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En este trabajo se desarrolla un metodo para estimar el estado de baterias.

En este trabajo se desarrolla un metodo para estimar el estado de baterias.

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in EVs

Guangzhao Luo1, Jinhao 2

Stropower Company 3

FEMTO-ST, CNRS, Univ.

Meng1, Xingchang Ji1 Xian, China

1 Bourgogne Franche-Comte,

School of Automation Emails: UTBM

Northwestern Polytechnical xiao.cai@stropower.com F-90010 Belfort Cedex,

University(NPU) France

Xian, China Emails: fei.gao@utbm.fr

Emails:

guangzhao.luo@nwpu.edu.cn,

scmjh2008@163.com

18092732663@163.com

Abstract: Accurate state of charge (SOC) is critical for products. However, overcharge and over discharge will

battery energy management system in electric vehicle (EV) cause permanently and irreversibly damage to lithium

application. Overcharge and over discharge will shorten batteries, which may even lead to potentially explosive. On

batterys lifespan and induce potential safety problem, which the basis of an accurate SOC, battery management system

may even permanently damage the lithium-ion battery. Thus, a

(BMS) can help expanding lithium batterys lifespan and

data driven model is proposed for improving the accuracy of

SOC estimation in this paper. A preliminary mathematic model ensuring its safe usage. Therefore, its is critical for BMS

under constant current is established, which can match the to keep batteries within a reasonable SOC range. [6]

primary high SOC stage. Since the battery model is nonlinear, However, EVs always operate in various driving cycles,

model free adaptive control (MFAC) is used to get the dynamic which makes it difficult to obtain an accurate SOC.

linearization model and accomplish SOC estimation process on Generally, BMS should monitor the battery current, voltage,

the basis of the mathematic model. With the small sample scale temperature for safety use of EV. These data have not been

of new data updated, a data driven model based on partial least sufficiently utilized to improve the accuracy of SOC

squares (PLS) is obtained online. The accuracy of the estimation. Machine learning method is recently

mathematic model also decreases during the operating process.

developing fast and is especially suitable for data analysis.

Finally, the calculated values from the two different models are

mixed for an accurate SOC. Experimental results on lithium

Consequently, by analyzing these data, machine learning

polymer battery prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. method is utilized in this paper for an accurate SOC.

Different kinds of methods have been proposed to

KeywordsSOC estimation, PLS, MFAC, Li-ion battery. obtain an accurate SOC, among which Coulomb counting

method and OCV method are two efficiently classical SOC

I. INTRODUCTION estimation methods. As an open loop estimator, Coulomb

Since the shortage of non-renewable energy resources counting method [7] estimates SOC by the integration of

and environmental issues become increasingly prominent, current with time. Thus, current errors from sensors will

more attentions are paid to energy saving and emission accumulate, and inaccurate initial SOC will also inevitably

reduction. Diesel locomotive relies heavily on fossil fuels yield errors in the estimation process. Open circuit voltage

and produces greenhouse gases to natural environment. (OCV) has monotonic relationship with SOC. As a result,

Electric vehicle (EV) has the advantages of highly efficient, OCV method estimates SOC on the basis of OCV-SOC

zero emissions, energy-saving, and low-noise by replacing table. [8][9] Measuring OCV requires many hours even

internal combustion engine (ICE) with electric machine. [1] several days waiting for the battery inner equilibrium,

Thus, EVs attract much attentions from both academia and which is inappropriate for most online application. Extend

industry. [2][3] Since battery is the only power source in Kalman filter (EKF) is frequently appeared in multiple

pure EVs, the remaining driving distance related to EV papers for its superior performance. On the foundation of a

users experiences closely rely on SOC. Compare with closed loop structure, EKF is able to deal with unknown

other kinds of batteries, lithium batteries have advantages initial SOC in estimation process. [10][11] However,

of higher specific energy, longer cycle life and lower linearizing state space equation by Taylor series expansion

self-discharge rate. [4] [5] Hence, many manufacturers decreases its accuracy. Other similar approaches, such as

choose lithium batteries as the power source in their EV unscented Kalman filter (UKF), particle filter (PF), are too

much time consuming for online BMS applications. eigenvector is calculated in the first step, then the score matrix

