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Contents

1.1 Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1.1 Set Builder Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1.2 Some Special Sets: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.1.3 Set Operations: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.1.4 Some properties of Set Operations: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.1.5 The Set of Real Numbers: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.1.6 Properties of the Real Numbers (operations: + and ) . . . . . . . 6

1.1.7 Properties of Equality of Real Numbers: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.1.8 Properties of Inequalities( <and >): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.2 Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.2.1 Logical Connectives: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.2.2 Equivalent Statements: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.2.3 Tautology and Contradiction: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.2.4 Mathematical Proofs: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2 Functions 20

2.1 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.1.1 Relation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.1.2 Domain and Codomain of a function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.1.3 Range of a function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.1.4 Evaluating functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.1.5 Operations on functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.1.6 Even and Odd functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.1.7 One to one function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.1.8 Onto function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.1.9 Inverse of a function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2.1.10 Piecewise function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.1.11 The absolute value function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.1.12 Some properties of the absolute value function: . . . . . . . . . . . 30

ii

3 Circular Functions 31

3.1 The Radian: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.2 Basic Circular Functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.2.1 The Sine Function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.2.2 The Cosine Function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.2.3 Range and Domain of Sine and Cosine functions: . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.2.4 The Other Circular Functions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4 Polynomial Functions 36

4.1 Algebra of Polynomials: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.2 Division and Factors: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4.2.1 Long Division: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4.2.2 Synthetic Division: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4.2.3 Remainder Theorem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.2.4 Factor Theorem: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

4.2.5 Rational zeros Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.1 Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5.1.1 Integral Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5.1.2 Rational Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5.1.3 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5.1.4 The Exponential Function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

5.2 Logarithmic Function: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

5.2.1 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

1

Chapter 1

1.1 Sets

The idea of a set is basic/fundamental to all mathematics.

Definition 1.1.1.

For our purpose here, we define a set as a collection of objects. The objects could be

numbers, names, letters of the alphabet etc. The objects in a set are called elements of

the set.

Notation:

We shall use capital letters to represent sets. When elements of a set have been listed we

enclose them in the braces { }. These braces are read as the set of .

1.1.0.1 Example

x belongs to S or S contains x or x is a member of S.

When an object y does not belong to S we write y 2 / S (read as y is not an element of S

or S does not contain y).

N.B. Given an object x and a set S either x 2 S or x 2 / S(but not both). When

there is ambiguity on whether x 2 S or x 2

/ S, then S is not well defined.

A set is sometimes defined through a known property of its elements. The property is

stated inside the braces { }.

1.1.1.1 Examples

(i) A={ The first five letters of the alphabet}, which means A is the set of the first five

letters of the alphabet .

2

student in M1501.

(iii) B={y : 0 < y < 10}, read as B is a set of numbers between 0 and 10.

N.B.

(1) The colon : is read as such that. A vertical line | is also used to mean such

that, for instance, in the examples above, we can write

B = {y| 0 < y < 10}, & S={x | x is a student in M1501}.

(2) Set A as given in the example above can be represented by listing the elements or

by set Builder Notation. Set B can be represented by set Builder Notation only, its

elements cannot be listed.

Definition 1.1.2.

(1) The set that contains no elements is called the empty set and is denoted by {} or ;.

The empty set is also called the null set.

(2) A set that has only one element is called the singleton e.g. X={ 3 }.

(4) We say that a set is an infinite set when it has infinite number of elements.

(5) For a finite set S, we define the cardinality of S as the number of elements that the

set contains. This is denoted by n(S) or |S|.

1.1.1.2 Examples

(4) M = {3, 6, 9, 12, . . . }, M has an infinite number of elements. Thus, M is an infinite set.

(5) B = {y

p : 0 < y < 10}. This set has an infinite number of elements e.g. 0.001, 0.001,

1.01, 2, 3/2, 9.9 etc. Hence B is an infinite set.

3

1.1.2.1 Subset:

Let A and B be any two sets. We say that A is a subset of B only when every element

of A is an element of B. We write A B.

e.g. if A = {a, b, c, d, e} and B = {a, b, c, . . . , x, y, z} then A B

{a, b} B, {a, b} A

B B and A A. Also, ; B and ; A.

N.B.

The empty set is a subset of a any set ( to be proved).

If A is a subset of B and further there is at least one element in B that is not an element

of A, then A is said to be a proper subset of B. We write A B to mean A is a proper

subset of B.

e.g. If A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {a, b, c, . . . , x, y.z} then A B since A B but x 2

/ A,

{a, e} A.

B is not a proper subset of B since all elements of B are in B.

Two sets A and B are equal if they are subsets of each other. i.e. A = B means A B

AND B A.

e.g. Given A = {a, b, c, d, e} and B ={the first 5 letters of the Alphabet}, then A = B.

When we are discussing sets which are all subsets of some other set U, then U is called the

universal set (for our discussion). Thus the universal set depends on the type of elements

being discussed.

1.1.2.5 Examples

Given the universal set U and the set A (which is a subset of U ) we define the complement

of A as the set of all elements in U which are not the elements of A, and we denote it by

4

A{ , A0 or A.

0

Thus, A = {x : x 2 U but x 2

/ A}.

1.1.2.7 Examples:

Let A and B be any two sets. Then we define the following operations.

A \ B = {x : x 2 A and x 2 B}

Definition 1.1.3.

If A \ B = ; then sets A and B are said to be disjoint.

A [ B = {x : x 2 A or x 2 B}

A B = {x : x 2 A and x 2 / B}.

A B = (A B) [ (B A).

A B = {(x, y) : x 2 A and y 2 B}

1.1.3.1 Examples

(a) If A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {0, 1}, then AB = {(a, 0), (a, 1), (b, 0), (b, 1), . . . , (d, 0), (d, 1)}.

(b) Cartesian Coordinates: If X = {x : x 2 R} and Y = {y : y 2 R} then

X Y = {(x, y) : x, y 2 R}, which is the set of points in the whole xy plane.

(1) Commutative laws:

(a) A \ B = B \ A, (b) A [ B = B [ A.

(a) A [ B [ C = A [ (B [ C) = (A [ B) [ C,

(b) A \ B \ C = A \ (B \ C) = (A \ B) \ C.

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(a) A [ (B \ C) = (A [ B) \ (A [ C),

(b) A \ (B [ C) = (A \ B) [ (A \ C).

(a) A [ ; = A, (b) A \ U = A.

(A{ ){ = A

(a) A \ A = A, (b) A [ A = A.

(a) A [ U = U , (b) A \ ; = ;.

(a) (A [ B){ = A{ \ B { ,

(b) (A \ B){ = A{ [ B { .

(a) A [ (A \ B) = A,

(b) A \ (A [ B) = A.

(a) U { = ;, (b) ;{ = U .

A B = A \ B{.

Most of our discussion in the chapters that follow will involve the numbers which are

elements of the set of real numbers. What are real numbers? To answer this question we

introduce the following sets.

N = {1, 2, 3, 4, . . . }

W = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . }

6

Z = {. . . , 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, . . . }

p

Q = {x : x = were p 2 Z, q 2 Z and q 6= 0} (there is a requirement that p and q

q

should be relatively prime.)

Q{ = {x : x 2/ Q}.

R = Q [ Q{

N.B.

NWZQR

Are there other sets of numbers (beyond R)? Yes! We are not yet ready to know it or

them now.

For any real numbers a, b, and c we have the following properties:

(i) a + b = b + a,

(ii) ab = ba.

(i) a + b + c = a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c,

(ii) abc = a(bc) = (ab)c.

a(b + c) = ab + bc.

(ii) 1 a = a one is the multiplicative identity.

For each a 2 R, there is unique real number a such that a + a = 0, a is called

the additive inverse.

7

1 1

For each nonzero real number a, there is a unique real number such that a = 1.

a a

1

This number is called the multiplicative inverse of a or reciprocal of a.

a

The properties of Real numbers which are stated above are called axioms. We also

have the following axiom.

(9) Trichotomy Axiom: Given any two real numbers x and y, then one of the following

statements is true ( and only one).

(i) x < y,

(ii) x > y,

(iii) x = y.

E1. Reflexive property: For any real number x, x = x.

Let x, y, z 2 R.

(b) If x > y, then x + z > y + z.

(b) If x > y, then xz > yz.

(b) If x > y, then xz < yz.

8

If xy > 0 then either (x > 0 and y > 0) or (x < 0 and y < 0).

(5) Negative Product:

If xy < 0 then either (x > 0 and y < 0) or (x < 0 and y > 0).

1.1.8.1 Exercises:

Solve

4x + 5

(3) 2x 5 > 25, (6) > 3.

x+2

1.2 Logic

We start by introducing the Language that we will use in this topic ( and here after).

A statement:

Definition 1.2.1.

