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This work was supported by the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies

and Leaders in Industry-university Cooperation of Mokpo national university Grant funded


the Korean Government.
Contents

 Opening Message 1

Opening Address 1

Welcome Message 2

Welcoming Speech 4

Congratulatory Message 6

 Forum Committee 16

 Forum Schedule 18

 General Information 20

 Floor Plan 22

 Opening Ceremony 23

 Forum Program 24

Plenary Session 101

Special Session 107

Oral Session 133

Poster Session 277

 Author Index 416


 Opening Address

Dear Distinguished Participants of AFORE-2014,

th
On behalf of the 4 Asia Pacific Forum committee on Renewable
Energy, I am very pleased and honored to host all of you attending the
th
4 Asia Pacific Forum on Renewable Forum, held at the MVL Hotel,
Yeosu city, Jeonranamdo province, KOREA.

Yeosu city is very famous for its natural beauty and historical heritage. We wish you may
have beautiful memory as well as precious academic achievements. Also, we recommend you
to try some of genuine Korean cuisines, very delicious but spicy.

In 2008, Korea announced the new & renewable energy policy and regulatory foundation
to move Korea toward our goal of 11.3 percent clean energy by 2030. We expect the innovatively
ambitious version of the new & renewable energy policy to be announced shortly this year.

Korea has made considerable progress toward its clean energy goal. This years Asia Pacific
Forum on Renewable Energy will once again bring together energy experts not only from Korea
but also from around the world to discuss the state of the art of renewable energy R&Ds,
policy issues, and showcase the latest in clean energy technologies, and explore ways in which
to pursue these clean energy goals throughout the Asia-Pacific Region.

Last years Afore was very successful, and we anticipate that this coming Afore will have
over 600 domestic and international expert participants and over 350 technical paper
presentations. We regard your participation in this years Afore as a vital contribution to the
transformation to a sustainable energy future.

With all of our hearts, we welcome all of you participating in AFORE-2014.


May you have best of your time in Yeosu city!

Thank you very much.

Hyungkee YOON, Ph.D.


President, Korea Society for New and Renewable Energy (KSNRE)
Chairman, Asia Pacific Forum on Renewable Energy 2014 (Afore 2014)

1
 Welcome Message

I am pleased to welcome you, on behalf of Organizing Committee, to


the 4th Asia-Pacific Forum on Renewable Energy(AFORE 2014) which
will be held in from November 17th to 20th in Yeosu, Korea. The AFORE
2014 is jointly organized by Korean Society for New and Renewable
Energy(KSNRE), China Renewable Energy Society(CRES), Japan Council
for Renewable Energy (JCRE), World Renewable Energy Network(WREN).
AFORE 2014 is an annual event in which renewable energy specialists
are provided with the opportunities for policy, technology, education, research, marketing and
business on renewable energy to exchange their idea, to present their work, to establish network
and to develop a new vision for the cooperative future of the renewable energy in Pacific-Asia
area. The program consists of Plenary, Keynotes, Workshops, Industrial sessions to introduce
the research and development accomplished in their companies, Academic sessions and Posters.
We strongly believe that AFORE 2014 will make the optimum environment for the exciting
communications of the new ideas and knowledge on renewable energy.
Yoesu, located in the southern coast of Korea, is the place where International Exposition
Yeosu Korea 2012 was held and has beautiful scenary of Hallyeo Coastal National Park. You
could enjoy the warm weather and sea breeze at MVL Hotel, the venue of AFORE 2014,
in November.
Your participation will make AFORE 2014 more special and I expect to see you all in
the beautiful Yeosu.

Chae Whan RIM. Ph.D.


Organizing Committee Chair of AFORE 2014

2
 Welcome Message

Dear Participants!

I am pleased to welcome you to the 4th Asia-Pacific Forum on


Renewable Energy (AFORE 2014) in Yeosu City, Korea.

Renewable Energy is one of the important and fast growing industry


intended to ensure the energy needs with maximum efficiency and minimal
damage to the environment.

In this regard, this Forum provides a convenient platform for the discussion of renewable
energy problems and for finding new ways to solve them, because the scientists and businessmen
working in this field welcome to attend AFORE from around the world (Canada, Nigeria,
Japan, China, Taiwan, Nepal, Yemen, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Pakistan, India, Thailand, Fiji, Sri
Lanka, Czech Republic and many others).

AFORE 2014 gives the opportunity for all participants to present their developments and
to express their opinion in such areas as the wind energy, solar energy, hydrogen & fuel cell
and other renewable energy areas.

For previous years, the effectiveness of this Forum has been showed by the huge amount
of the interesting and topical oral and poster presentations accompanied with the fruitful
discussions, and also the numerous articles have been published in the famous international
journals as special editions of our Forum. I hope that AFORE 2014 will cause greater interest
to the Renewable Energy, and help in solving of the important global problems.

And in conclusion, let me, as a chair of program committee, express my gratitude to all
participants and organizers of the Forum, I hope your stay here will be comfortable and
productive.

Jang-Ho LEE, Prof., Ph.D.


Chair of AFORE 2014 Program Committee,

3
 Welcoming Speech

I would like to extend my heartfelt congratulations on the opening of


the 4th Asia-Pacific Forum on Renewable Energy. It is all the more
meaningful that this forum is taking place here in Yeosu that has been
emerging as an international marine tourism city since it hosted the
International Exposition Yeosu Korea 2012.

I and the people of Jeollanam-do are delighted to welcome the energy


experts and academics at home and abroad who have come to Jeollanam-do, the Land of Life.

The use of fossil fuels has raised two important issues facing the world. One is environmental
pollution caused by reckless use of fossil fuels. The other is alternative energy development
due to depletion of fossil fuels.

Under these circumstances, people have been paying more attention to renewable energy.
Renewable energy promises a bright future as it causes little worry for depletion and
minimizes environmental pollution.

The Republic of Korea which imports 96% of the energy used in the country, is striving
to develop renewable energy industry to improve its energy supply structure.

Jeollanam-do that has abundant insolation, strong sea winds and fast tidal currents is producing
20% of the country's renewable energy supply.

Our province is also creating an energy-independent island by introducing renewable energy


technologies to help people on the island who are suffering an unstable electric power supply.

However, there are not enough related industries that can utilize renewable energy resources
of Jeollanam-do.

I expect this forum serves as a platform to exchange technologies and information on


renewable energy and come up with diverse measures to create new markets for renewable
energy.

I would like to extend my deepest gratitude to lawmaker Kim Sung-gon, Mayor Joo
Cheol-hyun of Yeosu City, members of the city council and provincial assembly and directors

4
of related organizations for being with us today despite your busy schedules.

I would also like to thank Chairman Yoon Hyung-kee of the Korean Society for New and
Renewable Energy for helping Jeollanam-do be elected as the host of this forum.

I believe that Jeollanam-do is a place where you can experience true characteristics of Korea.

I wish you wonderful time enjoying beautiful scenery and delicious food of Jeollanam-do
during your stay here.

Sincerely yours
Nak-yon LEE
Governor of Jeollanam-do Province

5
 Congratulatory Message

Good Afternoon!

Ladies and gentlemen, I am pleased to here to give a warm welcome


to all of the honored guests in the fourth Asia-Pacific Forum on Renewable
Energy hosted by the Korean Society for New and Renewable Energy.

Also, I would like to express my deep appreciation to the President


Hyungjee Yoon who made a great effort to prepare this event.

The energy world is currently undergoing radical changes driven by constant developments
in politics, economics, and technological development, facing two main challenges. One is
how we provide enough light, warmth, and power for every household. The other is how we
shift from the conventional energy sources to clean, renewable, and sustainable energy ones.

To address these challenges, the UN General Assembly recently declared the Decade of
Sustainable Energy for All, between 2014 and 2024, and one of its goals is the shard of
renewable sources in our energy mix.

According to the recent report of the International Energy Agency, renewable energy continue
to grow rapidly, particularly in the power sector, and we expect renewable energy will overtake
gas to become the worlds second-largest source of power generation by 2015 after coal. One
of the important consequences of the rapid expansion of renewable power generation has been
the effect on declining generation costs. It means that renewable technologies are competing
better in a wider range of circumstances.

I believe that renewable energy must play a paramount role to address with not only supply
of safe, clean, and sustainable energy but also tackle with climate change. To enhance
development of renewables, we start to phase out subsidies for fossil fuels because these
subsidies were six times greater than the financial support for renewables. In particular, the
Asia-Pacific region is the highest rates of fossil fuel subsidies under the condition that total
primary energy demand in Asia and the Pacific alone is expected to nearly double from 2010
to 2030.

Today, I would recommend that the Asia-Pacific Forum on Renewable Energy takes a long
lens to support and develop renewable energy for the end of social energy inequality, the

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revitalization of global economy, and the reduction of carbon emissions.

Ladies and gentlemen,

Together we have the opportunity to bring about transformative change. I am convinced


that your passion, active leadership, practical action make our better society and a new era
of energy.

On behalf of the National Assembly, please accept my best wishes for a most productive
and memorable forum for all of you today, and I hope the partnership in the forum continue
to strengthen.

Thank you.

Sunggon KIM. Ph.D.


Co-Representative of National Assembly Forum on Climate Change /
Member of the National Assembly

7
 Congratulatory Message

Greetings ladies and gentlemen.


It is a great pleasure to meet you all. My name is Ju Cheol Hyeon
and I am the representative mayor of Yeosu city.

First, I would like to congratulate on opening "2014 the 4th Asia-Pacific


Forum on Renewable Energy." With our 300,000 citizens, I welcome
domestic and international scholars and experts from all over the world
to our beautiful city, Yeosu, the center of international marine tourism.

I want to deliver my special thanks to Dr. Hyungkee YOON the president of the Korean
Society for New and Renewable Energy, and officials who endeavored to host this excellent
forum in our city.

Though in tight schedules, I also would love to give my gratitude to Dr. Kim, Sunggon,
Co-Representative of National Assembly Forum on Climate Change and Member of the National
Assembly, Dr. Jang Moo Lee, Chairman of National Science and Technology Council, Dr.
Namsung Ahn, the President of Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning,
Dr. Lee Ki-woo, the President of Korea Institute of Energy Research and other distinguished
guests who participated in this great forum.

I am aware that based on its solid network of academy, industry and research institutes
with 50 companies and 1,600 members, the Korean Society for New and Renewable Energy
has been leading the advance of domestic renewable energy industry. Beyond the advance
of the association itself, I also want to express my deepest appreciation to all the members
who contributed to creating mutual profits among domestic new and renewable industries.

Our city, Yeosu, is an eco-friendly city which contracted with Ministry of Environment as
a pilot city for fighting against climate change in 2008. As we prepared to EXPO 2012 YEOSU
KOREA under the theme of marine and environment, we started 'climate protection week'
event for the first time in local government level and have been holding the event for consecutive
seven years until this year. Our city hall installed solar panel power system and it now uses
self-produced electricity. We also promote diffusion of Green-home.

Also, at the time of EXPO 2012 YEOSU KOREA, our city contributed to drawing attention
to the new and renewable energy industry to global village, showing domestic and international

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technologies for new and renewable energy that fight against climate change.

I have no doubt that this forum will be very successful and I expect that this success will
heighten the status of the Korean Society for new and renewable energy and will promote
the vitalization of new and renewable energy industry.

Again, I welcome each of you all to Yeosu, the center of international marine tourism, and
I wish your stay in Yeosu will be of much fruitful and beneficial to all.

Thank you very much.

November. 18. 2014


Cheol Hyeon JU
Mayor of Yeosu

9
 Congratulatory Message

First off all I would like to express my greetings to all participants of


AFORE 2014.

I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Hyungkee YOON from


Korean Society for New and Renewable Energy for inviting me and giving
opportunity to speak in front of you as representative of Mongolian
Society of Asian Super Grid.

I am sure that all attendees of this forum is understood that energy sector is main locomotive
of society or main tool for unemployment reduction, food and water supply issues.

As all you may know Mongolia is rich country in view of energy sources especially for
renewable energy such as solar and wind power. All this energy resource is not only for
Mongolians but this resource should be used for wellbeing of human kind especially for
population of North East Asian region. In order to fulfill this goal the representatives of North
East Asian countries continuing discussions and taking actions to move forward Asian Super
Grid initiative.

In this regards I would like to note that The Government of Mongolia is actively supporting
Asian Super Grid initiative and formed special working unit under the Ministry of Energy.

During the Asia Pacific regional Peace and Security high level meeting in Shanghai city
in 19th May our president Mr. Ts. Elbegdorj met and kept discussion regarding to future
cooperation with leaders of our two neighbors. During this meeting energy sector cooperation
was one of topics.

During his visit Mr. Xi Jimping, leader of Peoples Republic of China, to Mongolia in August
2014, two side agreed to co-operate for developing RE recourses, also leaders expressed interest
further promotion energy sector cooperation and agreed on need of electricity export and imports
projects.

We believe, Northeast Asian countries will make bilateral and multilateral joint solution
in order to success implement asian super grid initiative, in near term. We will do our best
in order to proceed Asian super grid initiative.

10
In other hand it is our duty in front of our future generation to keep clean and pristine
clean environment.
Our association is planning to perform feasibility study of Asian Super Grid project in
cooperation with Korea Consortium of North East Asian Super Grid and Renewable Energy
Association of Peoples Republic of China.
In other hand it is our duty in front of our future generation to keep clean and pristine
clean environment.

On this notes I would like to wish success for the forum.

B. JIGJID
President of Mongolian Society of Asian Super Grid

11
 Congratulatory Message

It is a great pleasure for me to deliver a congratulatory speech at the


2014 Asia-Pacific Forum on Renewable Energy here in Yeosu. As you
may have already noticed, Yeosu is a beautiful port city of Korea, which
hosted a number of international events including the World EXPO over
the past years. I would like to congratulate the organizing committee,
Korean Society for New and Renewable Energy and distinguished guests
and participants on the successful opening of the AFORE 2014 which will
deal with critical issues facing the world, and thank you all for your efforts to put this event
together.

As you are well aware, humanity achieved rapid industrialization and economic growth since
the start of the 20th century and, as a result, greenhouse gas emissions from exhaustive use
of resources and energy led to climate change and energy shortage. According to the Living
Planet Report 2014 released by WWF in October this year, the ecological footprint on the
earth surpassed 50% of its ecological capacity due to excessive use of fossil fuels and
environmental destruction. Which means, the world came to need one and a half of the earth,
instead of just one earth. As such, climate change and energy shortage emerged as the most
fundamental, long-term challenges threatening the survival of humanity.

It is for this reason that global society led by the UN is making concerted efforts to cope
with climate change and energy issues by introducing the Tokyo Protocol and holding UNFCCC
every year. These efforts are directed to drastically reduce the production and consumption
of fossil fuels such as coal and oil generating greenhouse gas, enhance energy efficiency based
on new technologies such as smart grid, and ultimately boost the use of renewable energy
such as solar, wind, geothermal, fuel cells and bio energy. Countries around the world, including
Asia, are making proactive efforts to develop and disseminate renewable energy technologies.

The government of Korea is working hard to spearhead these efforts. Korea has already
announced a target to reduce greenhouse gas to 30% BAU by 2020, and as follow-up measures,
CO2 emission ceilings were set on respective industries and large companies. The carbon credit
trading system will be launched in 2015. This system will be very helpful for new and renewable
energy industry. In addition, 6 out of 30 core national research areas designed by the government
are related to climate change, energy and the environment. 13 national growth engines adopted
this year also include the energy hybrid system which encompasses wind/solar power and energy
storage system.

12
Korea has also established Global Green Growth Institute and attracted the headquarters of
Green Climate Fund to Incheon, which indicates its determination to respond to climate change
and promote the global renewable energy industry. At the UN summit held in New York,
President Park Geun-hye stressed that green growth is a core part of creative economy and
promised to increase Korea's contribution to GCF to $100 billion, which is twice greater than
what was initially promised. The fact that many countries in Asia are taking part in the global
efforts will contribute a lot to the development and dissemination of renewable energy
technologies and open up a brighter future for all.

I expect scholars and industry officials who joined this event will make great contributions
to technology and industrial development going forward. Hoping that the AFORE 2014 event
will come to fruition through your academic exchanges and joint research, let me close my
remark here and I wish health and success to you all.

Thank you very much.

Jang Moo LEE. Ph.D.


Chairman of National Science and Technology Council

13
 Congratulatory Message

Good afternoon!

