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National University of Lesotho

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

M1501 Lecture Notes Part I

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Contents

1 Sets and Logic 1


1.1 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Set Builder Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 Some Special Sets: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.3 Set Operations: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.4 Some properties of Set Operations: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.5 The Set of Real Numbers: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.6 Properties of the Real Numbers (operations: + and ) . . . . . . . 6
1.1.7 Properties of Equality of Real Numbers: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.1.8 Properties of Inequalities( <and >): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.1 Logical Connectives: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.2 Equivalent Statements: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.2.3 Tautology and Contradiction: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.4 Mathematical Proofs: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2 Functions 20
2.1 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.1 Relation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.2 Domain and Codomain of a function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.3 Range of a function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1.4 Evaluating functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.1.5 Operations on functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.1.6 Even and Odd functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1.7 One to one function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1.8 Onto function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1.9 Inverse of a function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.1.10 Piecewise function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.1.11 The absolute value function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.1.12 Some properties of the absolute value function: . . . . . . . . . . . 30
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3 Circular Functions 31
3.1 The Radian: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2 Basic Circular Functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.2.1 The Sine Function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.2.2 The Cosine Function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2.3 Range and Domain of Sine and Cosine functions: . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2.4 The Other Circular Functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4 Polynomial Functions 36
4.1 Algebra of Polynomials: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.2 Division and Factors: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.2.1 Long Division: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.2.2 Synthetic Division: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.2.3 Remainder Theorem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.2.4 Factor Theorem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.2.5 Rational zeros Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5 The Exponential Function and the Logarithmic Function 42


5.1 Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.1.1 Integral Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.1.2 Rational Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.1.3 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.1.4 The Exponential Function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.2 Logarithmic Function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.2.1 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1

Chapter 1

Sets and Logic

1.1 Sets
The idea of a set is basic/fundamental to all mathematics.

Definition 1.1.1.
For our purpose here, we define a set as a collection of objects. The objects could be
numbers, names, letters of the alphabet etc. The objects in a set are called elements of
the set.

Notation:
We shall use capital letters to represent sets. When elements of a set have been listed we
enclose them in the braces { }. These braces are read as the set of .

1.1.0.1 Example

A = {a, b, c, d, e} means A is a set of elements a, b, c, d and e.

Given a set S we represent the fact that x is an element of S by writing x 2 S, meaning


x belongs to S or S contains x or x is a member of S.
When an object y does not belong to S we write y 2 / S (read as y is not an element of S
or S does not contain y).

N.B. Given an object x and a set S either x 2 S or x 2 / S(but not both). When
there is ambiguity on whether x 2 S or x 2
/ S, then S is not well defined.

1.1.1 Set Builder Notation

A set is sometimes defined through a known property of its elements. The property is
stated inside the braces { }.

1.1.1.1 Examples

(i) A={ The first five letters of the alphabet}, which means A is the set of the first five
letters of the alphabet .
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(ii) S={x : x is a student in M1501}, read as S is a set of elements x such that x is


student in M1501.

(iii) B={y : 0 < y < 10}, read as B is a set of numbers between 0 and 10.

(ii) or (iii) above is called set builder notation.

N.B.

(1) The colon : is read as such that. A vertical line | is also used to mean such
that, for instance, in the examples above, we can write
B = {y| 0 < y < 10}, & S={x | x is a student in M1501}.

(2) Set A as given in the example above can be represented by listing the elements or
by set Builder Notation. Set B can be represented by set Builder Notation only, its
elements cannot be listed.

Definition 1.1.2.

(1) The set that contains no elements is called the empty set and is denoted by {} or ;.
The empty set is also called the null set.

(2) A set that has only one element is called the singleton e.g. X={ 3 }.

(3) A set with a finite number of elements is called a finite set.

(4) We say that a set is an infinite set when it has infinite number of elements.

(5) For a finite set S, we define the cardinality of S as the number of elements that the
set contains. This is denoted by n(S) or |S|.

1.1.1.2 Examples

(1) n(;)=0 since ; has no elements.

(2) If A = {a, b, c, d, e}, A has 5 elements. Hence it is finite and n(A) = 5.

(3) E = {2, 4, 6, 8, . . . , 18}, E has 9 elements. Hence A is finite and n(E) = 9.

(4) M = {3, 6, 9, 12, . . . }, M has an infinite number of elements. Thus, M is an infinite set.

(5) B = {y
p : 0 < y < 10}. This set has an infinite number of elements e.g. 0.001, 0.001,
1.01, 2, 3/2, 9.9 etc. Hence B is an infinite set.
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1.1.2 Some Special Sets:


1.1.2.1 Subset:

Let A and B be any two sets. We say that A is a subset of B only when every element
of A is an element of B. We write A B.
e.g. if A = {a, b, c, d, e} and B = {a, b, c, . . . , x, y, z} then A B
{a, b} B, {a, b} A
B B and A A. Also, ; B and ; A.

N.B.
The empty set is a subset of a any set ( to be proved).

1.1.2.2 Proper Subset:

If A is a subset of B and further there is at least one element in B that is not an element
of A, then A is said to be a proper subset of B. We write A B to mean A is a proper
subset of B.
e.g. If A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {a, b, c, . . . , x, y.z} then A B since A B but x 2
/ A,
{a, e} A.
B is not a proper subset of B since all elements of B are in B.

1.1.2.3 Equal Sets:

Two sets A and B are equal if they are subsets of each other. i.e. A = B means A B
AND B A.
e.g. Given A = {a, b, c, d, e} and B ={the first 5 letters of the Alphabet}, then A = B.

1.1.2.4 The Universal Set:

When we are discussing sets which are all subsets of some other set U, then U is called the
universal set (for our discussion). Thus the universal set depends on the type of elements
being discussed.

1.1.2.5 Examples

(i) U = set of real numbers,

(ii) U ={names of students in the faculty}.

1.1.2.6 Complement of a Set:

Given the universal set U and the set A (which is a subset of U ) we define the complement
of A as the set of all elements in U which are not the elements of A, and we denote it by
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A{ , A0 or A.

0
Thus, A = {x : x 2 U but x 2
/ A}.

1.1.2.7 Examples:

1.1.3 Set Operations:


Let A and B be any two sets. Then we define the following operations.

(1) Intersection of A and B:


A \ B = {x : x 2 A and x 2 B}

Definition 1.1.3.
If A \ B = ; then sets A and B are said to be disjoint.

(2) Union of A and B:


A [ B = {x : x 2 A or x 2 B}

(3) The dierence A B: is defined as


A B = {x : x 2 A and x 2 / B}.

(4) The Symmetric dierence A B:


A B = (A B) [ (B A).

(5) The Cartesian Product;


A B = {(x, y) : x 2 A and y 2 B}

1.1.3.1 Examples

(a) If A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {0, 1}, then AB = {(a, 0), (a, 1), (b, 0), (b, 1), . . . , (d, 0), (d, 1)}.
(b) Cartesian Coordinates: If X = {x : x 2 R} and Y = {y : y 2 R} then
X Y = {(x, y) : x, y 2 R}, which is the set of points in the whole xy plane.

1.1.4 Some properties of Set Operations:


(1) Commutative laws:

(a) A \ B = B \ A, (b) A [ B = B [ A.

(2) Associative Laws:

(a) A [ B [ C = A [ (B [ C) = (A [ B) [ C,
(b) A \ B \ C = A \ (B \ C) = (A \ B) \ C.

(3) Distributive Laws:


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(a) A [ (B \ C) = (A [ B) \ (A [ C),
(b) A \ (B [ C) = (A \ B) [ (A \ C).

(4) Identity Laws:

(a) A [ ; = A, (b) A \ U = A.

(5) Double Complement Law:


(A{ ){ = A

(6) Idempotent Laws:

(a) A \ A = A, (b) A [ A = A.

(7) Universal Bound Laws:

(a) A [ U = U , (b) A \ ; = ;.

(8) De Morgans Laws:

(a) (A [ B){ = A{ \ B { ,
(b) (A \ B){ = A{ [ B { .

(9) Absorption Laws:

(a) A [ (A \ B) = A,
(b) A \ (A [ B) = A.

(10) Complement of U and ;:

(a) U { = ;, (b) ;{ = U .

(11) Alternate Representation for Set Dierence:


A B = A \ B{.

1.1.5 The Set of Real Numbers:


Most of our discussion in the chapters that follow will involve the numbers which are
elements of the set of real numbers. What are real numbers? To answer this question we
introduce the following sets.

(1) The Set of Natural Numbers:


N = {1, 2, 3, 4, . . . }

(2) The Set of Whole numbers:


W = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . }
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(3) The Set of Integers:


Z = {. . . , 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, . . . }

(4) The Set of Rational Numbers:


p
Q = {x : x = were p 2 Z, q 2 Z and q 6= 0} (there is a requirement that p and q
q
should be relatively prime.)

(5) The Set of Irrational Numbers:


Q{ = {x : x 2/ Q}.

With these we now define the set of real numbers as


R = Q [ Q{

N.B.
NWZQR
Are there other sets of numbers (beyond R)? Yes! We are not yet ready to know it or
them now.

1.1.6 Properties of the Real Numbers (operations: + and )


For any real numbers a, b, and c we have the following properties:

(1) Closure Properties: a + b 2 R and ab 2 R

(2) Commutative Properties:

(i) a + b = b + a,
(ii) ab = ba.

(3) Associative Properties:

(i) a + b + c = a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c,
(ii) abc = a(bc) = (ab)c.

(4) Distributive Property of Multiplication over Addition:


a(b + c) = ab + bc.

(5) Identity Properties:

(i) 0 + a = a, zero is the additive identity


(ii) 1 a = a one is the multiplicative identity.

(6) Multiplicative Property of zero: 0 a = 0.

(7) Additive Inverse Property:


For each a 2 R, there is unique real number a such that a + a = 0, a is called
the additive inverse.
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(8) Multiplicative Inverse Property:


1 1
For each nonzero real number a, there is a unique real number such that a = 1.
a a
1
This number is called the multiplicative inverse of a or reciprocal of a.
a
The properties of Real numbers which are stated above are called axioms. We also
have the following axiom.

(9) Trichotomy Axiom: Given any two real numbers x and y, then one of the following
statements is true ( and only one).

(i) x < y,
(ii) x > y,
(iii) x = y.

1.1.7 Properties of Equality of Real Numbers:


E1. Reflexive property: For any real number x, x = x.

E2. Symmetric Property: If x, y 2 R then x = y means that y = x.

E3. Transitive Property: If x, y, z 2 R, x = y and y = z means that x = z.

E4. Addition on Both Sides: If x, y, z 2 R, then x = y means that x + z = y + z.

E5. Multiplication on Both Sides: If x, y, z 2 R, then x = y means that xz = yz.