A statement is a declarative sentence that can be classified as being true or false but not

both at the same time.

e.g.

(ii) 26 is an even number.

(iii) How old are you? question(interrogative).

(iv) Stand up (Command ! Imperative)

(v) I cant believe it! emotional !exclamatory

with letters.

1.2.0.2 Example:

p=it is hot

q = M1501 students do their work. If it is true that it is hot we say p is true ( or p

has the truth value T ); if it is not true that it is hot we say p is false ( or p has the

truth value F ).

9

A statement containing the phrase for all is called a universal proposition. We denote

for all with 8.

1.2.0.5 Examples:

1.2.0.6 Exercise:

Which of the following mathematical sentences are statements and for those that are

statements what is the truth value?

p

(1) Is it true that 4= 2?

2 9

(2) Multiply the numbers and .

3 10

22

(3) 6= .

7

p

(4) ( 2)2 = 2.

(6) x2 3x + 2 = 0.

x2

(7) 9x 2 R such that = x.

x

p

(8) 1.414 = 2.

write 9 to mean there exists. e.g.

10

is true, and true when p is false.

p is read as not p

( Teboho is a boy)= Teboho is not a boy.

( 5 is a negative number)=5 is non-negative.

N.B.

p p

T F

F T

(9x 2 R such that x + 1 = 0) is 8x 2 R, x + 1 6= 0.

The negation of 9 is 8

The negation of = is 6=

The negation of > is

The negation of is <

N.B.

When we negate statements the mathematical symbols change as follows:

9 becomes 8

8 becomes 9

= becomes 6=

> becomes

becomes <

becomes >

< becomes

1.2.0.9 Exercise:

(2) 9x 2 R, such that x2 < 0.

(3) 8n 2 Z, n2 + 1 0.

11

(5) Integers are even numbers

(6) 8x 2 R, x2 3x 4 > 0.

(B) For the statements in (A) above and their negations find the truth values.

(1) Conjunction:

The conjunction of two statements p and q is a new statement p AND q denoted

by p ^ q which is true if both p and q are true, false otherwise.

p q p^q

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F F

The disjunction of two statements p and q is a statement p or q denoted by p _ q

which is false only when both p and q are false , but true otherwise.

p q p_q

T T T

T F T

F T T

F F F

The exclusive or of p and q, written p q is a statement that is true only when one

of p and q is true but not both.

(4) Implication:

The sentence if p then q is a new proposition which is false if p is true and q is false,

but true otherwise.

12

Notation:

p ) q read as p implies q

p q p)q

T T T

T F F

F T T

F F T

conclusion.

1.2.1.1 Examples:

(ii) x = 4 ) x2 = 16 (True).

(iii) x2 = 16 ) x = 4 (False).

For two statements p and q, p , q is a new statement which is false when p and q

have dierent truth values, but true otherwise.

p q p,q

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F T

e.g.

False.

(ii) x + 2 = 6 , 2x = 8 (True).

13

Two statements are logically identical if and only if they have identical truth tables. we

write r t to mean statement r is equivalent to statement t.

1.2.2.1 Examples:

Proof:

p p (p)

T F T

F T F

The first and last column have the same truth values. Hence, two statement are

equivalent.

(2) Show that (p ) q) (p _ q)

Proof:

p q p)q p p _ q

T T T F T

T F F F F

F T T T T

F F T T T

Since the third column and the Last column have the same truth values the two

statements are equivalent.

1.2.2.2 Exercise:

(1) (p ) q) (p ) q).

(2) (p ^ q) p ^ q.

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(3) (p ) q) p ^ q.

(4) (p , q) (p ) q) ^ (q ) p).

A statement whose truth value is TRUE all the time (i.e. for all possible combinations)

is called a tautology.

A statement whose truth value is FALSE all the time is called a contradiction.

1.2.3.1 Examples:

p p p ^ p p _ p

T F F T

F T F T

Thus p ^ p is a contradiction

p _ p is a tautology.

r ^ r = It is raining AND it is not raining (contradiction).

r _ r = It is raining OR it is not raining(tautology).

Proof: we need to show that

(ii) A0 \ B 0 (A [ B)0

)x2 / A[B

)x2 / A AND x 2 /B

) x 2 A AND x 2 B 0

0

) x 2 A0 \ B 0

Thus x 2 (A [ B)0 ) x 2 A0 \ B 0

Hence (A [ B)0 A0 \ B 0 .

15

(ii) Let x 2 A0 \ B 0

) x 2 A0 AND x 2 B 0

)x2 / A AND x 2 /B

)x2 / A[B

) x 2 (A [ B)0

Thus x 2 A0 \ B 0 ) x 2 (A [ B)0

Hence A0 \ B 0 (A [ B)0 .

From (i) and (ii) above (A [ B)0 = A0 \ B 0 .

A mathematical proof of a statement is a logical argument that establishes the truth value

of a statement based upon already accepted statements. Accepted statements are axioms.

laws, facts and proved results.

1.2.4.1 Examples:

facts: When x = 2, x2 + 2x + 2 = 9 (by subset).

results which have been proven: (p ) q) (p ) q) (proved using truth tables.)

An argument is a claim that if a given assumption is true then the conclusion is also

true.

1.2.4.2 Example:

To show that a statement is false it is enough to give a counter example. More specially

to prove that p ) q is false we use the fact that p ) q is false when T ) F. Thus we

pick an example such that p is true but q is false.

1.2.4.3 Examples:

p

(1) 8x 2 R, x2 = x

Counter example :

2 2

Let x =p 2 then

p x = ( 2) = 4

Hencep x2 = 4 = 2. But 2 6= 2.

Thus x2 = x is falsep when x = 2.

Therefore, 8x 2 R, x2 = x is false.

Here we let p n is an integer

16

q n2 is even .

We want to show that If p then q is false i.e. to show that p ) q is false.

Counter example:

Let x = 3 then p is true but n2 = 32 = 9 which is odd

) q is false.

Thus p ) q is false.

In other words its false that a square of any integer is even.

(3) 8n 2 Z, n2 + 2n + 3 > 6.

Counter example:

n = 0, 1 etc but one is sufficient.

To show that a mathematical statement is true is a bit more involving. There are several

ways of achieving this.

A statement in the form

9x 2 D such that p is true if, and only if, q is true for at least one x in D. One

way to prove this is to find x in D that makes q true. Another way is to give a

set of directions for finding such an x.

(b) Method of Exhaustion:

Use the method of exhaustion to prove that the following statement:

8n 2 Z, if n is even and 4 n 18, then n can be written as a sum of two prime

numbers.

Proof:

12 = 5 + 7 14 = 11 + 3 16=5+11 18=7+11

(c) Proving the statement: 8x 2 D, If p thenq (if its difficult to exhaust the elements

of D)

we assume that the hypothesis is true then establish that the conclusion is true.

To prove that p ) q we assume that p is true, then build up an argument that

leads us to q is true.

1.2.4.4 Examples:

17

hypothesis p n is odd

conclusion q n2 is odd .

We want to show that p ) q.

Assume that p is true i.e. n is odd

) n = 2k + 1 where k 2 Z (by definition of odd)

) n2 = (2k + 1)2 (squaring both sides)

) n2 = 4k 2 + 4k + 1

) n2 = 2(2k 2 + 2k) + 1 (by distributive property)

) n2 = 2m + 1 where m = 2k 2 + 2k 2 Z

) n2 is odd.

(b) Show that x = 5 ) x2 + 3 = 28.

Proof:

Assumption p (x = 5)

Conclusion q (x2 + 3 = 28)

Suppose p is true i.e. x = 5 then x2 = (5)2 = 25 (by definition)

) x2 + 3 = 25 + 3 (by property of = sign)

) x2 + 3 = 28 (adding 25+3, fact)

Thus q is true

) p)q

Therefore x = 5 ) x2 + 3 = 28.

(c) Show that x2 + 6x + 9 = 0 ) x = 3

Proof:

Assumption p (x2 + 6x + 9 = 0)

Conclusion q (x = 3)

Suppose p is true i.e. x2 + 6x + 9 = 0 is true

) (x + 3)(x + 3) = 0 (by factoring)

) x + 3 = 0 or x + 3 = 0 (zero product)

) x + 3 = 0 (since r _ r r)

) x + 3 + 3 = 0 + 3 (property of =)

) x + 0 = 0 + 3 (additive inverse )

) x = 3 (identity)

Thus q is true

Hence p ) q i.e. x2 + 6x + 9 = 0 ) x = 3.

(d) Prove that there exists an even integer n that can be written in two ways as a

sum of two prime numbers

Proof:

Let n = 10 then 10=5+5=3+7 and 3, 5, and 7 are all prime numbers.

(ii) The inverse of p ) q is p ) q.

(iii) The contrapositive of p ) q is q ) p.