The honorable distinguished guests,

Lee Jangmoo, Chairman of the National Science and Technology Council,


A member of the National Assembly, Kim Sunggon, Co-chair of the
National Assembly Forum on Climate Change,
Lee Nakyon, Governor of Jeollanamdo Provincial Government,
The former President of Mongolian Society Asia Super Grid,
B. Jigjid, Chairman of Mongolia Energy Development Association,
last but not least,
Ju Cheolhyeon, Mayor of Yeosu,

and ladies and gentlemen!

First of all, I would like to say that it is my great pleasure and honor to express my sincere
congratulations on the 4th Asia-Pacific Forum on Renewable Energy, or A.F.O.R.E. held here
in a beautiful port city, Yeosu. In this regard, I'd like to thank the Forum organizing committee
members for giving me such a wonderful chance, especially, Yoon Hyungkee, President of
Korean Society for New and Renewable Energy and Chair of AFORE2014, AND Rim
Chae-whan, Organizing Committee Chair of the Forum.

The AFORE was launched in 2011 in Busan to my knowledge, and marks its 4th round
this year. During the past three years, I am sure that it has taken a salient role in providing
place for introducing cutting edge of renewable energy technologies, discussing policies,
networking and also for exploring new business.

Well, in terms of current energy situation, not all countries in this Asia-Pacific region are
in the same boat. As all of you may be well aware, although Korea is the 9th largest energy
consumer in the world, its dependency on imported energy resources is over 95% and its
renewable supply rate is relatively low at 1.8% according to the referenceG(Energy Balances
of OECD Countries from IEA 2013 Edition.)

On the other hand, a resource-rich country in that region, Chile for instance, supplied 24.2%
of its energy demand by renewable sources.

14
On top of that, China is ranked No. 1 in the world on renewable power capacity, 378GW
in 2013, according to another report. (the Renewables 2014 Global Status Report from
st
R.E.N.21, Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21 Century).

Despite all different situation from countries to countries, one thing is sure that there is
no doubt, energy, especially renewable energy, is of great significance. And on this issue
we are definitely required to develop technology, policy and business strategy which will enable
us to ensure national energy security and sustainable greener world. This is why I believe
and you also believe that we are needed to be present here to advance innovative future
technology and partnership.

In line with recognizing its importance together, I am very pleased to see that distinguished
decision makers, scientists, professors, experts and businessmen from Asia-Pacific's nations
gathered here as speakers and participants for the Forum.

Furthermore, I sincerely hope that this workshop will provide an ideal platform for active
and practical discussion AND milestone for renewable energy to lead Asia-Pacific's efforts to
play a pivotal role in dealing with climate change and energy crisis that we face at present.

Once again, I extend my hearty congratulations for AFORE2014, and on behalf of the KIER,
please accept my best wishes for a most productive and memorable Forum.

Thank you kindly for your time and attention.

Ki-woo LEE. Ph.D.


President of KIER
at Opening Ceremony in AFORE2014

15
 Forum Committee

International Advisory Committee


GChair : Dr. Hyungkee YOON (President, Korean Society for New and Renewable Energy, Korea)

G Member :
B. JIGJID (President, Mongolian Society of Asia Super Grid(MSASG), Mongolia)
Rajit GADH (Professor, Director & Professor of UCLA Smart Grid Energy Research Center,
USA)
Gento MOGI (Professor, University of Tokyo Japan)
Ivor Francis Da CUNHA (Director, Leap Frog Energy Technologies Inc.,Canada)
Mohammed R. AHMED (Professor,UniversityoftheSouthPacific, Fiji)
Xinshu ZHUANG (Professor, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, China)
Tatsuya KODAMA (Professor, Niigata University, Japan)
Zhigang QI (Vice-president, Wuhan Troowin Power System Technology Co., Ltd., China)
Kwang J. KIM (Professor, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA)
Johnny C. L. CHAN (Chair Professor, City University of Hong Kong Hongkong)
Jiahn-Horng CHEN (Professor, National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan)
Kaneko, SHINJI (Professor, Hiroshima University, Japan)
Liu JIA (Research Assistant, Energy Research Institute, China)
Morihito INAGAKI (Director, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Japan)
T. SUKHBAATAR (CEO, Clean Energy LLC., Mongolia)
Teruo OHSAWA (Professor, Kobe University, Japan)
Qingkai HAN (Professor, Dalian University of Technology, China)
Tomoaki UTSUNOMIYA (Professor, Kyushu University, Japan)

Organizing Committee
G Chair : Dr. Chae Whan RIM (Principal Researcher Korea Institute of Machinery and
Materials, Korea)

G Member :
Bong-Cheol JANG (Chief, Jeollanam-do Provincial Government, Korea)
Byung-Sun HWANG (Dr., Korea Institute of Materials Science, Korea)
Changhyung PARK (Vice President, Korea New & Renewable Energy Association, Korea)
Chang Kyung SUNG (Dr., Korea Institute of energy & Technology Evaluation and Planning,
Korea)
Chin Ho PARK (Prof., Yeungnam University, Korea)
Chul Hee JO (Prof.,Inha University, Korea)
Eunnyeong HEO (Prof., Seoul National University, Korea)
Heon JUNG (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)

16
Hongki LEE (Prof., Woosuk University, Korea)
Hyung Jin KIM (President, Southwesthern Research Institute of Green Energy Technology,
Korea)
Hyunkyoung SHIN (Prof., University of Ulsan, Korea)
Jae Hak JUNG (Prof., Yeungnam University, Korea)
Jae Ho YUN (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)
Jin Won PARK (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy & Technology Evaluation and Planning, Korea)
Jin-Suk LEE (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)
Ki-Woong NAM (President, KEMCO New & Renewable Energy Center, Korea)
Moon-Seok JANG (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)
Ou-sam JIN (Dr., Korea District Heating Corp., Korea)
Sewang YOON (Auditor, Korean Society for New & Renewable Energy, Korea)
Soogab LEE (Prof., Seoul National University, Korea)
Tae Yond JUNG (Prof., KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Korea)
Tae-Hyun YANG (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)
Yeon Seok CHOI (Dr., KoreaInstituteofMachineryandMaterials, Korea)
Yong-Heack KANG (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)
Young-Ho LEE (Prof., Korea Maritime & Ocean University, Korea)
Youngsoon BAEK (Dr., R&D Division Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)

Program Committee
G Chair : Jang-Ho LEE (Prof., Kunsan University, Korea)

G Member :
SeHo KIM (Prof., Jeju National University, Korea)
You-kwan OH (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)
Kyung-Keun OH (Prof., Dankook University, Korea)
Youngdo CHOI (Prof., Mokpo National University, Korea)
Keesuk NAHM (Prof., Chonbuk National University, Korea)
Jung-Il YANG (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)
Kyung-Jin BOO (Prof., Seoul National University, Korea)
Jongmin CHOI (Prof., Hanbat National University, Korea)
Yoonho SONG (Dr., Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Korea)
Jae Ho YUN (Dr., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)
Tae Beom SEO (Prof., Inha University, Korea)
Sang-Kyu CHOI (Dr., Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Korea)
Dae-Yong LEE (Dr., Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Korea)
Jun-Shin LEE (Dr., KEPCO Research Institute, Korea)
Hee Chang LIM (Prof., Pusan National University, Korea)
Cheol OH (Prof., Korea Maritime & Ocean University, Korea)
Changjo YANG (Prof., Mokpo National Maritime University, Korea)

17
 Forum Schedule

November 17 (Mon.)

Grandball Grandball
Time Zepiros Notos Boreas Euros I Euros II
room I room II

10:00~18:00 Annual Fall Meeting of KSNRE 2014

November 18 (Tue.)

Grandball Grandball
Time Zepiros Notos Boreas Euros I Euros II
room I room II

8:30~ AFORE 2014 Registration


Special
Session 1
-New &
Hydrogen Wasted
Wind Geothermal Renewable Marine
& Smart Grid energy
Energy-1 Energy-1 Energy Energy-1
9:00-11:10 FuelCell-1 (R.Gadh and
(Q.Han (K.J.Kim Policies In (J.C.L.Chan
(Z.Qi /Y.J.Song) Utilization-1
/D.Y.Lee) /J.M.Choi) Emerging /C.J.Yang)
/C.S.Kim) (Y.S.Choi)
Economies
(SNU
-K.J.Boo)

11:10-11:50 POSTER DISCUSSION-1 & Coffee break (Lobby)

11:50~13:00 Lunch (3F Lavela)

13:00~13:50 AFORE 2014 Opening Ceremony (Grandball room I, II) - Dr. H.JUNG
13:50~14:50 Plenary Sessions (Grandballroom I, II) - Prof. E.N.HEO

14:50~15:00 Break time Special


Speical
Speical Session 2
Session 3
Session 4 -New and
-2014
-Salinity Renewable
Geothermal KEMCO
Photo gradient Energy
Energy-2 NRECs IEA
15:00~17:00 Voltaics-1 power Business

(Cunha REWP
(J.H.Gwak) Generation Plan
/Y.H.Song) ActivitiesRe
(KIER for on going
port
(JGRC)) Project
(NREC)
-N.J.Jung (KETEP)

17:00~17:50 10th Anniversary ceremony (Grandball room I, II) - S.H.KIM

18:00~20:00 Banquet (Grandball room I, II) - Prof. C.H.JO

18
November 19 (Wed.)

Grandball Grandball
Time Zepiros Notos Boreas Euros I Euros II
room I room II

08:30~ AFORE 2014 Registration


Speical
Wind Session 5 Wasted
Hydrogen Solar Low Carbon
Energy-2 Photo -Renewable energy
& Fuel Thermal technology
09:00~11:50 (T. Voltaics-2 Energy &
Cell-2 (T.Kodama /CCT & CCS
Utsunomiya (S.W.Yoon) Resource Utilization-2
(T.H.Yang) /Y.H.Kang) (C.K.Yi)
/D.H.Kim) (KIER (S.K.Choi)
-H.G.Kim)

11:50~13:00 Lunch (3F Lavela)

Specical
Session 6
-Policy
Hydrogen Discussion Small
Wind Geothermal Bio Marine
& Fuel on Hydropower
Energy-3 Energy-3 Energy-1 Energy-2
13:00~14:50 Cell-3 Promoting -1
(Q.Han (I.F.D.Cunha (Zhuang (J.H.CHEN
(Z.Qi New and (M.Inagaki
/H.K.Shin) /H.S.Choi) /K.K.Oh) /C.H.Jo)
/C.S.Kim) Renewable /Y.D.Choi)
Energy in
Asia (KEEI
-T.Y.Jung)

14:50~15:20 POSTER DISCUSSION-2 & Coffee break (Lobby)

Policy,
Wind Small
strategy Bio Marine
Energy-4 Hydropower
and New Energy-2 ESS Energy-3
15:20~17:30 (T. -2
business (X.Zhuang (B.Y.Jang) (M.R.Ahmed
Sukhbaatar (B.Zhu
(I.F.D.Cunha /K.K.Oh) /Y.H.Lee)
/C.M.Jang) /Y.D.Choi)
/E.J.Lee)

17:30~17:50 Closing ceremony (Grandball room I) - Prof. J.H.LEE

November 20 (Thu.)

09:00~ Technical Tour

19
 General Information

Registration Desk
G Location: Lobby(1F)

G Registration Hours
November 17(Mon) 13:00~18:00
November 18(Tue) 09:00~18:00
November 19(Wed) 08:30~17:00

G Registration Fee
Pre-Registration On-site Registration
Regular participant US$ 500 (KRW 500,000) US$ 600 (KRW 600,000)
Student US$ 200 (KRW 200,000) US$ 250 (KRW 250,000)

Official Program
G Opening Ceremony
Date : November 18(Tue)
Time : 13:00~13:50
Place : Grandball room

G Plenary Sessions
Date : November 18(Tue)
Time : 13:50~14:50
Place : Grandball room

G Closing Ceremony
Date : November 19(Wed)
Time : 17:30~17:50
Place : Grandball room

20
Social Program
G Forum Banquet
Date : November 18(Tue)
Time : 18:00~20:00
Place : Grandball room

Official Language
English is the official language of the forum.

21
 Floor Plan

1F Grand Ballroom

2F Zepiros

2F Notos

2F Boreas

1F Grand Ballroom

Front desk

Lobby

5th Floor

5F 5F
EUROS I EUROS

22
 Opening Ceremony

November 18 [Tue], 13:00~13:50 [Grandball room]

Chair : Dr. Heon Jung (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea)

Welcome message Dr. Chae Whan RIM


Organizing Committee Chairman of AFORE2014

Opening address Dr. Hyungkee YOON


President of Korean Society for New and Renewable Energy, Korea

Welcoming Speech Mr. Nak-yon LEE


Governor of Jeollanam-do Province Government

Congratulatory message Dr. Sunggon KIM


Co-Representative of National Assembly Forum on Climate Change
Member of the National Assembly

Mr. Cheol Hyeon JU


Mayor of Yeosu city

Mr. B. JIGJID
President of Mongolian Society of Asia Super Grid(MSASG), Mongolia

Dr. Jang Moo LEE


Chairman of National Science and Technology Council

Dr. Ki-woo LEE


President of Korea Institute of Energy Research, Korea

23
 Forum Program

Plenary Session I

November 18 [Tue], 13:50~14:50 [Grandball room I, II]

Chair : Dr. Eunnyeong Heo (Seoul National University, Korea)

Plenary speech I THE TRANSFORMATION TO FREE ENERGY SYSTEM THROUGH


13:50~14:05 CONVERGENCE
Namsung Ahn
President of KETEP(Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning),
Korea

Plenary Session II

Plenary speech II SMART GRID - OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN THE


14:05~14:20 CREATION OF THE 21ST CENTURY POWER GRID
Rajit Gadh - Professor, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science
Director, UCLA Smart Grid Energy Research Center (SMERC)

Plenary Session III

Plenary speech III JAPANS ENERGY STRATEGY AND PLAN


14:20~14:35 Gento Mogi*
Department of Technology Management for Innovation, the University of Tokyo,
Tokyo, Japan

Plenary Session IV

Plenary speech IV JEOLLANAMDO RENEWABLE ENERGY STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT


14:35~14:50 STRATEGIES
Dong Seok SEO1, Seung Won Jeong1, Jin Sun Bum2 and Bong cheol Jang2*
1
New Renewable Energy Team, Jeonnam Technopark, Suncheon, Korea
2
Energy Industry Division, Jeollanamdo Provincial Government, Korea

24
Special Session I

New & Renewable Energy Policies In Emerging Economies

November 18 [Tue], 09:00~10:40 [Notos]

Chair : Prof. Boo, Kyung-Jin (College of Engineering, Seoul National University)

O-SSI-001 RENEWABLE ENERGY SITUATION IN NEPAL


09:00~09:20 Ghimire Laxman Prasad
Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of
Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

O-SSI-002 OVERVIEW OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN YEMEN


09:20~09:40 Abdulsalam Al-Dakhin
Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of
Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

O-SSI-003 EFFECTIVE SUPPORT MECHANISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF


09:40~10:00 RENEWABLE ENERGY IN KAZAKHSTAN
Rakhimov Kairat
Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of
Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

O-SSI-004 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: OVERCOMING


10:00~10:20 ENERGY POVERTY
Nnaemeka Vincent EMODI and Kyung-Jin BOO
Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of
Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

O-SSI-005 RENEWABLE ENERGY IN MEXICO: ANALYSIS ON POLICY GOALS


10:20~10:40 AND BARRIERES
Nacxitl Calva Gonzalez
Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of
Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

25
Special Session II

New and Renewable Energy Business Plan for ongoing Project

November 18 [Tue], 13:50~17:50 [Euros I]

26
Special Session III

2014 KEMCO NRECs IEA REWP Activities Report

November 18 [Tue], 13:50~17:50 [Euros II]

27
Special Session IV

Salinity gradient power Generation

November 18 [Wed], 15:00~17:00 [Boreas]

Chair : Dr. Nam-Jo Jeong (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jeju, Korea)

O-SSIV-001 DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF RED SYSTEM


15:00~15:15 Chan-Soo Kim1*, Han-Ki Kim1, Seo-Yoon Lee1, Nam-Jo Jeong1, Eun-Jin Jwa1,
1 1 2 3
Sung-Jo Kwak , Kyo-Sik Hwang , Young-Woo Choi and Sung-Kook Hong
1
Marine Energy Convergence & Integration Lab., Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Jeju, Korea
2
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Center for Industry, Academy, and Laboratories, Korea
Institute of Energy Research, Buan, Korea
3
Advanced Combustion Lab., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

O-SSIV-002 THE EFFECT OF CELL ASPECT RATIO AND FLOW RATE


15:15~15:30 ON REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS SYSTEMS
1 1 1
Kilsung KWON , Byung Ho PARK and Daejoong KIM *
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea

O-SSIV-003 REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS BY USING NANOSTRUCTURES


