You are on page 1of 37

Impact of using ICT:

Agrani Bank

Report on:
Impact of using ICT:
Agrani Bank
Course Code: MIS 3301
Course Title: System Analysis and Design

Submitted to:
Syed Mustafizur Rahman Chowdhury
Lecturer of MIS,
Department of Business Administration
Northern University Bangladesh

Submitted by:
Md. Shafiul Alam Chowdhury
ID: BBA 080102575
Section A
Summer 2010
Department of Business Administration
Northern University Bangladesh

Date of Submission: July 14, 2010

July 14, 2010
Syed Mustafizur Rahman Chowdhury
Lecturer of MIS,
Department of Business Administration
Northern University Bangladesh

Subject: Letter of Transmittal.

Dear Sir,
I am pleased to submit the report on Impact of using ICT: Agrani Bank to you as
assigned as a requirement for fulfillment of the course System Analysis and Design
(MIS 3301).
This report has been tried best to analyses the process of developing the ICT in Agrani
Bank. I wish the methods that have been used in this report would provide a clear
picture about the topic.
I will be very glad if the report can serve its actual purpose and I am ready to explain
anything to you if you feel necessary.

Sincerely Yours,

Md. Shafiul Alam Chowdhury

ID: BBA 080102575


Expressing one's appreciation should never be a meaningless task but, rather, a moment
filled with heartfelt sincerity. I have been throughout the topic, and especially during the
stages of report writing, fortunate to have been surrounded by individuals who have
supported me on multiple levels. I also used lot of information from different websites,
books, journals, newspapers and from reports. We would be remiss if we did not express
our gratitude to each of them.

I would like to express our deepest gratitude to Allah for everything He has done to me.
Then, thanks towards Syed Mustafizur Rahman Chowdhury who encouraged my interest
in this study. In addition to the support he gave us personally and academically. I also
give thanks to the authority of Northern University Bangladesh for offering me such a
good environment of education where we are not only learning but also expressing our
feelings and expanding our knowledge through different types of assignments, practical
works and researches.

Last but not least, we must send my deepest gratitude to our parents who never cease to
inspire us.

Md. Shafiul Alam Chowdhury

ID: BBA 080102575

Executive Summery

Agrani Bank is a leading commercial bank in Bangladesh. It has evolved ICT system in
it for the development of their service providing condition. Since it planned to start ICT
in it, it had to face so many problems, and had to go through a lot of projects. After all of
it, they have some stable system now. Right now Agrani Bank is giving different types of
facilities including online transactions, foreign remittance, ATM service etc. These are
done by using different software. The three main software that Agrani Bank uses are
FloraBank, BexiBank and Moneygram. All of the software's are developed by
outsourcing. Agrani Bank is trying its best to develop their system and be the leading
bank in Bangladesh. But still they have some problem in it. And without recovering these
problems they will not be able to overcome the situation. To overcome the situation first
of all they need to be efficient, effective, internet connectivity should be more reliable
and the systems also should be reliable.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Introduction to the Study 2

Research Objectives 2

Methodology of the Study 3

Limitations of the Study 3

ICT & ICT in Bangladesh 4

2.1 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 5

2.2 Why use ICT 8

2.3 Impact of ICT on Business 9

2.4 Present status of ICT in Bangladesh 11

2.5 ICT adoption in Banking Sector 12

Agrani Bank: Impact of using ICT 13

3.1 Agrani Bank: Background 14

3.2 Adaptation of ICT 15

3.3 ICT Adaption Process 17

3.4 ICT adoption and firm performance 26

Findings 28

Conclusion 29

Recommendation 30

Bibliography 31

Chapter One:

1.1 Introduction to the Study

Bangladesh is still lagging behind to avail the opportunity of ICT. However, banking
sector as a whole has been introducing online banking system which plays
complementary role to spread of ICT. Internet has opened a new horizon of using ICT in
business, creating immense opportunities for marketing products as well as managing
organizations banking internationally. Gradually wireless Internet system has been
creating a new paradigm and electronic fund transfer can have a suitable formation.

This study focuses on the adoption and implications of ICT practice in the Banking
Sector of Bangladesh. It describes how companies in this sector use information and
communications technology (ICT) for conducting business, assesses the impact of ICT
for firm performance and identifies potential policy implications.