E6. Zero Product Rule: If x, y 2 R, then xy = 0 means that x = 0 or y = 0.

1.1.8 Properties of Inequalities( <and >):


Let x, y, z 2 R.

(1) Addition on Both Sides:

(a) If x < y, then x + z < y + z,


(b) If x > y, then x + z > y + z.

(2) Multiplication with a Positive number, z > 0:

(a) If x < y, then xz < yz,


(b) If x > y, then xz > yz.

(3) Multiplication with a Negative number, z < 0:

(a) If x < y, then xz > yz,


(b) If x > y, then xz < yz.
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(4) Positive Product:


If xy > 0 then either (x > 0 and y > 0) or (x < 0 and y < 0).
(5) Negative Product:
If xy < 0 then either (x > 0 and y < 0) or (x < 0 and y > 0).

1.1.8.1 Exercises:

Solve

(1) x + 3 < 7, (4) 2y > 0,

(2) 2x > 8, (5) x2 3x 2 < 2,


4x + 5
(3) 2x 5 > 25, (6) > 3.
x+2

1.2 Logic
We start by introducing the Language that we will use in this topic ( and here after).

A statement:
Definition 1.2.1.
A statement is a declarative sentence that can be classified as being true or false but not
both at the same time.

e.g.

(i) Obama was born in Kenya.


(ii) 26 is an even number.
(iii) How old are you? question(interrogative).
(iv) Stand up (Command ! Imperative)
(v) I cant believe it! emotional !exclamatory

A statement is also known as a proposition. In mathematics statements are represented


with letters.

1.2.0.2 Example:

p=it is hot
q = M1501 students do their work. If it is true that it is hot we say p is true ( or p
has the truth value T ); if it is not true that it is hot we say p is false ( or p has the
truth value F ).
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1.2.0.3 Open statement:

Truth value depends on one or more variables. e.g. x, y, z, x + 1 = 0.

1.2.0.4 Universal Proposition:

A statement containing the phrase for all is called a universal proposition. We denote
for all with 8.

1.2.0.5 Examples:

(i) 8x 2 R, x + 1 = 0 i.e. for all real number x, x + 1 = 0 (False).

(ii) 8x 2 R, (x 3)2 = x2 6x + 9 (True.)

1.2.0.6 Exercise:

Which of the following mathematical sentences are statements and for those that are
statements what is the truth value?
p
(1) Is it true that 4= 2?
2 9
(2) Multiply the numbers and .
3 10
22
(3) 6= .
7
p
(4) ( 2)2 = 2.

(5) What a day!

(6) x2 3x + 2 = 0.
x2
(7) 9x 2 R such that = x.
x
p
(8) 1.414 = 2.

1.2.0.7 Existential Proposition:

A statement containing the phrase there exists is called an existential proposition. We


write 9 to mean there exists. e.g.

(1) 9x 2 R such that x + 1 = 0 (True).

(2) 9x 2 R such that x2 < 0 (False).

(3) 9x 2 R such that (x 3)2 = x2 6x + 9 (True).


10

1.2.0.8 Negation of a Statement:

The negation of statement p which is written as p, is a statement which is false when p


is true, and true when p is false.
p is read as not p
( Teboho is a boy)= Teboho is not a boy.
( 5 is a negative number)=5 is non-negative.

We write the following truth table for p


N.B.

Table 1: Truth table

p p

T F
F T

(8x 2 R, x + 1 = 0) is 9x 2 R such that x + 1 6= 0.


(9x 2 R such that x + 1 = 0) is 8x 2 R, x + 1 6= 0.

The negation of 9 is 8
The negation of = is 6=
The negation of > is
The negation of is <

N.B.
When we negate statements the mathematical symbols change as follows:

9 becomes 8
8 becomes 9
= becomes 6=
> becomes
becomes <
becomes >
< becomes

1.2.0.9 Exercise:

(A) Write the negations of the following statements

(1) 8x 2 R, (x + 5)(x 4) = x2 + x 20.


(2) 9x 2 R, such that x2 < 0.
(3) 8n 2 Z, n2 + 1 0.
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(4) 9x 2 R such that x2 1=0


(5) Integers are even numbers
(6) 8x 2 R, x2 3x 4 > 0.

(B) For the statements in (A) above and their negations find the truth values.

1.2.1 Logical Connectives:


(1) Conjunction:
The conjunction of two statements p and q is a new statement p AND q denoted
by p ^ q which is true if both p and q are true, false otherwise.

Table 2: Truth table

p q p^q

T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F

(2) Disjunction(inclusive or):


The disjunction of two statements p and q is a statement p or q denoted by p _ q
which is false only when both p and q are false , but true otherwise.

Table 3: Truth table

p q p_q

T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F

(3) Exclusive Or;


The exclusive or of p and q, written p q is a statement that is true only when one
of p and q is true but not both.

(4) Implication:
The sentence if p then q is a new proposition which is false if p is true and q is false,
but true otherwise.
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Notation:
p ) q read as p implies q

Table 4: Truth table

p q p)q

T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T

In the statement p ) q (i.e. if p then q) ,p is called the hypothesis and q is the


conclusion.

1.2.1.1 Examples:

(i) p= It is raining, q= It is cloudy. p ) q (True).


(ii) x = 4 ) x2 = 16 (True).
(iii) x2 = 16 ) x = 4 (False).

(5) Double Implication:


For two statements p and q, p , q is a new statement which is false when p and q
have dierent truth values, but true otherwise.

Table 5: Truth table

p q p,q

T T T
T F F
F T F
F F T

p , q is also denoted as p i q which is read as p if and only if q.


e.g.

(i) p= It is raining, q= It is cloudy. p , q is False since q can be true when p is


False.
(ii) x + 2 = 6 , 2x = 8 (True).
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1.2.2 Equivalent Statements:


Two statements are logically identical if and only if they have identical truth tables. we
write r t to mean statement r is equivalent to statement t.

1.2.2.1 Examples:

(1) Show that p (p),


Proof:

Table 6: Truth table

p p (p)

T F T
F T F

The first and last column have the same truth values. Hence, two statement are
equivalent.
(2) Show that (p ) q) (p _ q)
Proof:

Table 7: Truth table

p q p)q p p _ q

T T T F T
T F F F F
F T T T T
F F T T T

Since the third column and the Last column have the same truth values the two
statements are equivalent.

1.2.2.2 Exercise:

(A) Establish the following


(1) (p ) q) (p ) q).
(2) (p ^ q) p ^ q.
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(3) (p ) q) p ^ q.
(4) (p , q) (p ) q) ^ (q ) p).

(B) Show that (p ) q) and p ^ q are not logically equivalent.

1.2.3 Tautology and Contradiction:


A statement whose truth value is TRUE all the time (i.e. for all possible combinations)
is called a tautology.
A statement whose truth value is FALSE all the time is called a contradiction.

1.2.3.1 Examples:

(1) Consider any statement p. It has the following truth table.

Table 8: Truth table

p p p ^ p p _ p

T F F T
F T F T

Thus p ^ p is a contradiction
p _ p is a tautology.

(2) Consider r =is is raining, then r = it is not raining.


r ^ r = It is raining AND it is not raining (contradiction).
r _ r = It is raining OR it is not raining(tautology).

(3) Show that (A [ B)0 = A0 \ B 0


Proof: we need to show that

(i) (A [ B)0 A0 \ B 0 , and


(ii) A0 \ B 0 (A [ B)0

(i) Let x 2 (A [ B)0


)x2 / A[B
)x2 / A AND x 2 /B
) x 2 A AND x 2 B 0
0

) x 2 A0 \ B 0
Thus x 2 (A [ B)0 ) x 2 A0 \ B 0
Hence (A [ B)0 A0 \ B 0 .
15

(ii) Let x 2 A0 \ B 0
) x 2 A0 AND x 2 B 0
)x2 / A AND x 2 /B
)x2 / A[B
) x 2 (A [ B)0
Thus x 2 A0 \ B 0 ) x 2 (A [ B)0
Hence A0 \ B 0 (A [ B)0 .
From (i) and (ii) above (A [ B)0 = A0 \ B 0 .

1.2.4 Mathematical Proofs:


A mathematical proof of a statement is a logical argument that establishes the truth value
of a statement based upon already accepted statements. Accepted statements are axioms.
laws, facts and proved results.

1.2.4.1 Examples:

axioms: x + 0 = x , x + ( x) = 0 (from properties of real numbers).


facts: When x = 2, x2 + 2x + 2 = 9 (by subset).
results which have been proven: (p ) q) (p ) q) (proved using truth tables.)

An argument is a claim that if a given assumption is true then the conclusion is also
true.

1.2.4.2 Example:

If it is raining then it is cloudy.

Showing that a statement is false;


To show that a statement is false it is enough to give a counter example. More specially
to prove that p ) q is false we use the fact that p ) q is false when T ) F. Thus we
pick an example such that p is true but q is false.

1.2.4.3 Examples:
p
(1) 8x 2 R, x2 = x
Counter example :
2 2
Let x =p 2 then
p x = ( 2) = 4
Hencep x2 = 4 = 2. But 2 6= 2.
Thus x2 = x is falsep when x = 2.
Therefore, 8x 2 R, x2 = x is false.

(2) A square of any integer is even.


Here we let p n is an integer
16

q n2 is even .
We want to show that If p then q is false i.e. to show that p ) q is false.
Counter example:
Let x = 3 then p is true but n2 = 32 = 9 which is odd
) q is false.

Thus p ) q is false.
In other words its false that a square of any integer is even.

(3) 8n 2 Z, n2 + 2n + 3 > 6.
Counter example:
n = 0, 1 etc but one is sufficient.

Proving that Statements are true:


To show that a mathematical statement is true is a bit more involving. There are several
ways of achieving this.

(1) The Direct Proof:

(a) Constructive Proof of Existence (Proving Existential Statements):


A statement in the form
9x 2 D such that p is true if, and only if, q is true for at least one x in D. One
way to prove this is to find x in D that makes q true. Another way is to give a
set of directions for finding such an x.
(b) Method of Exhaustion:
Use the method of exhaustion to prove that the following statement:
8n 2 Z, if n is even and 4 n 18, then n can be written as a sum of two prime
numbers.
Proof:

4=2+2 6=3+3 8=3+5 10 = 5 + 5


12 = 5 + 7 14 = 11 + 3 16=5+11 18=7+11

(c) Proving the statement: 8x 2 D, If p thenq (if its difficult to exhaust the elements
of D)
we assume that the hypothesis is true then establish that the conclusion is true.
To prove that p ) q we assume that p is true, then build up an argument that
leads us to q is true.

1.2.4.4 Examples:

(a) show that If n is odd then n2 is odd.