1
15:30~15:45 Dong-Kwon KIM *
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea

O-SSIV-004 REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS (RED) AS A NEW ELECTRICAL POWER


15:45~16:00 SOURCE FOR UNIQUE APPLICATIONS
Seung-Ryong Kwon, Su Hong Kwak and Taek Dong Chung*
Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

O-SSIV-005 CHARACTERIZATION OF ELCTRODES AND MEMBRANES FOR


16:00~16:15 REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS
Seung-Hyeon Moon*, Sung-Hyun Yun and Jin-Hyun Lee
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and
Technology (GIST), 123 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712, Republic of
Korea

O-SSIV-006 EFFECT OF POTENTIAL FOULANTS ON THE PERFROMANCE OF


16:15~16:30 REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS
Ye-Jin JEONG1, Jin-Soo PARK1*, Chan-Soo KIM2 and Nam-Jo JEONG2
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Sangmyung
University, Cheonan, Korea
2
Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Jeju, Korea

O-SSIV-007 ADVANCED ENGINEERED OSMOSIS MEMBRANES FOR


16:30~16:45 SUSTAINABLE WATER AND ENERGY
Soon-Bum KWON1, Seockheon LEE1 and Jung-Hyun LEE2*
1
Water Resource Cycle Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
2
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

28
O-SSIV-008 NANOELECTROKINETIC WATER PURIFICATION / DESALINATION
16:45~17:00 METHOD USING ION CONCENTRATION POLARIZATION
Jae Suk PARK1, Hyomin Lee1, Inhee CHO1, Wonseok KIM1, Sungmin PARK1,
1 1
Soonhyun KWON and Sung Jae KIM *
1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Korea

29
Special Session V

Renewable Energy Resource

November 19 [Wed], 09:00~10:20 [Boreas]

Chair : Prof. Teruo Ohsawa (Kobe University, Japan)


Prof. Hyun-Goo Kim (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

O-SSV-001 EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM SST VARIATION ON OFFSHORE WIND


09:00~09:20 RESOUCE IN THE SEAS AROUND JAPAN
Teruo OHSAWA1*, Daiki USUI1, Shunsuke OTSUKI1 and Katsutoshi KOZAI1
1
Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan

O-SSV-002 RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF TIDAL CURRENT ENERGY


09:20~09:40 IN KOREA
1 1 1 1
Chul Hee Jo , Kang Hee Lee , Do Youb Kim and Su Jin Hwang *
1
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Inha University, Incheon,
Korea

O-SSV-003 RESHAPING PLAN FOR ULLEUNGDO, GREEN ISLAND


09:40~10:00 Yong-Heack KANG, Chang-Yeol YUN and Hyun-Goo KIM*
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

O-SSV-004 NWP APPROACH ON SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTING


10:00~10:20 Dong-Hyeok KIM1, Hwa-Woon LEE2*, Jae-Hyung PARK2, Hyun-Goo KIM3,
3 3
Yong-Heack KANG and Chang-Yeol YUN
1
Institute of Environmental Studies, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of
Korea
2
Department of Atmospheric Science, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of
Korea
3
Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
Republic of Korea

30
Special Session VI

Policy Discussion on Promoting New and Renewable Energy in Asia

November 19 [Wed], 13:00~14:20 [Boreas]

Chair : Prof. Tae Yong Jung (KDI School of Public Policy & Management)

O-SSVI-001 POTENTIAL OF BIOMASS POWER GENERATION FROM DESERT


13:00~13:20 WITH WATER CONTENT IN CHINA
Jiang Kejun1, He Chenmin1, Liu Jia1* and Zhou Sheng2
1
Energy Research Institute, Beijing, China,
2
Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

O-SSVI-002 SUPPLY SYSTEM OF DOMESTIC RAW MATERIALS FOR BIODIESEL


13:20~13:40 PRODUCTION IN KOREA
Jihyo Kim1* and Sangmin Cho2
1
Climate Change Policy Research Group, Korea Energy Economics Institute,
Gyeonggi-Do, Korea
2
Research Planning and Coordination Team, Korea Energy Economics Institute,
Gyeonggi-Do, Korea

O-SSVI-003 DOES THE INSTITUTIONAL FAILURE UNDERMINE THE PHYSICAL


13:40~14:00 DESIGN PERFORMANCES OF THE SOLAR WATER PUMPING
SYSTEMS IN RURAL NEPAL?
Yutaka Ito, Takahiro Ito, Satoru Komatsu, Ram Prasad Dhital, Daisaku Goto, Masaru
Ichihashi, Keisuke Kawata, Yuki Yamamoto, Yuichiro Yoshida and Shinji Kaneko
IDEC, Hiroshima University, Japan

O-SSVI-004 A CRITICAL REVIEW OF RPS(RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD)


14:00~14:20 POLICY IN KOREA
Tae Yong Jung1* and Hyun Je Kim2
1
Professor, KDI School of Public Policy & Management, Korea
2
Vice-President, Korea Energy Economics Institute, Korea

31
Oral Sessions
WE : Wind Energy

O-WE-I

November 18 [Tue], 09:00~11:10 [Grandball room I]

Chair : Prof. Qingkai Han (Dalian University of Technology, China)


Dr. Dae-Yong Lee (Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Korea)

IN-WE-001 DYNAMICS AND VIBRATION OF GEARED ROTOR SYSTEMS IN WIND


09:00~09:30 TUBINE
Qing Kai HAN1* and Jing WEI, Hao ZHANG2
1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, PR
China
2
Department of Physics, Beta University, Pusan, Korea

O-WE-001 FIBER VOLUME INFLUENCE ON THE DEFORMATION OF COMPOSITE


09:30~09:50 WIND TURBINE BLADES (ON AN EXAMPLE OF MULTILAYER
COMPOSITE PLATE)
Olga Bitkina1, Jang-Ho Lee2*, Ki-Weon Kang2 and Elena Bitkina3
1
CUWES, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kunsan National University,
Kunsan, Korea
3
WMG, International Manufacturing Centre,The University of Warwick, United
Kingdom

O-WE-002 WAKE INDUCED DYNAMIC LOAD ANALYSIS OF A WIND TURBINE IN


09:50~10:10 PARKED CONDITION
Minu Jeon1, Seunghoon Lee1, Taesung Kim2 and Soogab Lee3*
1
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Korea
2
Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark
3
Center for Environmental Noise and Vibration Research, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Korea

O-WE-003 MODEL TEST OF FOWT WITH NEW STATION KEEPING SYSTEM


10:10~10:30 Sung Bae Lee1, Yu Bin Park1, Byung Cheol Kim1, Jung Tae Kim1 and Hyun Kyoung
1
Shin *
1
Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Ulsan University, Ulsan,
Korea

O-WE-004 A NEW SLOPE ESTIMATION MODEL OF NEW WIND FARMPRODUCTION


10:30~10:50 Jin HUR1* and Ross BALDICK2
1
Department of Energy Grid, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas, Austin,
USA

32
O-WE-005 SPATIAL METRIC TO ESTABLISH MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER
10:50~11:10 LIMITS USING THE SPATIALLY CORRELATED WIND GENERATING
RESOURCES
Jin HUR1*
1
Department of Energy Grid, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea

33
O-WE-II

November 19 [Wed], 09:00~11:30 [Grandball room I]

Chair : Prof. Tomoaki Utsunomiya (Professor of Kyushu University, Japan)


Prof. Kim, Donghyawn (Kunsan National University, Korea)

IN-WE-002 DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ON FLOATING OFFSHORE WIND


09:00~09:30 TURBINE AT GOTO, JAPAN
1 2 3 4
Tomoaki UTSUNOMIYA *, Iku SATO , Takashi SHIRAISHI , Etsuro INUI and
5
Shigesuke ISHIDA
1
Department of Ocean Energy Resources, Kyushu University, Nishi-Ku, Fukuoka
819-0395, Japan
2
Toda Corporation, Kyobashi 1-7-1, Chuo-Ku, Tokyo 104-8388, Japan
3
Hitachi Ltd, Shiroganecho 1-1-1, Hitachi, Ibaragi 317-0056, Japan
4
Fuyo Ocean Development and Engineering Co Ltd, Kuramae, Taito-Ku, Tokyo
111-0051, Japan
5
National Maritime Research Institute, Shinkawa 6-38-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004,
Japan

O-WE-006 STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION FOR NREL 5MW WIND TURBINE


09:30~09:50 BLADE USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD
1 1
Yun Jung JANG and Ki Weon KANG *
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea

O-WE-007 FREQUENCY-DOMAIN FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF VIBRATION-BASED


09:50~10:10 ENERGY HARVESTER FOR WIND TURBINE BLADE MONITORING
SYSTEM
Ji-Won Jin1, Jae-Hoon Kim2, and Ki-Weon Kang1*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea
2
HighSpeedSystemResearchCenter,KRRI,Uiwang,Korea

O-WE-008 NON-LINEAR MOTION ANALYSIS OF TWO FLOATING STRUCTURES


10:10~10:30 IN A TANDEM CONFIGURATION
Byung Cheol Kim1, Jung Tae Kim1, Sung Bae Lee1, Yu Bin Park1 and Hyun Kyoung
Shin1*
1
Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan,
Korea

O-WE-009 COMBINED OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE BLADE


10:30~10:50 BASED ON WILSON METHOD AND GENETIC ALGORITHM
Hao WANG1*, Shuaibin LI1, Bing MA1 and Haizhe FAN1
1
College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric
Power, Shanghai, China

34
O-WE-010 PREDICTION OF ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCTION FOR NEARSHORE
10:50~11:10 WIND FARM IN JEJU ISLAND
Kun-Sung Park1, Ki-Wahn Ryu2* and Hyun-Goo KIM3
1
Graduate Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Chonbuk National
University, Jeonju, Korea
2
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea
3
New & Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

O-WE-011 PREDICTION OF TURBULENCE INTENSITY AND WAKE PROFILEON


11:10~11:30 WIND FARM USING PARABOLIC NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION
Byeongho Hwang1, Eunkuk Son1 and Soogab Lee1*
1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University,
Seoul, 151-744, Republic of Korea

35
O-WE-III

November 19 [Wed], 13:00~14:50 [Grandball room I]

Chair : Prof. Qingkai Han (Dalian University of Technology, China)


Prof. Hyun Kyoung Shin (University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Korea)

IN-WE-003 RESONANT DYNAMICS OF GEARED ROTOR SYSTEM SUBJECTED


13:00~13:30 TO CHANGING OIL-BEARING STIFFNESS DUE TO EXTERNAL LOADS
1 1 2
Hao Zhang , Qingkai Han * and Meiling Wang
1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, PR
China
2
College of Bullet Train Application and Maintenance Engineering & College of
Mechanical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian, PR China

O-WE-012 ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTER


13:30~13:50 AND CURRENT SOURCE CONVERTER FOR 5MW PMSG MEDIUM
VOLTAGE WIND TURBINE SYSTEM
Tahyun Kang1*, Taewon Kang1, Beomseok Chae1 and Yongsug Suh1
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea

O-WE-013 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF FLAT-BACK SHAPED BLADE FOR 10MW


13:50~14:10 CLASS WIND TURBINES
Soo-Hyun KIM1*, Hyungki SHIN1, Young-Chul JU1 and Hyung-Joon BANG1
1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

O-WE-014 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR THE ARRAY EFFECT OF VERTICAL


14:10~14:30 WIND BLADE
1 2 2 3
Won Sik SHIN , Sang Moon LEE , Choon Man JANG and Jang Ho LEE *
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate school of kunsan Natl Uni.
2,3
Korea Institute of construction Technology
*Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, School of Kunsan Natl Univ

O-WE-015 COUPLED SIMULATION OF OC4 5MW SEMISUBMERSIBLE


14:30~14:50 FOWTUSING FAST AND ORCAFELX
Jung Tae Kim1, Byung Cheol Kim1, Sung Bae Lee1, Yu Bin Park1 and Hyun Kyoung
1
Shin *
1
Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan,
Korea

36
O-WE-IV

November 19 [Wed], 15:20~16:50 [Grandball room I]

Chair : Dr. Sukhbaatar Tsegmid (CEO Clean Energy LLC, Mongolia)


Dr. Jang, Choon-Man (Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and building Technology, Korea)

IN-WE-004 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES IN MONGOLIA AND ITS FUTURE


15:20~15:50 POTENTIALAPPLICATION
Sukhbaatar Tsegmid
CEO Clean Energy LLC, 9F, Naiman Zovkhis Bldg, 21 Seoul Street, Ulaanbaatar
14251 Mongolia

O-WE-016 VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF A SANDWICHWIND TURBINE BLADE WITH


15:50~16:10 MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL FLUID
Hao WANG1*, Bing MA1 and Shuaibin LI1
1
College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric
Power, Shanghai, China2

O-WE-017 EXPERIMENTAL REVIEW OF TEST METHOD FOR THE DOWNSCALE


16:10~16:30 WIND TURBINE BLADE
Deok Hun KANG1, Sang Kyun KANG1, Young Kun KIM2 and Jang Ho LEE3*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeollabuk-do,
Korea
2
Jeonbuk Institute of Automotive Technology, Jeollabuk-do, Korea
3
School of Mechanical and Automative Engineering, Kunsan National University,
Jeollabuk-do, Korea

O-WE-018 THE EFFECT OF AMPLITUDE MODULATION ON THE DETECTION


16:30~16:50 THRESHOLD OF WIND TURBINE NOISE
Doo Young GWAK1, Kiseop YOON1, Seunghoon LEE2 and Soogab LEE2*
1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Korea
2
Engineering Research Institute, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

37
HF : Hydrogen & Fuel Cell

O-HF-I

November 18 [Tue], 09:00~11:30 [Grandball room II]

Chair : Dr. Zhigang Qi (Wuhan Troowin Power System Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei, China)
Dr. Kim Chang-Soo (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea)

IN-HF-001 THOUGHTS ON IMPROVING PEMFC PERFORMANCE AND LIFETIME


09:00~09:30 Zhigang Qi
Wuhan Troowin Power System Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei, China

O-HF-001 HIGH PERFORMANCE ZINC BASED CATHODE FOR LOW


09:30~09:50 TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL
Ghazanfar Abbas1 and Rizwan Raza2
1
Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad,
44000-Pakistan
2
Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore,
54000-Pakistan

O-HF-002 OPTIMIZATION OF FC-GSHP HYBRID SYSTEM BY USING FUZZY


09:50~10:10 LOGIC CONTROL FOR MULTIPLE BUILDING
Andrew Putrayudha S.1, Eun Chul KANG2, Evgueniy E.3, Libing Y.3, Moh. Ghorab3
2
and Euy Joon LEE *
1
Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Korea University of Science and
Technology, Daejeon, Korea
2
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
3
Renewable and Integrated Energy System Laboratory, CanmetENERGY, Ottawa,
Canada

O-HF-003 CONVERTER COORDINATED POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE


10:10~10:30 FUEL CELL VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CONTROL
1 1 1
Ya-Xiong Wang , Fei-Fei Qin and Young-Bae Kim *
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju,
Korea

O-HF-004 METAL ELECTRODE DEPOSITION FOR ANODIC ALUMINUM


10:30~10:50 OXIDE-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH ATOMIC
LAYER-DEPOSITED ELECTROLYTE
Sanghoon Ji1, Joonho Park2, Taehyun Park2, Gu Young Cho2, Waqas Hassan Tanveer2,
2 2 1,2
Sungmin Kang , Wonjong Yu and Suk Won Cha *
1
Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea

38
O-HF-005 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL
10:50~11:10 CELL BY UTILIZING SYNGAS FROM STEAM GASIFICATION AS FUEL
Syed Asad Ali Naqvi1,2, Tak-Hyoung Lim1,2*, Jong-Won Lee1,2, Seung-Bok Lee1,2,
Seok-Joo Park1,2 and Rak-Hyun Song1,2
1
Department of Advanced Energy Technology, Korea University of Science and
Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350, Korea
2
Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343, Korea

O-HF-006 STEAM REFORMING OF DIMETHYL ETHER USING COAL-SUPPORTED


11:10~11:30 METAL CATALYST
Soohyun KIM, Hokyung Choi, Donghyuk CHUN, Sangdo KIM, Youngjoon RHIM,
Jeonghwan LIM, Sihyun LEE and Jiho YOO*
Clean Fuel Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of
Korea

39
O-HF-II

November 19 [Wed], 09:00~11:20 [Grandball room II]

Chair : Dr. Tae-Hyun Yang (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea)

O-HF-007 THREE-DIMENSIONAL MORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF FUEL CELL


09:00~09:20 CATALYST LAYERS WITH NANO-STRUCTURED NEURAL NETWORKS
FOR MULTI-PHASE TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Seungho SHIN1, Ah-Reum KIM1 and Sukkee UM1*
1
Division of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea

O-HF-008 STEAM REFORMING OF ETHYL ACETATE OVER NICKEL-LOADED


09:20~09:40 LOW RANK COAL CHAR CATALYST
Nikola RUHSWURMOVA, Hokyung CHOI, Donghyuk CHUN, Sangdo KIM,
Youngjoon RHIM, Jeonghwan LIM, Sihyun LEE and Jiho YOO*
Clean Fuel Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of
Korea

O-HF-009 PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL THERMAL


09:40~10:00 MANAGEMENT BASED ON ACTIVE CONTROL
Fei-Fei Qin1, Ya-Xiong Wang1 and Young-Bae Kim1*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju,
Korea

O-HF-010 H2 AND CO PRODUCTION FROM CARBON DIOXIDE REFORMING OF


10:00~10:20 METHANE OVER NI-MGO-CE0.8ZR0.2O2 CATALYST:
EFFECT OF MGO LOADING
Kyung-Won JEON, Dae-Woon JEONG, Won-Jun JANG, Jae-Oh SHIM,
Hak-Min KIM, Yeol-Lim LEE and Hyun-Seog ROH*
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea

O-HF-011 100W CARBON FUEL CELL STACK: FABRICATION, OPERATION AND


10:20~10:40 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
1 1,2 1 1
Usman Mushtaq , Sun-Kyung Kim , Rak-Hyun Song *, Tak-Hyoung Lim ,
Seung-Bok Lee1,
Jong-Won Lee1 and Seok-Joo Park1
1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Energy Conversion & Storage Engineering, Chonbuk National
University, Korea.

