

The tangential drag coefficient Cf from which the tangential drag may be computed, is of

lesser importance as noted in section 3.3.

5.2 Determination of Transverse Hydrodynamic Properties.

In the past, a suggested method of measuring the transverse hydrodynamic properties of a


cable ( CD , Us or H ) was to tow a length of cable in water. By measuring the angle # of the

resulting straight-line configuration as a function of the ship speed through the water, the
transverse hydrodynamic cable properties could be computed. This may be appreciated by
setting the normal drag ( equation 5.1.1 ) equal to the normal component of cable weight and
combining the result with equations 3.2.3 and 5.1.3 to obtain:

sin#
H = Vs (5.2.1)
cos#

The drag coefficient CD may also be determined for smooth cables from values published in

the literature for the resistance to flow about an immersed cylinder of infinite length. The
drag coefficient, based on these results, can be shown to be a function of the product of the
cable unit weight in water and the cable diameter, wd . In figure 5.2(a), the resulting values of
CD are plotted for values of wd ranging from 10 -7 to 10 pounds. For this computation, it has

been assumed that the sea water temperature is 320 F. with the density of 64.21 lbs/cub. ft (

1.994 slugs/cub. ft ) and a kinematic viscosity of 2.006 ; 10-5 ft2 /sec.

However, the hydrodynamic constant as determined from published drag coefficients on


rigidly supported cylinders or as obtained by towing short lengths of cable in towing tanks
was found to be as much as 30 per cent higher than the hydrodynamic constant determined
from cable angle measurements made at sea during the actual laying of cable.

It is believed that this discrepancy results from cable vibration that is induced by vortex
shedding during laying. Alternate clockwise and counterclockwise vortices are shed in the
wake of the cable. Associated with these vortices is an alternating sidewise force which is
believed to induce cable vibrations. As the cable vibrates, its effective diameter, in terms of
cable drag, will be increased. The resulting drag, consequently, indicates larger values of CD
Page 95

when drag calculations are made using the actual cable diameter.

w d in pounds ( % % % % % )
10 -7 10 -6 10 -5 10 -4 10 -3
1 2 4 6 81 2 4 6 8 1 2 4 6 8 1 2 4 6 81
3.0

2.0
CD 1.5

1.0
0.9
0.8
1 2 4 6 81 2 4 6 8 1 2 4 6 8 1 2 4 6 81
10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 1 10
w d in pounds ( % % % % % )

Fig. 5.2(a) Variation of CD with wd for towed cables of


smooth exterior ( after Zajac ).

A hydrodynamic trial was conducted from C.S. LONG LINES during the period of 19 October to
11 November, 1963, in which the sinking characteristics of ocean cables in general and the
hydrodynamic properties of SD List 1 cable were measured.

The system for implementing the objectives of the hydrodynamic trial consisted of an
instrumented length of SD List 1 cable. The cable itself was used to telemeter the outputs of a
number of transducers, each located at a desired point in the cable, to the ship for recording.
Pressure ( depth ) transducers were used to define the shape of the cable configuration and
thus permitted the determination of the cable transverse drag properties. Tension transducers
were used to measure the cable longitudinal drag properties. Accelerometers were also placed
in the cable in order to measure the vibration characteristics of the cable.

The principal conclusions of this hydrodynamic trial can be summarized as follows:

(1) There is no clear indication of a significant departure from straight-line configuration


during steady-state towing or laying.

(2) The transverse drag coefficient for cable being laid differs substantially from that for
Page 96

cable being towed, as illustrated in table 5.2(a).

(3) For towing, the transverse drag coefficient CD is about 1.3, in fair agreement with the

value of 1.1 for a rigid cylinder rigidly supported transverse to a stream. This
corresponds to a hydrodynamic constant of 52.4 degree knots.

(4) For laying, CD 2 3 , which is in good agreement with results obtained from sextant
observations of the cable angle at the water surface during the laying of SD cable in the
Jamaica to Panama link by HMTS ALERT. Eleven observations of the cable angle for SD
List 1 cable, gave an average hydrodynamic constant of 35.2 degree knots, with a
standard deviation of 2.0 degree knots.

(5) The vibration displacement amplitude inferred from accelerometer measurements


during towing is of the order of 0.01 inch, a very small fraction of the cable diameter.
No measurements were obtained during cable laying.

Table 5.2(a)

SD Hydrodynamic trial results.

Trial Trial Standard


average difference deviation
Towing Laying Towing Laying

Sinking speed V s in knots 0.914 0.594 0.320 0.042 0.043

Hydrodynamic constant H 52.4 34.0 18.4 2.4 2.4


in degree knots

Transverse drag coefficient CD 1.278 3.05 1.77 0.115 0.48

It is thus clear that the results obtained with steady-state towing are entirely different from
those for steady-state laying, and that the former cannot be used to predict the latter. Perhaps
this should not be surprising in view of the radically different flow about the cable in the two
cases, but it is contrary to the finding with rigidly supported short cylinders. Apparently the
induced cable vibration is significantly different in the two cases.
Page 97

Hence from this work, the value of transverse drag CD 2 3 should be used when determining

the hydrodynamic constant for a cable, unless one can undertake hydrodynamic trials. For
smooth plastic covered cables similar to SD List 1 cable this value should be able to be used
with confidence, however with the classic jute served cable the rougher surface may modify
this value, though not enough to cause major discrepancies.

However, more recent information from ocean cable manufacturers has used lower values for

CD . Simplex Undersea Cable for the SL21 ocean cable (1999) used an average CD = 2.67 ,
while Alcatel for their OALC-7 ocean cable (2001) used an average CD = 2.19 . No information
on the way the CD 's were determined was given. For the installation of the SOAR II range, it

was found that a CD = 2.38 fitted the laying results.

As a result of the above, the most prudent approach would seem to be that if there were values

for the CD , or H, given by the manufacturer of the ocean cable, then these should be used,

unless one can carry out hydrodynamic trials, other wise the value of CD = 3 should be used.

5.3 Determination of Cable Incidence Angle using a Sextant.

The inclination # of the cable at the water surface is determined from the sextant angle !s
using the relation:

!s % # 1 w a y
= ctn! s (5.3.1)
57.3 2 w h

where !s and # are in degrees, w and wa are the weights per unit length of the cable

submerged in water and in air, respectively, h is the depth of water and y is the elevation

above the water surface of the point of contact of the cable and the laying sheave.

In laying over the bow care should be taken to ensure that the cable is not in contact with the
hull during the measuring of the angle. It will also be probably necessary to use a bosun's
chair to bring the sighting position into line with the cable.
Page 98

6. Ocean Cable Properties.

This chapter outlines the types of ocean cables and their properties which have an effect on
their laying, recovery and repair, including illustrations from standard ocean cables.

6.1 Cable Structural Features.

Ocean cables can be classed in two ways, the first by the form of the conductors and the
second by their usage,

Conductors fall into three general classes, the multiconductor, the coaxial and the optical
fiber. These are illustrated in figure 6.1(a) for the deep water cables. The multiconductor
cable can consist of single conductors, pairs, quads and/or small coaxials. The coaxial cable,
on the other hand, has a single, central coaxial conductor which transmits both power and
signals. The optical fiber cable has the optical fibers at its center, surrounded by a coaxial
conductor for power transmission ( in long haul systems ).

The usage of ocean cables, that is shallow water or deep water, determines the arrangement of
the strength members. For deep water, as shown in figure 6.1(a), the cable can have an
external helically wound armor of high strength wires, normally with layers of polypropylene,
jute, cotton and other materials forming their bedding, covering and outer protective sheath.
These layers are normally flushed with ashphaltic compounds to improve their life and
resistance to attack. A variant exists, known as caged armor, where the armor wires are
imbedded in the outer plastic sheath allowing a much lighter cable to be made.

The second type of strength member for deep water is the central strength member made up
from finer wires, with the outer sheath of the cable being of plastic. This form of construction
is known as armorless cable, It is particularly suitable for large coaxial cables where external
armor would result in an excessively heavy cable.

Deep water optical fiber cables have a strength member that lies between the two types
described above. The core of the cable consists of the optical fibers and these are surrounded
by the strength member, made up of high strength wires. This is clad by the coaxial
conductor/water vapor barrier and the cable is covered by a plastic sheath.
Page 99

For shallow water, external helically wound armor only is used, as shown in figure 6.1(b).
Here the function of the armor is as much to protect the conductors from the more severe
environment as to provide strength. The large armor wires with the jute or polypropylene
bedding and outer servings has proven to be the most durable.

As can be seen, the cable designer can normally select from a range of options to construct a
suitable ocean cable for the task in hand.

4 Quad ( H armor ) cable Diameter


inch
Conductor 0.057
Insulation
polyethylene 0.180
Fillers % cellulose
acetate
Binder tape

Single quad 0.451

Fillers % cellulose
acetate
2 polyolefin tapes
1 serving of jute
& 1 of twine
30 armor wires 0.112
1.76
dia. cotton covered
2 servings of 17 / 3 1.84
jute

Fig. 6.1(a) Structural features of deep water ocean cables.


Page 100

SB Type H cable Diameter


inch

Center wire 0.130


3 surround tapes 0.160
Polyethylene 0.620
6 return tapes 0.650
Teredo tape 0.670
Binding tape 0.70
Servingof 75 lb.
0.80
jute & 1 of twine
20 armor wires 0.086 1.04
dia. cotton covered
2 servings of 17 / 3
1.25
jute

Fig. 6.1(a) Structural features of deep water ocean cables.


Page 101

SD List 1 cable Diameter


inch
Strength member
41 wires 0.290

Inner conductor
0.330
copper tube

Polyethylene
( natural ) 1.000

Outer conductor
copper 1.020

Sheath polyethylene
1.250
( black )

Fig. 6.1(a) Structural features of deep water ocean cables.


Page 102

Coaxial caged armor cable Diameter


inch

Conductor copper 0.128

Polyethylene 0.460

6 return tapes copper 0.480

Shielding tape 0.490

Belt polyethylene 0.630


12 armor wires
0.061 dia.
Outer jacket 0.920
polyethylene

Fig. 6.1(a) Structural features of deep water ocean cables.


