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Renaissance in English Literature- Spanning the years 1500-1660,

Plantagenet dynasty.

War of Roses from 1455 and 1487

House of York- red rose--Edward the IV (sons: Edward V and Richard of Shrewsbury)
Richard the III
House of Lancaster, white rose

The final victory went to a claimant of the Lancastrian party, Henry Tudor, Earl of
Richmond, who defeated the last Yorkist king, Richard III, at the Battle of Bosworth
Field. After assuming the throne as Henry VII, he married Elizabeth of York, the eldest
daughter and heir of Edward IV, thereby uniting the two claims. The House of
Tudor ruled the Kingdom of England until 1603, with the death of Elizabeth I,
granddaughter of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.

The discovery of the town Pompeii had a great impact which was completely buried
by the volcano eruption. 1,500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599. It was a curiosity
what kind of life people led in that time, and people were looking back at Ancient Greece
and Rome.
Re-naissance -- (Rebirth of Classic Greek and Rome in arts and sciences.
Upraise of a belief called humanism: Belief that church should rule only spiritual, not
civic and scientific matters. People should control their own destinies.

Universities in England (history, Geography, poetry, modern languages

Piece of technology: Gutenbergs Printing Press (books for everyone), and manuscripts
of classic Greek and Latin could be copied and spread to universities

New Ideas: Renaissance man, a person of broad education and interest with great
curiosity. One was not supposed to be only a good soldier, but also to play a game of
chess, to write a poem to a lady, to speak 4 or 5 languages, be able to read Latin and

Standardization of English (12-15 dialects)

--Shakespeare was pronounced in 4 or 5 different ways (Shake Spear, Shakes Per, etc)

Exportation of the New World (Columbus 1492)

Protestant Reformation PROTESTANTISM) (Martin Luther in 1517 nailed 95

grievances to the church door)

--Luther was protesting against the corruption in the Catholic Church

Protestant domination
---Switzerland- Calvinism
--England- Anglicans/Puritans (went to US)

Henry VIII-Tudor, (28 June 1491 28 January 1547)

Separated the Church from RomeSupreme Head of the Church of England

His elder brother who was married to Catherine died at the age of 15 from sweating
1. Catherine of Aragon
2. Ann Boleyn, Queen of 1000 days, (her older sister had an affair with Henry)
3. Jane Seymour (her son Edward the VI)
4. Anne of Cleves (Marriage by proxy)
5. Catherine Howard
6. Catherine Parr (Henrys nurse mate)
1. Mary (Bloody Mary) Philip II of Spain.
2. Elizabeth
3. Edward (became King when he was 9 and died at age of 12). His guardian made

Protestants tried to get the throne

Lady Jane Grey was queen for 9 days
Lots of fighting
Jane was imprisoned in Tower and beheaded by Mary.
When Mary became queen, she turned the country to Catholicism and executed 300


Ascended the throne after Marys death

Never married
Well educated, like her father, and became a strong supporter of the arts, hence the term
Elizabethan. There were people who never believed that she was Henrys daughter, but
she was like her fatherred red, good look and intelligence.
Golden Age: Reastablished the Church of England and insisted on religious moderation.
Fought against French domination and defeated the Spanish Armada (Francis Drake, a
Elizabethan poetry and drama: birth of poems song like qualities, sonnets (the most
popular poetic form) about the queen and for the queen
-Shakespeare, both sonnets and drama.
NEW DYNASTY: The Stuarts, James the VI of Scotland and James the I of