18

1.2.4.5 Examples:

(i) p ) q,

(ii) q ) p,

(iii) p ) q,

(iv) q ) p,

(v) p , q,

(vi) p _ q,

(vii) (p ^ q).

1.2.4.6 Exercise:

p ) q, q ) p.

Express the statement to be proved in the form :8x 2 D, if p then q.

Rewrite this statement in the contrapositive form : 8x 2 D, if q then p.

Prove the contrapositive by direct method.

Therefore, to prove that p ) q it is sufficient to prove q ) p since they are

identical.

1.2.4.7 Example:

Proof:

Let p = n2 is even, and q =n is even.

Suppose q i.e. n is not even ) n is odd.

) n = 2k + 1

) n2 = (2k + 1)2

) n2 = 4k 2 + 4k + 1 = 2m + 1, where k, m = 2k 2 + 2k 2 Z

) n2 is odd.

) n is not even ) n2 is not even

Hence, n2 is even ) n is even

(b) Proof by Contradiction:

Suppose the statement to be proved is false. i.e., suppose that the negation of

the statement is true.

Show that this supposition leads logically to a contradiction.

Conclude that the statement to be proved is true.

19

1.2.4.8 Example:

Proof:

Let p = n is odd integer and q = 3n 11 is even.

Suppose p ^ q (Remember (p ) q)=p ^ q)

) n is odd and 3n 11 is not even

) n is odd and 3n 11 is odd.

n = 2k + 1

) 3n 11 = 3(2k + 1) 11 = 2(3k 4)

) 3n 11 is even, which is a contradiction(check our supposition)

1.2.4.9 Exercise:

Prove that:

(i) there is no integer that is both even and odd

(ii) the sum of a natural number and irrational number is irrational.

Another method of proof which is used to prove open statement S(n) when n is a

natural number is called Mathematical Induction. The procedure for mathematical

induction is as follows:

Given the statement S(n).

(b) Assume that the statement S(n) is true for another number k m.

(c) Then prove that the statement S(n) is true for n = k + 1

Conclusion: If S(m) is true and S(k + 1) is true when S(k) is true then S(n) is

true for all n m.

1.2.4.10 Examples:

n(n + 1)

(2) The sum of the first n natural numbers is .

2

(3) 8n 0, 22n 1 is divisible by 3.

20

Chapter 2

Functions

2.1 Functions

In the previous chapter we introduced sets and logic. Another important concept in Math-

ematics and other Sciences is the theory of functions. A function is a special relation.

What is a relation (in Mathematics)?

2.1.1 Relation:

Definition 2.1.1.

A relation is a rule that tells us how to pair elements of two sets.

Recall: The Cartesian product of two sets A and B is AB = {(x, y) : x 2 A and y 2 B}.

This is an ordered pair, that is, the order in which the elements are listed is important.

Now, any subset S of A B is a relation.

2.1.1.1 Examples:

(1) Let A = {x, y} and B = {1, 2, 3}. Then AB = {(x, 1), (x, 2), (x, 3), (y, 1), (y, 2), (y, 3)}.

Some relations of A B are: {(x, 1)}, {(x, 2), (y, 2)}, and {(x, 1), (x, 2), (y, 2)}.

Functions:

Definition 2.1.2.

A function is a special relation. Given two non-empty sets A and B, a function from A

to B is a rule that assigns each element of A (say x 2 A) to a unique element of B (say

y 2 B). We write f : A ! B to mean that f is a function from set A to set B.

Notation:

When x 2 A and y 2 B such that (x, y) by the function, it is denoted by y = f (x), which

21

called the independent variable and y 2 B is the dependent variable; y depends on x.

2.1.1.2 Example:

The definition of a function requires that we should have two non-empty sets A and B.

When the function is defined from A to B (i.e. f : A ! B) the set A is called the

domain of the function and the set B is the codomain of the function.

2.1.2.1 Examples:

(1) This is a function since all elements in A have been assigned unique partners in B.

(3) Set B is the codomain, y is the dependent variable. N.B. Some y 2 B have not been

assigned to x 2 A, but this does not violate the definition of a function.

If f : A ! B the set of all y 2 B which have been assigned to x 2 A is called the range

of f (x). The range of a function is the set of all possible images of f (x) (by the images we

mean all y 2 B which have been assigned). Thus the range is a subset of the codomain.

2.1.3.1 Examples:

p

(1) f (x) = x: Domain = {x : x 0} or range = {y : y 0}

1

(2) f (x) = p : Domain = {x : x < 1} or range = {y : y > 0}

1 x

1

(3) f (x) = : Domain = {x : 1 < x < 1} or range = {y : y > 0}

x2 1

(4) f (x) = 1 + x2 : Domain = {x : x 2 R} or range = {y : y 1}

domain = A, codomain = B, range = y : 0 y 4 (these are possible outputs of

y = x2 , x 2 A).

22

Formally, when a function is defined the domain and codomain should be specified. Some-

times these are omitted. When domain or range is not specified:

(1) The domain is the set of all real numbers for which the function makes sense. By

making sense here we mean that the function is valid mathematically. We , therefore,

avoid division by zero and evaluation of even roots of negative numbers.

2.1.3.2 Examples:

1

(2) f (x) = : domain = {x : x 6= 0} and range = {y : y 6= 0}

x

Definition 2.1.3.

Let A and B be two non-empty sets. A function from A to B is a relation that pairs each

element of A to exactly one element of B. The set A is called the domain of the function

and B is the codomain of the function. For each element x 2 A, the corresponding element

y 2 B is called the value of the function at x, or the image of x. The set of all images of

the elements in the domain is called the range of the function. Since there might be y 2 B

that are not images of some x 2 A, the range B.

For the function defined by f (x) = 2x2 3x. Evaluate:

(1) f (3)

(3) f (x2 )

(5) f (x + h)

f (x + h) f (x)

(6) , when h 6= 0 (simplify).

h

Find the domain of the following function

3x

(1) f (x) =

x2 4

p

(2) h(t) = 4 9t

p

3x + 12

(3) g(x) =

x 5

23

(1) Sum: The sum of two functions f and g is a new function defined by

(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x).

The domain of f + g = domain of f \ domain of g.

2.1.5.1 Examples:

1

(1) Let f (x) = x2 + 3, domain of f (x) = R, and g(x) = , domain of

x

2 1

g(x) = {x : x 6= 0}. Then (f + g)(x) = x + 3 + , domain of (f + g)(x) = {x :

x

x 6= 0}.

p 1

(2) f (x) = x and g(x) = . Find (f + g)(x) and the domain of f (x), g(x), and

x

(f + g)(x).

(2) Dierence:

The dierence of two functions f and g is defined as

(f g)(x) = f (x) g(x).

The domain of f g = domain of f \ domain of g.

2.1.5.2 Example:

1

Let f (x) = x2 + 3, domain of f (x) = R, and g(x) = 3 + , domain of g(x) = {x :

x 1

1

x 6= 1}. Then (f g)(x) = x2 , domain of (f g)(x) = {x : x 6= 1}.

x 1

(3) Product:

The product of f (x) and g(x) is defined by

(f g)(x) = f (x)g(x).

Its domain = domain of f \ domain of g.

2.1.5.3 Example:

1

Let f (x) = x2 + 3, domain of f (x) = R, and g(x) = 3 + , domain of g(x) = {x :

x 1

x2 + 3

x 6= 1}. Then (f g)(x) = , domain of (f g)(x) = {x : x 6= 1}.

x 1

(4) Quotient:

The quotient of f and g is given as

f f (x)

(x) = , g(x) 6= 0.

g g(x)

f (x)

Then the domain of = {x : g(x) 6= 0} \ domain of f \ domain of g.

g(x)

24

2.1.5.4 Example:

f

If f (x) = x + 9, domain = R, and g(x) = x

2 2

4, domain = R. Then (x) =

g

x2 + 9

, domain = {x : x2 4 6= 0} = {x : x 6= 2 and x 6= 2}

x2 4

Given two functions f and g, the composite function of f and g is defined as

(f g)(x) = f (g(x)).

of f and g. The domain of (f g) is the set of all x in the domain of g such that g(x)

is in the domain of f . In other words (f g) is defined whenever g and (f g) are

defined.

2.1.5.5 Examples:

1

(a) If f (x) = x2 + 3 and g(x) = ,

x

2

1 1 1

then (f g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f = +3 = x2

+ 3, domain = {x : x 6= 0}

x x

2.1.5.6 Exercise:

1

(b) Let f (x) = , domain = {x : x 6= 1} and g(x) = x2 , domain = {x : x 2 R}.

x 1

1

Then (f g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f (x2 ) = 2 ,

x 1

domain = {x : x2 6= 1} = {x : x 6= 1 and x 6= 1}

2.1.5.7 Exercise:

1

(c) Let f (x) = , domain = {x : x 6= 1} and g(x) = x2 , domain = R.

x+1

1

Then (f g)(x) = f (x2 ) = 2 , domain = R, and

x +1

1 1

(g f )(x) = g(f (x)) = g( )= , domain = {x : x 6= 1}

x+1 (x + 1)2

When we have the composite function (f g)(x) = f (g(x)), g(x) is called the inner

function and f (x) is the outer function.