Page 103

Diameter
SL Lightweight cable inch
Optical fibers
2 - 24
Thixotropic gel

Nylon or steel tube 0.117


24 high strength
steel wires
Waterblock between
wires
Copper conductor 0.410
hermetically sealed
Medium density 0.827
polyethylene

Fig. 6.1(a) Structural features of deep water ocean cables.


Page 104

SD List 3A cable Diameter


inch
Inner conductor
0.330
solid copper
Polyethylene 1.000
( natural )
Outer conductor
copper 1.020

Sheath polyethylene
( black ) 1.250

1 serving of jute
& 1 of twine
16 armor wires
0.300" dia. 2.00

2 servings of 28 / 3
2.20
jute

Fig. 6.1(b) Structural features of shallow water ocean cables.


Page 105

SL single armor cable Diameter


inch
Optical fibers
2 - 24

Thixotropic gel

Nylon or steel tube 0.117


24 high strength
steel wires
Waterblock between
wires
Copper conductor
0.410
hermetically sealed
Medium density
polyethylene 0.827

20 wires 0.165"
galvanized steel
Polypropylene
servings 1.510

Fig. 6.1(b) Structural features of shallow water ocean cables.


Page 106

6.2 Cable Mechanical Properties.

6.2.1 Cable Breaking Strength.

Ocean cable is designed to withstand tensions that would be encountered during recovery at
maximum depth. However, the recovery tension is not only proportional to the depth, but is
also significantly affected by ship speed, cable angle at the ship and ship motion ( see section
4.3.2 ). The cable breaking strength must be sufficient to permit the cable to be recovered
from the greatest depths under reasonable recovery conditions e.g. ship speed, cable angle, sea
conditions).

In the past, it has been considered adequate to design cable with a cable modulus of
approximately 7. The cable modulus being defined as the ratio of the tensile strength of the
cable to the weight in water of one n. mile of cable. For example, SB type H cable, the cable
modulus is equal to 8.5. and for SD List 1 cable, it is equal to 10.

If the cable modulus is divided by the depth of water in n. miles, the non dimensional tension
Ts : h at the expected failure is obtained. During recovery the non dimensional tension

should be kept safely below this value. For example, in recovering SD List 1 cable with a cable
modulus of 10 at a depth of 2 n. miles, the non dimensional tension Ts : h at failure is 5. The

ship speed and cable angle at the ship during recovery would then be set to maintain the
actual non dimensional tension well below 5.

The breaking strength of cables having their strength member located in the center will
remain unchanged throughout its service life. On the other hand, the tensile strength of
conventionally armored cable may be reduced after several years service through exposure of
the armor to the submerged environment. In the latter case additional caution would be
required when attempting to make a recovery.

6.2.2 Cable Twist ( Tension-torque Relationship ).

Cable that is composed of strength members or other components that have a helical lay will
tend to unlay when subjected to tension ( It is possible to design cable with components of
opposite lay so that the cable will be torsionally dead and, consequently, will not unlay with
the application of tension, but most ocean cables are not of this form ). The driving torque for
this twist is the result of the summation of the tangential components of the helically directed
tensions in the individual armor wires. This twist is resisted by the torsional stiffness of the
armor wires and the remainder of the cable structure.
Page 107

The cable twist per unit length at any cross section is a function of the tension and net torque,
For a cable that is both linear and elastic, the twist per unit length K may be expressed as:

K =K 11 M t % K12 T (6.2.2.1)

where Mt is the cable torque, T is the cable tension, and K 11 and K 12 are influence

coefficients defined by:

( K+
K 12 = % * - (6.2.2.2)
) T ,M t = 0

and

( T +
K 11 =K 12 * -
) M t ,K = 0

In this case the influence coefficients could be determined from two single-point experiments.
la,the first, the cable sample would be loaded in tension with no torsional restraint, that is
the end would be free to rotate. The tension twist coupling constant K 12 would be given by the

ratio of the unlay per unit length to the applied tension ( equation 6.2.2.2 ). In the second
experiment, the torque required to prevent twist under applied tension would be measured.
the ratio of the applied tension to the torque multiplied by K 12 would yield the coupling

constant K 11 ( equation 6.2.2.3 ).

Actual cables are not linear or elastic and the above experiments are carried out for various
values of tension and plots are then made of the results. Figure 6.2.2(a) shows the results of
loading SD List 1 and List 3 cables in tension with no torsional restraint, and figure 6.2.2(b)
shows the torque required to prevent cable from twisting under applied tension. The curves
are seen to form loops as a result of the inelastic behavior of the cable. Thus, the twist per
unit length is not uniquely determined by current values of torque and tension but also
depends on the history of loading. Nevertheless, a useful value for the influence coefficients
can be obtain,ed by taking the average slope of the pertinent curve.
Page 108

0.04

SD List
3BJ cable
0.03
Twist per unit
length (K )
0.02
in turns
per foot .
0.01
SD List 1
cable

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Tension (T ) in thousands of pounds.

Fig. 6.2.2(a) Cable tension-twist relationship ( cable end


unrestrained ) for SD List 1 and List 3BJ cables.

80
70
60
SD List 3BJ
cable
50
Torque ( M t ) in
40
pound feet.
30
20
10 SD List 1
cable
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Tension (T ) in thousands of pounds.

Fig. 6.2.2(b) Cable tension-twist relationship ( cable end


restrained ) for SD List 1 and List 3BJ cables.
Page 109

6.2.3 Cable Elongation ( Tension-torque Relationship ).

The cable elongation per unit length = ( strain) is also a function of the cable tension and
torque. On a linearized basis, the elongation per unit length is given by:

= =-K 21 M t + K 22 T (6.2.3.1)

where K 21 and K 22 are the influence coefficients given by:

( =+
K 22 = * - (6.2.3.2)
) T ,M t = 0

and

(K T = +
K 21 = * 22 % - (6.2.3.3)
) Mt M t ,K = 0

For linear cables the influence coefficients could be determined from two single-point
experiments. In the first, the cable sample would be loaded in tension with no torsional
restraint, that is the end is free to rotate. The influence coefficient K 22 would be given by the

ratio of the unit elongation to the applied tension ( equation 6.2.3.2 ). In the second
experiment the torque required to prevent twist under applied tension ( K =0 ) would be

measured as well as unit elongation. The influence coefficient K 21 may then be computed from

equation 6.2.3.3.

The nonlinear and inelastic behavior of actual cables requires that the above experiments be
carried out for various values of tension and plots must then be made of the results. Figure
6.2.3(a) illustrates the resulting curves obtained for SD List 1 and List 3 cables.

The tensile stiffness of a cable EA is defined by the following equation:

T = EA = (6.2.3.4)

For a homogeneous material the tensile stiffness would be equal to EA where E is the
modulus of elasticity, and A is the cross-sectional area. For a composite structure, such as a
cable, containing many components of varying properties, the tensile stiffness is generally

determined experimentally. The tensile stiffness in this case is denoted by the term EA .
Page 110

10000
9000
8000
SD List 3BJ
restrained
7000 SD List 1
restrained
6000
Tension (T )
5000
in pounds. SD List 1
unrestrained
4000
3000
2000
SD List 3BJ
unrestrained
1000
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Elongation (= ) in per cent.

Fig. 6.2.3(a) SD cable elongation, restrained (K =0 ) and


unrestrained ( M t = 0) .

When tension is applied to a cable that is torsionally unrestrained, from equation 6.2.3.1 with
M t = 0 , we see that the ratio T = gives the tensile stiffness as:

1
EA (twist unrestrained) = (6.2.3.5)
K 22

which is given by the average slope of the twist unrestrained curve of figure 6.2.3(a). When a
cable is restrained from twisting ( K =0 ), equations 6.2.2.1 and 6.2.3.1 can be combined and

solved for the ratio T= to obtain the tensile stiffness. This is:

K 11
EA (twist restrained) = (6.2.3.6)
K 11 K22 %K 21 K12

which is given by the average slope of the twist restrained curves of figure 6.2.3(a).
Page 111

6.2.4 Cable Bending Stiffness.

The bending stiffness of a cable EI is related to the bending moment Mb and the radius of

curvature $b as:

EI
Mb = (6.2.4.1)
$b

If cable behavior were linear and elastic, the bending stiffness would be constant. However,
the bending stiffness of an ocean cable is found experimentally to be a function of the radius

of curvature. In figure 6.2.4(a), the bending stiffness EI for SD List 1 and SB type H cables is
plotted as a function of the radius of curvature.

22000
20000 SD List 1
cable
18000
Bending
16000
stiffness EI ( )
in pound 14000
inches2 . 12000
10000 SB Type H
cable
8000
6000
4000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Radius of curvature ( $ ) in inches.

Fig. 6.2.4(a) Cable bending stiffness.


Appendices.
Page A1

A. Discussion of the Two-dimensional Stationary


Configuration for Zero Bottom Tension.

We assume again that the tangential drag DT depends only on the relative tangential velocity

Vt , and we consider in a T,! plane the solution trajectories of equations 2.2.3. These

trajectories satisfy the equation:

( sin ! " DT w )
dT
d!
=
cos! -# sin! sin!
( T" $ V ) c c
2
(A.1)

and are periodic in ! with a period of 2% . In figure A(a) we have plotted the solution

trajectories qualitatively for ( & -% ) ' ! ' ( & + % ) . It is seen that the trajectories are either

the vertical straight lines ! =&, ! =& % or they lie completely within one of the four

regions, labeled I, II, III or IV, which are bounded by these vertical lines and the horizontal

T = $ c Vc ! =&
2
line . The trajectory corresponds to the straight line laying configuration,

while the trajectories ! =& % correspond to Shea's straight line recovery method.

Examine now the trajectories in Regions II and III at a point of which T =0 . As J.F.Shea has

T = $ c Vc
2
pointed out, these trajectories all lie below the line . On the other hand, the

trajectory ! =& contains all the values of T. Hence according to the stationary model, the only

T ( $ c Vc
2
cable configuration for laying which has the value T =0 and values of is the

&. $ c Vc
2
straight-line inclined at the critical angle The magnitude of is small. For example,

$ c Vc
2
for SB type D cable paid out at 6 knots is roughly six pounds, and for conditions

approximating stationary laying the observed tensions at the ship are in practice always many

$ c Vc
2
times the value. For such magnitudes of shipboard tension and zero bottom tension, the

two-dimensional stationary model thus yields the straight-line as the only possible cable
configuration.