[12][13] Neural network is capable of directly reflecting and loading matrix are obtained in the process. If enough

the relationship between the measured values and SOC number of dominant eigenvectors (for example, K) are

through a training process. [14] Nevertheless, an accurate received, the entire PLS is stopped and the output matrix B is

neural network based method relies heavily on the amount calculated. It is clear seen from the calculation process that

of training dataset. Collecting large numbers of dataset the matrix B contains information from both X and Y, which

makes the entire estimation process costly. makes PLS more powerful to complete the mapping from

input to output.

In this paper, partial least squares (PLS) is introduced to

online analyze the measurement data in BMS and establish After analyzing the small scale samples online with PLS,

the data driven battery model is established in this paper. The

the data driven model simultaneously. PLS is capable of

proposed data driven model is shown in Fig.1.

extracting the main information from dataset and obtaining

its inner connections between input and output in the case

of small sample scale. A mix mechanism is applied to Initialize variables

choose the best result from mathematic model and PLS E0=X,F0=Y,W=[],R=[],i=1;

model for improving the accuracy of battery modeling in

the estimating process. Model free adaptive control

(MFAC) is used to calculate the pseudo partial derivative Compute the dominant

eigenvector wi

(PPD) in order to get the dynamic linearization model of

the nonlinear system. With the calculating results from

battery model, MFAC has the advantages of adaptive

adjusting its output for an accurate SOC and can

implement SOC estimation online efficiently.

No

This paper is organized as follows. PLS based data

driven model is introduced in Section II. The entire SOC W=[W,wi], R=[R, ri]

estimation method is detailed in Section III. Experimental

test of the proposed method is shown in Section IV.

Conclusions are given in Section V.

i>K

PLS is a multivariate statistical data analysis method,

which predicts the set of output variables by considering Yes

the correlations between response matrix and predictor

matrix. [15] On the basis of PLS, the parsimonious battery

model with reliable predictive power are expressed as the

following form: Fig.1 Flowchart of the PLS based modeling process

Y=XB+F (1)

Current

where response matrix Y is terminal voltage, predictor SOC PLS battery Terminal Voltage

matrix X is a vector including current, SOC and Temperature model

temperature, B is the coefficient matrix and F is the

residuals in this paper.

By data analysis, PLS can find components from X that Fig.2 PLS battery model

are also relevant to Y simultaneously with the constraint

that maximize the covariance cov(X,Y) of predictor and III. SOC ESTIMATION BASED ON MFAC

response. Note that X is the product of score matrix T and MFAC is firstly proposed by Z.S. Hou in 1994. [16-18]

loading matrix P. Assuming that the projection matrix is W, In MFAC, discrete-time nonlinear system is replaced by an

then T=XW. Thus, Y are expressed as: equivalent dynamic linearization model at current

= + = + = + (2) operating point of the control system.

If we know matrix B, the future value of Y are estimation Assuming that the nonlinear single input single output

by Eq.(2). Thus, the crucial problem for PLS regression is (SISO) system is expressed as following:

how to calculate B.

y( + 1) = ( ), , , ( ), , ( ) (3)

The process of PLS algorithm is shown in Fig. 1. PLS

acquires features from the variances of both X and Y as well y(k),u(k) are the input and output of the system at k,

as considering the correlations between them. The dominant respectively; f() is the unknown nonlinear system; ny, nu

353

are the order of system. final accuracy of the estimated SOC is improved by the

mix of the two models. Assuming that U1 is the difference

Eq.(3) are dynamic linearization as the following form

between the output of mathematic model and terminal

in MFAC:

voltage, and U2 is the difference between the output of PLS

y( + 1) = ( ) + ( ) ( ) (4) model and terminal voltage. The mix algorithm in this

paper is simply selecting the model whose output has

Where ( ) is the PPD of the control system. Input minimum difference comparing to terminal voltage. The

and output data measured from the controlled system are mix mechanism are briefly described as following: If U1 >

used to calculate the PPD online for the dynamic model. U2, we choose mathematic model in the estimation process.