25

2.1.5.8 Exercise:

For each of the following functions identify the inner function and the outer function.

p

(a) h(x) = 1 + x2

1

(b) f (x) =

1+x

(c) g(x) = x2 + 2x + 1

Given a function f (x), we say that

2.1.6.1 Examples:

x2 2x + 1 is neither even nor odd.

Let A and B be two non-empty sets. If f (x) is a relation such that each element of A is

paired with exactly one element of B; and no two elements of A have the same image,

then f (x) is said to be one to one (1 1).

2.1.7.1 Examples:

1. A = {x : x 2 R} and B = {y : y 0}

f (x) = x2 is not 1 1 since f ( 2) = f (2) = 4. There are many counter examples.

2. A = {x : x 0} and B = {y : y 0}

f (x) = x2 is 1 1 since there are no two elements of A which share an image.

3. A = {x : x 2 R} and B = {y : y 2 R}

f (x) = 2x + 3 is 1 1 since there are no two elements of A which share a partner.

26

f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) =) x1 = x2 .

2.1.7.2 Examples:

(b) f (x) = x 3

A = {x : x 0}, B = {y : y 2 R}

Solutions:

(a) To show that f (x) = 2x + 3is 1 1, we need to show that f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) =) x1 = x2 .

Suppose that f (x1 ) = f (x2 )

=) 2x1 + 3 = 2x2 + 3

=) 2x1 = 2x2

=) x1 = x2 .

Thus f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) =) x1 = x2 . Therefore f (x) = 2x + 3 is 1 1.

Suppose that f (x1 ) = f (x2 )

=) x31 = x32

=) x1 = x2

) f (x) is 1 1.

=) x21 = x22

=) x21 x22 = 0

=) (x1 x2 )(x1 + x2 ) = 0

=) x1 x2 = 0 or x1 + x2 = 0

=) x1 = x2 or x1 = x2

Thus f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) =) x1 = x2 or x1 = x2 . f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) leads us to two

possibilities. Hence f (x) = x2 is not 1 1.

f (x1 ) = f (x2 )

=) x21 x22 = 0

=) (x1 x2 )(x1 + x= 0

=) x1 x2 = 0 or x1 + x2 = 0

=) x1 = x2 or x1 = x2

=) x1 = x2 since x 0.

) f (x) = x2 is 1 1 when domain = {x : x 0}

27

Given a function f : A ! B. We say that f (x) is onto B if and only if the range of

f (x) = B. That is a function is onto a set B if and only if all the elements of B are

images of elements in the domain A.

2.1.8.1 Examples:

1. A = {x : x 2 R}

B = {y : y 2 R}

f : A ! B defined as f (x) = x2 .

f (x) = x2 is not onto B since 9y 2 B which are not images of x 2 A. Example:

y = 4. There is no x 2 A such that x2 = 4. But 4 2 B. Hence f (x) = x2 is

not onto B.

2. A = {x : x 2 R}

B = {y : y 0}

f : A ! B given as f (x) = x2 . Here f (x) = x2 is onto B since all elements of

B are images of some x 2 A) (Range=Codomain). Here y 2 B can be written as

p

y = x2 =) x = y. Since y 0 this equation holds for any y 2 B.

Given y = f (x), we make x the subject of the equation, then check whether B is the

domain of g(y).

2.1.8.2 Examples:

p

1. f (x) = x2 , where A = {x : x 2 R} and B = {y : y 2 R}. Let y = x2 =) x = y.

p

Thus g(y) = y. The domain of the relation g(y) = {y : y 0} = 6 B. Therefore

the function f (x) = x is not onto B, where A = {x : x 2 R} and B = {y : y 2 R}.

2

This is because some elements in B (for instance, y = 9) are not in the domain of

g(x). Hence f (x) = x2 is not onto B.

2. A = {x : x 2 R}, B = {y : y 0}

p

f : A ! B given as f (x) = x2 . Here f (x) = x2 = y =) x = y = h(y). The

relation h(y) has domain = {y : y 0} which is the same as B. Thus f (x) = x2 is

onto.

y 1

3. f (x) = 2x + 1, domain = R and range = R. Let y = 2x + 1 =) x = = h(y).

2

The domain of h(y) = R = B = range of f (x). Therefore f (x) = 2x + 1 is onto

B = R.

4. f (x) = x2

p p

A = {x : x 0}, B = {y : y 0}. Let y = x2 =) x = y =) x = y = h(y).

2

The domain of h(y) = {y : y 0} = B. Therefore f (x) = x is onto B.

28

N.B.

A function which is onto the set of Real numbers R is said to be onto function.

Suppose that f (x) is a function defined from set A to set B. If f (x) is 1 1 and onto,

then there exists another function say g(x) such that

The function g(x) is called the inverse of f (x); and f (x) is also the inverse of g(x). We

have the following notation:

1

inverse of f (x) f (x)

inverse of g(x) g 1 (x)

1

Hence f (g(x)) = g(f (x)) = x , f (x) = g(x) and g 1 (x) = f (x).

Given a function f (x), which is 1 1 and onto, the following steps are usually followed

when computing the inverse.

1. Let y = f (x)

3. interchange x and y

1

4. then f (x) = y

2.1.9.1 Examples:

find the inverse we let

y = x2

p

=) x = y

p p

=) x = y, since x = 0 we discard x = y.

p 1

p

Interchanging x and y gives y = x =) f (x) = x

2.1.9.2 Exercise:

1 1

check by finding f (f (x)) and f (f (x)) in (1) above.

let y = x3 =) x = y 1/3 . Interchanging x and y we get y = x1/3 =) f 1

(x) = x1/3 .

29

2.1.9.3 Exercise:

1 1

check by finding f (f (x)) and f (f (x)) in (2) above.

is a piecewise function.

2.1.10.1 Examples:

1. f : A ! B such that A = R

B=R

f (x) = x2 for x < 0 and f (x) = x 1 for x 0. Then we write

(

x2 if x < 0

f (x) =

x 1 if x 0

2. f : R ! R

8

>

< 2x if x < 2

f (x) = x2 if 2x2

>

:

2x if x > 2

(

x a if x a

f (x a) = |x a| =

a x if x < a

This function measures the distance of x from fixed point a. (on the number line)

2.1.11.1 Example:

(

x if x 0

|x| =

x if x < 0

This is the distance of x from the origin.

30

Suppose x 2 R and a and b are fixed positive Real numbers.

(iii) If |x a| = b then x a = b or x a= b

p

(iv) x2 = |x|2 and x2 = |x|

31

Chapter 3

Circular Functions

In this chapter we study functions whose independent variable is the angle measured from

a circle with radius r. Let us start by introducing the unit that will be used to measure

the angles (instead of degrees).

Consider an arc AB of a circle of radius r such that its length is r. Then the angle be-

tween OA and OB (i.e. AOB) measured anti-clockwise is called one radian = 1 rad= 1c =1.

In this course we will use radians to measure angles. The total length of the circle,

the circumference, C = 2r. How many r are in C?

C 2r

= = 2.

r r

Thus there are 2 arcs of length r around a circle. Hence a complete revolution is 2

radians. But a complete revolution is 360 . Hence

2 rad= 360

360 180

) 1 rad= =

2

or

360

1 = rad= rad

2 180

We use the above results to convert between the two units.

Some Common Angles:

0

4

3

90

4

135

2

3

180

2

225

6

32

figure?

If we are given , we can find the length of the arc. We note that for 2 the length

of the arc is 2r, so for radians the length is .(2r) = r.

2

On a circle of radius r the angle is associated to a unique point. Let us find these

points for some values of .

Table?

Thus given a point (x, y) on a circle of radius r we can find an angle measured from the

centre of the circle.

Points on a Circle:

Consider a point (x, y) on a circle

p of radius r. To say that (x, y) is on this circle it

means that (x, y) satisfies r = x 2 + y 2 , that is, the distance of (x, y) from the centre is

p

r = x2 + y 2 .

Now that we can relate the angle with the coordinates (x, y) on the circle, let us define

functions that relate the coordinates and the angles.

y y

sin() = =p

r x + y2

2

where is the angle measured from the positive x axis in the clockwise direction.