T > $ c Vc
2
However, the empirical fact that does not guarantee that the shipboard tension must

$ c Vc
2
be greater than . We might somehow contrive to lay at a zero bottom tension with
Page A2

T < $ c Vc
2
and with the cable in one of the non-straight line configurations of Regions II or III.

I IV

$ c Vc
2

II III

&" % & &+%

Fig. A(a) Qualitative representation of the solution


trajectories of the two-dimensional
stationary model.

Consider the cable configuration lying in Region II. From figure 3.4(a) it can be seen that the
vertical velocity of a cable element is given by:

dy
= " Vvert = " Vc sin !
dt

where y is measured upward. Hence, of the possible trajectories for which the bottom tension

is zero only those for which the bottom cable angle !0 is between zero and % correspond to

cable laying. For Region II therefore we need consider only the trajectories in the range
0 ' !0 ' & at T0 = 0 . From equation 2.2.5(c) the maximum value of ym for these trajectories is

given by:
Page A3

!035 - !0 wsin + -D (+ ) 075


$ c Vc 2 sin )
ym = , 5 ( cos) - #sin 2 ) )
4 *exp / - , T
d + 28 d) (A.2)
/. ) w ( cos+ - #sin +) 2159
2
w 0 6

Let (DT ) m be the maximum value of DT , 0 ' + ' & . With set equal to (DT ) m the right hand

side of A.2 gives an upper bound on ym . This substitution further allows one to evaluate the

right hand side of this equation in terms of standard integrals. The result yields the following
upper bound on ym :

$ c Vc 2 1
ym < 2.1
w 1-r

where

(D T )m
r=
w sin&

In general, this upper bound will be much less than the laying depth. For example, for SB type
D cable being laid with 6 per cent slack at 6 knots y m <12.5 feet. That is, the cable

configurations corresponding to Region II do not reach the ocean surface. Hence these
solutions of the stationary model do not in general satisfy all the required boundary
conditions and can be discarded.

Similarly, in Region III, the laying trajectories for which T0 = 0 are in the range & <!0 < % .
Consider those for which !0 < % 2 . We get for these trajectories:

%
35 - ) wsin + -D (+) 0 75
$ V2 2
sin)
y% 2 = c c , ( #sin 2 ) "cos) )
4 * exp / " , w ( # sin2 + "cos +) 22 85 d)
T
d +
w !0 56 /
. 0 ! 19

(A.3)

where y% 2 is the value of y at ! = % 2 . Let m be the minimum value of sin+ - (DT (+ ) w) in

the range & < + ' % 2 . If, as in the usual case, m is positive, we can obtain an upper bound
Page A4

on y% 2 by replacing sin+ - (DT (+ ) w) by m in the right hand side of A.3. By this means we

find that:

$c V c 2 2 ( 1+ cos & )
2

y% 2 <
w m tan& 2

For SB type D cable being laid with 6 per cent slack at 6 knots this relation yields y % 2 <1000
feet. So in the usual laying depths, which are many times greater than y% 2 the configuration

in Region III for which T0 = 0 correspond to a value ! at the surface greater than % 2, or to

cable being paid out in front of the ship during laying. It is doubtful whether such a
configuration would be stable and, at any rate, doubtful whether cable would ever be laid in
such a manner. Hence, we conclude that these T0 = 0 solutions of Regions II and III will in

general be mathematical curiosities, and that the only realistic laying solution of the
stationary model for which the bottom tension is zero is the straight-line ! :& .
Page A5

B. Some Approximate Solutions for Laying and Recovery.

B.1 Laying.

We assume that the tangential drag and the centrifugal forces are negligible. The since for
laying 0 ' ! ' % , equation 2.2.3(a) by virtue of equation 2.2.6 becomes:

; T0 = d!
+y + # sin2 ! " cos ! = 0 (B.1.1)
< w > ds

Let the origin of an x, y coordinate system be at the cable touchdown point ( figure 2.2(a) ).

Further, let x be the x coordinate of a point along the cable configuration and s the
corresponding distance along the cable from the origin. If we define:

? = s -x (B.1.2)

then

d? ds dx !
= " = tan (B.1.3)
dy dy dy 2

and

dy
= sin! (B.1.4)
ds

By means of B.1.3 and B.1.4, B.1.1 transforms to:

d 2 ? 1 ( d?) ( d? ) " 1 = 0
4 2

( T0 + y ) d? 2 +
4 (dy )
+# (B.1.5)
dy dy (dy ) 4

where we have in addition introduced the non-dimensional variables

T0 = T0 w h
Page A6

?= ? h

y=y h

Here h is the ocean depth at the touchdown point.

Using the condition that ! =0 at y =0 , which implies d? dy =0 at y =0 , we get upon

integrating B.1.5:

( ( T + y ))
@
d? & 1" T0 0
= tan (B.1.6)
&
1+ ( T ( T + y )) tan
@
dy 2 4
0 0
2

where

2 - sin2 &
@ = (B.1.7)
sin2 &

The usual range of the critical angle & is between 10 and 30 degrees. Also

T0
0 ' '1 (B.1.8)
T0 + y

Therefore, we approximate the denominator of equation B.1.7 by unity.

With the boundary condition that ? =s- x =0 at y =0 , we thus obtain:

& 1
@
? (1) = S " X = tan , 1- { T0 ( T0 + ) )} d) (B.l.9)
2 0

where S and X are the dimensionless values of s and x at the ship.

Next we let

A = s +x
Page A7

A =A h

Then we have:

dA d?
=1
dy dy

and as can be seen from B.1.6 through B.l.9

& 1 1

, ;B<1"{ T0 =C
@ -2
A (1) = S + X = ctn
2
( T0 + ) )} >
d) (B.1.10)
0

For convenience we define u and R by:

T0
u=
T0 + )

T0
R=
1+ T0

In terms of u and R equations B.l.9 and B.1.10 become:

& 1
1-u@
? (1) = T0 tan
2
, u2
du (B.1.11)
R

& 1
du
A (1) = T0 ctn ,u (B.1.12)
2 R
2
1" u@

Further, integration by parts gives:

1
1-u@ 1" R@ @ 1
1-u@ @ 1
du
, u2
du = + , 2 du " ,u
R R 2 R u 2 R
2
1" u@
Page A8

Combining the above three equations and making the approximation 1- R@ D1 , we find:

; @= @ & &
B 1- C ? (1) + tan2 A (1) = ( 1+ T0 ) tan (B.1.13)
< 2> 2 2 2

Thus ? (1) and A (1) are related, and we need evaluate only one of the quantities numerically

by means of equation B.l.ll or B.1.12 in order to compute both ? (1) and A (1) , and hence S
and X.

The singularity at u=1 makes the numerical evaluation of the integral in B.1.12 cumbersome.

Therefore we consider the evaluation of ? (1) . But for the convenience of numerical calculation
we write B.1.11 as:

& 1
; 1" u =
? (1) = "T0 tan
2
, 1-u@ dB
< u >
C
R

and integrate by parts to get:

& ; @ u@ =
1
1" u
? (1) = tan B 1" R@ " T0
2 < 2 ,R u2 1" u@
du C
>

We note again that 1- R@ D1 . Further, essentially all of contributions to the integral in this

equation occurs near u=1 because of the large value of @ . On the other hand, the values of T0
which are of interest will normally be smaller than unity. Hence R, the lower limit, will
normally be less than one-half, and thus will be outside of the region of significant
contribution to the integral. Therefore, we can take the integral to be a constant for a given &,
Denoting this integral by n and combining these considerations we obtain:

& @ &
? (1) = tan " ntan T0 (B.1.14)
2 2 2

Finally solving for S and X from B.1.9 and B.1.10, we find:


Page A9

1
S= + E T0
sin &

1
X= + F T0
tan&

which are a dimensionless form of equations 3.5.3. For brevity we have written:

1;2 3 @ ;@ = 7 & @ &=


E = B 4 1" B "1C n 8 ctn " ntan C
2<F 6 2<2 > 9 2 2 2>

1;2 3 @ ;@ = 7 & @ &=


F= B 4 1" B "1 C n 8 ctn + n tan C
2<@ 6 2 <2 > 9 2 2 2>

Since the integral n and the constant @ depend only on &. the constants E and F are also

functions of & only. We have evaluated n by numerical integration and have also plotted the
resulting values of E and F -E in figure 3.5(a).

B.2 Recovery.

In the conventional recovery situation we have as boundary conditions

!=0 at y=0
(B.2.1)
! = -& s at y = h

where &s is the incidence angle of the cable at the ship ( figure 2.2(a) ). With these boundary

conditions, the development leading to B.1.6 yields 4.3.2.1 for the relationship between

shipboard tension Ts and the incidence angle &s .

To evaluate S and X, the values of s and x at the ship, we use 2.2.4, 2.2.5(a) and 2.2.5(b).

DT = $ c V c =0 . -% ' ! ' 0,
2
Again we simplify by assuming Further, since for recovery we

may write sin ) = " sin) . This gives


Page A10

"& s )
35 1 sin + 75
S = T0 , 4
56 cos ) + #sin )
2 exp ,0 cos+ + #sin 2 + 85 d)
d +
0 9

(B.2.2)
-& s 3 cos) )
sin + 7
X = T0 , 4 exp , cos+ + # sin2 + 89 d)
d +
6 cos ) +# sin )
2
0 0

The dimensionless bottom tension T0 is computed from 4.3.2.1. The integrals appearing in

B.2.2 have been evaluated numerically. The results are shown in figures 4.3.2(b) and 4.3.2(c).
Page A11

C. Analysis of the Effect of Ship Motion.

C.1 Formulation of the Differential Equations.

To analyze the effect of ship motion on cable tension we use the model shown in figure C.1(a).
We assume the cable is a perfectly flexible and elastic string whose motion is planar. The
distance L along the cable from the ship to the point of entry into the water is taken as
constant, and the longitudinal damping as negligible.