Over the last 20 years ICT has increasingly been identified as a major contributor to the
process of business development and improvement and it has been identified that, ICT is
responsible for around half of productivity growth in modern economies. It drives
improved efficiency and better services and products across the entirety of the private
and the public sectors.

1.2 Research Objective

The prominent objective of the study is to analyze the impact of Information and
Communication Technology on a particular organization in its business strategy and
development. The study also has objectives as follows:
Finding the situation of the organization before adopting ICT
Finding the current situation of the organization after adopting ICT
Finding the factors affecting adopting ICT
Finding the problems that are related to adopting ICT
Finding the ways to solve the problems
Finding how the company introduced ICT in their business

1.3 Methodology of the Study:

The study is based on secondary sources and also primary sources. As such the study has reviewed
different published articles, books, newspaper, and websites. However, exact references are
mentioned in this article. The study will also collect related information regarding present status of
the on line banking through field visit. The study collects data on following points: Services
provided by the banks, software use by the banks, name of the vendor’s and bank’s name etc.


For very genuine reasons time was very much limited for the whole report. Therefore to major
constrains for the report were time and cost. The lacking of date was another limitation for our study.
In some cases the bank managers not interested to talk to us as they have some restriction from their

Chapter Two:
ICT in Bangladesh

2.1 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT is an acronym that stands for Information Communications Technology. Information

Technology (IT) is the automation of processes, controls, and information production
using computers, telecommunications, software and ancillary equipment such as
automated teller machine and debit cards. It is a term that generally covers the harnessing
of electronic technology for the
information needs of a business at all
levels. There are some banking services
that have been revolutionized through
the use of ICT as including account
opening, customer account mandate,
and transaction processing and
recording. Information and
Communication Technology has provided self-service facilities (automated customer
service machines) from where prospective customers can complete their account opening
documents direct online.

However, apart from explaining an acronym, there is not a universally accepted

definition of ICT. Because the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are
constantly evolving on an almost daily basis. It is difficult to keep up with the changes -
they happen so fast. Let us focus on the three words behind ICT:

Information Communication Technology

It assists customers to validate their account numbers and receive instruction on when
and how to receive their checkbooks, credit and debit cards. Communication Technology
deals with the Physical devices and software that link various computer hardware
components and transfer data from one physical location to another

Several authors have conducted investigation on the impact of ICT on the banking sector.
They discussed the dimensions in which automation in the banking industry manifest in
Nigeria. They include:

i. Bankers Automated Clearing Services: This involves the use of Magnetic
Ink Character Reader (MICR) for check processing. It is capable of encoding,
reading and sorting checks.
ii. Automated Payment Systems: Devices used here include Automatic Teller
Machine (ATM), Plastic Cards and Electronic Funds Transfer.
iii. Automated Delivery Channels: These include interactive television and the

Information and Communications Technology - or technologies (ICT) is an umbrella

term that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of
information. The term is sometimes used in preference to Information Technology (IT).
In the common usage it is often assumed that ICT is synonymous with IT; ICT in fact
encompasses any medium to record information (magnetic disk/tape, optical disks
(CD/DVD), flash memory etc. and arguably also paper records); technology for
broadcasting information - radio, television; and technology for communicating through
voice and sound or images - microphone, camera, loudspeaker, telephone to cellular
phones. It includes the wide variety of computing hardware (PCs, servers, mainframes,
networked storage), the rapidly developing personal hardware market comprising mobile
phones, personal devices, MP3 players, and much more; the full gamut of application
software from the smallest home-developed spreadsheet to the largest enterprise
packages and online software services; and the hardware and software needed to operate
networks for transmission of information, again ranging from a home network to the
largest global private networks operated by major commercial enterprises and, of course,
the Internet. Thus, "ICT" makes more explicit that technologies such as broadcasting and
wireless mobile telecommunications are included.

Such ICT-related activities include, for example, the use of:

broadcast material or CD-ROM as sources of information in history;
micro-computers with appropriate keyboards and other devices to teach literacy
and writing;
keyboards, effects and sequencers in music teaching;
devices to facilitate communication for pupils with special needs;
electronic toys to develop spatial awareness and psycho-motor control;

email to support collaborative writing and sharing of resources;
video-conferencing to support the teaching of modern foreign languages;
internet-based research to support geographical enquiry;
integrated learning systems (ILS) to teach basic numeracy;
So ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of
digital data. Importantly, it is also concerned with the way these different uses can work
with each other.