3.2.1.1 Example

r

sin = =1

2 r p

r2 / 2 1

sin = =p

4 r 2

r/2 1

sin = =

6 r 2

0

sin () = = 0 etc

r

33

If (x, y) is a point on a circle of radius r then the cosine function is defined as

x x

cos() = =p

r x2 + y 2

3.2.2.1 Example

0

cos =

=0

2 r

r/p2 1

cos = =0= p

4 r p 2

p3r/2 3

cos = =

6 r 2

We have the following standard results:

0

6 4 p3 2

1 1 3

sin() 0 p 1

p2 2 2

3 1 1

cos() 1 p 0

2 2 2

Given any point (a, b) on the circle of radius r and the angle, , which is the angle

measured from the positive x axis to the point (a, b), then

b

sin() =

r

a a

cos() = or

r r

b

sin( ) =

r

a a

cos( ) = or

r r

) sin( ) = sin() and cos( ) = cos() on R.

Hence Sine function is odd and Cosine function is even on R.

The domain of the Sine and Cosine functions is

D = { : 2 R}.

Also, for we know another +2n such that cos = cos(+2n) and sin = sin(+2n).

This also means that cos() and sin() are not 1-1 on D.

y x

From the definitions sin() = and cos() = we get y = r sin() and x = r cos().

r r

Since (x, y) is on the circle of radius r we also have

34

x2 + y 2 = r 2

) (r cos )2 + (r sin )2 = r2

) r2 (cos )2 + r2 (sin )2 = r2

) cos2 + sin2 = 1, with r 6= 0.

This is a very important result( an identity). From this identity we notice that

sin2 1

1 sin 1

Thus the range of sin = {! : 1 ! 1}.

Similarly, the range of cos = {! : 1 ! 1} .

in its domain and a fixed non-zero number w. The smallest such a positive constant w is

called the period of f (x).

N.B.

sin() = sin( + 2)

cos() = cos( + 2)

2 rad. is a complete revolution hence when a point is rotated from the x axis by the

+ 2 rad. it ends up at the same point as rotation by .

Thus sin() and cos() are periodic with period 2.

Hence,

sin = sin 2 + = sin 4 + etc.

4 4 4

sin = sin 2 = sin 4 etc.

4 4 4

cos = cos 2 + = cos 4 + etc.

4 4 4

cos = cos 2 = cos 4 etc.

4 4 4

We are now ready to define the other circular functions as:

y sin()

tan() = =

x cos()

period=

domain={ : x 6= 0}

range ={! : ! 6= 0}

r 1

csc() = =

y sin

domain={ : y 6= 0}

35

range ={! : ! 6= 0}

period=2

r 1

sec() = =

x cos

domain={ : x 6= 0}

range ={! : ! 6= 0}

period=2

x 1

sec() = =

y tan

domain={ : y 6= 0}

range

period=

0 p0 u 1 u

3 2 p

2 p 3

6 3

p p3

1 2 2 1

4

p 2 1

3 p 2 p

3 3 3

u 1 u 0

2

36

Chapter 4

Polynomial Functions

f (x) = an xn + an 1 xn 1

+ an 2 x n 2

+ + a1 x + a0 ,

where the coefficients an , an 1 , an 2 , . . . , a1 , a0 are real numbers and the exponents are

whole numbers.

The first non-zero coefficient, an , is called the leading coefficient. The term xn xn is called

the leading term. The degree of the polynomial function is n.

A number c is called the zero or root of a polynomial if and only if f (c) = 0.

Multiplicity is the number of times a particular number is a zero for a given polynomial.

Example:

In the polynomial f (x) = (x 1)4 (x + 8)2 (x 5), the zero 1 has multiplicity 4, -8 has

multiplicity 2 and 5 has multiplicity 1.

Some examples of Polynomials are:

Constant 0 f (x) = a0 f (x) = 3

Linear 1 f (x) = a0 + a1 x f (x) = 1.5x + 1

Quadratic 2 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 f (x) = 2x2 x + 3

Cubic 3 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 f (x) = x3 1

Quartic 4 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 f (x) = x4 + 0.6x2 + 1.7x 5

(1) Addition and Subtraction:

To add/subtract two polynomial functions we add/subtract the corresponding coeffi-

cients of the powers of x.

(2) Multiplication:

To multiply two polynomials we use the distributive law and then collect like terms

(powers of x).

(3) Division:

Let f (x) and g(x) be polynomials of degree n and m respectively, where n > m. Then

f (x) r(x)

= q(x) +

g(x) g(x)

37

where, q(x) is called the quotient, r(x) is called the remainder and g(x) is called the

divisor.

When we divide one polynomial by another, we obtain a quotient and a remainder. If the

remainder is 0, then divisor is a factor of the dividend. We use the following methods to

divide the polynomials:

Constant 0 f (x) = a0 f (x) = 3

Linear 1 f (x) = a0 + a1 x f (x) = 1.5x + 1

Quadratic 2 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 f (x) = 2x2 x + 3

Cubic 3 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 f (x) = x3 1

Quartic 4 f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 f (x) = x4 + 0.6x2 + 1.7x 5

We have seen how we can divide polynomials using long division. In this section we

introduce a method called synthetic division.

Example:

x3 + 4x2 + 3x 2

Let us work out

x 3

We draw a table of the form.

1 4 3 -2

+3

The first row consists of the coefficients x3 + 4x2 + 3x 2 taken in descending order

from left to right while the first column consists taken +3 from x 3.

Then we fill the table follows:

38

1 4 3 -2

+3 3 21 72

1 7 4

2!

3! 3! 3

1 7 24 70

!

!

1x2 7x1 24x0 70(rem)

quotient

x3 + 4x2 + 3x 2 z }| { 70

) = x2 + 7x + 24 + , the remainder is 70.

x 3 x 3

4.2.2.1 Exercise:

Now we are ready to give the generalization for the polynomial of 4th order being

divided by the linear function of the form p(x) = x k. Suppose that we want to

divide f (x) = a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 by x k. Then

a4 a3 a2 a1 a0

k kq4 kq3 kq2 kq1

! ! ! !

q 4 = a4 q3 = a3 + kq4 q2 = a2 + kq3 q1 = a1 + kq2 q0 = a0 + kq1

!

a4 x 3 q3 x 2 q2 x 1 q1 x 0 q0 (rem)

quotient

a4 x 4 + a3 x 3 + a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0 z }| { q0

) 3 2 1

= a4 x + q 3 x + q 2 x + q 1 + , the remainder

x k x k

is q0

Now we consider division with a quadratic polynomial.

Example:

3x4 8x3 + 4x + 5

Let us work out

x2 4x + 4

Just like for the linear polynomial case we draw the following table:

39

N,B.: We expect the degree of the quotient to be n = 2 and the remainder to have

a linear form: tx + l.

3 8 0 4 5

-4 -12 -16 -16

3 4 4

4 ! 4 ! 4 !

4 12 16 16

3 4 4

4 ! 4 ! 4 !

3 4 4 4 -11

!

!

3x2 4x1 4x0 4x1 (rem) 11x0 (rem)

quotient

3x4 8x3 + 4x + 5 z 2 }| { 4x 11

) = 3x + 4x + 4 + , the remainder is 4x 11.

x2 4x + 4 x2 4x + 4

Again we give a generalization for the polynomial of degree 4 being divided by the

quadratic polynomial. Suppose we want to divide a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 by

x2 b1 x b0 . Then we have :

a4 a3 a2 a1 a0

b0 b 0 q2 b 0 q1 b 0 q0

! ! !

b1 b 1 q2 b 1 q1 b 1 q0

! ! !

q 2 = a4 q 1 = a3 + b 1 q 2 q 0 = a2 + b 0 q 2 + b 1 q 1 r 1 = a1 + b 0 q 1 + b 1 q 0 r 0 = q0 + b 0 q0

!

q2 x 2 q1 x 1 q0 x 0 r1 x1 (rem) r0 x0 (rem)

quotient

a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 z 2 }| { r1 x + r0

) 2

= q 2 x + q1 x + q0 + 2 ,

x b1 x b0 x b1 x b0

the remainder is r1 x + r0 .

If a number c is substituted for x in the polynomial f (x), then the result f (c) is the remain-

der that would be obtained by dividing f (x) by x c. That is , if f (x) = (x c)Q(x)+R,

then f (c) = R.

40

Proof:

If we divide f (x) by x c, we obtain a quotient Q(x) and a remainder R(x) related as

follows:

) f (c) = (c c) Q(c) + R

) f (c) = 0 Q(c) + R

) f (c) = R

Thus the function value f (c) is the remainder obtained when we divide f (x) by x c.

4.2.3.1 Example:

Answer

Here f (x) = 4x3 3x2 + x + 7 and c = 2

) f (c) = 4(c)3 3(c)2 + (c) + 7 = 29

Therefore, the remainder is 29.

Given a polynomial function

f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn

Proof:

Suppose x = a is a zero of f (x)

) f (a) = 0, by definition of a zero.