+ q Q0
p p P0
G

H x
Water Air

Fig. C.1(a) Model used for the analysis of ship motion.

Unlike the solution of the basic stationary model, the complete solution of this model is not
simple. To make the problem tractable, we shall make further simplifying assumptions.
Although these assumptions may seem reasonable, they must be ultimately justified by
comparison of experience with predicted results.

Force diagrams of a differential element of cable are shown in figure C.l(b) for the two regions,
air and water. The notation is

p = longitudinal displacement of a point of the cable.

q = transverse displacement of a point of the cable ( in air ).

+ = transverse displacement of a point of the cable ( in water ).

! = the stationary angle, i.e. the angle the cable configuration makes with the ship
velocity in the absence of ship motion.
Page A12

I = deviation from the stationary angle, positive in the clockwise direction.

s = distance along the stretched cable.


x = distance along the unstretched cable ( in air ).
H = distance along the unstretched cable ( in water ).

wa = weight per unit length of cable in air.

w = weight per unit length of cable in water.

T +? T ?s T n
K q p
t
q+ ? q wa ? x
p+? p
?x
! (a) in air

T +? T ?s T n
K t
DN ? s w ? H + p
++ ? + p + ? p
! ?H
(b) in water

Fig. C.1(b) Diagram of forces acting on a cable


element in air and in water.

Summing forces along the directions t ( tangential ) and n ( normal ) shown in figure C.l(b),
dividing by ?x (air) or ?H ( water ) and letting ? x J0 and ? H J0 , we obtain the following
equations of equilibrium.

Note: Subscript notation in these equations is used for differentiation i.e. I x = dI dx .


Page A13

Air :

TI x " wa cos ( ! -I ) = $ c ( qtt cosI -p tt sinI )


(C.1.1)

Tx + wa sin ( ! -I ) = $ c ( qtt sinI +ptt cosI )

Water:

TIH + DN sH " w cos( ! -I ) = $ w ( qtt cosI -ptt sinI )


(C.1.2)

TH + wsin ( ! -I ) = $ c ( qtt sinI + ptt cosI )

Here, $c denotes the mass per unit length of the cable in air. As is known from hydrodynamic

theory in order to accelerate a body through a fluid, one must change not only the momentum
of the body but that of some of the surrounding fluid as well. Thus the body has a virtual or
apparent mass in addition to its intrinsic mass. In the first ( C.1.2 ), the equation of
equilibrium in the normal direction in water, we accordingly use $w given by:

% 2
$w = $c + d $
4

as the intrinsic plus virtual mass per unit length of cable moving through water. The
quantities d and $ are the outer diameter of the cable and mass density of the water,

respectively, and the quantity (% 4) d 2 $ is the virtual mass of a unit length circular

cylinder moving transversely through water.

We take for the normal drag force per unit length:

CD $ d
DN = V N VN (C.1.3)
2

Here VN is the normal component of velocity of the water relative to the cable, i.e.

VN = V sin ( ! -I ) + ut sinI - +t cosI ( C.1.4)


Page A14

and CD d 2 is a constant.

The quantities s and I are given by the following geometric relations which can be obtained

from figure C.l(b) :

( 1+ pH )
2
+ +H
2
sH = (C.1.5)

tanI = +H (1 + +H ) (C.1.6)

with similar expressions for the cable in air.

The tension T in turn is given by Hooke's Law or the stress-strain relationship:

T = EA { ( 1+ px )
2 2
+ qx "1 } ( air )

(C.1.7)
3 7
( 1+ pH )
2 2
T = EA 4 + qH "1 8 (water)
6 9

As we indicated in section 3.8.1, we shall assume that the extinsile rigidity EA


corresponding to complete restraint and no restraint to twisting will give the limiting values
of the ship motion tension.

Equations C.1.1 through C.1.7 form a complete system in terms of the independent variables x
or H and t. Formulating boundary conditions in terms of the coordinate x ( or H ) is

awkward. This coordinate is measured along the unstretched cable so that a disturbance
applied at the ship is applied at different x 's as the cable is paid out. At the same time, if the
velocity of the pay-out is small compared to the significant wave velocity of the cable then we
can plausibly neglect the paying out effect. As will be shown subsequently, in the problem at
hand, there are two significant wave velocities, roughly corresponding to transverse and
longitudinal motion. The first of these is of the order of 200 ft/sec, while the second is of
order of 5000 to 10000 ft/sec. On the other hand, the pay-out velocity is of order of 10 ft/sec.
Hence, we take the pay-out velocity to be zero. This allows us to use C.1.1 through C.1.7
without further transformations and to identify x and H as coordinates fixed in the

translating reference frame.


Page A15

C.2 Perturbation Equations.

We assume that the motion is a small perturbation about the undisturbed configuration of our
model. To determine which terms of the differential equations are important in this case, we
adopt the following procedure. Let:

( P0 + P1 )
2 2
M = max + Q0

where P0 and Q0 are displacements of the cable at the ship, and P1 is the variation of the

pay-out displacement from the mean. The quantity e= M L will normally be less than unity,

and for no ship motion will be zero. We write:

P0 + P1 = a f (t )

Q 0 = bg(t )

where f ( t ) , g( t ) are some bounded functions of time and a and b are constants. We assume

that for given f ( t) and g( t ) , T , p , and q vary analytically with e , namely:

T = T0 + eT1 + e 2 T2 + .......

q = e q1 + e 2 q2 + ....... (C.2.1 )

p = p 0 + e p1 + e 2 p2 + .......

with counterparts for the submerged cable. The stationary transverse deflection is further
assumed to be zero, and therefore the series for q contains no q0 term. Substituting, for

example, C.2.1 into C.1.7 for air and equating like powers of e . we find:

T0 = EA p0x (a)

T1 = EA p1x (b) (C.2.2)


Page A16

; q1x 2 =
T2 = E A B p 2x + C (c)
< 1+p0x >

Equation C.2.2(a) of this sequence shows that only longitudinal displacements are associated
with stationary tensions, while C.2.2(b) indicates that for small ship motions cable tensions
are independent of the transverse component of ship motion. To compute the effect of

transverse motion, C.2.2(c) shows that terms of the order e2 in p and e in q must be

considered. We assume further that 1+p0x D 1, since p0 x is the order of magnitude of a strain.

Equations C.2.1 and C.2.2 substituted into C.1.1, yield with this approximation:

A a cos& = 0 (a)

(C.2.3 )

E A p0xx " $ a p0tt + A a sin & = 0 (b)

1
q1xx " q =0 (a)
c 2 2 1tt

1
p1xx " p =0 (b) (C.2.4)
c1 2 1tt

1 1
p 2xx " 2 p2tt = q q "q q (c)
c1 c1 2 1tt 1xx 1x 1xx

where:

c1 = EA $ a
2

c 2 = T0 $ a
2

For non zero Aa and &L% 2 C.2.3(a) cannot be satisfied. This is a consequence of the

assumption q0 =0 . With p0 tt =0 , equation (b) implies in turn that T0 =constant, which agrees

with our model. For the submerged part of the cable, the equations do not yield a constant T0
and thus contradict the assumed model. However, on the assumption that the transverse motion
is confined to a region near the surface, we consider T0 to be constant in the submerged part

of the cable as well. We thus arrive at:


Page A17

1
+1HH "M +1H "@ +1t " + =0 (a)
c 2 2 1tt

1
p1HH " p =0 (b) (C.2.5)
c12 1tt

1 1
p 2HH " 2 p2tt = + + "+ + (c)
c1 c12 1tt 1H 1H 1HH

where:

c 2 = T0 $ w
2

CD $ dV 2
M= cos & sin&
T0

C D $ dV 2
@ = sin&
T0

as the differential equations governing the motion of the submerged cable. The constant c1 is

the velocity of propagation of a longitudinal wave in the cable, while the constants c2 and c2
represent the propagation velocities of a transverse wave in air and water respectively.

C.3 Solution of the Perturbation Equations.

We write:

p (0,t ) = P0 ( t) + P1 ( t )

q (0,t ) = Q0 (t )

and take as boundary conditions:

P0 (t ) + P1 (t )
p1(0,t ) = (a)
e
Page A18

p 2 (0,t ) = 0 (b) (C.3.1)

q1(0,t ) = Q 0 ( t ) e (c)

That is, we apportion all of the longitudinal boundary motion to p1 , and all of the transverse

boundary motion to q1 . Equations C.2.2(b), C.2.4(b) and C.2.5(b) then give the complete

tension due to the longitudinal component of ship motion to the first order. As mentioned in
the text, this tension is easily obtained from standard references, and is also the greater part
of the ship motion tension.

To determine the tensions due to transverse ship motion, we solve C.2.4(c) and C.2.5(c) for
boundary conditions C.3.1(b) and C.3.1(c). In addition, we have the transition conditions:

q1( L,t ) = +1 (0,t ) (a)

q1x ( L,t ) = +1H (0,t ) (b)

(C.3.2)

p 2 ( x = L,t ) = p2 (H =0,t ) (c)

p 2x (L, t ) = p 2H (0,t ) (d)

which follow if we assume that at the point of entry into the water the cable is continuous and
the tensions finite and continuous.

We consider only the problem of the tensions associated with a harmonic steady-state
transverse disturbance. Equations C.2.4(a) and C.2.5(a) show the transverse response to this
disturbance to be independent of the longitudinal motion to the first order. The first-order
transverse motion in turn can be thought of as a forcing action on the second order
longitudinal motion, as C.2.4(c) and C.2.5(c) indicate. This suggests the program we follow to
compute tensions. Namely, we first determine the first-order steady-state transverse
response, then the second-order steady-state longitudinal response which is excited by the
first-order transverse oscillation, and finally, by C.2.2(c) the resulting tension caused by
transverse motion.
Page A19

C.4 Transverse Response.

At the ship we assume a harmonic forcing function:

Q 0 (t ) = A cos A t (C.4.1)

and we introduce complex exponential representation:

q1 = Real{Q1 ( x ) e iA t }

+1 = Real{H1 (H ) e iA t }

where the factor e iA t will be henceforth suppressed.