Proof: We identify the assumption and conclusion as:


17

hypothesis p n is odd
conclusion q n2 is odd .
We want to show that p ) q.
Assume that p is true i.e. n is odd
) n = 2k + 1 where k 2 Z (by definition of odd)
) n2 = (2k + 1)2 (squaring both sides)
) n2 = 4k 2 + 4k + 1
) n2 = 2(2k 2 + 2k) + 1 (by distributive property)
) n2 = 2m + 1 where m = 2k 2 + 2k 2 Z
) n2 is odd.
(b) Show that x = 5 ) x2 + 3 = 28.
Proof:
Assumption p (x = 5)
Conclusion q (x2 + 3 = 28)
Suppose p is true i.e. x = 5 then x2 = (5)2 = 25 (by definition)
) x2 + 3 = 25 + 3 (by property of = sign)
) x2 + 3 = 28 (adding 25+3, fact)
Thus q is true
) p)q
Therefore x = 5 ) x2 + 3 = 28.
(c) Show that x2 + 6x + 9 = 0 ) x = 3
Proof:
Assumption p (x2 + 6x + 9 = 0)
Conclusion q (x = 3)
Suppose p is true i.e. x2 + 6x + 9 = 0 is true
) (x + 3)(x + 3) = 0 (by factoring)
) x + 3 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 (zero product)
) x + 3 = 0 (since r _ r r)
) x + 3 + 3 = 0 + 3 (property of =)
) x + 0 = 0 + 3 (additive inverse )
) x = 3 (identity)
Thus q is true
Hence p ) q i.e. x2 + 6x + 9 = 0 ) x = 3.
(d) Prove that there exists an even integer n that can be written in two ways as a
sum of two prime numbers
Proof:
Let n = 10 then 10=5+5=3+7 and 3, 5, and 7 are all prime numbers.

Other statements from p ) q:

If two statements p and q are such that p ) q then

(i) The converse of p ) q is q ) p.


(ii) The inverse of p ) q is p ) q.
(iii) The contrapositive of p ) q is q ) p.
18

1.2.4.5 Examples:

Suppose n 2 N, p = n is even and q = n2 is even. In words write out the following:

(i) p ) q,
(ii) q ) p,
(iii) p ) q,
(iv) q ) p,
(v) p , q,
(vi) p _ q,
(vii) (p ^ q).

1.2.4.6 Exercise:

Use a truth table to establish which of the following are equivalent: p ) q, q ) p,


p ) q, q ) p.

(2) Indirect Proofs:

(a) Proof by Contraposition;


Express the statement to be proved in the form :8x 2 D, if p then q.
Rewrite this statement in the contrapositive form : 8x 2 D, if q then p.
Prove the contrapositive by direct method.
Therefore, to prove that p ) q it is sufficient to prove q ) p since they are
identical.

1.2.4.7 Example:

Prove that if n2 is even, then n is even, n 2 Z


Proof:
Let p = n2 is even, and q =n is even.
Suppose q i.e. n is not even ) n is odd.
) n = 2k + 1
) n2 = (2k + 1)2
) n2 = 4k 2 + 4k + 1 = 2m + 1, where k, m = 2k 2 + 2k 2 Z
) n2 is odd.
) n is not even ) n2 is not even
Hence, n2 is even ) n is even
(b) Proof by Contradiction:
Suppose the statement to be proved is false. i.e., suppose that the negation of
the statement is true.
Show that this supposition leads logically to a contradiction.
Conclude that the statement to be proved is true.
19

1.2.4.8 Example:

Show that If n is odd integer then 3n 11 is even.


Proof:
Let p = n is odd integer and q = 3n 11 is even.
Suppose p ^ q (Remember (p ) q)=p ^ q)
) n is odd and 3n 11 is not even
) n is odd and 3n 11 is odd.
n = 2k + 1
) 3n 11 = 3(2k + 1) 11 = 2(3k 4)
) 3n 11 is even, which is a contradiction(check our supposition)

1.2.4.9 Exercise:

Prove that:
(i) there is no integer that is both even and odd
(ii) the sum of a natural number and irrational number is irrational.

(3) Proof by Mathematical Induction:


Another method of proof which is used to prove open statement S(n) when n is a
natural number is called Mathematical Induction. The procedure for mathematical
induction is as follows:
Given the statement S(n).

(a) Prove that S(n) is true for the smallest n, say m.


(b) Assume that the statement S(n) is true for another number k m.
(c) Then prove that the statement S(n) is true for n = k + 1

Conclusion: If S(m) is true and S(k + 1) is true when S(k) is true then S(n) is
true for all n m.

1.2.4.10 Examples:

(1) If n is a natural number then (3n + 2)2 1 is a multiple of 3.


n(n + 1)
(2) The sum of the first n natural numbers is .
2
(3) 8n 0, 22n 1 is divisible by 3.
20

Chapter 2

Functions

2.1 Functions
In the previous chapter we introduced sets and logic. Another important concept in Math-
ematics and other Sciences is the theory of functions. A function is a special relation.
What is a relation (in Mathematics)?

2.1.1 Relation:
Definition 2.1.1.
A relation is a rule that tells us how to pair elements of two sets.

Recall: The Cartesian product of two sets A and B is AB = {(x, y) : x 2 A and y 2 B}.
This is an ordered pair, that is, the order in which the elements are listed is important.
Now, any subset S of A B is a relation.

2.1.1.1 Examples:

(1) Let A = {x, y} and B = {1, 2, 3}. Then AB = {(x, 1), (x, 2), (x, 3), (y, 1), (y, 2), (y, 3)}.
Some relations of A B are: {(x, 1)}, {(x, 2), (y, 2)}, and {(x, 1), (x, 2), (y, 2)}.

(2) A = {2, 4, 6} and B = {y : y 2 N }. Rule/instruction {(x, y) : x 2 A, y = 2x + 3}

(3) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} and B = {2, 6, 10, 14}. Rule/instruction {(x, y) : x 2 A, y = 2x 2 B}

We are now ready for the following definition.

Functions:

Definition 2.1.2.
A function is a special relation. Given two non-empty sets A and B, a function from A
to B is a rule that assigns each element of A (say x 2 A) to a unique element of B (say
y 2 B). We write f : A ! B to mean that f is a function from set A to set B.

Notation:
When x 2 A and y 2 B such that (x, y) by the function, it is denoted by y = f (x), which
21

we read as y is equal to f of x. Also y is a function of x. The variable x 2 A is


called the independent variable and y 2 B is the dependent variable; y depends on x.

2.1.1.2 Example:

f (x) = 2x + 1 is a function, where A = {x : x 2 R} and A = {y : y 2 R}.

2.1.2 Domain and Codomain of a function:


The definition of a function requires that we should have two non-empty sets A and B.
When the function is defined from A to B (i.e. f : A ! B) the set A is called the
domain of the function and the set B is the codomain of the function.

2.1.2.1 Examples:

A = {x : 1 x 2} and B = {y : y 0}. f : A ! B defined as f (x) = x2 .

(1) This is a function since all elements in A have been assigned unique partners in B.

(2) Set A is the domain, x is an independent variable.

(3) Set B is the codomain, y is the dependent variable. N.B. Some y 2 B have not been
assigned to x 2 A, but this does not violate the definition of a function.

2.1.3 Range of a function:


If f : A ! B the set of all y 2 B which have been assigned to x 2 A is called the range
of f (x). The range of a function is the set of all possible images of f (x) (by the images we
mean all y 2 B which have been assigned). Thus the range is a subset of the codomain.

2.1.3.1 Examples:
p
(1) f (x) = x: Domain = {x : x 0} or range = {y : y 0}
1
(2) f (x) = p : Domain = {x : x < 1} or range = {y : y > 0}
1 x
1
(3) f (x) = : Domain = {x : 1 < x < 1} or range = {y : y > 0}
x2 1
(4) f (x) = 1 + x2 : Domain = {x : x 2 R} or range = {y : y 1}

(5) A = {x : 1 x 2} and B = {y : 0 0}, f : A ! B defined as f (x) = x2 :


domain = A, codomain = B, range = y : 0 y 4 (these are possible outputs of
y = x2 , x 2 A).
22

Formally, when a function is defined the domain and codomain should be specified. Some-
times these are omitted. When domain or range is not specified:

(1) The domain is the set of all real numbers for which the function makes sense. By
making sense here we mean that the function is valid mathematically. We , therefore,
avoid division by zero and evaluation of even roots of negative numbers.

(2) The codomain is the range.

2.1.3.2 Examples:

(1) f (x) = x2 : domain = {x : x 2 R} and codomain=range = {y : y 0}.


1
(2) f (x) = : domain = {x : x 6= 0} and range = {y : y 6= 0}
x
Definition 2.1.3.
Let A and B be two non-empty sets. A function from A to B is a relation that pairs each
element of A to exactly one element of B. The set A is called the domain of the function
and B is the codomain of the function. For each element x 2 A, the corresponding element
y 2 B is called the value of the function at x, or the image of x. The set of all images of
the elements in the domain is called the range of the function. Since there might be y 2 B
that are not images of some x 2 A, the range B.

2.1.4 Evaluating functions:


For the function defined by f (x) = 2x2 3x. Evaluate:

(1) f (3)

(2) f (3a) and 3f (a), (compare the two)

(3) f (x2 )

(4) f (x + 3) and f (x) + f (3), (compare the two)

(5) f (x + h)
f (x + h) f (x)
(6) , when h 6= 0 (simplify).
h
Find the domain of the following function

3x
(1) f (x) =
x2 4
p
(2) h(t) = 4 9t
p
3x + 12
(3) g(x) =
x 5
23

2.1.5 Operations on functions:


(1) Sum: The sum of two functions f and g is a new function defined by
(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x).
The domain of f + g = domain of f \ domain of g.

2.1.5.1 Examples:
1
(1) Let f (x) = x2 + 3, domain of f (x) = R, and g(x) = , domain of
x
2 1
g(x) = {x : x 6= 0}. Then (f + g)(x) = x + 3 + , domain of (f + g)(x) = {x :
x
x 6= 0}.
p 1
(2) f (x) = x and g(x) = . Find (f + g)(x) and the domain of f (x), g(x), and
x
(f + g)(x).
(2) Dierence:
The dierence of two functions f and g is defined as
(f g)(x) = f (x) g(x).
The domain of f g = domain of f \ domain of g.

2.1.5.2 Example:
1
Let f (x) = x2 + 3, domain of f (x) = R, and g(x) = 3 + , domain of g(x) = {x :
x 1
1
x 6= 1}. Then (f g)(x) = x2 , domain of (f g)(x) = {x : x 6= 1}.
x 1
(3) Product:
The product of f (x) and g(x) is defined by
(f g)(x) = f (x)g(x).
Its domain = domain of f \ domain of g.