O-HF-012 PREPARATION OF NANO FABRICATED SOFC WITH BILAYER ANODE


10:40~11:00 USING SPUTTERING
Seungtak Noh1, Gu Young Cho1, Sungmin Kang1, Yeageun Lee1, Wonjong Yu1 and
Suk Won Cha1*
1
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea

40
O-HF-013 NANO FABRICATED PLATIMUM BASED COMPOSITE ELECTRODE
11:00~11:20 FOR PERFORMANCE AND STABILITY ENHANCEMENT
Yoon Ho LEE1, Gu Young CHO1, Ikwhang CHANG2 and Suk Won CHA1*
1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering , Seoul National University,
Seoul, Korea
2
Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (GSCST), Seoul National
University, Seoul Korea

41
O-HF-III

November 19 [Wed], 13:00~14:40 [Grandball room II]

Chair : Dr. Zhigang Qi (Wuhan Troowin Power System Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei, China)
Dr. Kim Chang-Soo (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea)

O-HF-014 ENHANCEMENT OF STABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOW


13:00~13:20 TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL BY UTILIZING THE
STRUCTURE OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE
Yeageun LEE1, Joonho PARK1, Ikwhang CHANG2, Wonjong YU1 and Suk Won
CHA1*
1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Korea
2
Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University,
Seoul, Korea

O-HF-015 QUANTITATIVE RELATION BETWEEN COMPRESSIVE STRESS ON


13:20~13:40 MEA AND PERFORMANCE IN FLEXIBLE POLYMER ELECTROLYTE
FUEL CELL BASED ON PDMS COATED WITH SILVER NANOWIRES
CURRENT COLLECTOR
Taehyun PARK1, Ikwhang CHANG2, Yoon Ho LEE1, Jinhwan LEE3,
Seung Hwan KO1 and Suk Won CHA1*
1
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea
2
Department of Intelligent Convergence System, Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea

O-HF-016 LA-PROMOTED NI/MGAL2O4 CATALYST IN COMBINED H2O AND CO2


13:40~14:00 REFORMING OF COKE OVEN GAS (COG)
Ji Eun Park1,2, Kee Young Koo1, Jin Hyang Lee1,3, Un Ho Jung1, Hyun-Seog Roh2
and Wang Lai Yoon1*
1
Hydrogen Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University
3
Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Korea University

O-HF-017 RECENT RESEARCH PROGRESS OF H2 PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY


14:00~14:20 Won Chul Cho, Kyoung Soo Kang*, Ki Kwang Bae, Change Hee Kim, Seong Uk
Jeong and Chu Sik Park
Hydrogen research center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343, Republic of Korea

42
O-HF-018 WATER GAS SHIFT REACTION OVER CO-PRECIPITATED CuCeO2,
14:20~14:40 CuZrO2, AND CuCe(1x)Zr(x)O2 CATALYSTS
Hyun-Suk NA1, Dae-Woon JEONG1, Jae-Oh SHIM1, Won-Jun JANG1,
Hyun-Seog ROH1*, Un Ho JUNG2 and Wang Lai YOON2*
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea
2
Hydrogen Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
S. Korea

O-HF-019 WATER DISTRIBUTION VARIATION FROM INLET TO OUTLET IN


14:40~15:00 POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL (PEMFC)
Donggun KO1, Seungwoo DOH2 and Hyunsun PARK2*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and
Technology(POSTECH), Pohang, Korea
2
Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and
Technology(POSTECH), Pohang, Korea

43
GE : Geothermal Energy

O-GE-I

November 18 [Tue], 09:00~11:00 [Zepiros]

Chair : Prof. Kwang J. KIM (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA)
Prof. Jong Min Choi (Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea)

IN-GE-001 DROPWISE CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER: A REVISIT VIA


09:00~09:30 SURFACE ENERGIES MINIMIZATION METHODS
1 2
Kwang J. KIM * and Kuok CHENG
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA

O-GE-001 ESTIMATING ENERGY PRODUCTION WITH GSHP: AN ON-GOING


09:30~09:50 TASK OF IEA GEOTHERMAL
Yoonho SONG1*
1
Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon, Korea

O-GE-002 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CASCADE HEAT PUMP WITH THE


09:50~10:10 VARIATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONDITIONS
Samuel Boahen1, Seung Byung Park1, Eunoh Kim2 and Jong Min Choi3*
1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon,
Korea
2
R&D Center, DAESUNG HEAT Pump Co., Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea

O-GE-003 EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY ON HEAT EXCHANGE-


10:10~10:30 INDUCED THERMAL STRESS IN ENERGY PILE
Chihun SUNG1, Byeongyeon KIM1, Sangwoo PARK1, Kyoungsik JUNG2 and
1
Hangseok CHOI *
1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University,
Seoul, Korea
2
S-TECH Consulting Group, Seoul, Korea

O-GE-004 A SURVEY ON TESTING PLANT FOR VAPOR COMPRESSION


10:30~10:50 REFRIGERATION CYCLE
Daniel Apraku1, Seung Byung Park1 and Jong Min Choi2*
1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon,
Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea

O-GE-005 REVIEW OF SNOW MELTING SYSTEMS


1 1 2
10:50~11:10 Kwesi Mensah , Il Hyun Kang and Jong Min Choi *
1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon,
Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea

44
O-GE-II

November 18 [Tue], 15:00~16:50 [Zepiros]

Chair : Dr. Ivor Francis DA CUNHA (LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada)
Dr. Yoonho Song (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Korea)

IN-GE-002 INCREASING GSHP PERFORMANCE WITH ICT AND RETSCREEN


15:00~15:30 Ivor Francis DA CUNHA1* and Euy-Joon LEE2
1
LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada
2
New and Renewable Energy Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)
and Professor and Head, Renewable Energy Department, University of Science and
Technology (UST).,Daejeon, Korea

O-GE-006 A STUDY ON MAGNETOTELLURIC-BASED 4D IMAGING OF


15:30~15:50 ENGINEERED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR
1 2
Myung Jin NAM and Yoonho SONG *
1
Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul,
Korea
2
Geothermal Resources Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral
Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon, Korea

O-GE-007 REVIEW ON THE POTENTIAL AND RENEWABILITY OF GEOTHERMAL


15:50~16:10 ENERGY
Ki-Bok Min1*
1
Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea

O-GE-008 SELECTION AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF GEOTHERMAL


16:10~16:30 ENERGY HARNESS TECHNIQUES BASED ON PRACTICAL
LIMITATIONS
Muhammad Usman1,2, Buyng-Sik Peter Park1,2*, Dong Hyun Lee1 and Muhammad
1,2
Imran
1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, South Korea
2
University of Science & Technology, South Korea

O-GE-009 CHARACTERIZATION OF DRILL CUTTINGS FOR EVALUATION OF


16:30~16:50 DEEP GEOTHERMAL DRILLING
Kwang Yeom KIM1*, Sun YEOM1, Ho Geun KIM1 and Tae Sup YUN3
1
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Korea Institute of Construction
Technology, Gyeonggi, Korea
2
Department of Geothermal Development, NEXGEO Co., Seoul, Korea
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

45
O-GE-III

November 19 [Wed], 13:00~14:20 [Zepiros]

Chair : Dr. Ivor Francis DA CUNHA (LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada)
Prof. Hangseok Choi (Korea University)

O-GE-010 COMPARISON OF ESTIMATION METHODS FOR GROUND THERMAL


13:00~13:20 CONDUCTIVITY
Sangwoo PARK1, Byeongyeon KIM1, Dongseop LEE1, Chulho LEE2 and
Hangseok CHOI1*
1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University,
Seoul, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Civil engineering and building Technology (KICT), Gyeonggi-do,
Korea

O-GE-011 HVAC USING BIOMIMICRY AND GEOTHERMAL ENERGY


13:20~13:40 Jeong Kyun Seo1*
1
Department of Extreme Energy systems, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials,
Seoul, Korea

O-GE-012 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS ON BUILDING INTEGRATED GROUND


13:40~14:00 SOURCE HEAT PUMP (GSHP)-ICT HYBRID SYSTEM
Andrew Putrayudha S.1, Eun Chul KANG2, Euy Joon LEE2 and Ivor F. Da Cunha3
1
Department Renewable Energy Engineering, Korea University of Science and
Technology (UST), Daejeon, Korea
2
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
3
Leapfrog Energy Technologies Inc., Ontario, Canada

O-GE-013 EVALUATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF COIL-TYPE


14:00~14:20 CAST-IN-PLACE ENERGY PILES
Sangwoo PARK1, Chihun SUNG1, Kyoungsik JUNG2, Byonghu SOHN3 and
1
Hangseok CHOI *
1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University,
Seoul, Korea
2
S-TECH Consulting Group, Seoul, Kore
3
Korea Institute of Civil engineering and building Technology (KICT), Gyeonggi-do,
Korea

46
SG : Smart Grid

O-SG

November 18 [Tue], 09:00~11:00 [Boreas]

Chair : Prof. Rajit Gadh (University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), CA, U.S.A.)
Dr. Yu-jin Song (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea)

IN-SG-001 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNICATION


09:00~09:30 ARCHITECTURE IN A DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE SYSTEM
USING IEC 61850 STANDARD
Rui Huang1*, Wenbo Shi1, Daoyuan Yao1, Chi-Cheng Chu1, Rajit Gadh1, Yu-jin Song2
2
and Yoon-dong Sung
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Los Angeles
(UCLA), CA, U.S.A.
2
Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon, Korea

IN-SG-002 A MICROGRID ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON


09:30~10:00 LYAPUNOV OPTIMIZATION
Wenbo Shi1*, Eun-Kyu Lee1, Rui Huang1, Daoyuan Yao1, Chi-Cheng Chu1,
Rajit Gadh1, Yu-Jin Song2, and Yoon-Dong Sung2
1
Smart Grid Energy Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA,
USA
2
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

O-SG-001 DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF DUAL ACTIVE BRIDGE CONVERTER


10:00~10:20 FOR SOLID STATE TRANSFORMER IN SMART GRID APPLICATIONS
Hyun Jun CHOI1 and Jee Hoon JUNG1*
1
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UNIST, Ulsan, Korea

O-SG-002 RAILWAY ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(REMS) DEVELOPMENT


10:20~10:40 STUDIES FOR OPTIMAL ENERGY ALLOCATION
Hansang LEE1, Hosung JUNG2, Hyungchul KIM2 and Sungkwan JOO3*
1
School of Electrical & Railway Engineering, Kyungil University, Gyeongsan, Korea
2
Metropolitan Transportation Research Center, Korea Railroad Research Institute,
Uiwang, Korea
3
School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

O-SG-003 MULTI-FACTOR ACCESS CONTROL: WEIGHTED ACCESS CONTROL


10:40~11:00 DIFFERENTIATING PROTECTION LEVELS
Eun Kyu LEE1, Chi Cheng CHU2, Rajit GADH2 and Yoon Dong SUNG3*
1
Symantec Research Laboratory, Culver City, CA, USA
2
Smart Grid Energy Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA,
USA
3
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

47
WU : Waste Energy & Utilization

O-WU-I

November 18 [Tue], 09:00~11:00 [Euros I]

Chair : Dr. Yeon Seok Choi (Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Korea)

O-WU-001 POWER OPTIMIZATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2 BRAYTON CYCLES


09:00~09:20 FOR A SHIPBOARD WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM
Young-Jin BAIK, Jeachul JANG, Junhyun CHO, Ho-Sang RA and Minsung KIM*
Energy Efficiency Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
Korea

O-WU-002 A STUDY ON TORREFACTION OF FOOD WASTE


09:20~09:40 Jeeban Poudel1 and Sea Cheon Oh2*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan, Korea

O-WU-003 CO-PYROLYSIS OF DOUGLAS FIR AND COFFEE GROUND AND


09:40~10:00 PRODUCT BIOCRUDE-OIL CHARACTERISTICS
Ramesh SOYSA1, Sang Kyu CHOI2*, Yeon Woo JEONG1, Seock Joon KIM2 and
2
Yeon Seok CHOI
1
Department of Environment and Energy Mechanical Engineering, Korea University
of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea
2
Environment and Energy System Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery
and Materials, Daejeon 305-343, Republic of Korea

O-WU-004 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON THE RELIABILITY TEST OF


10:00~10:20 COMPRESSOR USING BYPAS GAS CYCLE
Joo Sang KIM, Gilbong LEE, Ho Sang RA and Minsung KIM*
Thermal Energy Conversation Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research

O-WU-005 STUDY ON CHRACTERISTIC OF SYNTHESIS GAS WITH ADVANCED


10:20~10:40 WASTE GASIFICATION SYSTEM TO APPLY CHEMICAL CONVERSION
PROSSESS
Sung Bang Nam1, Soo-Nam Park1, Yong-Taek Lim1, Young-Sik Yoon1,
1 1 2 2
Na-Rang Kim , Jae-Hoi Gu *, Sang-Ok Choi and In-Su Lee
1
Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, 663-2 Goan Baekam
Youngin, 449-863, Seoul, Korea
2
Samsung BP Chemical Corporation Ltd, 1320-10 Seocho Seoul, 137-070, Korea

O-WU-006 CATALYTIC PYROLYSIS OF WASTE PULPING CHEMICALS BY


10:40~11:00 MICROWAVE HEATING
Panchaluck Sornkade1, Duangduen Atong1 and Viboon Sricharoenchaikul2*
1
National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thailand Science Park,
Pathumthani, Thailand
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand

48
O-WU-II

November 19 [Wed], 9:00~11:00 [Euros I]

Chair : Dr. Sang-Kyu Choi (Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Korea)

O-WU-007 EFFECT OF SPENT CHEMICAL IN PULP MILL PROCESS ON


09:00~09:20 SYNTHESIS GAS PRODUCTION FROM LIGNIN GASIFICATION UNDER
SUPERCRITICAL WATER CONDITION
Yotwadee HAWANGCHU1, Duangduen ATONG2 and Viboon SRICHAROENCHAIKUL3*
1
International program on hazardous substance and environmental management
Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2
National Metal and Material Technology Center, Thailand Science Park,
Pathumthani, Thailand
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn
University, Bangkok, Thailand

O-WU-008 COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE (ORC)


09:20~09:40 CONFIGURATIONS FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY
Muhammad Imran1,2, Byung-Sik Park2,1, Hyouck-Ju Kim2,1 and Muhammad Usman1,2
1
Energy System Engineering, University of Science & Technology, Daejeon, Korea
2
Energy Efficiency Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
Korea

O-WU-009 DEVEOPMENT OF A BIOCRUDE-OIL BURNER AND STUDY ON THE


09:40~10:00 COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS
Sang Kyu CHOI1*, Yeon Seok CHOI1, Seock Joon Kim1, Yeon Woo JEONG2 and
2
Ramesh SOYSA
1
Environmental and Energy Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery
and Materials, Daejeon 305-343, Republic of Korea
2
Department of Environment and Energy Mechanical Engineering, Korea University
of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea

O-WU-010 DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF 1KW ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE


10:00~10:20 SYSTEM TEST BED
Muhammad Usman1,2, Buyng-Sik Peter Park1,2*, Dong Hyun Lee1 and
Muhammad Imran1,2
1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, South Korea
2
University of Science & Technology, South Korea

O-WU-011 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE SILOXANE ABSORBENTS


10:20~10:40 PERFORMANCE
JUNG Keuk PARK1*, Jung Keun LEE1 and Kwang Beom HUR1*
1
Future Technology Lab., Korea Electric Power Corporation, Daejon, Korea

49
O-WU-012 EXPANSION CHARACTERISTICS OF POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
10:40~11:00 EXPANDER FOR VEHICLE ENGINE WASTE HEAT RECOVERY UNDER
OFF-DESIGN OPERATING CONDITIONS
Young Min KIM*, Dong Gil SHIN, Se Jong WOO and Chang Gi KIM
Environmental and Energy Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery
and Materials, Daejeon, Korea

50
ME : Marine Energy

O-ME-I

November 18 [Tue], 09:00~11:30 [Euros II]

Chair : Prof. Johnny C L Chan (City University of Hong Kong)


Prof. Changjo Yang (Mokpo National Maritime University, Korea)

IN-ME-001 A NEW CONCEPT IN TIDAL TURBINES


09:00~09:30 Johnny C L Chan
Ability R&D Research Centre, School of Energy and Environment, City University
of Hong Kong

O-ME-001 EXPERIMENTS ON THE HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF


09:30~09:50 HORIZONTAL AXIS TIDAL
Guang Zhao*, Xiaohui Su, Yan Liu and Qingkai Han
Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy utilization and Energy Conversion of Ministry of
Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China

O-ME-002 TOWER STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ON A COMBINED SYSTEM OF


09:50~10:10 WIND AND OCEAN ENERGY CONVERTERS
Patrick Mark SINGH1 and Young-Do CHOI2*
1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National
University, Mokpo, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of New and Renewable Energy
Technology Research, Mokpo National University, Mokpo, Korea

O-ME-003 POTENTIAL ON THE ENERGY SAVING OF ICE RINK THROUGH THE


10:10~10:30 APPLICATION OF SEA WATER HEAT PUMP
Gilbong Lee*, Kichang Chang, Young-Jin Baik, Hosang Ra and Jun-Hyun Cho1
1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

O-ME-004 PERFORMANCE OF TIDAL CURRENT TURBINE WITH PRE-DEFORMED


10:30~10:50 BLADES
Chul Hee JO1, Kang Hee LEE1, Chan Hoi GOO1 and Do Youb KIM1*
1
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Inha University, Incheon,
Korea

O-ME-005 PERFORMANCE TEST OF DUAL HULL FLOATING TYPE WAVE


10:50~11:10 ENERGY CONVERTER USING BI-DRECTIONAL TURBINE
Byung Ha KIM1, Sang Yun KIM1 and Young Ho LEE2*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate school, Korea Maritime and
Ocean University, Busan, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU, Busan, Korea

51
O-ME-006 A NUMERICAL STUDY TO REPLACE THE CROSS-FLOW TURBINE IN
11:10~11:30 WAVE POWER CONVERTOR WITH AN ORIFICE TUBE BY CFD AND
MATLAB CODES
1 1 2
Sang Yoon KIM , Byung Ha KIM and Young Ho LEE *
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Korea Maritime and
Ocean University, Busan, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU, Busan, Korea

52
O-ME-II

November 19 [Wed], 13:00~14:50 [Euros II]

Chair : Prof. Jiahn-Horng Chen (National Taiwan Ocean University)


Prof. Chul Hee JO (Inha University, Incheon, Korea)

IN-ME-002 THE CURRENT STATUS OF MARINE ENERGY IN TAIWAN


13:00~13:30 Jiahn-Horng Chen
National Taiwan Ocean University 2 Pei-Ning Raod, Keelung, Taiwan

O-ME-007 COUNTER-ROTATING TYPE TIDAL STREAM POWER UNIT


13:30~13:50 Yuta USUI1*, Kohei TAKAKI2, Bin HUANG3, Toshiaki KANEMOTO3 and
3
Koju HIRAKI
1
JSPS Research Fellow, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of
Technology, Fukuoka, Japan
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Japan
3
Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Japan

O-ME-008 OPTIMIZATION OF BLADE SETTING ANGLES OF A


13:50~14:10 COUNTER-ROTATING TYPE HORIZONTAL-AXIS TIDAL TURBINE
USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL
VALIDATION
Bin Huang1*, Yuta Usui2, Kohei Takaki2 and Toshiaki Kanemoto1
1
Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan

O-ME-009 DESIGN AND CONTROL OF AN ADVANCED MECHANISM FOR


14:10~14:30 ADAPTIVE PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF A WAVE ENERGY
CONVERTER
Quang Truong DINH1, Minh Tri NGUYEN1, Kyoung Kwan AHN1*,
Hyung Gyu PARK1, Se young Lee1 and Quoc Thanh TRUONG2
1
School of Mechanical Engineer, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Korea
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Hochiminh University of Technology,
Hochiminh, Vietnam

O-ME-010 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DEFORMED TIDAL TURBINE BY


14:30~14:50 HYDRODYNAMIC LOADS
Chul Hee JO1, Su Jin HWANG1, Cristian NICHITA2 and Kang Hee LEE1*
1
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Inha University, Incheon,
Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Le Havre, Le Havre, France

53
O-ME-III

November 19 [Wed], 15:20~17:30 [Euros II]

Chair : Prof. M. Rafiuddin Ahmed (The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji)
Prof. Young Ho LEE (Korea Maritime University, Korea)

IN-ME-003 ASSESSMENT OF OCEAN ENERGY RESOURCES IN THE SOUTH


15:20~15:50 PACIFIC
M. Rafiuddin Ahmed
Division of Mechanical Engineering, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji

O-ME-011 AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON AN INNOVATIVE WAVE


15:50~16:10 ENERGY CONVERTER USING MECHANICAL PTO SYSTEM
Phan Cong BINH1 and Kyoung Kwan. AHN2*
1
Graduate School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, University of Ulsan,
Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, University of Ulsan, Korea

O-ME-012 CFD PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A COUNTER-ROTATING TIDAL


16:10~16:30 CURRENT TURBINE WITHIN A DUCT
Nak Joong LEE1, In Chul Kim1, Beom Soo Hyun2 and Young Ho LEE3*
1
Graduate School, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime & Ocean
University(KMOU), Busan, Korea
2
Division of Naval Architecture and Ocean System Engineering, KMOU
3
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU

O-ME-013 COUNTER-ROTATING TYPE WELLS RUNNERS FOR FLOATING WAVE


16:30~16:50 POWER STATION
Shun Okamoto1, Toshiaki Kanemoto2*, Huang Bin2 and Toshihiko Umekage2
1
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan
2
Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan

O-ME-014 ANALYSIS OF A 10KW BLADE FOR MARINE CURRENT TURBINES


16:50~17:10 USING CFD AND SCALED DOWN EXPERIMENTS
In Cheol Kim1, Nak Joong Lee1 and Young ho Lee2*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Korea Maritime and
Ocean University(KMOU), Busan, Korea
2
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, Busan, KMOU

O-ME-015 OPTIMIZATION OF MOORING SYSTEM FOR MULTI-ARRAYED TIDAL


17:10~17:30 TURBINES IN A STRONG CURRENT AREA
Chul Hee JO1, Do Youb KIM1, Cameron JOHNSTONE2 and Yu Ho RHO1*
1
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Inha University, Incheon,
Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Scotland, United
Kingdom

54
PV : Photovoltaics

O-PV-I

November 18 [Tue], 15:00~17:00 [Notos]

Chair : Dr. Jihye GWAK (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea)

O-PV-001 CHARACTERISTICS OF CuSbS2 AS AN ABSORBER FOR


15:00~15:20 PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELLS
1,2 1,2 1 1 1
Shahara Banu , Se Jin Ahn , Jihye Gwak , Young Joo Eo , Jae Ho Yun and
1
Ara Cho *
1
New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea
Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon, South Korea
2
University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, South Korea

O-PV-002 PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF A SOLAR POWER DEVICE


15:20~15:40 CONSISTED OF CPV AND LFR WITH SECONDARY REFLECTORS
1 2 3
Jae Hyuk SHIN , Hyun Jin KIM and Joon Hong BOO *
1
Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, Jinju, Gyeongnam, Korea
2
Graduate school, Korea Aerospace University, Gyeonggi, Korea
3
School of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, ,
Gyeonggi, Korea

O-PV-003 NEXT GENERATION PROMISING CU2(ZNxFE1-x)SNS4 ABSORBER


15:40~16:00 MATERIAL PREPARED BY PULSED LASER DEPOSITION TECHNIQUE
G. L. Agawane, S.W. Shin, M.P. Suryawanshi, S.A. Vanalakar, A.V. Moholkar and
J.H. Kim*
Optoelectronics Convergence Research Center, Department of Materials Science and
Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea

O-PV-004 CU-CONTAMINATION OF SINGLE CRYSTALLINE SILICON WAFERS


16:00~16:20 WITH THICKNESS OF 100 UM DURING MULTI-WIRE SAWING
PROCESS
1 1 1 2
Sun Ho CHOI , Bo Yun JANG *, Joon Soo KIM , Hee Eun SONG and
Moon Hee HAN3
1
Advanced materials and devices laboratory , Korea institute of energy research,
Daejeon, Korea
2
Photovoltaic laboratory, Korea institute of energy research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Graduate school of energy science and technology, Chungnam national University,
Daejeon, Korea

55
O-PV-005 EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE ON MOLYBEDENUM
16:20~16:40 DENSIFICATION AND ITS OVER-ALL EFFECT ON SOLAR CELL
PERFORMANCE
Muhammad SAIF ULLAH1,2, SeJin AHN1,2, Jihye GWAK2, Seungkyu AHN2 and
Jae Ho YUN2
1
University of Science & Technology, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon,305-350, Korea
2
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon,
305-343, Korea

O-PV-006 ENHANCED HETEROJUNCTION INTERFACE QUALITY IN CU2O


16:40~17:00 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BY ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
Jaeyeong Heo1*
1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Optoelectronics Convergence
Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

56
O-PV-II

November 19 [Wed], 09:00~11:40 [Notos]

Chair : Dr. Sewang Yoon (Auditor of Korean Society for New & Renewable Energy, Korea)

O-PV-007 FORMATION MECHANISM OF COPPER INDIUM SELENIDE CISe THIN


09:00~09:20 FILM BY METAL SALTS BASED MOLECULAR INKS
1,2 2 2 2 2
Shanza Rehan , Young-Joo Eo , Ara Cho , Jihye Gwak , KyungHoon Yoon and
1,2
SeJin Ahn *
1
Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon,
South Korea
2
Photovoltaics Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, 305-343,
South Korea

O-PV-008 DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS WITH GEL ELECTROLYTE USING


09:20~09:40 PYRIDINIUMIODIDE ATTACHED NANO-SILICA
Hye Jin Song1,2, Kwan Woo Ko2 and Chi Hwan Han2*
1
University of science and technology, Daejeon, Korea
2
Photovoltaic lab, Korea Institute of Energy Reserch, Daejeon, Korea

O-PV-009 ELECTRODE FORMATION USING LIGHT INDUCED ELECTROLESS


09:40~10:00 PLATING IN THE CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS WITH
VARIOUS ANTI-REFLECTION COATING
Myeong Sang JEONG, Min Gu KANG, Jeong In LEE and Hee-eun SONG*
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

O-PV-010 AG-ALLOYING EFFECTS IN WIDE-BANDGAP CIGS SOLAR CELLS


10:00~10:20 FABRICATED BY A THREE-STAGE CO-EVAPORATION
Kihwan Kim1*, Joo Wan Park1,2, Jin Su Yu1, Jun-sik Cho1, Jihye Gwak1, Sejin Ahn1,
1 1 1 1 1
Ara Cho , Seung Kyu Ahn , Young-Joo Eo , Joo Hyung Park , Keeshik Shin ,
1 1
Kyung Hoon Yoon and Jae Ho Yun
1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343,
Republic of Kore
2
Department of Electronic Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon
305-764, Republic of Korea

O-PV-011 SINGLE SOURCE PRECURSOR FOR VACUUM EVAPORATION OF


10:20~10:40 MOBI2SE5 PHOTOACTIVE THIN FILMS
1 2 3 1 2
Prof. Popatrao N. Bhosale *, S. S. Mali , S. S. Mohite , R. R. Kharade , C. K. Hong ,
D. G. Kanase3 and P. S. Patil4
1
Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University,
Kolhapur-416 004, MH, India
2
Department of Advanced Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University,
Gwangju-500 757, South Korea.
3
Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Katraj, Pune-441 046, MH, India
4
Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University,
Kolhapur-416 004, MH, India

57
O-PV-012 HIGHLY ENHANCED PERFORMANCE OF INVERTED POLYMER
10:40~11:00 SOLAR CELLS USING PENTACENE
Feng YANG, Eung-Kyu PARK, Jae-Hyoung KIM and Yong-Sang KIM*
School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon,
Gyeonggi, 440-746, Republic of Korea

O-PV-013 FABRICATION OF ULTRATHIN MONO CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR


11:00~11:20 CELL WITH 156X156 mm2 AREA BY
CONVENTIONAL PROCESS
Min Gu Kang1, Tae-hyun Baek1, Sung Jin Choi1, Jung In Lee1 and Hee-eun Song1*
1
Solar Energy Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic
of Korea

O-PV-014 SOL-GEL BASED Cu2ZnSnS4 THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS


1,2 3 1 4
11:20~11:40 Na Kyoung YOUN , Dahyun NAM , Jihye GWAK *, Jin Hyeok KIM ,
Jae Ho YUN1, SeJin AHN1, Ara CHO1, Young Ju EO1, Seung Kyu AHN1,
3 2 1 1
Hyeonsik CHEONG , Dong Hwan KIM , Kee Shik SHIN and Kyung Hoon YOON
1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
3
Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea
4
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University,
Gwangju, Korea

58
ST : Solar Thermal

O-ST

November 19 [Wed], 9:00~11:50 [Zepiros]

Chair : Prof. Tatsuya Kodama (Niigata University, Japan)


Dr. Yong Heack Kang (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea)

IN-ST-001 A SYSTEMATIC METHOD TO MEASURE THE PERFORMANCE OF


09:00~09:30 SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC AND SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY
Ivor Francis DA CUNHA1* and Euy-Joon LEE2
1
LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada
2
New and Renewable Energy Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)
and Professor and Head, Renewable Energy Department, University of Science and
Technology (UST).,Daejeon, Korea

IN-ST-002 COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON A SOLAR


09:30~10:00 CHIMNEY POWER PLANT FOR POWER GENERATION IN PACIFIC
ISLAND COUNTRIES
M. Rafiuddin Ahmed1* and Sandeep Patel1
1
Division of Mechanical Engineering, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji

IN-ST-003 SOLAR THERMO-CHEMISTRY FOR CONVERTING CONCENTRATING


10:00~10:30 SOLAR HEAT TO FUELS
Tatsuya Kodama
Dept. of Chem. & Chem. Eng., Faculty of Engineering Niigata University, 8050
Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, Japan

O-ST-001 AN EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE COMPARISON STUDY OF AIR


10:30~10:50 AND WATER PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL MODULES FOR HEAT AND
POWER CO-GENERATION
Kwang Seob Lee1, Andrew Putryudha S.1, Eun Chul Kang2 and Euy Joon Lee2*
1
Department of Renewable Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology
(UST), Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Energy Efficiency Research, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

O-ST-002 A LCOE ESTIMATION FOR A NEW SOLAR COGENERATION


10:50~11:10 EQUIPMENT AS A BACKSTOP TECHNOLGY
Jong Sun KIM1, Heoung Jung KANG2 and Yong Sang YOON3*
1
Department of International Business, Konkuk University, Chungju, Korea
2
Department of Tariff and Logistics, Konkuk University, Chungju, Korea
3
Department of Building Research, Korea Institute of Construction Technology,
Goyang, Korea

59
O-ST-003 AN OPTICAL MODELING PROGRAM FOR THE SOLAR CENTRAL
11:10~11:30 RECEIVER SYSTEM-HATSAL
Hyun Jin Lee1*, Jong Kyu Kim1, Sang Nam Lee1, Hwan Ki Yoon1 and
2
Yong Heack Kang
1
Solar Thermal Laboratory , Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
New & Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