The solution of C.2.4(a) and C.2.5(a) for the steady state may then be written:

; iA x = ; iA x=
Q1( x ) = B1 exp B C + B2 exp B " C
< c2 > < c2 >

H1(H ) = F1 exp ( q1 H ) + F2 exp ( q2 H )

where the B 's and F 's are complex constants and q1 and q2 are the roots of the quadratic:

A2
q 2 " M q" i A @ + =0
c 22

Throwing away the root of this equation which corresponds to the incoming wave in water, we
get:

H1(H ) = F exp (q1 H )

where q1 is the root corresponding to the outgoing wave. The three complex constants B1 , B2 ,
and F can now be determined from C.3.2(a), C.3.2(b) and C.4.1:
Page A20

B1 + B2 = A e

; iA L = ; iA L =
B1 exp B C + B2 exp B " C" F =0 (C.4.2)
< c2 > < c2 >

iA 3 ; iA L = ; iA L =7
4 B1 exp B "
C 2 B expB- C8 " q1 F = 0
c2 6 < c2 > < c 2 >9

We note that B1 , B2 and F are proportional to the amplitude A of the forcing motion.

C.5 Second-Order Longitudinal Response.

From the preceding results, the right-hand sides of the equations of longitudinal motion
C.2.4(c) and C.2.5(c) can be computed. This computation for C.2.4(c) results in:

1
v v "v v =
c1 2 1 tt 1x 1xx 1 x
3
1 ; c 22 = ; A = 3; 2A x 2A x=
B 2 "1 C B C * 4 B r1 sin + r2 cos cos2 A t +
c 2 C>
(C.5.1)
2 < c1 > < c2 > 6 < c2
; 2A x 2A x= 2A x 2A x 7
B r3 cos " r4 sin C sin2A t + r5 sin + r2 cos 8
< c2 c2 > c2 c2 9

where the r 's, which are proportional to the square of the amplitude A , are:

(
r1 = Real B1 + B2
2 2
)

(
r2 = Imag B1 " B2
2 2
)

(
r3 = Real B1 " B2
2 2
)

(
r4 = Imag B1 + B2
2 2
)
Page A21

r5 = 2Real( B1 B2 )

e 2 r2 2
r6 = r5 + 2
A

( The quantity r6 will be used later ) Similarly for the right-hand side of C.2.5(c) we get:

; 1 =
+1H B 2 +1tt " +1HH C =
< c1 >
e -2 $H {(a cos2 N H + a
1 2 sin2 N H ) cos2 A t + (C.5.2)

( a1 sin2N H " a2 cos2N H ) sin2A t + a3}

where:

q1 = " ( $ + i N )

F
2 35 ; A = 2 75
q1 4 B C cos ( 2f +g ) + q1 cos( 2f + 3 g)8
2
a1 =
2 65 < c1 > 95

F
2 35 ; A = 2 75
q1 4 B C sin ( 2f +g ) + q1 sin ( 2f + 3 g)8
2
a2 =
2 56 < c1 > 59

35 ; A = 2 75
2
a 3 = F 4 B C + q1 8$
56 < c1 > 59

and

f = argF 0 ' f ' 2%

%
g = arg ( -q1 ) 0'g'
2
Page A22

It is seen that expression C.5.1 and C.5.2 have terms of the form:

3 sin 2A t
F( x) 4 (C.5.3)
6cos2 A t

in addition to functions of x ( or H ) alone. In accordance with the idea that the first order

transverse motion is a forcing action on the second order longitudinal motion, we take as
solutions of C.2.4(c) and C.2.5(c) functions of the form:

3 sin 2A t
G( x ) 4
6cos2 A t

to correspond to terms of the type given by C.5.3 and the functions of x ( or H ) alone to

correspond to forcing terms which are independent of time. This again gives linear
differential equations which can be readily solved. For examples corresponding to the first
term in C.5.1 multiplying by cos2 A t we have the assumed solution:

G( x ) cos2 A t

and the differential equation:

35 ; c = 2 75; A = 3 3
d 2 G 4 A2 1 2Ax 2 A x7
2 + 2 G = 4 B 1 C "1 8B C 4 r1 sin + r2 cos 8
dx c1 2 65 < c 2 > 95< c 2 > 6 c2 c2 9

This has the solution:

3 Ax Ax A ; 2 Ax 2 A x =7
G = 4 A1 cos + A2 sin + B r1 sin + r2 cos C8
6 c1 c1 8c 2 < c2 c 2 >9

where A1 and A2 are undetermined constants.

In this manner, the solution for the longitudinal motion can be obtained in terms of a set of
constants. These in turn can be evaluated by means of the boundary and transition conditions
on p2 . This evaluation although straightforward, is very tedious. We shall omit the details of
Page A23

it here. The final result is:

Air:

e 2 A 2 EA 3- 2A x ; c 2A L
e T2 =
2
4/ r2 sin + B r3 + 1 r4 sin
4 c1 c 2 6. c1 < c2 c1
c1 2A L = 2 A x c1 0
" C + r cos 2 A t
c 2 6 21
r6 cos cos
c2 c1 > c1
- 2A L ; c 2A L c1 2A L = 2A x
+ / r3 sin " B r2 + 1 r4 cos + r6 sin C cos
. c1 < c2 c1 c2 c1 > c1
c 0
+ 1 r4 2 sin2A t
c2 1
c1 - ; 2A x 2A L = ; 2A x 2A L =
/r5 B cos " cos C " r2 B sin " sin
c 2 C>
+
c2 . < c2 c2 > < c2

F 0 75
2

" 28
4 21 5
9

Water :

e 2 A 2 EA 3- 2A L 2A L
e T2 = 4/ " r2 sin + r3 sin
2

4 c1 c 2 6. c1 c1

c1 2A L ; 2A L 2A L = 0 ; H=
+ sin B r4 sin " r6 cos C 2 sin2A B t - C
c2 c1 < c1 c1 > 1 < c1 >
- 2A L 2A L c1 2A L ; 2A L
+/ r2 sin + r3 cos + sin B r6 sin
. c1 c1 c2 c1 < c1
2A L = 0 ; H=
+ r4 cos C 2 cos2A B t - C
c1 > 1 < c1 >
2 c1 7
" F e -2 $ H 8
c2 9
Page A24

C.6 Numerical Results.

Since the r 's are each proportional to the square of the amplitude A, the above results
indicate that the transverse motion tension varies as A squared also. It is additionally a
function of the frequency of ship motion A, the forward mean ship velocity V, and the
stationary tension T0 . The computation of the transverse ship motion tension for the laying

situation was carried out for SB type D cable. The results are shown in figure C.6(a). Here we

have denoted the transverse motion tension by Tq and have plotted Tq A 2 against the period

of ship motion O. Rather than the stationary tension Tq , we have used the depth h, which

during laying is directly related to Tq by h= T0 w. Figure C.6(a)(i) is a plot of Tq A 2 versus

the period O =2 % A for h= 1


2 , 2 and 3 n. miles and for V=6 knots, Figure C.6 (a) ( ii ) is a

plot o f Tq A 2 versus O for V =3 , 6 and 9 knots and h = 1 n. mile.

For representative laying, for example at 6 knots with a ship period of 6 seconds into a depth
of one n. mile, figure C.6(a) gives

Tq A 2 = 0.50 lb/ ft2 ( twist unrestrained )

= 0.93 lb/ft2 ( twist restrained )

2.0
Ship speed = 6 knots Ocean depth = 1000 fathoms

500 Twist restrained 3


1.6 Twist unrestrained
1000 6

Tq A 2 ( i) ( ii)
1.2 9

( lbs ft )
3000 3
2
500
1000 h in fathoms 6 V in knots
0.8
3000 9

0.4

0
0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 16
Period of transverse ship motion in seconds.

Fig. C.6(a) Variation of the transverse motion tension of SB Type


D cable with the period of the ship motion.
Page A25

For an extreme value of A =20 ft , we get that Tq is between 200 and 370 pounds.

Additionally, by means of the above analysis, one can compute the rate of damping of a
transverse disturbance after it enters the water, The results of this computation are shown in
figure 3.8.1(b) and are discussed in section 3.8.
Page A26

D. Tension Rise with Time for Suspended Cable.

D.1 Formulation of the Solution of the Problem.

Let O be the lowest point of the cable at time after the suspension has begun ( figure D.l(a) ).
we make the following definitions:

h = depth at onset of the suspension.


S1 = cable length from A to O.
S2 = cable length from ship at B to O .
X1 = horizontal distance from A to O.
X2 = horizontal distance from B to O .
M = vertical distance from A to O.
T0 = cable tension at O.

Vt B
&
h
A S2
N
S1 T0
O
X1 X2

Fig. D.1(a) Coordinates for the analysis of tension rise


when a cable is completely suspended.

If the cable is being paid out with slack P, then conservation of the total length of the cable
gives the equation:

h
S1 + S2 = + ( 1 +P ) V t + cable stretching (D.1.1)
sin &
Page A27

It is assumed that there is no cable pulled from the bottom. The cable stretching we evaluate
as in the example of section 3.5, viz.:

T0
cablestretching = ( S1 + S2 )
EA

This makes D.l.l read:

h T
S1 + S2 = + ( 1 +P ) V t + ( S1 + S 2 ) 0 (D.1.2)
sin & EA

To obtain further relations for the unknowns appearing in D.1.2, we assume that from the ship
to point O the cable configuration is a stationary one governed by the equations developed in
section 3.5, while from points O to A we assume that the cable configuration is a static
catenary. These assumptions yield the following relations:

T0
S1 = sinh N (a)
w

h +M T
S2 = +E 0 (b)
sin& w

h +M T
X2 = +F 0 (c)
tan& w

T0
M= ( cosh N -1 ) (d) (D.1.3)
w

h
X1 + X 2 = +V t (e)
tan&

w X1
N= (f)
T0

Ts = T0 + w ( h+ M ) (g)
Page A28

Here E and F are constants, defined and plotted in Section 3.5, which depend only on & , the
critical angle corresponding to V . Equations D.1.2 and D.1.3 form a complete set of equations
in the unknowns X 1 , X 2 , S1 , S2 , T0 , Ts , M and N . They can be reduced to a set which contain
only the unknowns N and Ts :

; K (N ) =
K1 (N ) sin& -P K2 (N ) sin& -h B 1 + 3 t sin & C = 0 (a)
< K 2 (N ) >

(D.1 4)
t coshN
Ts = 1+ (b)
K2 (N )

where:

h = w h EA

t = Vt h

Ts = Ts w h

and

&
K1 =sinh N - N +( cosh N -1 ) tan " ( F "E )
2

coshN "1
K2 = + F +N
tan &

coshN "1
K3 = + sinh N
sin &

A graphical iteration method is used to solve D.1.4.