2.1.5.3 Example:
1
Let f (x) = x2 + 3, domain of f (x) = R, and g(x) = 3 + , domain of g(x) = {x :
x 1
x2 + 3
x 6= 1}. Then (f g)(x) = , domain of (f g)(x) = {x : x 6= 1}.
x 1
(4) Quotient:
The quotient of f and g is given as

f f (x)
(x) = , g(x) 6= 0.
g g(x)
f (x)
Then the domain of = {x : g(x) 6= 0} \ domain of f \ domain of g.
g(x)
24

2.1.5.4 Example:

f
If f (x) = x + 9, domain = R, and g(x) = x
2 2
4, domain = R. Then (x) =
g
x2 + 9
, domain = {x : x2 4 6= 0} = {x : x 6= 2 and x 6= 2}
x2 4

(5) Composite function:


Given two functions f and g, the composite function of f and g is defined as

(f g)(x) = f (g(x)).

The composite function is a function of a function. It is also called the composition


of f and g. The domain of (f g) is the set of all x in the domain of g such that g(x)
is in the domain of f . In other words (f g) is defined whenever g and (f g) are
defined.

2.1.5.5 Examples:
1
(a) If f (x) = x2 + 3 and g(x) = ,
x
2
1 1 1
then (f g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f = +3 = x2
+ 3, domain = {x : x 6= 0}
x x

2.1.5.6 Exercise:

Find g f and its domain.


1
(b) Let f (x) = , domain = {x : x 6= 1} and g(x) = x2 , domain = {x : x 2 R}.
x 1
1
Then (f g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f (x2 ) = 2 ,
x 1
domain = {x : x2 6= 1} = {x : x 6= 1 and x 6= 1}

2.1.5.7 Exercise:

Find g f and its domain.


1
(c) Let f (x) = , domain = {x : x 6= 1} and g(x) = x2 , domain = R.
x+1
1
Then (f g)(x) = f (x2 ) = 2 , domain = R, and
x +1
1 1
(g f )(x) = g(f (x)) = g( )= , domain = {x : x 6= 1}
x+1 (x + 1)2

When we have the composite function (f g)(x) = f (g(x)), g(x) is called the inner
function and f (x) is the outer function.
25

2.1.5.8 Exercise:

For each of the following functions identify the inner function and the outer function.
p
(a) h(x) = 1 + x2
1
(b) f (x) =
1+x
(c) g(x) = x2 + 2x + 1

2.1.6 Even and Odd functions:


Given a function f (x), we say that

1. f (x) is odd i f ( x) = f (x), and

2. f (x) is even i f ( x) = f (x).

Otherwise f (x) is neither odd nor even.

2.1.6.1 Examples:

1. f (x) = x2 , f ( x) = ( x)2 = x2 . Therefore f (x) = x2 is even

2. f (x), f ( x) = ( x)3 = x3 , f ( x) = f (x). Therefore f (x) = x3 is odd.

3. f (x) = x2 2x + 1, f ( x) = ( x)2 2( x) + 1 = x2 + 2x + 1. Therefore f (x) =


x2 2x + 1 is neither even nor odd.

4. f (x) = x2 + 1, f ( x) = ( x)2 + 1 = x2 + 1. f (x) is therefore even.

2.1.7 One to one function:


Let A and B be two non-empty sets. If f (x) is a relation such that each element of A is
paired with exactly one element of B; and no two elements of A have the same image,
then f (x) is said to be one to one (1 1).

2.1.7.1 Examples:

1. A = {x : x 2 R} and B = {y : y 0}
f (x) = x2 is not 1 1 since f ( 2) = f (2) = 4. There are many counter examples.

2. A = {x : x 0} and B = {y : y 0}
f (x) = x2 is 1 1 since there are no two elements of A which share an image.

3. A = {x : x 2 R} and B = {y : y 2 R}
f (x) = 2x + 3 is 1 1 since there are no two elements of A which share a partner.
26

Mathematically we say that a function f (x) is 1 1 i

f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) =) x1 = x2 .

We shall use this to establish if a function is 1-1.

2.1.7.2 Examples:

Which of the following functions are 1 1?

(a) f (x) = 2x + 3 (c) f (x) = x2

(d) f (x) = x2 when f : A ! B and


(b) f (x) = x 3
A = {x : x 0}, B = {y : y 2 R}

Solutions:

(a) To show that f (x) = 2x + 3is 1 1, we need to show that f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) =) x1 = x2 .
Suppose that f (x1 ) = f (x2 )
=) 2x1 + 3 = 2x2 + 3
=) 2x1 = 2x2
=) x1 = x2 .
Thus f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) =) x1 = x2 . Therefore f (x) = 2x + 3 is 1 1.

(b) Here f (x) = x3 .


Suppose that f (x1 ) = f (x2 )
=) x31 = x32
=) x1 = x2
) f (x) is 1 1.

(c) Determining whether f (x) = x2 is 1 1. Suppose f (x1 ) = f (x2 )


=) x21 = x22
=) x21 x22 = 0
=) (x1 x2 )(x1 + x2 ) = 0
=) x1 x2 = 0 or x1 + x2 = 0
=) x1 = x2 or x1 = x2
Thus f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) =) x1 = x2 or x1 = x2 . f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) leads us to two
possibilities. Hence f (x) = x2 is not 1 1.

(d) Suppose f (x) = x2 with A = {x : x 0} and B = {y : y 2 R}


f (x1 ) = f (x2 )
=) x21 x22 = 0
=) (x1 x2 )(x1 + x= 0
=) x1 x2 = 0 or x1 + x2 = 0
=) x1 = x2 or x1 = x2
=) x1 = x2 since x 0.
) f (x) = x2 is 1 1 when domain = {x : x 0}
27

2.1.8 Onto function:


Given a function f : A ! B. We say that f (x) is onto B if and only if the range of
f (x) = B. That is a function is onto a set B if and only if all the elements of B are
images of elements in the domain A.

2.1.8.1 Examples:

1. A = {x : x 2 R}
B = {y : y 2 R}
f : A ! B defined as f (x) = x2 .
f (x) = x2 is not onto B since 9y 2 B which are not images of x 2 A. Example:
y = 4. There is no x 2 A such that x2 = 4. But 4 2 B. Hence f (x) = x2 is
not onto B.

2. A = {x : x 2 R}
B = {y : y 0}
f : A ! B given as f (x) = x2 . Here f (x) = x2 is onto B since all elements of
B are images of some x 2 A) (Range=Codomain). Here y 2 B can be written as
p
y = x2 =) x = y. Since y 0 this equation holds for any y 2 B.

Checking that a function is ONTO:


Given y = f (x), we make x the subject of the equation, then check whether B is the
domain of g(y).

2.1.8.2 Examples:
p
1. f (x) = x2 , where A = {x : x 2 R} and B = {y : y 2 R}. Let y = x2 =) x = y.
p
Thus g(y) = y. The domain of the relation g(y) = {y : y 0} = 6 B. Therefore
the function f (x) = x is not onto B, where A = {x : x 2 R} and B = {y : y 2 R}.
2

This is because some elements in B (for instance, y = 9) are not in the domain of
g(x). Hence f (x) = x2 is not onto B.

2. A = {x : x 2 R}, B = {y : y 0}
p
f : A ! B given as f (x) = x2 . Here f (x) = x2 = y =) x = y = h(y). The
relation h(y) has domain = {y : y 0} which is the same as B. Thus f (x) = x2 is
onto.
y 1
3. f (x) = 2x + 1, domain = R and range = R. Let y = 2x + 1 =) x = = h(y).
2
The domain of h(y) = R = B = range of f (x). Therefore f (x) = 2x + 1 is onto
B = R.

4. f (x) = x2
p p
A = {x : x 0}, B = {y : y 0}. Let y = x2 =) x = y =) x = y = h(y).
2
The domain of h(y) = {y : y 0} = B. Therefore f (x) = x is onto B.
28

N.B.
A function which is onto the set of Real numbers R is said to be onto function.

2.1.9 Inverse of a function:


Suppose that f (x) is a function defined from set A to set B. If f (x) is 1 1 and onto,
then there exists another function say g(x) such that

f (g(x)) = g(f (x)) = x.

The function g(x) is called the inverse of f (x); and f (x) is also the inverse of g(x). We
have the following notation:
1
inverse of f (x) f (x)
inverse of g(x) g 1 (x)
1
Hence f (g(x)) = g(f (x)) = x , f (x) = g(x) and g 1 (x) = f (x).

Finding the inverse:


Given a function f (x), which is 1 1 and onto, the following steps are usually followed
when computing the inverse.

1. Let y = f (x)

2. make x the subject of the equation

3. interchange x and y
1
4. then f (x) = y

2.1.9.1 Examples:

1. f (x) = x2 ; A = {x : x 0}, B = {y : y 0} This function is 1 1 and onto B. To


find the inverse we let
y = x2
p
=) x = y
p p
=) x = y, since x = 0 we discard x = y.
p 1
p
Interchanging x and y gives y = x =) f (x) = x

2.1.9.2 Exercise:

1 1
check by finding f (f (x)) and f (f (x)) in (1) above.

2. f (x) = x3 . This function is 1 1 and onto R. To find the inverse,


let y = x3 =) x = y 1/3 . Interchanging x and y we get y = x1/3 =) f 1
(x) = x1/3 .
29

2.1.9.3 Exercise:

1 1
check by finding f (f (x)) and f (f (x)) in (2) above.

2.1.10 Piecewise function:

If a function is defined by dierent rules/relations on parts of its domain we say that it


is a piecewise function.

2.1.10.1 Examples:

1. f : A ! B such that A = R
B=R
f (x) = x2 for x < 0 and f (x) = x 1 for x 0. Then we write
(
x2 if x < 0
f (x) =
x 1 if x 0

Evaluate f ( 1), f (0), and f (1).

2. f : R ! R
8
>
< 2x if x < 2
f (x) = x2 if 2x2
>
:
2x if x > 2

Evaluate f ( 3), f (2), f ( 2), f (0), and f (3).

2.1.11 The absolute value function:

The absolute value function is a piecewise function defined as


(
x a if x a
f (x a) = |x a| =
a x if x < a

This function measures the distance of x from fixed point a. (on the number line)

2.1.11.1 Example:
(
x if x 0
|x| =
x if x < 0
This is the distance of x from the origin.
30

2.1.12 Some properties of the absolute value function:


Suppose x 2 R and a and b are fixed positive Real numbers.