O-ST-004 SUPPLY AND OPERATION OF 10 kW DISH-STIRLING SYSTEM IN


11:30~11:50 KOREA
Jong Kyu Kim1*, Sang Nam Lee1, Yong Heack Kang2 and Byung Hyun Jo3
1
Solar Thermal Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
New & renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
3
KOCH Membrane Korea, Seoul, Korea

60
LC : Low Carbon technology / CCT&CCS

O-LC / O-CCT&CCS

November 19 [Wed], 09:00~11:00 [Euros II]

Chair : Dr. Chang-Keun YI (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea)

O-LC-001 AMMONIA FUELED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN DUAL FUEL


09:00~09:20 CONCEPT WITH GASOLINE OR DIESEL
1 1 2
Youngmin WOO *, Jin Young JANG and Jong-Nam KIM
1
Energy Saving Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Petroleum and Gas Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

O-LC-002 SCENARIO ANALYSIS FOR GHG EMISSION REDUCTION POTENTIAL


09:20~09:40 IN THE INNOVATION CITY OF REPUBLIC OF KOREA
1,3 1 2 3
Seohoon Kim , Jonghun Kim , Choelyong Jang , Kyoodong Song and
1
Hakgeun Jeong *
1
Energy Saving Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic
of Korea
2
Quality Management Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic
of Korea
3
Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

O-LC-003 HEAT REMOVABLE LED LUMINAIRE EFFECT ON COOLING LOAD IN


09:40~10:00 OFFICE BUILDINGS
Byunglip Ahn1,3, Jonghun Kim1, Choelyong Jang2, Seung-Bok Leigh3 and
1
Hakgeun Jeong *
1
Energy Saving Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic
of Korea
2
Quality Management Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic
of Korea
3
Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

O-LC-004 ELECTROLYTIC SYNTHESIS OF AMMONIA FROM WATER AND


10:00~10:20 NITROGEN
Hyung Chul Yoon1, Kwiyong Kim2, Chan-Heui Hyung1, Jong-In Han2 and
1
Jong-Nam Kim
1
Petroleum and Gas Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
305-343, Republic of Korea
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701, Republic of Korea

61
O-CCT&CCS-001 EFFECTS OF WATER VAPOR PRETREATMENT AND REGENERATIG
10:20~10:40 GASES ON CO2 CAPTURE USING POTASSIUM-BASED SOLID
SORBENTS IN A BUBBLING FLUIDIZED-BED REACTOR
Yunju KIM1, Young Cheol PARK2, Sung-Ho JO2, Chang-Keun YI2 and
Yongwon SEO2*
1
School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science
and Technology, Ulsan, Korea
2
Climate Change Research Disivion, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
Korea

O-CCT&CCS-002 NEW PLANT DEMONSTRATING CO2 CAPTURE FROM REAL


10:40~11:00 COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT BY DRY SORBENT
Chang-Keun YI*, Sung-Ho JO, Young Cheol PARK, Hang-Dae JO,
Dae-Hyun KYUNG and Jae-Young KIM
Climate Change Research Disivion, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
Korea

62
BE : Bioenergy

O-BE-I

November 19 [Wed], 13:00~14:50 [Notos]

Chair : Dr. Xinshu Zhuang (Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, China)


Prof. Kyung-Keun Oh (Dankook University, Korea)

IN-BE-001 THE STATE OF ART OF BIOMASS ENERGY IN CHINA


13:00~13:30 Zhenhong Yuan* and Xinshu Zhuang
Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy,
CAS, Guangzhou China, 510640

O-BE-001 COMPARATIVE MICROBIAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE ANAEROBIC


13:30~13:50 DIGESTERS TREATING FOOD WASTEWATER
Woong KIM1 and Ji-Won Yang1,2*
1
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 291 Daehakno, Yuseong-gu,
KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea
2
Advanced Biomass R&D Center, KAIST, Daehakno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701,
Republic of Korea

O-BE-002 FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ACID HYDROLYSATES


13:50~14:10 ACCORDING TO NEUTRALIZING CHEMICALS
Su Young YOON, Jai Sung LEE and Soo-Jeong SHIN*
Department Wood and Paper Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk,
Korea

O-BE-003 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PRETREATMENT OF CASHEW NUT SHELL


14:10~14:30 LIQUID
Jun Hwa Kwon, Hang Seok Choi*, Hoon Chae Park, Jae Gyu Hwang and
Ho Seong Yoo
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea

O-BE-004 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMMERCIAL CATALYSTS FOR TAR


14:30~14:50 STEAM REFORMING
Seo Yun PARK1, Kun Woong OH2, Sang Jun YOON3 and Jae Goo LEE3*
1
Department of Environment Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju,
Korea
2
Department of Advanced Energy Technology, University of Science and Technology,
Daejeon, Korea
3
Department of Fossil Energy and Environment Research, Korea Institute of Energy
Research, Daejeon, Korea

63
O-BE-II

November 19 [Wed], 15:20~17:30 [Notos]

Chair : Dr. Xinshu Zhuang (Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, China)


Prof. Kyung-Keun Oh (Dankook University, Korea)

IN-BE-002 INVESTIGATION OF PLANT CELL WALL DECONSTRUCTION WITH


15:20~15:50 TWO HYBRID PENNISETUM AFTER LIQUID HOT WATER
PRETREATMENT
Jing LIU1,2, Qiang YU1, Xinshu ZHUANG1*, Wen WANG1 and Zhenhong YUAN1
1
Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

O-BE-005 STEAM REFORMING OF TOLUENE OVER Ni-BASED COMMERCIAL


15:50~16:10 AND Ni/Ru-Mn/Al2O3 CATALYSTS
1 2 3 3
Kun Woong Oh , Seo Yoon Park , Myung Won Seo , Yong Ku Kim ,
3 3 1,3
Ho Won Ra , Jae-Goo Lee ** and Sang Jun Yoon *
1
Advanced Energy Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon,
Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University,
Cheongju, Korea
3
Climate Change Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
Korea

O-BE-006 COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GREEN DIESEL


16:10~16:30 PRODUCTION FROM CRUDE PALM OIL AND WASTE COOKING OIL
VIA PYROLYSIS
Pisitpong INTARAPONG1,2, Seksan PAPONG3 and Pomthong MALAKUL1,2*
1
The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand
2
Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn
University, Bangkok, Thailand
3
National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathumthani, Thailand

O-BE-007 OPTIMIZATION ON CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID HYDROLYSIS


16:30~16:50 FOR GLUCOSE FROM AVICEL CELLULOSE
Jai-Sung Lee1 and Soo-Jeong Shin*
1
Department of wood and paper science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk
361-763, Korea

O-BE-008 A STUDY ON LIQUID FUEL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS


16:50~17:10 Jae-Kon Kim, JoYong Park, Eui Soon Yim and Jonghan Ha
Research Institute of Petroleum Technology ,Korea Petroleum Quality & Distribution
Authority, Cheongju-city, Korea

64
O-BE-009 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND COMBUSTION BEHAVIORS OF
17:10~17:30 WOOD PELLETS
Joon AHN1* and Hyouck Ju KIM2
1
School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

65
SH : Small Hydro Power

O-SH-I

November 19 [Wed], 13:00~14:50 [Euros I]

Chair : Dr. Morihito INAGAKI (Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo, Japan)
Prof. Young Do CHOI (Mokpo University, Mokpo, Korea)

IN-SH-001 CURRENT STATUS AND PROSPECT OF HYDROPOWER IN JAPAN


1
13:00~13:30 Morihito INAGAKI *
1
Transmission Department, Power Grid Company, Tokyo Electric Power Company,
Tokyo, Japan

O-SH-001 PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION OF A PROPELLER TURBINE FOR


13:30~13:50 MICRO HYDRO APPLICATION
Byung Kon KIM1* and Eung Kyo KIM2
1,2
DSK Engineering Co.,Ltd., Seoul, Korea

O-SH-002 A STUDY ON A VERY LOW HEAD OPEN DUCTED CROSS FLOW


13:50~14:10 TURBINE WITH INLET GUIDE NOZZLE
Zhen Mu CHEN1 and Young Do CHOI2*
1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National, Mokpo,
Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of New and Renewable Energy
Technology Research, Mokpo University, Mokpo, Korea

O-SH-003 EFFECT OF INLET BLADE ANGLE ON POWER PERFORMANCE FOR


14:10~14:30 OPEN TYPE CROSS-FLOW TURBINE
Yusuke KATAYAMA1* and Shouichiro IIO2
1
Department of Mathematics and System Development, Shinshu University, Nagano,
Japan
2
Department of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan

O-SH-004 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 70 KW FRANCIS TURBINE RUNNER


14:30~14:50 WITH COMBINE STUDY OF FSI AND CAVITATION
Atmaram KAYASTHA1, Bhola THAPA3 and Young Ho LEE2*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean
University(KMOU), Busan, Korea
2
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal

66
O-SH-II

November 19 [Wed], 15:20~17:20 [Euros I]

Chair : Prof. Baoshan ZHU (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)


Prof. Young Do CHOI (Mokpo University, Mokpo, Korea)

O-SH-005 MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF A REVERSIBLE


15:20~15:40 PUMP-TURBINE RUNNER
Baoshan ZHU1*, Qiong Zhang2, Xuhe Wang1, Young-Do Choi3 and Shuliang Cao1
1
State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Thermal
Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
2
Hunan Vanguard Group, Co., Ltd, China South Industries Group Corporation,
Changsha, Hunan Province, China
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National University, Mokpo, Korea

O-SH-006 ESTABLISHMENT OF TURBINE TEST RIGs AT TURBINE TESTING LAB


15:40~16:00 (TTL) FOR CAPACITY AND COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT TO UPLIFT
THE MICRO HYDRO STATUS OF NEPAL
1 1 1 1
Anup KC *, Bhola Thapa , Hari Prasad Neopane , Sailesh Chitrakar ,
Biraj Singh Thapa2 and Young-Ho LEE3
1
Turbine Testing Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University,
Nepal
2
Waterpower Laboratory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
3
Flow Informatics Lab, Department of Mechanical & Energy System Engineering,
Korea Maritime & Ocean University, South Korea

O-SH-007 OPTIMAL DESIGN OF RUNNER BLADE OF FRANCIS TURBINE USING


16:00~16:20 RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD
Jae Won KIM1, Sun Seok BYEON1 and Youn Jea KIM2*
1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon,
Korea
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea

O-SH-008 EVALUATION OF PRESSURE PULSATION IN TWO DIFFERENT TYPES


16:20~16:40 OF FRANCIS TURBINE
Jungwan PARK1*, Han-su CHOI2 and Yoon-Heung JEON3
1
Department of Machinery and Materials, KHNP-CRI, Daejeon, Korea

O-SH-009 CFD SIMULATION OF A CROSS FLOW TURBINE FOR PARTIAL FLOW


16:40~17:00 CONDITIONS
Mausam SHRESTHA1 and Young-Ho LEE2
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University,
Busan, Korea
2
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, College of Engineering,
Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Korea

O-SH-010 ROLE OF HYDROPOWER IN MYANMAR


17:00~17:20 Nay Lin
International Energy Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University

67
PN : Policy, Strategy & New Business

O-PN

November 19 [Wed], 15:20~17:10 [Grandball room II]

Chair : Dr. Ivor Francis DA CUNHA (LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada)
Dr. Euy-Joon LEE (Korea Institute of Energy Research and UST, Daejeon, Korea)

IN-PN-001 A PROVEN METHOD TO QUANTIFY AND PRIORITIZE PROJECTS FOR


15:20~15:50 THE RENWABLE HEAT OBLIGATION (RHO)
Ivor Francis DA CUNHA1* and Euy-Joon LEE2
1
LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada
2
New and Renewable Energy Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)
and Professor and Head, Renewable Energy Department, University of Science and
Technology (UST)., Daejeon, Korea

O-PN-001 ENERGY PERFORMANCE BASELINE OF DETACHED HOUSES FOR


15:50~16:10 LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS IN SOUTH KOREA
Junghwa KIM1,2, Byunglip AHN2, Jonghun KIM2, Hakgeun JEONG2 and
1,3
Cheolyong JANG *
1
Energy System Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul,
Korea
2
Energy Saving laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Quality Management Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

O-PN-002 CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF THEORETICAL WITH ACTUAL ENERGY


16:10~16:30 CONSUMPTION ACCORDING TO INSULATION STANDARD
Jeonggook Kim1,2, Jonghun Kim1, Cheolyong Jang3, Doosam Song2 and
1
Hakgeun Jeong *
1
Energy Saving laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of
Korea
3
Quality Management Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

O-PN-003 THERMAL COMFORT CONTROL BASED ON OCCUPANTS INTUITIVE


16:30~16:50 THERMAL SENSATION
Hyesim HAN1, Jinsook LEE2, Jonghun KIM3, Cheolyong JANG3 and
Hakgeun JEONG3*
1
Weatherization Assistance Dept., Korea Energy Foundation, Seoul, Korea
2
Department of Architectural Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon,
Korea
3
Energy Efficiency and Materials Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy
Research, Daejeon, Korea

68
O-PN-004 THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORARY HOUSE CONSIDERING THE
16:50~17:10 INDOOR THERMAL ENVIRONMAENT
Hwa Yeon SHIN1, Jeong Gook KIM2, Jeong Hun KIM3, Hak Geun JEONG3,
3 4
Cheol Yong JANG and Won Hwa HONG
1
Department of Architectural of Engineering, Kyungbuk National University, Daegu,
Korea
2
Department of Architectural of Engineering, SungKyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea
3
Building Energy Research Center, KIER, Daejeon, Korea
4
Department of Architectural of Engineering, Kyungbuk National University, Daegu,
Korea

69
ESS : Energy Storage System

O-ESS

November 19 [Wed], 15:20~16:20 [Boreas]

Chair : Dr. Bo Yun JANG (Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea)

O-ESS-001 INSIGHT EFFECTS OF MIXED HYDRATE PROMOTERS ON METHANE


15:20~15:40 HYDRATE FORMATION AND DISSOCIATION
1 1 1
Atsadawuth SIANGSAI , Pramoch RANGSUNVIGIT *, Boonyarach KITIYANAN
2
and Santi KULPRATHIPANJA
1
The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand
2
UOP, A Honeywell Company, Illinois, USA

O-ESS-002 EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF SI


15:40~16:00 NANOPATICLES SYNTHESIZED BY USING MICROWAVE PLASMA
1,2 1 1,2 1
Jeong Boon KOO , Jung Hoon CHEON , Sun Ho CHOI , Bo Yun JANG *,
Joon Soo KIM1, Jin Seok LEE1, Sung Soo KIM2 and Kyoo Seung HAN2*
1
Advanced Materials and Devices Laboratory,Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
2
Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University,
Daejeon, Korea

O-ESS-003 EFFICIENT ENERGY STORAGE METHOD BY MULTISTAGE PUMP OF


16:00~16:20 THE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM USING CFD
Ji Hoon Park1, Byeoung Jun Kim1, Chang Goo Kim2 and Young Ho Lee2*
1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime and
Ocean University(KMOU), Busan, Korea
2
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU

70
Poster Sessions
PV : Photovoltaics

P-PV

November 18 [Tue], 11:00~11:40 [Robby]

P-PV-001 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS USING


MOO3 NPS AND MOS2 NPS
Jae-Hyoung Kim and Yong-Sang KIM*
School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon,
Gyeonggi, 440-746, Republic of Korea

P-PV-002 INTEGRATION OF METALLURGICAL PURIFICATION AND


CONTINUOUS CASTING FOR GROWING MONO-LIKE CRYSTALLINE
SILICON INGOT FROM METALLURGICAL-GRADE SILICON
Jun-Kyu LEE1,3, Jin-Seok LEE1*, Bo-Yun JANG1, Joon-Soo KIM1,
1 2 3
Young-Soo AHN , Gi-Hwan KANG and Churl-Hee CHO
1
Advanced Materials and Devices Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
2
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University,
Daejeon, Korea

P-PV-003 FABRICATION OF CuInSe2(CIS) THIN FILM SOLAR CELL VIA A


NON-VACUUM PROCESS
Young-Joo Eo1, Wonha Lee1, Kyunhwan Kim1, SeJin Ahn1, Ara Cho1, Jihye Gwak1,
1 1 1 1 1
Kyunghoon Yoon , Keeshik Shin , Seung Kyu Ahn , Jun Sik Cho , Ju Hyung Park ,
1 1 2 3 3
Jin Su Yu , Kihwan Kim , Se Youn Moon , Hyo Rim Jung , Jin Hyeok Kim **
and Jae Ho Yun1*
1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER),Daejeon, Korea
2
High Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju,
Korea
3
Dept.of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju,
Korea

P-PV-004 IMPROVED LIGHT TRAPPING IN SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS


IN N-I-P CONFIGURATION USING HIGHLY TEXTURED ZINC OXIDE
FILMS
Eunseok JANG, Dongmin LIM, Seungkyu AHN, Joo Hyung PARK, Jinsoo Yoo,
Kyung Hoon YOON and Jun-Sik CHO*
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

P-PV-005 KERFLESS WAFERING FROM SILICON MELT VIA DIP COATING


TECHNOLOGY
Changbum Lee and Wooyoung Yoon*
Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

71
P-PV-006 CHARACTERIZATION OF ZINC OXYSULFIDE BUFFER LAYERS
GROWN BY ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
Hee Kyeung HONg, Hui Kyung PARK, Jaeseung JO and Jaeyeong HEO*
Department of Materials Science Engineering and Optoelectronics Convergence
Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

P-PV-007 ELECTRON-BEAM EVAPORATED TIN SULFIDE FILMS FOR SOLAR


CELL APPLICATIONS
Hui Kyung PARK, Hee Kyeung HONG, Jaeseung JO and Jaeyeong HEO*
Department of Materials Science Engineering and Optoelectronics Convergence
Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

P-PV-008 OPTIMIZATION OF ZnO@mesoporous TiO2 Core@Shell STRUCTURES


FOR ENHANCED PHOTOCATALYTIC EFFICIENCY
Woohyoung LEE1, Suk-Ho LEE1 and Cheolhyun LIM1*
1
Green energy institute, Mokpo-Si, Jeollanamdo, Korea

P-PV-009 EFFECT OF MORPHOLOGY CHANGES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE


CONDUCTIVE FILMS WITH VARIOUS BONDING PARAMETERS ON
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SILICON SOLAR CELL STRINGS
Su-Wung Baek1,4, Kwang-Il Choi1, Suk-Ho Lee1, Chan-Hyuk Cheon2, Seung-Min Hong2,
3 3 3 1
Kil-Song Lee , Hyun-Woo Shin , Yeon-Won Yang and Cheolhyun Lim *
1
Green Energy Institute, 177, Samhyangcheon-ro, Mokpo-si, Jeollanam-do, 530-400, Korea
2
Aaron Co.,Ltd, Changgok-ri, Paltan-myeon, Hwaseong-Si, Gyeonggi-do, 103-022, Korea
3
Solar tech Co.,Ltd, Suite 712, Yucheon Factopia, #196, Anyang-7 Dong, Mana-Gu,
Anyang-City, Kyonggi-do, 403-817, Korea
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea

P-PV-010 QUADRANT ANALYSIS IN CORRELATION BETWEEN MECHANICAL


AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE
CONDUCTIVE FILM BONDED CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS
Su-Wung Baek1,4, Kwang-Il Choi1, Suk-Ho Lee1, Chan-Hyuk Cheon2,
2 3 3 3
Seung-Min Hong , Kil-Song Lee , Hyun-Woo Shin , Yeon-Won Yang and
1
Cheolhyun Lim *
1
Green Energy Institute, 177, Samhyangcheon-ro, Mokpo-si, Jeollanam-do, 530-400, Korea
2
Aaron Co.,Ltd, Changgok-ri, Paltan-myeon, Hwaseong-Si, Gyeonggi-do, 103-022, Korea
3
Solar tech Co.,Ltd, Suite 712, Yucheon Factopia, #196, Anyang-7 Dong, Mana-Gu,
Anyang-City, Kyonggi-do, 403-817, Korea
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea

P-PV-011 THE OPTIMIZED MPPT(MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING)


ALGORITHM UNDER DYNIMIC CONDITIONS
Suk Whan KO1*, Young Seok JUNG1, Jung Hun SO1, Young Chul JU1 and
1
JHye Mi HWANG
1
Department of Solar Energy, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

72
P-PV-012 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZE CU2ZNSNS4 (CZTS) BY
GALVANOSTATIC ELECTRODEPOSITION ROUTE
Yu Kyung Kim1, K. V. Gurav1, Jae Ho Yun3, Jong Ha Moon1, Jeong Yong Lee2
and Jin Hyeok Kim1*
1
Optoelectronics Convergence Research Center, Department of Materials Science and
Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju
500-757, South Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, 335 Gwahangno,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon,305-701, South Korea
3
Photovoltaic Research Group, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-Dong
Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343, South Korea

P-PV-013 STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS OF FLUORINE DOPED TiO2


NANOFIBERS VIA THE ROUTE OF POST-TREATMENT ON
ELECTROSPUN TiO2-SiO2 NANOFIBERS
Kwang-il Choi1,2, Woohyoung Lee1, Suk-Ho Lee1, Cheolhyun Lim1*
1
Green energy institute, Mokpo-Si, Jeollanamdo, Korea
2
School of materials Science&Engineering, Gwangju Metropolitan city, Jeollanamdo,
Korea

P-PV-014 SYNTHESIS OF GRAIN AND PORE SIZE TUNED MESOPOROUS TiO2


BEADS WITH ADDITION OF VARIOUS SALTS
Dong-Cheon Kang1,2, Woo-hyung Lee1, Kwang-il Choi1, Suk-Ho Lee1 and Cheolhyun
1
Lim *
1
Green Energy Institute, 177, Samhyangcheon-ro, Mokpo-si, Jeollanam-do, 530-400,
Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, chonnam National University, Kwang-ju,
500-757, Korea

P-PV-015 CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER DOPED SELECTIVE EMITTER AND


PLATED CONTACTS FOR HIGH EFFIEICNY SOLAR CELLS
Jisun Kim*, Jisoo Kim, Yeonhee Hwang, Jongyoub Lim, Changsub Park, Eunjoo Lee
Technical Research Center, Shinsung Solar Energy, Seongnam-si, Gyeoggi-do,
463-420, Korea

P-PV-016 STUDY OF CO-DIFFUSION PROCESS FOR BIFACIAL N-TYPE SOLAR


CELLS
1 2 2 2 1,2
Woo-Jin Lee , Chang-Mo Lee , Meong-Il Jeong , Chel-Jong Choi and O-Bong Yang *
1
School of Chemical Engineering & Solar Energy Research center, Chonbuk national
university
2
Si-solar cell center for R&D Manpower Education, Chonbuk national university
3
Dongwoo fine-chem Co,, LTD, Electronic Materials R&D Center

P-PV-017 EFFECT OF SE PARTIAL PRESSURE ON THE PROPERTIES OF


Cu2ZnSnS4 THIN FILM AND THEIR APPLICATION TO SOLAR CELL
Myeng G. Gang1, Kishor V. Gurav1, Seung W. Shin2, Chang W. Hong1, Min J. Hong3,
Mahesh P. Suryawanshi1, Sharad A. Vanalakar1, Dong S. Lee3 and Jin H. Kim1*
1
Optoelectronics Convergence Research Center and Department of Materials Science
and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 500-757, South Korea
2
Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, IBS, Daejeon 305-701, South
Korea
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, GIST, Gwangju, S. Korea

73
P-PV-018 A STUDY ON DEPOSITIONS OF Cu AND CuSe THIN FILMS USING
MOCVD FOR CIGS SOLAR CELL APPLICATION
Joo Hyung PARK1, Kang Sik SHIN1,2, Jae Ho YUN1, Chang-Sik SON3,
4 2 1
Chang Hyun KO , Byungsung O and Kyung Hoon YOON *
1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea
3
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Sila University, Pusan, Korea
4
School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju,
Korea

P-PV-019 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE SULFURIZATION CONDITIONS ON


THE PROPERTIES OF Cu2ZnSnS4 THIN FILMS
1 2 1 1 1
Chang Woo Hong , Seung Wook Shin , K.V.Gurav , Eun Ae Jo , Jong-Ha Moon
1
and Jin hyeok Kim *
1
Department of Material Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University,
300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, South
Korea

P-PV-020 CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL sc-Si AND mc-Si PV


MODULES ON A GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEM BY MODULE
MONITORING
Jae-Seong JEONG1* and Jae-Bin YOON2
1
Components and Materials Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute
(KETI), Gyeonggi-do, Korea
2
Department of Global Cooperation, Korea Electronics Technology Institute (KETI),
Gyeonggi-do, Korea

P-PV-021 CO-EVAPORATION BASED Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS


Jihye GWAK1*, Hye Rim CHOI1, Jin Hyeok KIM2, Jae Ho YUN1, SeJin AHN1,
1 1 1 3 1
Ara CHO , Young Ju EO , Seung Kyu AHN , Hyeonsik CHEONG , Kee Shik SHIN
1
and Kyung Hoon YOON
1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University,
Gwangju, Korea
3
Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea

P-PV-022 SYNTHESIS OF METASTABLE WURTZITE CZTS NCs AND THEIR


TRANSFORMATION INTO KESTERITE CZTS ABSORBER LAYER FOR
SOLAR CELL APPLICATION
Uma Ghorpade1,2, Mahesh Suryawanshi1, Seung Wook Shin1, K. V. Gurav1, S. A. Patil2,
2 1 2 1
B. S. Pawar , M. G. Gang , Sanjay Kolekar * and Jin Hyeok Kim **
1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Optoelectronics Convergence
Research Centre, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea
2
Analytical chemistry and Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of
Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416-004, India

74
ST : Solar Thermal

P-ST

November 18 [Tue], 11:00~11:40 [Robby]

P-ST-001 COMPARISON OF GLOBAL HORIZONTAL IRRADIANCE BETWEEN


KOREA INSTITUTE OF ENERGY RESEARCH AND KOREA
METEOROLOGICAL ADMINISTRATION
1 2 1 2 1
Shin Young Kim , Hyun Jin Lee *, Chang Yeol Yun , Jong Kyu Kim Yong Heack Kang ,
1 1
Dok Ki Jo and Hyun Goo Kim
1
New & Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
4
Solar Thermal Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

P-ST-002 EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS FOR SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEM USING


DIFFERENT CONTROL SYSTEMS
1 2
Byoungdoo Lee * and Hyunmin Nam
1
Division of R&D, Hyundai Engineering & Construction, Seoul, Korea
2
Division of R&D, Hyundai Engineering & Construction, Seoul, Korea

P-ST-003 CRITICAL HEAT FLUX ENHANCEMENT USING OXIDIZED GRAPHENE


IN SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS
Sung-Seek Park, Woo Joong Kim and Nam-Jin Kim*
Department of Nuclear & Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju
690-756, Republic of Korea

P-ST-004 DEVELOPMENT OF A TURBOMACHINERY FOR THE SUPERCRITICAL


CARBON DIOXIDE POWER CYCLE
Junhyun Cho, Young-Jin Baik, Gilbong Lee, Ho-Sang Ra and Minsung Kim*
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Energy Efficiency Research Division, Korea
Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

P-ST-005 REDUCING ELECTRIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION DURING POWER


GRID ON-PEAK PERIOD FOR PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATING
SYSTEMS WITH ELECTRIC BACK-UP HEATER
Kyoung-Ho LEE1*, Moon-Chang JOO1, Eung-Sang Yoon1 and Nam-Choon BAEK1
1
Solar thermal laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon,
Korea

P-ST-006 WIND LOAD ANALYSIS ON THE NORTH-DAEGU CSP PLANT


1 2 3 2
Wan-Ho JEON , Yong-Heack KANG , Hyun-Jin LEE and Hyun-Goo KIM *
1
CEDIC, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea
2
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
3
Solar Thermal Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

75
P-ST-007 SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL TWO-STEP WATER-SPLITTING USING
CeO2 COATED FOAM DEVICE FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
Satoshi Tsuchida1, Hyun Seok Cho1, Shintaro Kawakami1, Takuya Myojin1,
2 1
Nobuyuki Gokon * and Tatsuya Kodama
1
Dept. of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata
University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, JAPAN
2
Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho,
Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, JAPAN

P-ST-008 FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR FOR SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL


TWO-STEP WATER-SPLITTING CYCLE
Akane Takeuchi1, Tetsuro Etori, Shinosuke Yokota, Sumie Ito, Nobuyuki Gokon2*
and Tatsuya Kodama1
1
Dept. of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata
University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, JAPAN
2
Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho,
Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, JAPAN

P-ST-009 DEVELOPMENT OF METAL-DOPED CERIA AIMED AT LOWER


TEMPERATURE OF THERMAL REDUCTION STEP OF
THERMOCHEMICAL TWO-STEP WATER-SPLITTING CYCLE FOR
SOLAR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
Toshinori Suda1, Nobuyuki Gokon2* and Tatsuya Kodama1
1
Dept. of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata
University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, JAPAN
2
Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho,
Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, JAPAN

76
WE : Wind Energy

P-WE

November 18 [Tue], 11:00~11:40 [Robby]

P-WE-001 ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR THE LOAD MEASUREMENT OF WIND


TURBINE GENERATOR SYSTEMS
1 1 2
Kyehwan GIL *, Chinwha CHUNG and Je-Sung BANG
1
Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology,
Pohang, Korea
2
Department of System Reliability, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials,
Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-002 DEVELOPMENT OF WIND TURBINE EMULATION SYSTEM BASED ON


IEC 61400-25 & IEC 61850
1
Jae Kyung LEE *, Ki Yong OH, Dong Wook KIM, Chang Hun CHAE,
Seung Hwan JU and Joon Young PARK
1
Offshore Wind Energy R&BD Department, KEPCO, Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-003 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS


GENERATOR FOR SMALL WIND TURBINE
Jae Kyung LEE1*, Ki Yong OH, Ji Yeong KWAK and Joon Young PARK
1
Offshore Wind Energy R&BD Department, KEPCO, Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-004 RESEARCH ON DYNAMIC MODELING METHOD OF WIND TURBINE


ROLLING BEARING WITH SURFACE DAMAGE FAULT
Jigang Wu1*, Mian Jiang1, Lingli Jiang2 and Xuejun Li2
1
Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Health Maintenance for Mechanical
Equipment, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Advanced Mine Equipment, Ministry of Education,
Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China

P-WE-005 HIGH FIDELITY PARAMETRIC MODELING OF WHOLE WIND TURBINE


AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ITS SIMULATION RESULTS
1 1 2 2
Mian Jiang *, Jigang Wu , Guangbin Wang and Xuejun Li
1
Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Health Maintenance for Mechanical
Equipment, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Advanced Mine Equipment, Ministry of Education,
Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China

P-WE-006 EFFECT OF SUBSTRUCTURE ON ULTIMATE LOAD ASSESSMENT OF


NREL 5MW OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE
Bae-Sung Kim1, Chan-Woong Choi1 and Ki-Weon Kang 1*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan,
Republic of Korea

77
P-WE-007 TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION FOR SUBSTRUCTRE WITH TRANSISTION
PIECE IN NREL 5MW GENERIC WIND TURBINE MODEL
Won Cheol KIM1, Tae Jin CHUNG2 and Ki Weon KANG2*
1
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate school of Kunsan natl University,
Gunsan, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kunsan natl University, Gunsan,
Korea

P-WE-008 NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF WIND TURBINE AERODYNAMIC NOISE


WITH WALL-PRESSURE SPECTRAL MODEL
Seunghoon LEE1* and Soogab LEE1
1
Center for Environmental Noise and Vibration Research, Engineering Research
Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

P-WE-009 CALCULATION OF A WIND TURBINE DEGRADATION USING SCADA


DATA WITH LIDAR CALIBRATION
Hyun-Goo KIM*, Yong-Heack KANG and Chang-Yeol YUN
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-010 OFFSHORE WIND MAP CATALOGUE OF SOUTH KOREA COMPILED


BY SAR WIND RETRIEVAL
Hyo-Jung HWANG, Yong-Heack KANG, Chang-Yeol YUN and Hyun-Goo KIM*
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-011 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DIURNAL VARIATION OF WIND


PROFILE EXPONENT IN JEJU-DO, SOUTH KOREA
Jorge Ismael Reyes MONTES1,2, Yong-Heack KANG2, Chang-Yeol YUN2 and
2
Hyun-Goo KIM *
1
Leave from Earth Sciences Department, Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero,
Mexico
2
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-012 DEVELOPMENT OF GEARBOX TEST RIG FOR 6 DOF LOADINGS


Ju Seok NAM1, Young Jun PARK1*, Jeong Woo HAN1, Yong Yun NAM1 and
1
Geun Ho LEE
1
Department of System Reliability, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials,
Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-013 INFLUENCE OF NON-TORQUE LOADIGNS ON THE LOAD SHARING


AND LOAD DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF 3 POINT
SUSPENSION GEARBOX FOR WIND TURBINE
Ju Seok NAM1, Young Jun PARK1*, Jeong Woo HAN1, Yong Yun NAM1 and
Geun Ho LEE1
1
Department of System Reliability, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials,
Daejeon, Korea