First we solve:

K1 (N ) sin & - PK 2 (N ) sin & -h = 0 (D.l.5)


Page A29

for N by means of a nomograph to be described later. Next the quantities:

cosh N K 3 (N )
, sin &
K2 (N ) K 2 (N )

are plotted as functions of N for various &. These plots can then be used as follows to solve

D.1.4 for a given t . Solve D.1.5 to obtain N 0 . From the plot of K 3 (N ) K 2 (N ) * sin & , compute:

; K (N ) =
t sin & C
*
h1 = h B 1+ 3
< K 2 (N ) >

h , compute N 1 N1
* *
using the value h1 for from D.1.5. With this value of compute h2 f rom:

; K (N ) =
t sin& C ,
*
h2 = h B 1+ 3
< K2 (N ) >

etc. In this way a convergent sequence N0 , N1 , , ..... Nn is generated. Finally, from the plot of

cosh N K2 (N ) obtain Ts .

The above iteration procedure sounds tedious. Actually in most cases the iteration is not
necessary because N remains essentially independent of time. Thus, the solution of D.1.5 by
means of the accompanying nomograph will usually give the complete solution of the problem.

D.2 Nomograph ( Alignment chart ) for the Solution of Equation D.1.5.

The relations

10 K 2 (N ) dsin &
x1 = 0 , x2 = d , x3 =
1+10K2 (N ) sin&

P K1 (N ) sin&
y1 = h , y2 = , y3 = (D.2.1)
10 1+10 K2 (N ) sin&
Page A30

where d is an arbitrary constant define parametrically three curves:

yi = y i( x i ), i = 1,2,3

which we imagine plotted on a cartesian (x,y) coordinate system. A set of values h , P. and N
determine three points ( x i , y i ) ( i= 1,2,3 ) which lie on these curves. If these points lie on a
straight line, it can be shown that they satisfy D.1.5.

On the left hand sides of figure D.2(a) we have plotted the curves given by D.2.1 for various

values of the critical angle &. These values of the parameters h = w h EA and P, which

describe the curves y 1 = y 1( x 1 ) and y 2 = y 2( x 2 ) respectively are plotted on the indicated

scales. Rather than indicate the values of N along the curve y 3 = y 3( x 3 ) we have for

convenience made an auxiliary plot on the right hand sides of figure D.2(a) of y 3 (N ) versus N
, but with the numerical values of the ordinate omitted.

In addition, we have plotted in figures D.2(b) and D.2(c) the functions 1 K 2 (cos h N ) and

(K 3 K 2 ) sin & for various &.


Page A31

0.008 0.08
(I)
0.007 0.07
0.006 0.06
0.005 0.05
h = w h EA & =12
0
0
P
10
0.004 0.04
0
& =12 5
0

0.003 10
0
0
0.03
A 5 B
0.002 0.02
y3 (N ) v sN
0.001 0.01
C
0 0
0.008 0 0 0 0 0.08
& =25 20 16 14
( II )
0.007 0.07
0.006 0.06
0.005 0.05
h = w h EA P
0.004 0.04
0.003 0.03
0.002 0.02
y3 (N ) v sN
0.001 0
0.01
& =14 0 0 0
16 20 25
0 0
0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8
N

Fig. D.2(a) Nomograph for the solution of equation D.1.5


Page A32

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9

cosh N 0.8
K 2 (N ) 0.7
0.6
0.5 & =25
0

0.4 20
0

0
16
0.3 14
0
0
12
0.2 10
0

0.1 5
0

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6
N

cosh N
Fig. D.2(b) Variation of with N
K (N )
Page A33

0.6

0.5 & = 25
0

0.4
0
20
K 3 (N ) 0
sin& 0.3 16

K 2 (N ) 14
0

0
12

0.2 10
0

0
0.1 5

0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
N

K 3 (N )
Fig. D.2(c) Variation of sin& with N
K 2 (N )
Page A34

D.3 Numerical Example.

To illustrate the method of obtaining the tension rise with time described above, we consider a
numerical example for SB type D cable. The values we assume for the parameters which enter
the calculation are the following:

P = 0.02
V =6 knots ( a = 12 0 )
h = 6000 ft

EA = 1.2*10 6 lbs.

h = 3.1*10 -3

To solve D.1.5, we connect on figure D.2(a) the points P = 0.02 and h = w h EA = 0.0031 with a
straight edge and note the intersection with the intermediate y 3 = y 3( x 3 ) curve for a=120 (

point A ). We then locate the point on the y3 versus N curve having the same ordinate ( point

B ). Finally, we obtain the root of D.1.5, N = 0.555 by reading off the corresponding abscissa (

point C ). This value of N now serves as the starting point in the iteration procedure by
which we find the tension corresponding to a given t.

For example, for t = 1.0 ( t = 600 seconds) we have the following sequence of values:

N ( K 3 sin & ) K 1 h * = h { 1+ ( K 3 sin & ) t K2 }


N 0 =0.555 0.212 0.00379
N 1 =0.580 0.213 0.00380
N 2 = 0.580

with N converging to the value 0.580 . For N = 0.580 , figure D.2(b) gives:

cos hN K 2 = 0.800

Hence, by D.1.4(b) for t = 1.0 :

Ts = 1.80

and Ts = 1.80w h or 7000 lbs.


Page A35

E. Three-dimensional Stationary Model.

E.1 General.

The standard two-dimensional model assumes that the cable lies entirely in the plane formed
by the ship's velocity vector and the gravity vector. Because of the symmetry of the cable cross
section, this assumption seems reasonable. However in certain cases, as for example in the
presence of ocean cross currents, the assumption of a planar configuration is clearly
untenable. We consider therefore the case where the cable configuration is not necessarily
planar but is still time independent with respect to a reference frame translating with the
constant velocity of the ship. In analogy with the previous terminology, we call this the three-
dimensional stationary model.

Assume there is a constant velocity ocean current in each of a finite number of layers. Let the
!
vector Vw denote the ocean-current velocity in a reference layer. In the stationary situation

the velocity of the cable configuration is everywhere the velocity of the ship which we denote
! !
by the vector V . Hence the velocity V' of the water with respect to the cable configuration in

the reference layer is:

! ! ! ! !
( )
V ' = Vw + " V = Vw " V

!
Further, in this layer we choose a set of coordinate axes ),+,H translating at the velocity V
as follows:

!
The ) axis has the direction of "V ' , while + is measured vertically upwards and H is

perpendicular to + and ) so that the axes ),+,H form a right-handed system. A plan view of
! !
this configuration is shown in figure E.l(a). We have denoted the angle between V and Vw by
!
Q. While the angle between the ) axis and V is denoted by K. To describe the cable

configuration with respect to the ),+,H axes, we use the spherical polar coordinates ! and I
!! !
shown in figure E.l(b). ( The t , u, v vectors are discussed later ).
Page A36

V' Vw

e Q
V
"V K
d
)
H

Fig. E.1(a) Plan view of the coordinate system for the


three dimensional stationary model.

u
t Direction of
cable
!
I
)
I

v
H

Fig. E.1(b) Definition of the spherical coordinates


! ! ! !
and I and the unit vectors t , u, v .

As in the two dimensional case, we resolve the velocity of the water with respect to a cable
element in the reference layer into a component VN normal to the cable and a component Vt
tangential to the cable, and associate with VN and Vt the drag forces DN and Dt . The

resulting differential equations, which are derived in detail later, are the following:
Page A37

( T " $ V ) dds!
c c
2

(a)
+ w #' cos I sin ! + sin I cosI sin ! -w cos! = 0
2 2 2

( T " $ V ) cos ddsI


c c
2

(b) (E.1.1)
+ w #' cos I sin ! + sin I sinI = 0
2 2 2

dT
+ DT " w sin! = 0 (c)
ds

!
where #' = C D $ dV ' 2 2 and V' is the magnitude of V' .

In addition, connecting the coordinates )( s), +( s), H (s) of a point s along the cable with the

angles ! and I we have the geometric relationships:

d)( s)
= cos! cosI (a)
ds

d+(s)
= sin ! (b) (E.1.2)
ds

dH (s)
= " cos! cosI (c)
ds

Two important general results follow from E.1.1 and E.1.2. For one, if the tangential drag force
Dt is negligibly small, E.1.2(b) substituted into equation E.1.1(c) yields upon integration:

T0 = T + w + (E.1.3)

where T0 is the tension at += 0 . Hence if + is measured from the ocean surface, and if at the

bottom ( += " h ) the tension is zero, the tension at the ship is essentially w h, regardless of

the nature of the normal drag forces. Since in most laying situations for present cables the
tangential drag force can be reasonably neglected, this fact provides a convenient over-all
Page A38

check on the laying process. That is, if the cable is being laid with excess, the tension at the
ship for any stationary cable configuration, planar or non-planar, should be essentially w h.
Any marked increase of tension over wh value necessarily means the bottom tension is

nonzero and insufficient cable is being paid out.

The second important result is derived from the differential equations, to be described later.
This result is that if the bottom ocean layer in our model is devoid of cross currents and if the
bottom tension is zero, then for the boundary conditions which are normally observed, the
cable configuration in the bottom layer is a straight line. Further, this straight line is in the
!
plane formed by the ship's velocity vector V and the gravity vector. Hence, for example, in

laying with excess in a sea which contains surface currents, the cable configuration in the
lower, current free, portion will be a straight line in a vertical plane parallel to the resultant
velocity of the ship. The laid cable will be parallel to the ship's path, but displaced a certain
distance from it. Thus, because the lower portion is a straight line, our previous results about
the kinematics of straight-line laying still apply. Only they now are pertinent to the
displaced bottom contour rather than to the contour which lies directly beneath the ship,

E.2 Derivation of the Differential Equations.