) The remainder when f (x) is divided by x a is f (a) = 0 by the remainder theorem.

) x a is a factor (by definition of a factor).

Suppose x a is a factor of f (x).

) f (x) = (x a)q(x)

) f (a) = (a a)q(a) = 0

) x = a is a zero of f (x) (by definition of a zero).

x = a is a factor of f (x) if and only if x a is a factor of f (x).

41

Let

P (x) = an xn + an 1 xn 1

+ + a1 x + a0 ,

p

where all the coefficients are integers. Consider a rational number denoted by , where

q

p

p and q are relatively prime. If is a zero of P (x) , then p is a factor of a0 and q is a

q

factor of an .

Proof:

( To be given as the course progresses)

42

Chapter 5

Logarithmic Function

5.1 Exponents

(1) an = a a a a

(2) an am = an+m

an

(3) = an m

am

(4) (an )m = anm

p

A number x is said to be an nth root of b if xn = b. The symbol n b denotes the nth root

p

of b and symbol n is sometimes referred to as radical, and the expression under it as

radicand. The number n is called the index. Theppositive p root(for an even n) is called

4

the principal root. When an expression such as 16 or 8 is used, it is understood to

represent the principal (nonnegative) root.

5.1.3 Properties

Let x and y be any real numbers or expressions for which the given roots exist. For any

natural numbers m and n (n 6= 1):

p

n

(1) If n is even, then xn = |x|.

p

(2) If n is odd, then n xn = x.

p p p

(3) n x n y = n xy.

r p

x n

x

(4) n = p , (y 6= 0).

y n y

p p

(5) n xm = m xn .

43

We have already learned exponents and their properties. Now if f (x) = ax where a > 0

and a 6= 1 , then f (x) is called the exponential function, a is the base of f (x).

5.1.4.1 Examples:

(a) f (x) = 3x

f (2) = 32 = 9

f (0) = 30 = 1

(b) g(x) = x

f (3) = 3

(c) h(x) = ex

h(0) = e0 = 1

h(2) = e2

We now define another function y = f (x) as

y = loga x i x = ay .

f (x) = loga (x) is called the Logarithmic function, in short the log function. a > 0 is the

base of the log function.

5.2.1 Properties

(i) loga (xy) = loga (x) + loga (y)

x

(ii) loga = loga (x) loga (y)

y

(iii) loga (xn ) = n loga (x)

loga (x)

(iv) Change of Base: logb (x) =

loga (b)

(v) loga (a) = 1.

Problem Set 1

(b) B = {x R : x3 = x}

(c) C = {n Z : 4 < n 4} (e) E = {x R : x2 + 5 = 0}

{x S : P (x)}, where P (x) is some open sentence involving elements x S.

(b) B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} (d) D = {2, 0, 2, 4}

(b) B = {1, 3} (d) D = {a, b, c, d}

From the subsets above, deduce how many subsets we can get from the set with n

elements.

4. Describe each of the following sets in symbols.

(a) The set of all integers whose absolute value is at most 3.

(b) The set of all positive integers whose square root is also an integer.

(c) The set of integers strictly between 3 and 5.

5. For each of the following sets, indicate whether 2 is an element of the set.

(b) B = {x Z : 2 x 2}

(c) C = {x Q : x(x 2) = 0} (e) E = {{2}}

(b) B = {{a}, b} (d) D = {{a}, {b}}

(a) A = {a, b, c, d, e} (c) C = {35, 36, 37, ..., 50} (e) E = {, {}}

(b) B = {0, 2, 4, ..., 30} (d) D = {1, {1}, {1, 2}} (f) F = {{2}, {2, 3, 4}}

(b) B = {n Z : n2 < 4}

(c) C = {n Z : n3 n = 0} (e) E = {n Z : n2 n}

(a) a {a} (c) {a} {a} (e) {a}

(b) {a} {a} (d) {a} (f) {} {a}

10. For A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}, B = {2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8}, and the universal set U = {1, 2, ..., 10}

determine the following:

L

(a) A B (c) A B (e) A B (g) B

(b) A B (d) B A (f) A

11. For A = {a, b, c}, B = {c, d, e, f }, and the universal set U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}

determine the following:

L

(a) A B (c) A B (e) A B (g) B

(b) A B (d) B A (f) A

12. For the set Q of rational numbers, the set of irrational numbers and the universal

set R of real numbers, determine the following:

L

(a) Q (c) Q (e) Q (g)

(b) Q (d) Q (f) Q

13. What is

(a) The union of the sets {a, b, c}, {a, b, d}, and {b, c, d, e}?

(b) The intersecton of 0, 1, 3 and 1, 2, 3?

(c) The intersecton of the set of prime numbers and the set of even numbers?

(d) The symmetric difference of the set A = {The set of non-negative integers}

and the set B = {The set of even integers}?

14. (a) Define the Cartesian product of two sets A and B.

(b) Let A = {a, b, c}, list the elements of A A.

(c) Write a set of which both {1, 3, 4} and {0, 3, 5} are subsets.

(d) Give an example of a set having cardinality 52.

15. Let A, B, and C be sets. Draw a Venn diagram for each of the following.

T S T

(a) A B (b) A (C B) (c) (A B) C

16. During the month of June, Lekhalong Motors sold 75 cars with air conditioning, 95

with power steering, and 100 with automatic transmissions. Twenty cars had

all three options, 10 cars had none of these options, and 10 cars were sold that had

only air conditioning. In addition, 50 cars had both automatic transmissions and

power steering, and 60 cars had both automatic transmissions and air conditioning.

(i) How many cars were sold in June?

(ii) How many cars had only power steering?

Problem Set 2

1

1. Let S = 2, 1, 0, , 1, 2, 2, 4 . Determine which elements of S satisfy the

2

inequality.

1 (c) 1 < 2x 4 7 1 1

(a) 3 2x (e)

2 x 2

2

(b) 2x 1 x (d) 2 3 x < 2 (f) x + 2 < 4

(i) x (2, 6) 1 (iii) x [3, 8)

(ii) x 6,

4

(b) Express the following inequalities in interval notation.

(ii) 3 x

8

3. Find the set A C if:

(a) A = {x|x < 7} and C = {x| 2 < x 8}

(b) A = {x|x < 4} and C = {x| 2 < x 6}

4. Solve the following inequalities, express the answers using interval notation and

graph the solution set:

x+2 (f) 3 < 2x + 1 12

(a) 2x 3 <

3

(g) (x + 2)(x 1)(x 3) 0

3x 10

(b) <2 1 2x 13 2

x4 (h) <

6 12 3

(c) x2 + x > 12 2 2

(i) 5x + 3x 3x + 2

2 3 4

(d) x < (j) 1

x1 x1 x

3x 1 x+2 x1

(e) (k) <

x8 x x+3 x2

Problem Set 3

imperative or exclamatory. Which declarative sentences are statements? Give the

truth value for each statement.

(b) The integer 0 is odd. (e) Multiply x + y by 7.

(c) Is 5 2 = 10? (f) 7x is an odd integer.

2. Each of the following is an open sentence, where n denotes an integer. For which

integers are the following sentences true statements?

(c) p(n) : is an integer.

n2

(b) q(n) : n2 > 0. (d) n3 = 2n.

3. Write the negations of the following statements and find the corresponding truth

value.

(a) There are odd integers.

(b) Every dog has its day.

(c) Some rectangles are squares.

(d) For any real number x, x2 0.

(e) real numbers x, if x > 3 then x2 > 9.

(f) If an integer is divisible by 2, then it is even.

(g) primes p, p is odd.

(h) a triangle T such that the sum of the angles of T equals 200

4. Construct the truth tables for the following statements.

(b) (p q) (p q) (e) p q r

(c) p (q r) (f) (p r) (q r)

5. Use Truth tables to establish which of the following statements are tautologies and

which are contradictions.

(a) The converse and inverse of a conditional statement are logically equivalent

to each other

(b) (p q) (q p) is the same as p q {i.e. (p q) (q p)} p q}.

(c) p q p q (g) (p q) p q

(d) (p q) p q (h) p q p q

(e) p q p q) (i) p (q r) (p q) (p r)

(f) (p q) p q (j) p (q r) (p q) (p r)

7. (a) Suppose that p and q are statements so that p q is false. Find the truth

value of p q

(b) If q p is false, then what is the truth value of p q?

(c) If p (q r) is false, what is truth value of p q?

(d) If p q is true but p r is false, what is the truth value of p (q r)?

(e) If p q is false but p r is true, find the truth value of r p.

8. Find the truth value for each of the following statements for real numbers x, y, z,

and a and explain your answers.

p

(a) x2 = 5x x = 5 (d) z = (x + y)2 z = x + y

(b) x2 = a2 x = a

2

(c) z = ( x) z = x (e) x2 7x + 10 = 10 x = 2 or x = 5

9. Write the contrapositive, the converse, and the inverse of each of the following

statements.