In business, ICT is often categorized into two broad types of product:

1. The traditional computer-based technologies (things you can typically do on a
personal computer or using computers at home or at work); and
2. The more recent, and fast-growing range of digital communication technologies
(which allow people and organizations to communicate and share information

2.2 Why use ICT

Any businesses use ICT because:

It allows fast access to data. Slow access may annoy customers.
It keeps storage requirements to a minimum. There is no need for large filing
cabinets filled with lots of paper.
It allows data to be accessed by more than one person at a time (on a network).
There is better security. Data can be encrypted (coded).
Fewer staff needs to be employed.
Data is kept inside the computer system and cannot get misplaced.

2.3 Impact of ICT on Business

The use of ICT and technology has affected every aspect of business, transforming not
only the way that business is conducted but also creating new business sectors and jobs.
The creation of companies like Google and e-Bay which did not exist 10 years ago, was
only made possible by advances in technology and the changes that this has created in
the way that people behave (currently Google is valued at £44billion – Source BBC 5th
June 05).

Some examples of the nature of this change include:

Marketing: The use of websites has allowed companies to develop new and cheaper
ways of reaching new markets, offering customers the opportunity of buying goods and
services whenever they want and often at
reduced cost, whilst also enhancing the level of
customer service.

This has been coupled with the expansion and

use of e-mails which again has been used by
business to market their goods and services
directly to potential customers, as well as
communicating with existing customers and

Increasingly the marketing campaigns of

businesses include the use of technologies such as Contact Management Systems that
allows them to co-ordinate, monitor and report on various aspects of their marketing
campaigns in new ways making these campaigns more targeted and effective.

Finance: Practically all companies now use software programs e.g. Sage or Excel to
manage their accounts. This has allowed them to look at financial information when
required, monitor and respond to their customers purchasing patterns by e.g. offering
discounts and overall improve the management of their finances. The result of this has
been for many companies a reduction in their accountancy fees.

Out of office working: For many businesses the need for staff to be away from the
office attending meetings etc. or to be based in another geographical location has grown
alongside employee demands for more flexible working patterns. However effective
communication and ability to access information etc. remains critical to the productivity
of these staff members. Therefore through the use of technology many companies now
use a range of technologies to enable this. These include mobile phones, e-mail,
broadband, laptops, etc. Thus ensuring that companies are able to be flexible and
adaptive depending on their business needs.

Networks: Virtually all businesses now have or have access to a computer. The
existence of two or more computers in an office almost always leads to the creation of a
network. The main advantage of doing so is that resources can be shared e.g. printers,
internet access, files/information can be managed and shared amongst workstations and
the security of information can be better managed through a network. Increasingly
networks are not just confined to the office but are being adopted so that they allow
home/remote working that supports changing business needs.

This transformation has really taken place over the last 20 years and continues to
transform the way business is done. No business today can ignore the use of technology
as its effective use helps businesses to remain competitive and profitable, thereby
creating or safeguarding jobs.

Figure: Impact of ICT on Business

2.4 Present status of ICT in Bangladesh

Bngladeshi companies, organizations are facing problem to start full swing ebusiness.
Network is a mode of communications with the computers. According to a report
published in The Daily Star (4th April, 2010) Bangladesh ranked 118th in the global
Network Readiness Index in 2009-10 up from 130th a year ago, showing an upward
trend in the information and communication technology sector. In South Asia, India
ranked 43rd, Sri Lanka 72nd, Pakistan 87th and Nepal 124th in the 'Global Information
Technology Report 2009-2010' released by The World Economic Forum (WEF) on 3rd
April, 2010. As such Bangladesh has to go long way to develop its network for arranging
Digital Bangladesh by the year 2021 and public and private cooperation and strategic
alliance is required to develop e-business system in the country.

Though Bangladesh has improved from its previous years condition, but it is not still up
to the mark to call in a good condition.

2.5 ICT adoption in Banking Sector

ICT developments in recent years have had a profound impact on the Banking Sectors.
The emergence and development of for instance e-security, e-banking and e-marketing
have been topics of increasing interest in recent years for both academics and
practitioners, as the changes taking place in the field are clearly observable.