!! ! !
Let to i, j, k be unit vectors along the ),+,H axes (figure E.l(a)) and t unit vector along the

tangent to the cable configuration in the direction of positive s. As in the two-dimensional


model, we take this to be opposite to the direction of travel of the cable elements along the
configuration. With respect to the cable configuration the resultant velocity vector of the
!
water is in the "i direction. We resolve this velocity into directions normal and tangential to
! !
the cable in the plane formed by i and t. The unit vector in the normal direction we denote
!
by n , namely:

! ! ! !
! "i +
n= !
( i .t ) t
! ! ! (E.2.1)
"i + ( i .t ) t

In analogy to the two-dimensional model we assume the normal and tangential drag forces
depend only on the corresponding water velocity components. Thus, we take:

CD $ d ! !
( i . nV )
2
DN = (E.2.2)
2
Page A39

Equilibrium of the forces acting on a cable element yields the equation:

!
dt ! dT ! ! ! !
T +t + t Dt + n DN " j w = $ c a (E.2.3)
ds ds

!
The vector a denotes the acceleration of an element of the cable as it moves at the constant
pay-out velocity Vc along the cable configuration, It is easily shown that:

!
! 2 dt
a = Vc (E.2.4)
ds

!! !
For convenience we introduce a second reference triad of orthogonal unit vectors t , u, v as
! ! !
follows. The vector v is taken in the ( ) ,H ) plane normal to t ; the u vector is chosen equal to
! !
the vector product v * t . The angles I and ! shown in figure E.l(b) describe the orientation of
!
the ( t , u!, v! ) triad. In terms of these angles, we read from figure E.l(b) the following table of
direction cosines:

! ! !
i j k
!
t cos! cosI sin ! -cos! sin I
!
u -sin ! cosI cos! sin ! sin I
!
v sin I 0 cosI

!
In the ( t , u!, v! ) system the vector n! becomes for example:
! !
! u sin ! cosI - v sinI
n=
sin 2 ! cos2 I + sin 2 I

!
Imagine the origin of the ( t , u!, v! ) triad to traverse the cable at unit velocity. The triad during
this traverse rotates like a rigid body with respect to the fixed ( ) ,+,H ) frame. The rotation,
!
which we denote by R , is seen from figure E.l(b) to be:

! ! ! ! ! !
R = j I + v ! = u cos !I +v ! +t sin !I
Page A40

Here the dot denotes differentiation with respect to time, or since ds dt =1 it may be
!
interpreted as differentiation with respect to distance along the cable. The vector t is a fixed
! ! !
vector of constant magnitude in the ( t , u, v ) rotating triad, hence:
!
dt ! ! ! !
= R * t = u ! " v cos! I (E.2.5)
ds

From E.2.1, E.2.2, E.2.4 and E.2.5 we obtain for E.2.3:

!; =
( T " $ V ) ( u! ! " v! cos! I ) + t B< dT
c c
2

ds
+D C
> t

CD $ dV 2 ! !
+ sin 2 ! cos 2 I + sin 2 I ( u sin ! cosI - v sin I ) (E.2.6)
2
! !
" w ( u cos ! +t sin ! ) = 0

which gives the three scalar equations E.1.1 .

!
Further, let r( s) be the cable configuration, i.e.

! ! ! !
r( s) = i ) (s) + j + (s) + k H ( s)

where )( s) , +(s) , and H (s) are the ),+,H coordinates of a point s of the cable. Then:

! ! d ) (s) ! d +( s) ! d H ( s)
t =i +j +k
ds ds ds

! !! !
Forming the scalar product of t with i, j, k respectively, we get equations E.1.2.

In a !,I,T space the solution trajectories of E.1.1 are given by the solutions of:

d! # cos 2 I sin 2 ! + sin 2 I cosI sin ! -cos !


( T " $c V c
2
) dT
=
DT w -sin !
Page A41

dI # cos2 I sin 2 ! + sin 2 I sinI


( T " $c V c
2
) dT
=
cos! ( DT w -sin ! )

We see that the trajectories are periodic in both ! and I with a period of 2% , and only a

single region, say:

0 ' ! ' 2%

0 ' I ' 2%

need be considered. It is apparent that the straight lines:

(1) I : 0,! :&; (2) I : 0,! : & +%;

(3) I : % ,! : 2 % - &; (4) I : % ,! : % -& ;

are the solution trajectories which contain all values of T . Along other solution trajectories in
this region one easily verifies that:

$c V c 2
T= *
w
; ; DT = =
! " sin! d!
B < w > C
B 1-exp , C
! 0 # cos I (! ) sin ! + sin I (! ) cosI (! ) sin ! -cos! C
2 2 2
B
< >

where I =I(! ) is obtained from the solution of:

dI
=
{
cos ! - # cos2 I sin 2 ! + sin 2 I cos I sin ! cos! }
d! # cos 2 I sin 2 ! + sin 2 I sin I
Page A42

From the definitions of I and !, it follows that the lines (3) and (4) are physically identical

with lines (1) and (2), and represent straight-line laying and recovery respectively. Likewise,
the expression for T shows that any non-straight-line trajectory with zero bottom tension is

$ c Vc w . Hence,
2
bounded by as in the case of the two-dimensional model, we conclude that if

$ c Vc w
2
the tension is somewhere greater than and the bottom tension is zero, the only

possible stationary configuration is the straight line lying in the plane of the resultant ship
velocity and gravity vectors, and making the critical angle & with the horizontal.

E.3 Perturbation Solution for a Uniform Cross Current.

At the outset we assume that tangential drag force is zero. This gives by E.1.3:

T = w ( h ++ ) (E.3.1)

where h is the total ocean depth. Furthermore, we take $c Vc 2 to be zero.

If the angle K ( figure E.l(a) ) is small compared to unity, we assume that ! and I will vary

only slightly from the values they would have if the upper, cross-current stratum extended all
the way to the ocean bottom. That is we take ! and I to be of the form:

! = &'+ !
(E. 3. 2)
I =I

where &' is the stationary incidence angle corresponding to the velocity V' , and ! and I are

assumed small compared to unity.

Substituting E.1.2(b), E.3.1, and E.3.2 into E.1.1(a), (b) and retaining only linear terms in !,I
and their derivatives, we get the linear first order equations:

d!
( h ++ ) + ( 2ctn 2 &' + 1) ! = 0 (a)
d+

(E.3.3)
dI
( h ++ ) + csc 2 &' I = 0 (b)
d+
Page A43

Because in the lower stratum the cable is a straight line parallel to the path of the ship, we
have as boundary conditions:

3! = & " &'


+ = " h' ,4 (E.3.4)
6 I =K

where h' is the depth of the upper, crosscurrent stratum and & is the stationary incidence
angle corresponding to the velocity V.

The solution of E.3.3 for the boundary conditions E.3.4 is:

; h " h' =
! =B C ?&
< h+ + >

(E.3.5)

; h" h' =S
I =B C K
< h ++ >

where:

= ( 2ctn 2 &' + 1)

S = csc 2 &' (E.3.6 )

? & = & " &'

Equation E.1.2 for the space-coordinates ), + and H of the cable in turn can be written to

terms of the first order in the form:

d)
= ctn&' -! csc 2 &'
d+

(E.3.7)
dH
= "I ctn &'
d+
Page A44

Substituting E.3.5 into E.3.7 and integrating under the condition that at + = 0 , ) =0 and H = 0,
we find:

) = + ctn& '+
( h-h' ) ?& 35
csc 2 &' 4
1
"
1 75
8
-1 56 ( h+ + )
-1
h -1 59

(E.3.8)

h -h' 35 1 1 75
H = ctn&' K4 " S "1 8
S -1 56 ( h ++ )S " 1 h 59

These equations describe the space curve formed by the cable in the crosscurrent stratum.

To determine the distances d and e ( figure E.l(a) ) we transform E.3.8 for the cable
configuration to coordinates )' and H ' orientated along the ship's path and normal to it

respectively by means of:

)' = ) cos K - H sin K

H' = ) sin K +H cos K

The result to terms of the first order is:

( h- h' ) ? & 35 1 1 75
)' = + ctn &'+ csc 2 &' 4 " 8
-1 56 ( h+ + ) - 1 h - 1 59

; h -h' 35 1 1 75=C
H' = K BB+ ctn &'+ctn &' 4 " 8
65 ( h ++ ) hS " 1 95C>
S"1
< S -1

Letting + = " h' and denoting the corresponding values of )' and H' by "d and "e
respectively, we obtain 3.7.3.
Page A45

F. Catenary Configurations for Steady-state Conditions.

F.1 Basic Catenary Equations.

In cable working if the cable ship is stationary or virtually so, then the cable will take up the
form of a catenary, given there are no significant currents.

Using the basic equations for a catenary and using ordinates shown in figure F.l(a), we have

Suspended cable length S:

T0 ;wX=
S= sinhB C (F.1.1)
w < T0 >

Water depth of touch down point h:

T0 ;B ; wX = =
h= B coshB C "1 C (F.1.2)
w< < T0 > C>

Horizontal force ( tension at the touchdown point ) T0 :

T0
=
w 2h
1
S2 " h2 ( ) (F.1.3)

Distance from the touchdown point to the point where the cable reaches the surface X:

T0 ;Sw=
X= sinh-1 B C (F.1.4)
w < T0 >

and the vertical force at the surface Tv :

Tv = w S (F.1.5)

where w is the weight per unit length of the cable in water.

The tension in the cable at the surface Ts is given by:

2 2
Ts = T0 + Tv
Page A46

Ts
y

&s

s S
T0
x

Fig. F.1(a) Cable suspended in the form of a catenary.

Using the cable angle at the surface, & s , we get:

T0 = Ts cos& s
(F.1.6)
Tv = Ts sin & s

and hence:

Tv
S=
w (F.1.7)
T
= s sin & s
w

F.2 Non-dimensional Cable Equations.