(a) If P is a square, then P is a triangle.

(b) If n is prime, then n is odd or n is 2.

(c) If Lebo is Anns father, then Thato is her uncle and Jill is her aunt.

Problem Set 4

1. Prove the statements that are true and disprove those that are false, using the

indicated methods

(a) For all positive integers n, if n is prime then n is odd (disprove by counterex-

ample).

(b) The product of an even integer and an odd integer is even (direct method).

(c) The sum of any rational number and any irrational number is irrational (con-

tradiction).

(d) For all integers a, b, and c, if a does not divide the product of b and c, then a

does not divide b (contraposition)

2. Let S, T, and V be any three sets. Then prove that

(a) S S

(b) S T and T V S V

(c) S T T 0 S 0

(d) S T = T S T

(e) S T = T T S

3. Let A, B, and C be any sets. Then prove the following statements.

(a) A B = A B 0

(b) A B = B A B

(c) (A B) C = (A C) (B C)

(d) (A B) C = (A C) (B C)

n3 n

4. Let S = {2, 4, 6} and let R(n) : is even be open sentence over the domain S.

6

(a) State R(n) for each n S and state its truth value.

(b) State n S, R(n) in words and state its truth value.

(c) State n S, R(n) in words and determine its truth value.

5. Prove or disprove: If n is an even integer, then 3n + 2 is odd.

6. Prove or disprove: Every positive integer can be expressed as the sum of two positive

integers.

7. Prove that there exists a real number x such that x2 = 5.

8. Disprove: For a real number x, x2 x 2 > 0 if and only if 1 < x < 1.

9. Prove or disprove:Let A, B and C be sets. If A B = A C, then B = C.

10. Prove or disprove: Let A B 6= , then A 6= and B 6= .

11. Let x be a real number. Prove that if (x 1)2 = 0, then x3 1 = 0.

12. Let x be a real number. Prove that if (x 2)4 0, then 9 x2 0.

13. Prove that if n is an even integer, then 7n 2 is an even integer.

14. Prove that if n is an odd integer, then 7n2 2n + 15 is an even integer.

15. Prove the following using: a direct proof, a proof by contrapositive, and a proof by

contradiction.

(a) If n is an even integer, then 5n 7 is an odd integer.

(b) For every integer n, if 3n + 5 is odd, then n is an even integer.

16. Prove by contradiction.

(a) The sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational.

(b) 101 cannot be expressed as the sum of two even integers.

(c) If n is an even integer, then 7n + 9 is odd.

17. Prove that (A B)c = Ac B c .

18. Prove that A for any set A.

19. Use mathematical induction to prove that the formula is true for all natural numbers

n.

(a) 1 + 3 + 5 + + (2n 1) = n2

n(3n + 5)

(b) 4 + 7 + 10 + + (3n + 1) =

2

n(n + 1)(2n + 7)

(c) 1 3 + 2 4 + 3 5 + + n(n + 2) =

6

n

3(3 1)

(d) 3 + 32 + 33 + + 3n =

2

(e) 5 6 + 5 6 + 5 6 + + 5 6n = 6(6n 1)

2 3

1 1 1 1 1

(f) + 2 + 3 + + n = 1 n

2 2 2 2 2

20. Prove that

(a) n2 n + 41 is odd for all natural numbers n.

(b) If n is a positive odd integer, then n(n2 1) is divisible by 24.

(c) (n + 1)2 < 2n2 for all natural numbers n 3.

(d) 32n 1 is divisible by 8 for all natural numbers n.

(e) 100n n2 for all n 100.

(f) 3n > 2n + 1, if n 2.

(g) If a > 1, then an > an1 .

(h) If 0 < a < 1, then an < an1 .

(i) n3 6n2 + 11n is divisible by 6 for all n 1.

(j) 22n+1 + 1 is divisible by 3 for all n 1.

Problem Set 5

1

(a) f (x) = 2x + 1; f (1), f (2), f , f (a), f (a), f (a + b)

2

1x 1

(b) g(x) = ; g(2), g , g(a), g(a 1), g(1)

1+x 2

|x| 2 1

(c) f (x) = ; f (2), f (1), f (0), f (5), f (x ), f

x x

1

(d) f (x) = 2|x 1|; f (2), f (0), f , f (x + 1), f (x2 + 2)

2

3. Evaluate the piecewise defined function at the indicated values.

(a) (

x2 if x < 0

f (x) =

x+1 if x 0

(b)

2

x + 2x

if x 1

f (x) = x if 1 < x 1

1 if x > 1

3

f (4), f , f (1), f (0), f (25)

2

(b) f (x) = x + 4; f (x2 ), (f (x))2

f (a + h) f (a)

5. Find f (a), f (a + h), and the difference quotient , where h 6= 0.

h

x

(a) f (x) = 5 (b) f (x) = 3x + 2 (c) f (x) =

x+1

(d)

g

(b) f g (f) [f (f g)(x)]

8. Determine whether each function is one-to-one and/ or onto:

x+2

(a) f (x) = 2x 3 (c) h(x) = 3 x + 9 (e) g(x) =

x3

(b) x2 + 3 (d) f (x) = x + 3

r

(a) f (x) = 2x + 5 (c) f (x) = 3x 1 3

x

(e) f (x) = +5

x+3 2

(b) f (x) = 2 + x 3 (d) f (x) =

x5

(a) | 5| (c) | 5 2| (e) | 2 1| + |3 2|

| 12 + 4|

(b) |9 3| (d) 4 + | 4| (f)

|16 12|

(b) x is less than 3 units from 6

(c) x differs from 2 by less than 3.

(d) The distance between 7 and x is 4.

(e) x + 4 is less than 2 units from 0.

(f) x < 6 or x > 6.

(g) x is between 3 and 3, but is not equal to 3 and 3.

(a) | 3x | +5 = 6 x (f) | 4x + 2 |< x + 10

(d) <x

(b) | x | 10 < 25 x2

(g) 3 | x 1 |< 5

(c) | 2x + 3 |<| x | (e) | 2x + 1 |=| x + 5 | (h) | 2x + 3 || x + 5 |

Problem Set 6

1. Divide

(b) 5x2 18x + 9 by x 3 (f) a4 b4 by a b

(c) y 3 4y 2 + 3x2 y + 2x3 by y 1 (g) 2x5 7x4 13 by 4x2 6x + 8

(d) x2 + 2xy + y 2 + x + y by x + y (h) x5 + x4 2x3 + x + 1 by x2 + x 1

2. Two polynomials P and G are given. Use either synthetic or long division to divide

P (x) by G(x), and express P (x) in the form P (x) = Q(x)G(x) + R(x).

2

(b) P (x) = 9y 3 + 9y 2 y + 2, G(x) = y + 3

3. Use the Remainder Theorem to find the remainder when the polynomial f (x) is

divided by g(x).

(b) f (x) = x3 + 4x 7, g(x) = x 3

(c) f (x) = 2x4 3x3 20x 6, g(x) = x + 3

(d) f (x) = 9x3 + 6x2 + 4x + 2, g(x) = 3x + 1

(e) f (x) = 2x4 + 5x3 + 3x2 + 8x + 2, g(x) = 2x + 3

4. Use the Factor Theorem to determine whether the first quantity is a factor of the

second in the following problems.

(b) x + 3, x3 4x2 18x + 9 (d) x + 1, 6x300 + x63 2x2 x + 20

5. Find a polynomial of the specified degree that has the given zeros.

(b) Degree 4; Zeros 2, 0, 2, 4 (d) Degree 5; Zeros 2, 1, 0, 1, 2

6. (a) Find a polynomial of degree 3 that has zeros 1, 2, and 3, and in which the

coefficient of x2 is 3

1

(b) Find a polynomial P of degree 5 that has zeros 1 and of multiplicities 3

3

and 2, respectively.

7. List all possible rational zeros of the polynomialn given by by the Rational Zeros

Theorem (but do not check to see which actually are zeros):

(b) f (x) = x4 3x3 6x + 8 (e) f (x) = 4x4 2x2 7

(c) f (x) = 2x5 + 3x3 + 4x2 8 (f) f (x) = 12x5 + 6x3 2x 8

(a) x3 2x2 2x 3 (f) x3 2x2 + 5x + 6

(b) x4 5x2 + 4

(g) x3 x 2

3 2

(c) 8x + 10x x 3

(h) 2x4 x3 + x + 2

(d) 2x4 7x3 + 3x2 + 8x 4

(e) x5 + 3x4 9x3 31x2 + 36 (i) 3x3 x2 6x + 12

9. Show that the polynomial does not have any rational zeros.

(b) f (x) = 2x4 x3 + x + 2 (d) f (x) = x50 5x25 + x2 1

10. Factor the polynomial and use the factored form to find the zeros.

11. Factorize

(b) x4 + 3x3 + 2x2

(c) x3 + 4x2 3x 18 (e) 6x3 7x2 7x + 6

(b) 2x3 3x2 11x + 6 = 0

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

M1501 Problem Set 7

1. Find the radian measure of the angle with the given degree measure.

(a) 72 , (b) 45 , (c) 15 ,

(d) 96 , (e) 300 , (f) 75 .