(i) If |x a| < b then b<x a<b

(ii) If |x a| > b then x a > b or x a< b

(iii) If |x a| = b then x a = b or x a= b
p
(iv) x2 = |x|2 and x2 = |x|
31

Chapter 3

Circular Functions

In this chapter we study functions whose independent variable is the angle measured from
a circle with radius r. Let us start by introducing the unit that will be used to measure
the angles (instead of degrees).

3.1 The Radian:


Consider an arc AB of a circle of radius r such that its length is r. Then the angle be-
tween OA and OB (i.e. AOB) measured anti-clockwise is called one radian = 1 rad= 1c =1.

In this course we will use radians to measure angles. The total length of the circle,
the circumference, C = 2r. How many r are in C?
C 2r
= = 2.
r r
Thus there are 2 arcs of length r around a circle. Hence a complete revolution is 2
radians. But a complete revolution is 360 . Hence
2 rad= 360

360 180
) 1 rad= =
2
or
360
1 = rad= rad
2 180
We use the above results to convert between the two units.
Some Common Angles:

degree radian radian degrees


0
4
3
90
4

135
2
3
180
2

225
6
32

Cosider the figure shown below:

figure?

If we are given , we can find the length of the arc. We note that for 2 the length

of the arc is 2r, so for radians the length is .(2r) = r.
2
On a circle of radius r the angle is associated to a unique point. Let us find these
points for some values of .

Table?

Thus given a point (x, y) on a circle of radius r we can find an angle measured from the
centre of the circle.

Points on a Circle:
Consider a point (x, y) on a circle
p of radius r. To say that (x, y) is on this circle it
means that (x, y) satisfies r = x 2 + y 2 , that is, the distance of (x, y) from the centre is
p
r = x2 + y 2 .

3.2 Basic Circular Functions:


Now that we can relate the angle with the coordinates (x, y) on the circle, let us define
functions that relate the coordinates and the angles.

3.2.1 The Sine Function:

If (x, y) is a point on a circle of radius r then the sine function is defined as

y y
sin() = =p
r x + y2
2

where is the angle measured from the positive x axis in the clockwise direction.

3.2.1.1 Example
r
sin = =1
2 r p
r2 / 2 1
sin = =p
4 r 2
r/2 1
sin = =
6 r 2
0
sin () = = 0 etc
r
33

3.2.2 The Cosine Function:


If (x, y) is a point on a circle of radius r then the cosine function is defined as
x x
cos() = =p
r x2 + y 2

3.2.2.1 Example
0
cos =
=0
2 r
r/p2 1
cos = =0= p
4 r p 2
p3r/2 3
cos = =
6 r 2
We have the following standard results:


0
6 4 p3 2
1 1 3
sin() 0 p 1
p2 2 2
3 1 1
cos() 1 p 0
2 2 2

Given any point (a, b) on the circle of radius r and the angle, , which is the angle
measured from the positive x axis to the point (a, b), then
b
sin() =
r
a a
cos() = or
r r
b
sin( ) =
r
a a
cos( ) = or
r r
) sin( ) = sin() and cos( ) = cos() on R.
Hence Sine function is odd and Cosine function is even on R.

3.2.3 Range and Domain of Sine and Cosine functions:


The domain of the Sine and Cosine functions is
D = { : 2 R}.
Also, for we know another +2n such that cos = cos(+2n) and sin = sin(+2n).
This also means that cos() and sin() are not 1-1 on D.
y x
From the definitions sin() = and cos() = we get y = r sin() and x = r cos().
r r
Since (x, y) is on the circle of radius r we also have
34

x2 + y 2 = r 2
) (r cos )2 + (r sin )2 = r2
) r2 (cos )2 + r2 (sin )2 = r2
) cos2 + sin2 = 1, with r 6= 0.

This is a very important result( an identity). From this identity we notice that
sin2 1
1 sin 1
Thus the range of sin = {! : 1 ! 1}.
Similarly, the range of cos = {! : 1 ! 1} .

Definition 3.2.1. A function f (x) is said to be periodic if f (x) = f (x + w) for some x


in its domain and a fixed non-zero number w. The smallest such a positive constant w is
called the period of f (x).

N.B.
sin() = sin( + 2)
cos() = cos( + 2)
2 rad. is a complete revolution hence when a point is rotated from the x axis by the
+ 2 rad. it ends up at the same point as rotation by .
Thus sin() and cos() are periodic with period 2.
Hence,

sin = sin 2 + = sin 4 + etc.
4 4 4
sin = sin 2 = sin 4 etc.
4 4 4

cos = cos 2 + = cos 4 + etc.
4 4 4
cos = cos 2 = cos 4 etc.
4 4 4

3.2.4 The Other Circular Functions:


We are now ready to define the other circular functions as:

(1) Tangent Function:


y sin()
tan() = =
x cos()
period=
domain={ : x 6= 0}
range ={! : ! 6= 0}

(2) Cosecant Function:


r 1
csc() = =
y sin
domain={ : y 6= 0}
35

range ={! : ! 6= 0}
period=2

(3) Secant Function:


r 1
sec() = =
x cos
domain={ : x 6= 0}
range ={! : ! 6= 0}
period=2

(4) Cotangent Function:


x 1
sec() = =
y tan
domain={ : y 6= 0}
range
period=

tan csc sec cot


0 p0 u 1 u
3 2 p
2 p 3
6 3
p p3
1 2 2 1
4
p 2 1
3 p 2 p
3 3 3

u 1 u 0
2
36

Chapter 4

Polynomial Functions

A polynomial function f (x) is given by

f (x) = an xn + an 1 xn 1
+ an 2 x n 2
+ + a1 x + a0 ,

where the coefficients an , an 1 , an 2 , . . . , a1 , a0 are real numbers and the exponents are
whole numbers.

The first non-zero coefficient, an , is called the leading coefficient. The term xn xn is called
the leading term. The degree of the polynomial function is n.
A number c is called the zero or root of a polynomial if and only if f (c) = 0.
Multiplicity is the number of times a particular number is a zero for a given polynomial.
Example:
In the polynomial f (x) = (x 1)4 (x + 8)2 (x 5), the zero 1 has multiplicity 4, -8 has
multiplicity 2 and 5 has multiplicity 1.
Some examples of Polynomials are:

Polynomial function Degree Form Example


Constant 0 f (x) = a0 f (x) = 3
Linear 1 f (x) = a0 + a1 x f (x) = 1.5x + 1
Quadratic 2 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 f (x) = 2x2 x + 3
Cubic 3 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 f (x) = x3 1
Quartic 4 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 f (x) = x4 + 0.6x2 + 1.7x 5

4.1 Algebra of Polynomials:


(1) Addition and Subtraction:
To add/subtract two polynomial functions we add/subtract the corresponding coeffi-
cients of the powers of x.

(2) Multiplication:
To multiply two polynomials we use the distributive law and then collect like terms
(powers of x).

(3) Division:
Let f (x) and g(x) be polynomials of degree n and m respectively, where n > m. Then

f (x) r(x)
= q(x) +
g(x) g(x)
37

where, q(x) is called the quotient, r(x) is called the remainder and g(x) is called the
divisor.

4.2 Division and Factors:


When we divide one polynomial by another, we obtain a quotient and a remainder. If the
remainder is 0, then divisor is a factor of the dividend. We use the following methods to
divide the polynomials:

4.2.1 Long Division:

Polynomial Degree Form Example


Constant 0 f (x) = a0 f (x) = 3
Linear 1 f (x) = a0 + a1 x f (x) = 1.5x + 1
Quadratic 2 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 f (x) = 2x2 x + 3
Cubic 3 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 f (x) = x3 1
Quartic 4 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 f (x) = x4 + 0.6x2 + 1.7x 5

4.2.2 Synthetic Division:


We have seen how we can divide polynomials using long division. In this section we
introduce a method called synthetic division.

(1) Division with a linear polynomial: (x k)


Example:
x3 + 4x2 + 3x 2
Let us work out
x 3
We draw a table of the form.

1 4 3 -2
+3

The first row consists of the coefficients x3 + 4x2 + 3x 2 taken in descending order
from left to right while the first column consists taken +3 from x 3.
Then we fill the table follows:
38

1 4 3 -2
+3 3 21 72
1 7 4
2!
3! 3! 3

1 7 24 70
!

!
1x2 7x1 24x0 70(rem)

quotient
x3 + 4x2 + 3x 2 z }| { 70
) = x2 + 7x + 24 + , the remainder is 70.
x 3 x 3

4.2.2.1 Exercise:

Check the result above using Long division.

Now we are ready to give the generalization for the polynomial of 4th order being
divided by the linear function of the form p(x) = x k. Suppose that we want to
divide f (x) = a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 by x k. Then

a4 a3 a2 a1 a0
k kq4 kq3 kq2 kq1
! ! ! !
q 4 = a4 q3 = a3 + kq4 q2 = a2 + kq3 q1 = a1 + kq2 q0 = a0 + kq1
!

a4 x 3 q3 x 2 q2 x 1 q1 x 0 q0 (rem)

quotient
a4 x 4 + a3 x 3 + a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0 z }| { q0
) 3 2 1
= a4 x + q 3 x + q 2 x + q 1 + , the remainder
x k x k
is q0
Now we consider division with a quadratic polynomial.

(2) Division with a quadratic polynomial:(x2 b1 x b0 )


Example:
3x4 8x3 + 4x + 5
Let us work out
x2 4x + 4
Just like for the linear polynomial case we draw the following table:
39

N,B.: We expect the degree of the quotient to be n = 2 and the remainder to have
a linear form: tx + l.

3 8 0 4 5
-4 -12 -16 -16
3 4 4
4 ! 4 ! 4 !
4 12 16 16
3 4 4
4 ! 4 ! 4 !
3 4 4 4 -11
!

!
3x2 4x1 4x0 4x1 (rem) 11x0 (rem)

quotient
3x4 8x3 + 4x + 5 z 2 }| { 4x 11
) = 3x + 4x + 4 + , the remainder is 4x 11.
x2 4x + 4 x2 4x + 4
Again we give a generalization for the polynomial of degree 4 being divided by the
quadratic polynomial. Suppose we want to divide a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 by
x2 b1 x b0 . Then we have :

a4 a3 a2 a1 a0
b0 b 0 q2 b 0 q1 b 0 q0
! ! !
b1 b 1 q2 b 1 q1 b 1 q0
! ! !
q 2 = a4 q 1 = a3 + b 1 q 2 q 0 = a2 + b 0 q 2 + b 1 q 1 r 1 = a1 + b 0 q 1 + b 1 q 0 r 0 = q0 + b 0 q0
!

q2 x 2 q1 x 1 q0 x 0 r1 x1 (rem) r0 x0 (rem)

quotient
a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 z 2 }| { r1 x + r0
) 2
= q 2 x + q1 x + q0 + 2 ,
x b1 x b0 x b1 x b0
the remainder is r1 x + r0 .