Using the catenary equations above we get the non-dimensional length of suspended cable S h
in terms of the non-dimensional tension at the ship Ts w h .
Page A47

Firstly:

Ts ; T =2 ; T =2
= B v C +B 0 C (F.2.1)
wh < wh> <wh>

with

Tv S
= (F.2.2)
wh h

and

1 ;B ; S =
2 =
T0
= B B C "1 CC (F.2.3)
w h 2 << h > >

Substituting F.2.2 and F.2.3 into F.2.1, we get:

; ; ; =2 ==2
; = 2
Ts S 1 S
= B C + B BB B C "1 CC C
wh < h > B< 2 < < h > > C>

; S = 2 1 ;; S = 4 ; S = 2 =
= B C + BB C " 2 B C + 1 CC
B
< h > 4 << h > <h> >

; S =2 1 ; S =4 1 ; S =2 1
= B C + B C " B C +
< h> 4<h > 2< h> 4 (F.2.4)

1 ;S = 1 ;S= 1
4 2

= B C + B C +
4 <h > 2 <h> 4

1 ; S =4 ; S =2
= B C + 2B C + 1
2 <h> <h>
; =
1 B; S =
2

= B B C + 1 CC
2 << h > >

giving:

S 2Ts
= "1 (F.2.5)
h wh
Page A48

Which in turn can be used to give X h and &s in terms of S h:

X T0 ; Sw=
= sinh-1 B C
h wh < T0 >

=
(S 2
" h2 ) sinh
; 2hS =
B 2 2C -1
(F.2.6)
2h 2 < S "h >
; = ; 2 S h =
1 ; S=
2

= B B C " 1 C sinh-1 B
( ) C
2 B< < h > C
>
B ( S h) 2 "1 C
< >

and

Tv
tan & s =
T0
2 (S h ) (F.2.7)
=
(S h)
2
"1

Where only the shipboard tension Ts , the water depth h , and the weight per unit length of the
cable in water are known, which is the most likely situation, then then the angle of the cable
at the surface & s is given by:

; =
B 2 (S h) C
& s = tan -1
B (S h) 2 " 1 C
< >
; 2Ts = (F.2.8)
B2 "1 C
-1 B C
wh
= tan B
2Ts C
BB w h " 2 CC
< >

F.3 Slack Calculations.

If the cable is laid with slack P then this will have an effect on the catenary and the length of
cable that can be recovered.

In the first case where cable is lifted off the bottom, and where the slack has not previously
been pulled out ( implies bottom is rough ), then if the cable is laid with slack P, then in a

distance l along the bottom there will be ( 1+P ) l length of cable. The means that if the

touchdown point moves from a distance XA to a distance XB further away from the ship the

amount of cable picked up will be increased by M , given by:


Page A49

M = ( X B " XA ) P (F.3.1)

The second case is where cable can slide along the bottom. If is the coefficient of friction of
the cable on the bottom, then the force to pull unit length of cable along the bottom Tu is:

Tu = w (F.3.2)

Thus the tension at the touchdown point T0 , can pull a length of cable l across the bottom
equal to:

T0
l=
Tu
(F.3.3)
T
= 0
w

The amount of cable that can be pulled out of this length, L' is the slack, that is:

L'=P l
PT (F.3.4)
= 0
w

If the touchdown point moves from a distance XA to a distance XB further away from the ship,
then because slack will already have been pulled from the bottom then L' will be reduced,
given by:

P ( T0 B " T0A )
L'= (F.3.5)
w

F.4 Derivation of Ship Movement Equations.

From figure 4.5.3(a) we see that for the distances along the cable CA and CB to be equal, we get
for CA:

S= e+ h (F.4.1)

and for CB:

T0 ;wX=
S= sinhB C (F.4.2)
w < T0 >

For cable tensions at A and B we get:


Page A50

TsA = w h (a)

(F.4.3)
2 2
TsB = Tv + T0 (b)

T0 being the tension at C for CB ( Zero tension on the bottom for CA ) given by:

T0 =
w
2h
(
S2 " h2 )
w ;B =
( )
2
= e + h " h 2 C> (F.4.4)
2h <

=
w 2
2h
(
e + 2eh )

with the vertical component Vs given by:

Tv = w S
(F.4.5)
= w (e + h )

The distance along the bottom from the cable ship to the touchdown point X is given by:

T0 ;Sw=
X= sinh-1 B C (F.4.6)
w < T0 >

Making non-dimensional and substituting we get ( for zero slack ):

; 1 =2 ; 1 w =2
Ts
wh
= B
< wh
w SC + B
> < w h 2h
S "h C
2 2

>
( )
; 1 =2 ; 1 w ; =2
2=
w ( e + h )C + B B ( e+ h ) " h CC
2
= B (F.4.7)
< w h > < w h 2 h < >>

; =2
; e =2 B 1 ; ; e =2 ; e = =C
= B + 1C + B B C + 2 B C C
< h > B 2 B< < h > < h > C>C
< >

and
Page A51

X T0 ; w=
= sinh-1 B S C
h wh < T0 >
; =
B ;e = C
2B + 1 C C (F.4.8)
1 ;B ; e = ; e == B
2

C <h > C
= B B C + 2 B C C sinh B
-1

2 << h > < h >> B; ; e = ; e ==C


2

B
BB B B C + 2 B C CC CC
< h > < h >>>
<<

and for the offset d:

d X e
= " (F.4.9)
h h h

and for the cable angle:

Tv
tan & =
T0

giving:

; =
B ;e = C
B 2B + 1 C C
<h >
& = tan -1 B C (F.4.10)
B ; ; e =2 ; e = = C
BB BB B C + 2 B C CC CC
<h> < h >>
<< >

This is the solution for zero slack or where the slack has been pulled out.

From F.3, if the cable is laid with slack P , then in a distance l along the bottom there will be
( 1+P ) l length of cable.
Using this to modify F.3.1 for slack:

S= ( 1+P ) e + h (F.4.11)

We can then modify the equations F.2.7, F.2.8, and F.2.10 by replacing eh with e' h , where
e' h is given by:

e' e
= ( 1+P )
h h

to get the result for slack laid on a bottom where sliding does not occur.

If we allow the cable to slide across the bottom with being the coefficient of friction of the
cable on the bottom, then from F.3 we get the amount of cable that can be pulled out of this
Page A52

length, L' :

L' P T0
= (F.4.12)
h wh

Using eh we can get a value for T0 w h to calculate the amount of cable slack pulled out, and

use this for a new e' h to calculate an approximate solution, i.e.

e' e P T0
= + (F.4.13)
h h wh
Page A53

G. Normal Drag Coefficient and Hydrodynamic Constant.

G.1 General.

The normal drag coefficient, CD and its related hydrodynamic constant, H, are critical in

determining the behavior of an ocean cable during laying. In Section 5, the reported trials for

SD List 1 ocean cable gave a value for CD which was at variance with those used before, based

on towed cables. The reason for the variation is not understood. For the SD List 1 trials, the

value for CD D 3.0 ( 3.05 ) , However more recent data from the manufacturers of optical fiber

ocean cables have values for the hydrodynamic constants that give lower values of CD . As no

methods were given on how the hydrodynamic constants were determined, this leaves the

difficulty in determining which value for CD should be used without other corroborating

data. As the value of CD D 3.0 was determined from two trials using different methods, it

would appear that without other data, this is the value that should be used.

One other value for CD is given, from the installation of the SOAR II range, which was

determined from laying results.

G.2 Calculations

The calculation to determine the hydrodynamic coefficient is:

2w
H = const
CD $ d

where:

w = Weight per unit length of the cable in water.

CD = Transverse drag coefficient for cable.

$ = Density of the fluid, 64,21 lbs/cub. ft., 1.994 slugs/cub. ft.

d = Diameter of the cable


Page A54

const = 57.3 1.689 , for English gravitational units.

If the values for SD List 1 cable are inserted, we get

57.3 2* 0.32
H=
1.689 3.05 *1.994 * 0.104
= 34

Working backwards to get CD from H:

1.689 2w
H =
57.3 CD $ d

2
2w ; 1.689 H =
=B C
CD $ d < 57.3 >

2
CD $ d ; 57.3 =
=B
2w < 1.689h C>

so:

2
2 w ; 57.3 =
CD =
$ d B< 1.689 H C>

For SD List 1, substituting values, we get:

2
2* 0.32 ; 57.3 =
CD =
1.994 * 0.104 B< 1.689 * 34 C>
= 3.07 ( 3.05)
Page A55

G.3 Normal Drag Coefficients and Hydrodynamic Constants for Various Ocean
Cables.

The values for normal drag coefficient and hydrodynamic constant are given in table G.3(a).

Table G.3(a)

Values of Drag Coefficients and Hydrodynamic Constants for Various Ocean


Cables.

Ocean cable Type Weight Diameter H CD Average


lbs./ft. ft. CD
SD List 1 0.32 0.104 34* 3.05 3.05

SL21 LW 0.326 0.0689 44.7 2.73* 2.67

LWA 1.404 0.123 70.2 2.67*

SA 1.692 0.126 75.4 2.73*

DA 3.311 0.160 94.9 2.65

RA 7.328 0.212 120.8 2.73

SPA 0.355 0.104 39.8 2.49*

OALC-7 LW 0.34 0.0656 52 2.21* 2.19

LWP 0.375 0.09 47 2.18*

SA 1.21 0.113 75 2.20*

SAH 1.68 0.125 84 2.20*

DA 4.09 0.174 111 2.20*

DAH 4.83 0.183 117 2.23*

RAH 4.83 0.178 121 21.4

SOAR II ? 0.152 0.055 36.6* 2.38 2.38


Page A56

* - Calculated values.

The values for the SD List 1 ocean cable were from the trials described in Section 5.2, for the
SL21 ocean cable were from Simplex Undersea Cable SL COMMUNICATION CABLE (1999), the
OALC-7 ocean cable were from Alcatel, OALC-7 Type 50 and Type 51 Submarine Cables, April
2001, and the SOAR II ocean cable from Makai Ocean Engineering.