2. (a) Find the length of an arc that subtends a central angle of 45 in a circle of

radius 10 m.

(b) An arc of length 100m subtends a central angle in a circle of radius 50 m.

Find the the measure of in radians.

(c) Find the radius of the circle if an arc length 6 m on the circle subtends a central

angle of /6 rad.

3. Find the exact value of the trigonometric function:

5 7 7

(a) sin , (b) cot , (c) csc ,

6 6 3

11 25 5

(d) 9 cos , (e) tan , (f) sec .

3 6 3

(a) sin < 0 and cos < 0, (b) tan > 0 and sin < 0,

(c) sec > 0 and tan < 0, (d) csc > 0 and cos < 0.

5. Find the values of the trigonometric functions of from the information given:

3

(a) sin = , in Quadrant II.

5

7

(b) cos = , in Quadrant III.

12

3

(c) tan = , sin > 0 .

4

6. Simplify the trigonometric functions:

sin x sec x 1 + cos y

(a) , (b) cos3 x + sin2 x cos x, (c) ,

tan x 1 + sec y

sec x cos x 1 + sin u cos u 1 + cot A

(d) , (e) + , (f) .

tan x cos u 1 + sin u csc A

cos x tan y

(a) = csc x sin x, (b) = sec y cos y,

sec x sin x csc y

1

(c) sin B + cos B cot B = csc B, (d) (1 cos B)(1 + cos B) = ,

csc2 B

cos2 t + tan2 t 1

(e) sin4 cos4 = sin2 cos2 , (f) = tan2 t.

sin2 t

1

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

M1501 Problem Set 8

1 1

(a) sin(2 tan x), (b) tan(2 cos x),

1

(c) sin( 12 cos 1

x), (d) cos(2 sin x).

7 12

(a) sin 2 cos 1 , (b) cos 2 tan 1 ,

25 5

1 1 1 1 2

(c) sec 2 sin , (d) tan cos ,

4 2 3

p !

1 3 1

p 2 1

(e) cos 2 sin + cot 3 , (f) sin 2 cos 1 tan 1

.

2 3 2

3

(a) cos 2; sin = , in Quadrant III.

5

5

(b) sin ; tan = , in Quadrant IV.

2 12

3

(c) tan 2; cos = , in Quadrant I.

5

4. Derive the following trigonometric identities

1

(a) sin u cos v = [sin(u + v) + sin(u v)],

2

1

(b) cos u sin v = [sin(u + v) sin(u v)],

2

1

(c) cos u cos v = [cos(u + v) + cos(u + v)],

2

1

(d) sin u sin v = [cos(u v) cos(u + v)],

2

x+y x y

(e) sin x + sin y = 2 sin cos ,

2 2

x+y x y

(f) sin x sin y = 2 cos sin ,

2 2

x+y x y

(g) cos x + cos y = 2 cos cos ,

2 2

x+y x y

(h) sin x sin y = 2 sin sin .

2 2

1

5. Prove the identity

sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x + sin 4x + sin 5x

= tan 3x.

cos x + cos 2x + cos 3x + cos 4x + cos 5x

sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x

n times to show that

sin(2n x) = 2n sin x cos x cos 2x cos 4x cos 2n 1 x.

(a) cos + 1 = 0,

(b) 5 sin 1 = 0,

2

(c) tan 4 = 0,

(d) sin2 sin 2 = 0,

2

(e) 2 cos 7 sin + 2 = 0,

(f) tan4 13 tan2 + 36 = 0.

2

M1501 Problem set 9

1. Find the first five terms of the given recursively defined sequence.

an1

(a) an = and a1 = 8

2

(b) an = an1 + an2 and a1 = 1, ; a2 = 2

(c) an = an1 + an2 + an3 and a1 = a2 = a3 = 1

2. Find the first four partial sums and the nth partial sum of the sequence.

1 1 1

(a) 1, 3, 5, 7, (b) , , ,

3 32 33

2 1 1

(c) an = (d) an =

3n n+1 n+2

12

X 5

X

(a) 10 (b) 2k1

i=4 k=1

4. Write the expression without using sigma notation, and then find the sum.

5

X 6

X

2

(a) (1 n ) (b) (1)n 2n2

n=1 n=3

5. Determine the common difference, the nth term, and find the partial sum of the

first ten terms of the arithmetic sequence.

(a) 4, 9, 14, 19, (b) 2, 2 + s, 2 + 2s, 2 + 3s,

Determine whether 11, 937 is a term of this sequence.

7. Determine the common ratio, the nth term, and find the partial sum of the first ten

terms of the geometric sequence.

t2 t3 t4

(a) 1, 2, 2, 2 2, (b) t, , , ,

2 4 8

9. Compute:

16! 14!

(a) (b)

14! 11!

8! 10!

(c) (d)

10! 13!

10. A drive-in theater has spaces for 20 cars in the first parking row, 22 in the second,

24 in the third, and so on. If there are 21 twos in the theater, find the number of

cars that can be parked.

1

11. A ball is dropped from a height of 80 m. The elasticity of this ball is such that it

rebounds three-fourths of the distance it has fallen. How high does the ball rebound

on the fifth bounce? Find a formula for how high the ball rebounds on the nth

rebounce.

12. Write the following in terms of factorials:

(a) 24 23 22 21 (b) 42

1

(c)

10 11 12

13. Simplify:

(n + 1)! n!

(a) (b)

n! (n 2)!

(n 1)! (n r + 1)!

(c) (d)

(n + 2)! (n r 1)!

14. Evaluate:

(a) P (6, 2) (b) P (5, 4)

(c) C(10, 8) (d) C(17, 16).C(4, 3).3!

15.

(a) Find n if 2P (n, 2) + 50 = P (2n, 2) (b) Show that P (n, n 1) = P (n, n).

4 5

a 4a2

1 5

(a) 1+ (b) (a + b) (c) +

2 2 a

x 1

(a) (1 + x)9 , term involving x5 (b) 2 2, 4th terms

2

9

x 1

(c) (h + x)1 7, term involving h3 (d) + , the term involving x3

a x

10

t 1

(a) + , term in t4 (b) (2 x)18 , 18th term.

2 2

8 6

1 2 1

(a) x (b) 2x

x 2x

(a) (1 x x2 )4 (b) (3 + x + x3 )4

2

21. Expand the following in ascending powers of x, as far as x3 and state the range of

values for which the expansion is valid.

1

(a) (b) 1 x2 (c) 2x

1 + 3x

3 3

(d) 3+x (e)

3

3 x3

22. Use the binomial theorem to find the value, correct to 4 decimal places, of

1 1

3

(a) (b) (c) 1.03

(1.02)2 0.98

x+2 2x 3 x+3

(a) (b) (c)

(1 + x)2 x+2 3

1 3x

3

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

M1501 Problem set 10

1 1

(a) Focus (4,0), directrix x = 4, (b) Focus 0, , directrix y = ,

4 4

(c) Focus ( 2, 0), directrix x = 2, (d) Focus (-2,3) , directrix y = 3.

If the graph is an ellipse, find the center, foci, vertices, and the lengths of the major

and minor axes. If it is a parabola, find the vertex, focus, and directrix. If it is a

hyperbola, find the center, foci, vertices, and asymptotes. Then sketch the graph of

the equation. If the equation has no graph, explain why.

(c) 9x2 36x + 4y 2 = 0, (d) x2 4y 2 2x + 16y = 20,

(e) x2 + 6x + 12y + 9 = 0, (f) 2x2 + y 2 = 2y + 1,

(g) 16x2 9y 2 96x + 288 = 0, (h) 4x2 4x 8y + 9 = 0,

(i) x2 + 16 = 4(y 2 + 2x), (j) x2 y 2 = 10(x y) + 1.

is

(a) an ellipse, (b) a single point, (c) the empty set.

4. Find an equation for the ellipse that shares a vertex and a focus with the parabola

x2 + y = 100 and has its other focus at the origin.

5. This exercise deals with confocal parabolas, that is, families of parabolas that

have the same focus.

(a) Draw graphs of the family of parabolas

x2 = 4p(y + p)

3 1 1 3

for p = 2, , 1, , , 1, , 2.

2 2 2 2

(b) Show that each parabola on this family has its focus at the origin.

(c) Describe the effect on the graph of moving the vertex closer to the origin.

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