However, the growing interest has not been matched well enough with relevant studies
that would give insight into the processes and behaviors underlying the process of how
the increasing use of ICT can foster new business models, marketing and sales channels,
and business processes of the Banking Sector. Products that used to be highly dependent
on the banks´ evaluation of its customers have now become more standardized.

Other examples of ICT impact on the BI include the increased process efficiency, which
can reduce costs in banks, and the branch renewal, where focus is gradually shifting
away from traditional brick and mortar banks towards the dual-bank concept presented
earlier. The tendencies above have also produced changes in the structure of bank

As a result of increased competition that has lowered margins in lending operations (the
banks’ traditional business), banks have diversified their sources of income and rely
increasingly on income from fees services rather than interest rate spreads. Fees charged
for services include typical banking activities like payment transactions, safe custody and
account administration. The increasing use of e-banking in has increased competition
within the industry. Due to the introduction of ICT in the Bank Sector, the entry barriers
to the industry have been lowered as the demand for fixed assets in order to start up a
bank has decreased. This has opened up the Banking Sector to competition from other
actors in the financial markets.

Chapter Three:
Agrani Bank:
Impact of using ICT

3.1 Agrani Bank: Background

Agrani Bank is one of the largest commercial banks in Bangladesh. With their 867
branches spread out across almost all the major commercial centers in the country, they
have considerable reach and influence. Agrani Bank also operates their remittance
business with a number of exchange houses overseas. These exchange houses serve the
many Bangladeshi nationals who live and work abroad, and need to send money back
home to their families.

These exchange houses includes:

1. Only incoming transactions:

a. Moneygram
b. RemitOne
c. IME
d. Xpress Money
e. Infinity Express
f. Transpass
g. Merchant Trade
2. Both income and outgoing transactions:

Agrani Bank plan to expand their operations in Europe, Malaysia and the Middle-East in
the very near future.

3.2 Adaptation of ICT

Agrani Bank, being one of the leading banks in Bangladesh, has adopted the ICT in their
business process. To adopt the ICT in their business system they had to reengineer their
total business system into the computer based system.

3.2.1 Previous situation of Adaptation of ICT:

Before the adaptation there were several problems with the traditional banking. Some of
them are:
1. Slow transaction
2. Accordingly large number of people were needed
3. No online transaction
4. Difficult to bring money from outside the country
5. Problem with preparing bank statements
6. Problem with calculations
7. Problem with providing one-stop service

3.2.2 Phases of Adaptations

Agrani Bank adapted ICT into three phases.
1. Introducing Computer based transactions: First of all Agrani Bank started only
in the branch computer system. That is, they had reentered their traditional
transaction process into Computer technology. Agrani Bank started using the
FloraBank Software in 1998 for the first time for this purpose.
2. Introducing Online Services: In the second Phase, Agrani Bank started their
online transactions; that is transactions over the branches. This system allowed
customers to have accounts in one branch, but withdraw money from another
branch. For this purpose they started using the BexiBank software and as well
they keept using FloraBank software.
3. Introducing money transfer from outside the country: In this last Phase,
Agrani Bank started transferring money from other countries to Bangladesh and
vice-versa. From the mid of 2008 they started providing this service. the names of
the exchange houses are given in the previous section.

3.2.3 Situation after adopting ICT:
After adopting the computer based technology Agani Bank is now became able to solve
different problems including:
1. Solution to slow transactions
2. One stop services available
3. Online banking possible
4. Foreign remittance collection etc.

3.3 ICT Adaption Process

The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) of Agrani Bank was conducted throughout
four phases:
1. Planning: Answering why the system is needed to build.
2. Analysis: Answering who, what, when where will the system be.
3. Design: Answering how the system will work.
4. Implementation: Delivering the system

3.3.1 Planning:
The planning for the SDLC started when the responsible persons of the bank could
understand some of the problems mentioned below:

The problems include:

1. Slow transaction
2. Accordingly large number of people were needed
3. No online transaction
4. Difficult to bring money from outside the country
5. Problem with preparing bank statements
6. Problem with calculations
7. Problem with providing one-stop service

To solve the problems, it was necessary to adopt the ICT in the banking system of
Agrani Bank. So they started the adaption process.