4.2.3 Remainder Theorem:


If a number c is substituted for x in the polynomial f (x), then the result f (c) is the remain-
der that would be obtained by dividing f (x) by x c. That is , if f (x) = (x c)Q(x)+R,
then f (c) = R.
40

Proof:
If we divide f (x) by x c, we obtain a quotient Q(x) and a remainder R(x) related as
follows:

f (x) = (x c) Q(x) + R(x)


) f (c) = (c c) Q(c) + R
) f (c) = 0 Q(c) + R
) f (c) = R
Thus the function value f (c) is the remainder obtained when we divide f (x) by x c.

4.2.3.1 Example:

Find the remainder when f (x) = 4x3 3x2 + x + 7 is divided by x 2.

Answer
Here f (x) = 4x3 3x2 + x + 7 and c = 2
) f (c) = 4(c)3 3(c)2 + (c) + 7 = 29
Therefore, the remainder is 29.

4.2.4 Factor Theorem:


Given a polynomial function

f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn

(1) If x = a is a zero of f (x) then x a ia a factor of f (x).

Proof:
Suppose x = a is a zero of f (x)
) f (a) = 0, by definition of a zero.
) The remainder when f (x) is divided by x a is f (a) = 0 by the remainder theorem.
) x a is a factor (by definition of a factor).

Thus if x = a is a zero of f (x) then x a is a factor of f (x).

(2) Conversely, if x a is a factor of f (x) then x = a is a zero of f (x).


Suppose x a is a factor of f (x).
) f (x) = (x a)q(x)
) f (a) = (a a)q(a) = 0
) x = a is a zero of f (x) (by definition of a zero).

Thus if x a is a factor of f (x) then x = a is a zero of f (x).

Putting (1) and (2) together we have:


x = a is a factor of f (x) if and only if x a is a factor of f (x).
41

4.2.5 Rational zeros Theorem


Let
P (x) = an xn + an 1 xn 1
+ + a1 x + a0 ,
p
where all the coefficients are integers. Consider a rational number denoted by , where
q
p
p and q are relatively prime. If is a zero of P (x) , then p is a factor of a0 and q is a
q
factor of an .

Proof:
( To be given as the course progresses)
42

Chapter 5

The Exponential Function and the


Logarithmic Function

5.1 Exponents

5.1.1 Integral Exponents


(1) an = a a a a
(2) an am = an+m
an
(3) = an m
am
(4) (an )m = anm

5.1.2 Rational Exponents


p
A number x is said to be an nth root of b if xn = b. The symbol n b denotes the nth root
p
of b and symbol n is sometimes referred to as radical, and the expression under it as
radicand. The number n is called the index. Theppositive p root(for an even n) is called
4
the principal root. When an expression such as 16 or 8 is used, it is understood to
represent the principal (nonnegative) root.

5.1.3 Properties
Let x and y be any real numbers or expressions for which the given roots exist. For any
natural numbers m and n (n 6= 1):

p
n
(1) If n is even, then xn = |x|.
p
(2) If n is odd, then n xn = x.
p p p
(3) n x n y = n xy.
r p
x n
x
(4) n = p , (y 6= 0).
y n y
p p
(5) n xm = m xn .
43

5.1.4 The Exponential Function:


We have already learned exponents and their properties. Now if f (x) = ax where a > 0
and a 6= 1 , then f (x) is called the exponential function, a is the base of f (x).

5.1.4.1 Examples:

(a) f (x) = 3x
f (2) = 32 = 9
f (0) = 30 = 1

(b) g(x) = x
f (3) = 3

(c) h(x) = ex
h(0) = e0 = 1
h(2) = e2

5.2 Logarithmic Function:


We now define another function y = f (x) as

y = loga x i x = ay .

Thus f (x) = loga x means f (x) = ax .


f (x) = loga (x) is called the Logarithmic function, in short the log function. a > 0 is the
base of the log function.

5.2.1 Properties
(i) loga (xy) = loga (x) + loga (y)

x
(ii) loga = loga (x) loga (y)
y
(iii) loga (xn ) = n loga (x)
loga (x)
(iv) Change of Base: logb (x) =
loga (b)
(v) loga (a) = 1.
Problem Set 1

1. Write each of the following sets by listing its elements.

(a) A = {n Z : n2 n 2 < 0} (d) D = {n N : n3 < 100}


(b) B = {x R : x3 = x}
(c) C = {n Z : 4 < n 4} (e) E = {x R : x2 + 5 = 0}

2. Let S = {3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}. Describe each of the following subsets of S as


{x S : P (x)}, where P (x) is some open sentence involving elements x S.

(a) A = {1, 2, 3, 4} (c) C = {3, 2, 1}


(b) B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} (d) D = {2, 0, 2, 4}

3. Find all the subsets of the following sets.

(a) A = {2} (c) C = {2, 4, 6}


(b) B = {1, 3} (d) D = {a, b, c, d}

From the subsets above, deduce how many subsets we can get from the set with n
elements.
4. Describe each of the following sets in symbols.
(a) The set of all integers whose absolute value is at most 3.
(b) The set of all positive integers whose square root is also an integer.
(c) The set of integers strictly between 3 and 5.
5. For each of the following sets, indicate whether 2 is an element of the set.

(a) A = {x N : x > 2} (d) D = {x R Q : x(x 2) = 0}


(b) B = {x Z : 2 x 2}
(c) C = {x Q : x(x 2) = 0} (e) E = {{2}}

6. For each of the following indicate whether a is an element of the set.

(a) A = {a, {b}} (c) C = {{a, b}}


(b) B = {{a}, b} (d) D = {{a}, {b}}

7. Determine the cardinality of the following sets.

(a) A = {a, b, c, d, e} (c) C = {35, 36, 37, ..., 50} (e) E = {, {}}
(b) B = {0, 2, 4, ..., 30} (d) D = {1, {1}, {1, 2}} (f) F = {{2}, {2, 3, 4}}

8. Which of the following sets are equal?

(a) A = {n Z : 2 < n < 2} (d) D = {1, 0, 1}


(b) B = {n Z : n2 < 4}
(c) C = {n Z : n3 n = 0} (e) E = {n Z : n2 n}

9. Determine whether each of the following statements is true or false.


(a) a {a} (c) {a} {a} (e) {a}
(b) {a} {a} (d) {a} (f) {} {a}

10. For A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}, B = {2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8}, and the universal set U = {1, 2, ..., 10}
determine the following:
L
(a) A B (c) A B (e) A B (g) B
(b) A B (d) B A (f) A

11. For A = {a, b, c}, B = {c, d, e, f }, and the universal set U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}
determine the following:
L
(a) A B (c) A B (e) A B (g) B
(b) A B (d) B A (f) A

12. For the set Q of rational numbers, the set of irrational numbers and the universal
set R of real numbers, determine the following:
L
(a) Q (c) Q (e) Q (g)
(b) Q (d) Q (f) Q

13. What is
(a) The union of the sets {a, b, c}, {a, b, d}, and {b, c, d, e}?
(b) The intersecton of 0, 1, 3 and 1, 2, 3?
(c) The intersecton of the set of prime numbers and the set of even numbers?
(d) The symmetric difference of the set A = {The set of non-negative integers}
and the set B = {The set of even integers}?
14. (a) Define the Cartesian product of two sets A and B.
(b) Let A = {a, b, c}, list the elements of A A.
(c) Write a set of which both {1, 3, 4} and {0, 3, 5} are subsets.
(d) Give an example of a set having cardinality 52.
15. Let A, B, and C be sets. Draw a Venn diagram for each of the following.
T S T
(a) A B (b) A (C B) (c) (A B) C

16. During the month of June, Lekhalong Motors sold 75 cars with air conditioning, 95
with power steering, and 100 with automatic transmissions. Twenty cars had
all three options, 10 cars had none of these options, and 10 cars were sold that had
only air conditioning. In addition, 50 cars had both automatic transmissions and
power steering, and 60 cars had both automatic transmissions and air conditioning.
(i) How many cars were sold in June?
(ii) How many cars had only power steering?
Problem Set 2

1
 
1. Let S = 2, 1, 0, , 1, 2, 2, 4 . Determine which elements of S satisfy the
2
inequality.
1 (c) 1 < 2x 4 7 1 1
(a) 3 2x (e)
2 x 2
2
(b) 2x 1 x (d) 2 3 x < 2 (f) x + 2 < 4

2. (a) Express the following intervals as inequalities.


 
(i) x (2, 6) 1 (iii) x [3, 8)
(ii) x 6,
4
(b) Express the following inequalities in interval notation.

(i) 3 x < 8 1 (iii) 3 < x < 12


(ii) 3 x
8
3. Find the set A C if:
(a) A = {x|x < 7} and C = {x| 2 < x 8}
(b) A = {x|x < 4} and C = {x| 2 < x 6}
4. Solve the following inequalities, express the answers using interval notation and
graph the solution set:
x+2 (f) 3 < 2x + 1 12
(a) 2x 3 <
3
(g) (x + 2)(x 1)(x 3) 0
3x 10
(b) <2 1 2x 13 2
x4 (h) <
6 12 3
(c) x2 + x > 12 2 2
(i) 5x + 3x 3x + 2
2 3 4
(d) x < (j) 1
x1 x1 x
3x 1 x+2 x1
(e) (k) <
x8 x x+3 x2
Problem Set 3

1. Classify each of the following Mathematical sentences as declarative, interrogative,


imperative or exclamatory. Which declarative sentences are statements? Give the
truth value for each statement.

(a) The integer 23 is even. (d) x(x + 1) = 12.


(b) The integer 0 is odd. (e) Multiply x + y by 7.
(c) Is 5 2 = 10? (f) 7x is an odd integer.

(g) The Pythagoras theorem is an astonishing theorem!


2. Each of the following is an open sentence, where n denotes an integer. For which
integers are the following sentences true statements?

(a) p(n) : 2n2 5n + 2 = 0. 12


(c) p(n) : is an integer.
n2
(b) q(n) : n2 > 0. (d) n3 = 2n.

3. Write the negations of the following statements and find the corresponding truth
value.
(a) There are odd integers.
(b) Every dog has its day.
(c) Some rectangles are squares.

(d) For any real number x, x2 0.
(e) real numbers x, if x > 3 then x2 > 9.
(f) If an integer is divisible by 2, then it is even.
(g) primes p, p is odd.
(h) a triangle T such that the sum of the angles of T equals 200
4. Construct the truth tables for the following statements.