On the basis of Eq. (4), the process of MFAC is as If U2 > U1, PLS model is selected for estimating. Without

follows: increasing much computational burden, this concise

( )

mechanism help making the estimation process simple and

u( ) = ( 1) + | ( )|

( + 1) ( ) (6) effective.

( 1) IV. EXPERIMENT RESULTS

( ) = ( 1) +

+ ( 1)

Lithium polymer battery manufactured by KOKAM is

( ) ( 1) ( 1) (7) selected in this paper for testing the proposed method. The

nominal capacity is 70.0 Ah and nominal voltage is 3.7 V.

( ) = (1), if | ( )| or | ( 1)| (8) The mathematic model is established firstly as the primary

Where , are the step factor, , are the model. Battery data under constant current in Fig.3 is

weighting factor, is small positive number. measured for parameters identification of the mathematic

model. In this paper, mathematic model is used as the

It can be deduced from Eq.(6)~(8) that MFAC does not following form:

rely on the mathematical model of the controlled system.

Thus, MFAC is used to estimate SOC in this paper. = + + +

Utilizing PPD and real-time data, MFAC is able to adjust ( )+ (1 ) (9)

the parameters and structure of the controlled system

adaptively. In this paper, MFAC makes full use of the Where Vmodel is the calculating voltage of mathematic

voltage difference between battery model and real battery model, Iinput is the charging or discharging current, and r is

for correcting SOC. With the benefit of MFAC, SOC the internal resistance. E0, k0, k1, k2 and k3 are the

estimation is a closed loop structure and also insensitive to parameters of mathematic model.

initial SOC.

Due to varieties in driving habits and traffic conditions,

battery pack in EVs generally works in different driving

cycles. However, measuring battery under constant current

variation is easy and feasible in most applications.

Therefore, the mathematical battery model identified under

constant current is selected as the original model in this

paper. Afterwards, on the basis of the operating data, PLS

battery model is added to the estimation structure. The

final estimated SOC are the mix of the two models. MFAC

is chosen to calculate utilizing the terminal voltage

errors. The structure of the proposed algorithm is shown in (a) Current

Fig. 3.

U

SOC* SOC Mathematica

U1

l Battery

I

Model

Complementary model

MFAC

SOC U

I U2

PLS model

T Mix mechanism

(b) Voltage

On the foundation of the structure in Fig.3, the

mathematical model can guarantee the basic results and the

354

(c) Temperature (b) Voltage

Parameter E0 r k0

Value 3.132 0.002852 9.083e-7

Parameter k1 k2 k3

Value -0.4713 0.004097 -0.05771

parameters under constant current in Fig.4, the results are (c) Temperature

shown in Table I.

Fig.5 Measured data from Li battery under current variation

SOC is firstly estimated under mutative current only by

mathematic model and MFAC. Afterwards, the PLS model

is added in the process and mixed with mathematic model

to improve the estimation accuracy. Details of the testing

current, voltage and temperature are shown in Fig. 5. The

current and voltage are frequently changed, and

temperature is also increasing with usage. In order to

demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, it is

compared with MFAC without PLS battery model. The

initial SOC is arbitrarily set to 0.1 for testing the proposed

method in an extremely condition. Experimental results are

shown in Fig.6, Fig.7 and Fig.8.

(a) Current

355

The authors would like to thank the employees of

Stropower Company for their support. This work is supported

by the Key Program for International S&T Cooperation and

Exchange Projects of Shaanxi Province and the Seed

Foundation of Innovation and Creation for Graduate Students

in Northwestern Polytechnical University.

REFERENCES

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Fig.8 Errors of the proposed method

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