3.3.2 Analysis:
In the Analysis system Agrani Bank had to gather information, analysis them, process
modeling and data modeling. To do all the things Agrani Bank had to keep eye on the
following matters.

The Challenges:
1. Inadequate and unevenly distributed infrastructure
2. Inadequate capacity and affordability hinder access

3. Deficiencies in the regulatory and wider policy environment reduce potential
4. Developing regional and rural infrastructure

The Barriers:
The leading reason given by businesses for not engaging e-commerce is that it is not
suited to the nature of their business. Other reasons for not conducting on-line sales
include lack of personnel with appropriate ICT skills, concerns over unbalanced costs
and benefits, insufficient customer access to Internet and technology concerns, such as
on-line security.

The Risks:
The Risks includes:
1. Internet Banking Risks
2. Credit Risk
3. Interest Rate Risk
4. Liquidity Risk
5. Price Risk
6. Foreign Exchange Risk
7. Transaction Risk
8. Compliance Risk
9. Strategic Risk
10. Reputation Risk

Risk Management:
To manage the risks Agrani Bank had to follow a risk management process to enable them to
identify, measure, monitor, and control their technology risk exposure.
The planning process for the use of the technology.
Implementation of the technology.
The means to measure and monitor risk.

The risk planning process is the responsibility of the board and senior management. They
need to possess the knowledge and skills to manage the bank’s use of Internet banking

technology and technology-related risks. The board should review, approve, and monitor
Internet banking technology-related projects that may have a significant impact on the
bank’s risk profile. They should determine whether the technology and products are in line
with the bank’s strategic goals and meet a need in their market. Senior management should
have the skills to evaluate the technology employed and risks assumed. Periodic independent
evaluations of the Internet banking technology and products by auditors or consultants can
help the board and senior management fulfill their responsibilities.

Implementing the technology is the responsibility of management. Management should

have the skills to effectively evaluate Internet banking technologies and products, select the
right mix for the bank, and see that they are installed appropriately. If the bank does not have
the expertise to fulfill this responsibility internally, it should consider contracting with a
vendor who specializes in this type of business or engaging in an alliance with another
provider with complementary technologies or expertise.

Measuring and monitoring risk is the responsibility of management. Management should

have the skills to effectively identify, measure, monitor, and control risks associated with
Internet banking. The board should receive regular reports on the technologies employed, the
risks assumed, and how those risks are managed. Monitoring system performance is a key
success factor. As part of the design process, a national bank should include effective quality
assurance and audit processes in its Internet banking system. The bank
Internal accounting controls — Used to safeguard the assets and reliability of financial
records. These would include transaction records and trial balances
Operational controls — Used to ensure that business objectives are being met. These would
include operating plans and budgets to compare actual against planned performance.
Administrative controls — Used to ensure operational efficiency and adherence to policies
and procedures. These would include periodic internal and external audits.

Key components that helped maintain a high level of public confidence in an open network
environment include:


3.3.3 Design:
After completing the first two process of SDLC it is now time for the program and
system design.

Program Design:
Level 0: in this first level (Level 0) of program designing, it was made a general
design of the software about how it will work.
Level 1: in the second level (Level 1) of the program designing there included
more items.
Level 2: in the third level (Level 2) of the program designing there included all
the items needed.

Figure: Data Flow Diagram with bill pay system.

Figure: Data Flow Diagram of Fund Transfer

Figure: Dataflow Diagram of View Transactions

RemitONE Dataflow diagram

RemitONE are one of the world's leading providers of money transfer software systems
Money Transfer Management Solution (MTMS)- RemitONE MTMS is an industry leading,
end to end, web-based system for creating, managing and processing transaction
information and helping remittance businesses to run successfully
Blacklist Checker Module (BCM) - The RemitONE BCM ensures advanced AML & KYC
compliance by linking with blacklists such as OFAC and FinCEN lists.
Mobile Remittance Module (MRM) - RemitONE MRM is ideal for organisations wishing to
offer mobile money transfer services to customers.
Online Remittance Module (ORM) - The RemitONE ORM is ideal for remittance businesses
wishing to offer online money transfer services to customers.