(a) p q (d) (p (p q)) (q r)


(b) (p q) (p q) (e) p q r
(c) p (q r) (f) (p r) (q r)

5. Use Truth tables to establish which of the following statements are tautologies and
which are contradictions.

(a) (p q) (p (p q)) (b) ((p q) (q r)) q

6. Use the Truth tables to verify the following

(a) The converse and inverse of a conditional statement are logically equivalent
to each other
(b) (p q) (q p) is the same as p q {i.e. (p q) (q p)} p q}.
(c) p q p q (g) (p q) p q
(d) (p q) p q (h) p q p q
(e) p q p q) (i) p (q r) (p q) (p r)
(f) (p q) p q (j) p (q r) (p q) (p r)

7. (a) Suppose that p and q are statements so that p q is false. Find the truth
value of p q
(b) If q p is false, then what is the truth value of p q?
(c) If p (q r) is false, what is truth value of p q?
(d) If p q is true but p r is false, what is the truth value of p (q r)?
(e) If p q is false but p r is true, find the truth value of r p.
8. Find the truth value for each of the following statements for real numbers x, y, z,
and a and explain your answers.
p
(a) x2 = 5x x = 5 (d) z = (x + y)2 z = x + y
(b) x2 = a2 x = a
2
(c) z = ( x) z = x (e) x2 7x + 10 = 10 x = 2 or x = 5

9. Write the contrapositive, the converse, and the inverse of each of the following
statements.
(a) If P is a square, then P is a triangle.
(b) If n is prime, then n is odd or n is 2.
(c) If Lebo is Anns father, then Thato is her uncle and Jill is her aunt.
Problem Set 4

1. Prove the statements that are true and disprove those that are false, using the
indicated methods
(a) For all positive integers n, if n is prime then n is odd (disprove by counterex-
ample).
(b) The product of an even integer and an odd integer is even (direct method).
(c) The sum of any rational number and any irrational number is irrational (con-
tradiction).
(d) For all integers a, b, and c, if a does not divide the product of b and c, then a
does not divide b (contraposition)
2. Let S, T, and V be any three sets. Then prove that
(a) S S
(b) S T and T V S V
(c) S T T 0 S 0
(d) S T = T S T
(e) S T = T T S
3. Let A, B, and C be any sets. Then prove the following statements.
(a) A B = A B 0
(b) A B = B A B
(c) (A B) C = (A C) (B C)
(d) (A B) C = (A C) (B C)
n3 n
4. Let S = {2, 4, 6} and let R(n) : is even be open sentence over the domain S.
6
(a) State R(n) for each n S and state its truth value.
(b) State n S, R(n) in words and state its truth value.
(c) State n S, R(n) in words and determine its truth value.
5. Prove or disprove: If n is an even integer, then 3n + 2 is odd.
6. Prove or disprove: Every positive integer can be expressed as the sum of two positive
integers.
7. Prove that there exists a real number x such that x2 = 5.
8. Disprove: For a real number x, x2 x 2 > 0 if and only if 1 < x < 1.
9. Prove or disprove:Let A, B and C be sets. If A B = A C, then B = C.
10. Prove or disprove: Let A B 6= , then A 6= and B 6= .
11. Let x be a real number. Prove that if (x 1)2 = 0, then x3 1 = 0.
12. Let x be a real number. Prove that if (x 2)4 0, then 9 x2 0.
13. Prove that if n is an even integer, then 7n 2 is an even integer.
14. Prove that if n is an odd integer, then 7n2 2n + 15 is an even integer.
15. Prove the following using: a direct proof, a proof by contrapositive, and a proof by
contradiction.
(a) If n is an even integer, then 5n 7 is an odd integer.
(b) For every integer n, if 3n + 5 is odd, then n is an even integer.
16. Prove by contradiction.
(a) The sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational.
(b) 101 cannot be expressed as the sum of two even integers.
(c) If n is an even integer, then 7n + 9 is odd.
17. Prove that (A B)c = Ac B c .
18. Prove that A for any set A.
19. Use mathematical induction to prove that the formula is true for all natural numbers
n.
(a) 1 + 3 + 5 + + (2n 1) = n2
n(3n + 5)
(b) 4 + 7 + 10 + + (3n + 1) =
2
n(n + 1)(2n + 7)
(c) 1 3 + 2 4 + 3 5 + + n(n + 2) =
6
n
3(3 1)
(d) 3 + 32 + 33 + + 3n =
2
(e) 5 6 + 5 6 + 5 6 + + 5 6n = 6(6n 1)
2 3

1 1 1 1 1
(f) + 2 + 3 + + n = 1 n
2 2 2 2 2
20. Prove that
(a) n2 n + 41 is odd for all natural numbers n.
(b) If n is a positive odd integer, then n(n2 1) is divisible by 24.
(c) (n + 1)2 < 2n2 for all natural numbers n 3.
(d) 32n 1 is divisible by 8 for all natural numbers n.
(e) 100n n2 for all n 100.
(f) 3n > 2n + 1, if n 2.
(g) If a > 1, then an > an1 .
(h) If 0 < a < 1, then an < an1 .
(i) n3 6n2 + 11n is divisible by 6 for all n 1.
(j) 22n+1 + 1 is divisible by 3 for all n 1.
Problem Set 5

1. Given that A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {a, 1, 0}, find

(a) A B (b) A A (c) B A

2. Evaluate the function at the indicated values.


 
1
(a) f (x) = 2x + 1; f (1), f (2), f , f (a), f (a), f (a + b)
2
 
1x 1
(b) g(x) = ; g(2), g , g(a), g(a 1), g(1)
1+x 2
 
|x| 2 1
(c) f (x) = ; f (2), f (1), f (0), f (5), f (x ), f
x x
 
1
(d) f (x) = 2|x 1|; f (2), f (0), f , f (x + 1), f (x2 + 2)
2
3. Evaluate the piecewise defined function at the indicated values.

(a) (
x2 if x < 0
f (x) =
x+1 if x 0

f (2), f (1), f (0), f (1), f (2)


(b)
2
x + 2x
if x 1
f (x) = x if 1 < x 1

1 if x > 1

 
3
f (4), f , f (1), f (0), f (25)
2

4. Use the function to evaluate the indicated expressions and simplify.

(a) f (x) = 3x 1; f (2x), 2f (x)


(b) f (x) = x + 4; f (x2 ), (f (x))2

f (a + h) f (a)
5. Find f (a), f (a + h), and the difference quotient , where h 6= 0.
h
x
(a) f (x) = 5 (b) f (x) = 3x + 2 (c) f (x) =
x+1

6. Let x and y be two quantities related by x2 + y 2 = 4.

(a) Is x a function of y? Explain (b) y a function of x? Explain

7. Given f (x) = 2x + 1 and g(x) = x2 3, find

(a) f + g (c) f g f (e) (f f )(x)


(d)
g
(b) f g (f) [f (f g)(x)]
8. Determine whether each function is one-to-one and/ or onto:
x+2
(a) f (x) = 2x 3 (c) h(x) = 3 x + 9 (e) g(x) =
x3
(b) x2 + 3 (d) f (x) = x + 3

9. Find the inverse of each function and state its domain.


r
(a) f (x) = 2x + 5 (c) f (x) = 3x 1 3
x
(e) f (x) = +5
x+3 2
(b) f (x) = 2 + x 3 (d) f (x) =
x5

10. Evaluate the absolute value expressions.



(a) | 5| (c) | 5 2| (e) | 2 1| + |3 2|
| 12 + 4|
(b) |9 3| (d) 4 + | 4| (f)
|16 12|

11. Express each statement using the absolute value symbol.

(a) The distance from x to 3 is at most 6.


(b) x is less than 3 units from 6
(c) x differs from 2 by less than 3.
(d) The distance between 7 and x is 4.
(e) x + 4 is less than 2 units from 0.
(f) x < 6 or x > 6.
(g) x is between 3 and 3, but is not equal to 3 and 3.

12. Solve for x:



(a) | 3x | +5 = 6 x (f) | 4x + 2 |< x + 10
(d) <x
(b) | x | 10 < 25 x2
(g) 3 | x 1 |< 5
(c) | 2x + 3 |<| x | (e) | 2x + 1 |=| x + 5 | (h) | 2x + 3 || x + 5 |
Problem Set 6

1. Divide

(a) 2x2 5x 6 by 2x 1 (e) y 3 + 4xy 2 + 3x2 y + 2x3 by y + x


(b) 5x2 18x + 9 by x 3 (f) a4 b4 by a b
(c) y 3 4y 2 + 3x2 y + 2x3 by y 1 (g) 2x5 7x4 13 by 4x2 6x + 8
(d) x2 + 2xy + y 2 + x + y by x + y (h) x5 + x4 2x3 + x + 1 by x2 + x 1

2. Two polynomials P and G are given. Use either synthetic or long division to divide
P (x) by G(x), and express P (x) in the form P (x) = Q(x)G(x) + R(x).

(a) P (x) = x5 + x4 2x3 + x + 1, G(x) = x2 + x 1


2
(b) P (x) = 9y 3 + 9y 2 y + 2, G(x) = y + 3

3. Use the Remainder Theorem to find the remainder when the polynomial f (x) is
divided by g(x).

(a) f (x) = 3x2 2x 4, g(x) = x 3


(b) f (x) = x3 + 4x 7, g(x) = x 3
(c) f (x) = 2x4 3x3 20x 6, g(x) = x + 3
(d) f (x) = 9x3 + 6x2 + 4x + 2, g(x) = 3x + 1
(e) f (x) = 2x4 + 5x3 + 3x2 + 8x + 2, g(x) = 2x + 3

4. Use the Factor Theorem to determine whether the first quantity is a factor of the
second in the following problems.

(a) x 1, x3 3x2 + 3x 1 (c) x 5, x3 + 2x2 25x 50


(b) x + 3, x3 4x2 18x + 9 (d) x + 1, 6x300 + x63 2x2 x + 20

5. Find a polynomial of the specified degree that has the given zeros.

(a) Degree 3; Zeros 1, 1, 3 (c) Degree 4; Zeros 1, 1, 3, 5


(b) Degree 4; Zeros 2, 0, 2, 4 (d) Degree 5; Zeros 2, 1, 0, 1, 2

6. (a) Find a polynomial of degree 3 that has zeros 1, 2, and 3, and in which the
coefficient of x2 is 3
1
(b) Find a polynomial P of degree 5 that has zeros 1 and of multiplicities 3
3
and 2, respectively.