RemitONE's suite of remittance solutions are based on robust, reliable
technology platforms and are used by businesses of all sizes across the world. All
RemitONE solutions perform advanced AML and KYC compliance checks.

Organisations can use RemitONE solutions to run their daily remittance operations
effectively and efficiently whilst offering their customers the ability to execute
transactions from branches, over the Internet, via SMS on mobile phones and by using
prepaid card systems.
RemitONE partner with esteemed organisations including IAMTN,

and to promote transparency, awareness of best practices and fair

competition in the remittance industry.

Headquartered in the UK, RemitONE have a global presence with regional offices in
Abu Dhabi, Canada, Pakistan, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia and Singapore RemitONE
solutions enable organisations to empower business users, improve business process
management, increase ROI, reduce costs and deliver an enhanced customer service.

Figure: Online Transaction Dataflow Diagram

3.3.4 Implementation
In this stage of product development, the program was developed and the systems were
implemented in works. Since 1998 the FloraBank was being used by different branches
of Agrani Bank, In 2003 Agrani Bank started to adopt the ICT in all their branches and
soon after the process started they became successful in ICT implementation. After that
to enhance the systems they started using Bexibank software beside the FloraBank
software. From the mid of 2008 they started using the online transactions also started the
foreign remittance banking through the help of different softwares.

3.4 ICT adoption and firm performance

Despite the potential benefits of ICT and e-commerce, there is debate about whether and
how their adoption improves firm performance. Use of and investment in ICT requires
complementary investments in skills, organization and innovation and investment and
change entails risks and costs as well as bringing potential benefits. While many studies
point to the possibility of market expansion as a major benefit for SMEs, larger
businesses can also expand into areas in which SMEs dominated. Moreover, it is not easy
for SMEs to implement and operate an on-line business, as this involves complementary
costs for training and organisational changes as well as direct costs of investing in
hardware and software solutions. While many studies provide evidence of the positive
effects of ICT adoption on firm performance, others have shown no relation between
computer use and firm performance. A study of Canadian manufacturing establishments
(plants) with ten or more employees (excluding food processing establishments) drawn
from Statistics Canada’s Business Register, shows that those with high productivity
growth are more likely to be using greater numbers of advanced ICTs (Baldwin, 2002).
Between 1988 and 1997, advanced technology users grew more in terms of both
productivity and profitability than non-ICT users, especially when they used
communication technologies, including company-wide and/or inter-company computer

Soon after the adaption of the ICT in Agrani Bank the bank started to improve its
condition in different sectors. It could provide better services to its customers in a wide

Conclusion &


Agrani Bank has developed a good ICT among the organization. But still they have some
problems which are not letting them come forward. They first need to solve the problems
and improve the system in a wider way.
The findings were:
1. All the software system they are getting by outsourcing
2. There is a lack of efficient users of the systems
3. The systems are not upgradable; only a new version can be installed, not
4. There is a frequent problem with their internet, intranet and extranet systems,
which is a reason for customer dissatisfaction.
5. The system is made in the light of online, but some employee makes delay in
posting the entries which should not be done.
6. Frequently the software does not support their computer system, and crashes. It
should be repaired.


Due to advent of e-business especially on line banking system, the distribution channel is
also changing. But quality of banking services should be international standard. To attain
more effective and efficient business procedure, Bangladesh has to produce commodities
of global standards. Ali, Mohsin, and Yasmeen (2004) observation may be followed to
attain e-business efforts through information dissemination, knowledge transfer, and
technical assistances. However Bangladesh’s global Network Readiness Index should be
improved from present situation. To keep up in the competition with the other banks in
Bangladesh, Agrani Bank should keep them up to date and work effectively and


The following recommendations can be followed to improve their condition.

1. Recruit some computer engineers or programs who can develop and update the
software when some bug is found.
2. Train the employees effectively thus they can work efficiently.
3. Use minimum of three ways to get to the internet thus if one fails, another can
4. While ordering software, check and let the software firm know about the
computer systems condition and configuration.
5. Create some software which can be updated time to time.


1. Websites
2. Books & Journals
a. Adoption of ICT Enabled Information Systems for Agricultural
Development and Rural Viability
c. E-Banking in Bangladesh
d. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Banking Operations
e. The Implementation of Business Process Management