7. List all possible rational zeros of the polynomialn given by by the Rational Zeros
Theorem (but do not check to see which actually are zeros):

(a) f (x) = x3 4x2 + 3 (d) f (x) = 6x4 x2 + 2x + 12


(b) f (x) = x4 3x3 6x + 8 (e) f (x) = 4x4 2x2 7
(c) f (x) = 2x5 + 3x3 + 4x2 8 (f) f (x) = 12x5 + 6x3 2x 8

8. Find all rational zeros of the polynomial:


(a) x3 2x2 2x 3 (f) x3 2x2 + 5x + 6
(b) x4 5x2 + 4
(g) x3 x 2
3 2
(c) 8x + 10x x 3
(h) 2x4 x3 + x + 2
(d) 2x4 7x3 + 3x2 + 8x 4
(e) x5 + 3x4 9x3 31x2 + 36 (i) 3x3 x2 6x + 12

9. Show that the polynomial does not have any rational zeros.

(a) f (x) = x3 x 2 (c) f (x) = 3x3 x2 6x + 12


(b) f (x) = 2x4 x3 + x + 2 (d) f (x) = x50 5x25 + x2 1

10. Factor the polynomial and use the factored form to find the zeros.

(a) f (x) = x3 + x2 + 12x (b) f (x) = x3 x2 14x + 24

11. Factorize

(a) x3 x2 14x + 24 (d) 6x3 + x2 4x + 1


(b) x4 + 3x3 + 2x2
(c) x3 + 4x2 3x 18 (e) 6x3 7x2 7x + 6

12. Find the real solutions of the polynomial equation:

(a) x4 2x3 6x2 + 7x + 6 = 0 (c) x4 4x3 + 4x 1 = 0


(b) 2x3 3x2 11x + 6 = 0
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
M1501 Problem Set 7

1. Find the radian measure of the angle with the given degree measure.
(a) 72 , (b) 45 , (c) 15 ,
(d) 96 , (e) 300 , (f) 75 .

2. (a) Find the length of an arc that subtends a central angle of 45 in a circle of
radius 10 m.
(b) An arc of length 100m subtends a central angle in a circle of radius 50 m.
Find the the measure of in radians.
(c) Find the radius of the circle if an arc length 6 m on the circle subtends a central
angle of /6 rad.
3. Find the exact value of the trigonometric function:

5 7 7
(a) sin , (b) cot , (c) csc ,
6 6 3

11 25 5
(d) 9 cos , (e) tan , (f) sec .
3 6 3

4. Find the quadrant in which lies from the information given:


(a) sin < 0 and cos < 0, (b) tan > 0 and sin < 0,
(c) sec > 0 and tan < 0, (d) csc > 0 and cos < 0.

5. Find the values of the trigonometric functions of from the information given:
3
(a) sin = , in Quadrant II.
5
7
(b) cos = , in Quadrant III.
12
3
(c) tan = , sin > 0 .
4
6. Simplify the trigonometric functions:
sin x sec x 1 + cos y
(a) , (b) cos3 x + sin2 x cos x, (c) ,
tan x 1 + sec y
sec x cos x 1 + sin u cos u 1 + cot A
(d) , (e) + , (f) .
tan x cos u 1 + sin u csc A

7. Verify algebraically that the equation is an identity:


cos x tan y
(a) = csc x sin x, (b) = sec y cos y,
sec x sin x csc y
1
(c) sin B + cos B cot B = csc B, (d) (1 cos B)(1 + cos B) = ,
csc2 B
cos2 t + tan2 t 1
(e) sin4 cos4 = sin2 cos2 , (f) = tan2 t.
sin2 t

1
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
M1501 Problem Set 8

1. Write the given expression as algebraic expression in x.


1 1
(a) sin(2 tan x), (b) tan(2 cos x),
1
(c) sin( 12 cos 1
x), (d) cos(2 sin x).

2. Find the exact value of the given expression.



7 12
(a) sin 2 cos 1 , (b) cos 2 tan 1 ,
25 5

1 1 1 1 2
(c) sec 2 sin , (d) tan cos ,
4 2 3
p !
1 3 1
p 2 1
(e) cos 2 sin + cot 3 , (f) sin 2 cos 1 tan 1
.
2 3 2

3. Evaluate each expression under the given conditions.


3
(a) cos 2; sin = , in Quadrant III.
5

5
(b) sin ; tan = , in Quadrant IV.
2 12
3
(c) tan 2; cos = , in Quadrant I.
5
4. Derive the following trigonometric identities
1
(a) sin u cos v = [sin(u + v) + sin(u v)],
2
1
(b) cos u sin v = [sin(u + v) sin(u v)],
2
1
(c) cos u cos v = [cos(u + v) + cos(u + v)],
2
1
(d) sin u sin v = [cos(u v) cos(u + v)],
2

x+y x y
(e) sin x + sin y = 2 sin cos ,
2 2

x+y x y
(f) sin x sin y = 2 cos sin ,
2 2

x+y x y
(g) cos x + cos y = 2 cos cos ,
2 2

x+y x y
(h) sin x sin y = 2 sin sin .
2 2

1
5. Prove the identity
sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x + sin 4x + sin 5x
= tan 3x.
cos x + cos 2x + cos 3x + cos 4x + cos 5x

6. Use the identity


sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x
n times to show that
sin(2n x) = 2n sin x cos x cos 2x cos 4x cos 2n 1 x.

7. Find the all solutions of the given equation.


(a) cos + 1 = 0,
(b) 5 sin 1 = 0,
2
(c) tan 4 = 0,
(d) sin2 sin 2 = 0,
2
(e) 2 cos 7 sin + 2 = 0,
(f) tan4 13 tan2 + 36 = 0.

2
M1501 Problem set 9

1. Find the first five terms of the given recursively defined sequence.
an1
(a) an = and a1 = 8
2
(b) an = an1 + an2 and a1 = 1, ; a2 = 2
(c) an = an1 + an2 + an3 and a1 = a2 = a3 = 1
2. Find the first four partial sums and the nth partial sum of the sequence.

1 1 1
(a) 1, 3, 5, 7, (b) , , ,
3 32 33
2 1 1
(c) an = (d) an =
3n n+1 n+2

3. Find the sum.


12
X 5
X
(a) 10 (b) 2k1
i=4 k=1

4. Write the expression without using sigma notation, and then find the sum.
5
X 6
X
2
(a) (1 n ) (b) (1)n 2n2
n=1 n=3

5. Determine the common difference, the nth term, and find the partial sum of the
first ten terms of the arithmetic sequence.
(a) 4, 9, 14, 19, (b) 2, 2 + s, 2 + 2s, 2 + 3s,

6. The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 1, and the common difference is 4.


Determine whether 11, 937 is a term of this sequence.
7. Determine the common ratio, the nth term, and find the partial sum of the first ten
terms of the geometric sequence.

t2 t3 t4
(a) 1, 2, 2, 2 2, (b) t, , , ,
2 4 8

8. Which term of the geometric sequence 2, 6, 18, is 118, 098?


9. Compute:

16! 14!
(a) (b)
14! 11!
8! 10!
(c) (d)
10! 13!

10. A drive-in theater has spaces for 20 cars in the first parking row, 22 in the second,
24 in the third, and so on. If there are 21 twos in the theater, find the number of
cars that can be parked.

1
11. A ball is dropped from a height of 80 m. The elasticity of this ball is such that it
rebounds three-fourths of the distance it has fallen. How high does the ball rebound
on the fifth bounce? Find a formula for how high the ball rebounds on the nth
rebounce.
12. Write the following in terms of factorials:
(a) 24 23 22 21 (b) 42
1
(c)
10 11 12

13. Simplify:

(n + 1)! n!
(a) (b)
n! (n 2)!
(n 1)! (n r + 1)!
(c) (d)
(n + 2)! (n r 1)!

14. Evaluate:
(a) P (6, 2) (b) P (5, 4)
(c) C(10, 8) (d) C(17, 16).C(4, 3).3!

15.
(a) Find n if 2P (n, 2) + 50 = P (2n, 2) (b) Show that P (n, n 1) = P (n, n).

16. Write the expansion of each of the following


4 5
a 4a2
 
1 5
(a) 1+ (b) (a + b) (c) +
2 2 a

17. Write in simplified form only the indicated term


 x 1
(a) (1 + x)9 , term involving x5 (b) 2 2, 4th terms
2
 9
x 1
(c) (h + x)1 7, term involving h3 (d) + , the term involving x3
a x

18. Find the coefficient of the indicated term


 10
t 1
(a) + , term in t4 (b) (2 x)18 , 18th term.
2 2

19. Write down the constant term in the expansion of


 8  6
1 2 1
(a) x (b) 2x
x 2x

20. Expand the following as far as x3

(a) (1 x x2 )4 (b) (3 + x + x3 )4

2
21. Expand the following in ascending powers of x, as far as x3 and state the range of
values for which the expansion is valid.

1
(a) (b) 1 x2 (c) 2x
1 + 3x

3 3
(d) 3+x (e)
3
3 x3

22. Use the binomial theorem to find the value, correct to 4 decimal places, of

1 1
3
(a) (b) (c) 1.03
(1.02)2 0.98

23. Find the first 4 terms, in ascending powers of x, of the expansion

x+2 2x 3 x+3
(a) (b) (c)
(1 + x)2 x+2 3
1 3x

3
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
M1501 Problem set 10

1. Find an equation of a parabola satisfying the given conditions:


 
1 1
(a) Focus (4,0), directrix x = 4, (b) Focus 0, , directrix y = ,
4 4

(c) Focus ( 2, 0), directrix x = 2, (d) Focus (-2,3) , directrix y = 3.

2. Determine whether the equation represents an ellipse, a parabola, or a hyperbola.


If the graph is an ellipse, find the center, foci, vertices, and the lengths of the major
and minor axes. If it is a parabola, find the vertex, focus, and directrix. If it is a
hyperbola, find the center, foci, vertices, and asymptotes. Then sketch the graph of
the equation. If the equation has no graph, explain why.

(a) (x + 2)2 = 6(y 1), (b) y 2 = 4(x + 2y),


(c) 9x2 36x + 4y 2 = 0, (d) x2 4y 2 2x + 16y = 20,
(e) x2 + 6x + 12y + 9 = 0, (f) 2x2 + y 2 = 2y + 1,
(g) 16x2 9y 2 96x + 288 = 0, (h) 4x2 4x 8y + 9 = 0,
(i) x2 + 16 = 4(y 2 + 2x), (j) x2 y 2 = 10(x y) + 1.

3. Determine what the value of F must be if the graph of the equation

4x2 + y 2 + 4(x 2y) + F = 0


is
(a) an ellipse, (b) a single point, (c) the empty set.

4. Find an equation for the ellipse that shares a vertex and a focus with the parabola
x2 + y = 100 and has its other focus at the origin.
5. This exercise deals with confocal parabolas, that is, families of parabolas that
have the same focus.
(a) Draw graphs of the family of parabolas

x2 = 4p(y + p)
3 1 1 3
for p = 2, , 1, , , 1, , 2.
2 2 2 2
(b) Show that each parabola on this family has its focus at the origin.
(c) Describe the effect on the graph of moving the vertex closer to the origin.