78
P-WE-014 DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANICAL BACK-TO-BACK TEST RIG FOR
WIND TURBINE GEARBOX
Young-Jun PARK1*, Geun-Ho LEE1, Jeong-Gil KIM1, Yong-Yun NAM1 and
1
Heung-Sub KIM
1
Department of System Reliability, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials,
Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-015 EFFECTS OF DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO VERTICAL-AXIS SMALL


WIND TURBINES ON PERFORMANCE
1 2 1
Sang-Moon Lee , Jang-Ho, Lee and Choon-Man Jang *
1
Water Resources & Environment Research Department, Korea Institute of Civil
Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kunsan National University,
Kunsan, Korea

P-WE-016 CLASSIFICATION OF WIND SYSTEM BY USING A SIMILARITY OF


TIME-SERIES WIND VECTORS
1 1 2
Jinsol KIM , Hyeong-Dong PARK and Hyun-Goo KIM *
1
Department of Energy Resource Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea
2
New & Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-017 SEISMIC RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE


SUPPORT STRUCTURE
Gee Nam LEE1 and Dong Hyawn KIM1*
1
Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Kunsan National University,
Miryong, Kunsan, Jeonbuk, Korea

P-WE-018 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY-BASED OFFSHORE WIND


TURBINE FOUNDATION CONSIDERING LOAD UNCERTAINTY
1 2 3
Dong Hyawn Kim *, Sang Geun Lee and Gil Lim Yoon
1
Department of Ocean Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea
2
Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan,
Korea
3
Coastal Development & Ocean Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Ocean
Science & Technology, Ansan, Korea

P-WE-019 FOWT CONTROL ALGORITHM DESIGN TECHNIQUES TO AVOID


RESONANCE BETWEEN FOWT AND WAVE
Jin Seop Song1, Jong Hwa Kim1*, Chae Whan Rim1 and Seok Jun Moon1
1
Mechanical Systems Safety Research Division, KIMM, Daejeon, Korea

P-WE-020 OPTIMUM DESINGS OF THE HYBRID VERTICAL AXIS WIND


TURBINES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE AND LOW-NOISE
Sanghyeon Kim1 and Cheolung Cheong1*
1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea

79
BE : Bioenergy

P-BE

November 18 [Tue], 11:00~11:40 [Robby]

P-BE-001 STUDY ON THE UPGRADING OF PYROLYSIS OIL:


HYDRO-DEOXYGENATION OF 2-METHOXYPHENOL OVER
PALLADIUM BASED CATALYSTS
1 1 1 1 2
Kyung-Ran Hwang *, Il-Ho Choi , In-Gu Lee , Kyong-Hwan Lee , Ji Sun Yun and
1
Jin-Suk Lee
1
Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul, Korea

P-BE-002 STUDY ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE HIGH QUALITY JET FUEL IN


SINGLE-STEP PROCESS
1 1 1 2 3
Kyung-Ran Hwang *, Il-Ho Choi , Kyong-Hwan Lee , Ji Sun Yun , Jeong Sik Han
1
and Jin-Suk Lee *
1
Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul, Korea
3
Agency for Defense Development, Seoul, Korea

P-BE-003 DEOXYGENATION OF STERIC AICD OVER ORDERED MESOPOROUS


CARBON SUPPORTED PALLADIUM CATALYSTS
Si-Ra Hwang, Min-Ji Kim, Tae-Wan Kim*, Ho-Jeong Chae, Jeong-Rang Kim,
Soon-Yong Jeong and Chul-Ung Kim*
Research Center for Green Catalysis, Korea Research Institute of Chemical
Technology, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600, Republic of Korea

P-BE-004 FERMENTATION OF BASE TREATED KAPOK SEED FIBER


Su Young Yoon1, Yong Joo Sung2, Jong-Moon Park1 and Soo-Jeong Shin1*
1
Department of Wood and Paper Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk,
Korea
2
Department of Biobased Materials, College of Agriculture and Life Science,
Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea

P-BE-005 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION IN


A MICROWAVE PLASMA BURNER
Sang Ju LEE1,2, Yong Cheol HONG3, Min KOO2, Yong Wook SHIN1,
2 1,2
Chang Woo OHK and Bong Ju LEE *
1
School of Advanced Green Energy and Environment, Handong Global University,
Heunghoe-Eup, Buk-Gu, Pohang, Kyeongbuk, 791-708, Korea
2
Convergence Plasma Research Institute, Green Science, Jangseong-dong, Taebaek,
Gangwon, 235-100, Korea
3
Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 113
Gwahangno, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-333, Korea

80
P-BE-006 STUDY ON THE SUITABILITY OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS FOR
BIO-FUEL OIL IN POWER PLANT
Eui-soon Yim1*, Jo Yong Park1 and Eun-Jung Jang1
1
Research Institute of Petroleum Technology, Korea Petroleum Quality & Distribution
Authority(Kpetro), Chungcheongbuk-do, 363-883, Korea

P-BE-007 EFFECT OF CHOLINE BASE DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENT


ON IN-SITE TRANSESTERIFICATION OF ALGAL LIPID
FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
1,2 1
Weidong LU and Zhongming WANG *
1
Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou Institute of
Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, PR China
2
School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shaoguan University,
Shaoguan, PR China

P-BE-008 EFFECT OF SILICA CONTENT ON HYDROTREATMENT OF SOYBEAN


OIL OVER SILICA-ALUMINA SUPPORTED
PLATINUM CATALYSTS
Yoon-Cheol Yang, Min-Cheol Kim, Tae-Wan Kim, Ho-Jeong Chae, Jeong-Rang Kim,
Soon-Yong Jeong and Chul-Ung Kim*
Research Center for Green Catalysis, Korea Research Institute of Chemical
Technology, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600, Republic of Korea

P-BE-009 APPLICATION OF WASTE FCC CATALYST TO PYROLYSIS OF WILD


REED
Myun Lang YOO1, Young-Kwon PARK2 and Sung Hoon PARK1*
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon,
Jeonnam, Korea
2
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul, Korea

P-BE-010 FAST PYROLYSIS OF RED PEPPER STEM OVER WASTE


FCC CATALYST
Myun Lang YOO1, Young-Kwon PARK2 and Sung Hoon PARK1*
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon,
Jeonnam, Korea
2
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul, Korea

P-BE-011 IN SITU CATALYTIC UPGRADING OF JATROPHA PYROLYSIS


VAPORS IN A FIXED-BED REACTOR USING HZSM-5: INFLUENCE OF
PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES
Supawan VICHAPHUND1, Viboon SRICHAROENCHAIKUL2 and
1
Duangduen ATONG *
1
Ceramic Technology Research Unit, National Metal and Materials Technology
Center, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn
University,
Bangkok, 10330, Thailand

81
P-BE-012 CATALYTIC PYROLYSIS OF GEODAEUKSAE-1 OVER CHEAP
CATALYSTS
Seong Ho JIN1, Beom-Sik KIM1, Changkook Ryu2, Jong-Ki JEON3 and Young-Kwon PARK1,4
1
Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of
Seoul, Seoul 130-743
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan
331-717, Korea
4
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea

P-BE-013 HYDRODEOXYGENATION OF BIO-OIL MODEL COMPOUNDS OVER


PLATIUM/HY ZEOLITES
1 1 2 3 3
Beom-Sik KIM , Mi Jin YU , Jong-Ki JEON , Tae Su JO , Kwang Seok CHEA
4
and Young-Kwon PARK *
1
Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of
Seoul, Seoul 130-743
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan
331-717, Korea
3
Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI), Seoul 130-712, Korea
4
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea

P-BE-014 CATALYTIC COPYROYLSIS OF BIOMASS AND POLYPROPYLENE


OVER ZEOLITIC MATERIALS
Hyung Won LEE1, Suek Joo CHOI1, Jong-Ki JEON2, Sung Hoon PARK3 and
1,4
Young-Kwon PARK *
1
Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of
Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan
330-717, Korea
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon
540-742, Korea
4
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea

P-BE-015 CATALYTIC FAST PYROLYSIS OF CITRUS PEEL


Young Min KIM1, Hyung Won LEE1 and Young-Kwon PARK2
1
Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of
Seoul, Seoul 130-743
2
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea

P-BE-016 FEASIBILITY STUDY ON BIOMETHANE PRODUCTION BASED ON


MARINE BIOMASS IN SOUTH KOREA
Seong Gyun Kang1, Jeonghyeon Lee1, Ji Woon Ma2, Gwang Sik Shin2,
Ki Dong Kim2, Young Sam Oh2 and Kyung Sik Choi1
1
Marine Biotechnology Division, KIOST, Ansan, South Korea
2
KOGAS, South Korea

P-BE-017 BIO-OIL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA WASTES BY FAST


PYROLYSIS: CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF
PRODUCT YIELD
Prangtip KAEWPENGKROW1, Duangduen ATONG2 and Viboon SRICHAROENCHAIKUL3*
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2
National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thailand Science Park,
Pathumthani, Thailand

82
P-BE-018 CATALYTIC UPGRADING OF OXYGENATED CYCLIC
HYDROCARBONS OVER ZSM-5 CATALYST
Jin-Hyuk Lee, Kyung-Ran Hwang, Jin-Suk Lee, Jeong Sik Han1, Kyong-Hwan Lee*
Climate Change Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 102
Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343, Korea
1
Agency for Defense Development

P-BE-019 COMPARISON OF THE THERMAL HYDROLYSIS REACTION


CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO THE VARIETY OF ORGANIC
WASTE
1 1 1 1
Seong Kuk HAN , Hee Suk JUNG , Hyoung Woon SONG and Ho KIM *
1
Clean Energy Team, Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering,
Yongin, Korea

P-BE-020 A STUDY ON SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION OF ANAEROBICALLY


DIGESTED SLUDGE USING MEMBRANE FILTER PRESS
Seong Kuk HAN1, Hee Suk JUNG1, Hyoung Woon SONG1* and Young Man Yun2
1
Clean Energy Team, Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering,
Yongin, Korea
2
Biogas Research Center, Hankyong National University, Anseong, Korea

P-BE-021 ANALYSIS OF HYDROCARBON COMPOUND PRODUCTS BY THE


PYROLYSIS
Ji Hoon SHIN, Jin Woo KOOK, In Seop GWAK, Yea Ra KIM and See Hoon LEE1*
1
Department of Mineral Resource and Energy Engineering, ChonBuk University,
JeonJu, Korea

P-BE-022 EFFECT OF PH CONTROL DEVIATION ON BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION


Sujin Jang1,2, Chungman Moon1, Mo-Kwon Lee1, Dong-Hoon Kim1,
3 3 1,2
Won-Seok Kang , Seung-Shin Kwak and Mi-Sun Kim *
1
Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
2
Division of Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology,
Daejeon, Korea
3
New Technology Research Team, Korea District Heating Corp. R&D Institute, 781
Yangjae-daero, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-220, Republic of Korea

P-BE-023 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE: STRATEGIES FOR


STABLE OPERATION UNDER HIGH ORGANIC LOADING
Dong-Hoon Kim1, Mo-Kwon Lee1, Sujin Jang1,2 and Mi-Sun Kim1,2*
1
Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
2
Division of Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology,
Daejeon, Korea

P-BE-024 THE STUDY ON HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE


BY SUPERCRITICAL WATER GASIFIzCATION OF GLYCEROL WITH
VARIOUS CATALYSTS
Dong Hyun HEO, Roosse LEE, Jong Ha HWANG and Jung Min SOHN*
Dept. of Mineral Resources & Energy Eng., Chonbuk Natl Univ., Jeonju in Korea

83
PN : Policy, Strategy & New Business

P-PN

November 18 [Tue], 11:00~11:40 [Robby]

P-PN-001 FORECASTING ENERGY DEMAND ON KWANG-JU METROPOLITAN


Hyo Joon Kim1, Seong Kon Lee1, Kyung Soon Park2 and Young Jin Ha1*
1
R&D Strategy Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Green Energy Team, Korea Energy Management Corporation, Gwang-Ju, Korea

P-PN-002 THE EFFECTS OF THE NETWORK INDEX ON EXPORT OF


PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN CHINA
1 1
Hyeong-Ho Lee and Young-wan Goo *
1
Department of Economics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk,
361-763, Korea

P-PN-003 COST BENEFIT EVALUATION OF GI APPLICATION USING GIS


Chang-Hyun Son1, Young-wan Goo1 and Jaehyuck Choi1*
1
Department of Economics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea

P-PN-004 S. KOREAN RENEWABLE ENERGY INDUSTRY PRODUCTIVITY


ANALYSIS
Chang Hyeon SON1 and Young Wan GOO2*
1
Department of Economics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea
2
Department of Economics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea

P-PN-005 SMART CLIENT-BASED WEB GIS SYSTEM FOR NEW & RENEWABLE
ENERGY MAP SERVICE
1 2 3 3
Tae-Yoon KO , Seul-Bi LEE , Yong-Heack KANG , Chang-Yeol YUN and
Hyun-Goo KIM3*
1
CEDIC, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea
2
SELAB, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea
3
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

P-PN-006 NEW-RENEWABLE ENERGY MAP BOOK OF SOUTH KOREA


Tae-Eun KWON1, Yong-Heack KANG2*, Hyun-Goo KIM2 and Chang-Yeol YUN2
1
SUNDOSOFT, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea
2
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

84
P-PN-007 METADATA STANDADIZATION OF NEW-RENEWABLE ENERGY
RESOURCE MAP OF SOUTH KOREA
Hyo-Jung HWANG1, Mi-Jin LEE2, Hoon-Ju YOON2, Yong-Heack KANG1,
1 1
Hyun-Goo KIM and Chang-Yeol YUN *
1
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
2
SUNDOSOFT, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea

P-PN-008 A STRATEGIC NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT


PLAN WITH THE DIFFERENT PEER-REVIEW GROUPS IN CASE OF
LOW OIL PRICES AND PRESENT NUCLEAR PLANT
Seongkon LEE1* and Gento MOGI2
1
Energy Policy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
Republic of Korea
2
Department of Technology management for innovation, Graduate School of
Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656,
Japan

P-PN-009 COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF R&D OUTPUTS REGARDING


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL PAPER AND PATENT ON WIND ENERGY
TECHNOLOGY FOR THE LAST 5 YEARS FROM 2006 TO 2011
Seongkon LEE1*, Jongchul HONG1 and Jongwook KIM1
1
Energy Policy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon,
Republic of Korea

85
GE : Geothermal Energy

P-GE

November 19 [Wed], 14:40~15:20 [Robby]

P-GE-001 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF DIRECT EXCHANGE GEOTHERMAL


HEAT EXCHAGNER WITH SIMPLIFIED GROUND MODEL
Haroon Bashir1,2, Gilbong Lee2, Jaechul Chang2,3, Ho-Sang Ra2, Young-Jin Baik2
and Minsung Kim1,2*
1
Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST),
Daejeon, Korea
2
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea

P-GE-002 DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL SCALE THERMALLY ALTERNATING


HEAT PUMP DRYING SYSTEM
Ki Bong Kim1, Ki Chang Chang1 and Hyung Kee Yoon1*
1
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

P-GE-003 A STUDY ON THE SEA WATER HEAT PUMP SYTEMS FOR


ICE RINK ENERGY SAVING
Hea Kwang KIM1, Seong Yeon YOO2, Gil Bong LEE1, Ho Sang RA1 and
1
Ki Chang CHANG *
1
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam University, Daejeon,
Korea

P-GE-004 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY SIMULATION MODELLING FOR GROUD


LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER
Il Hyun Kang1, Samuel Boahen1 and Jong Min Choi2*
1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon,
Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon,
Korea

P-GE-005 AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON OPERATION OF HEAT PUMP USING


SURFACE SEAWATER
Ki Bong Kim, Gil Bong Lee, Ho Sang Ra, Hyung Kee Yoon* and Ki Chang Chang*
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

86
P-GE-006 SOIL TEMPERATURE TRENDS IN KOREA FROM 1973 TO 2012
: RELATIONS WITH AIR TEMPERATURE CHANGE
Bo-Hyun Lee1, Byeong-Hak Park1, Eun-Hee Koh1 and Kang-Kun Lee1*
1
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul,
151-747, Korea

P-GE-007 OPTIMUM OPERATION OF OPEN-LOOP GROUND HEAT


EXCHANGER CONSIDERING GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT
Hyun-Jun CHOI1, Sangwoo PARk1, Khanh Linh Nguyen PHAM1, Hyungkyou RYU2
1
and Hangseok CHOI *
1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University,
Seoul, Korea
2
Technology Research & Development Institue, Daelim Industrial Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea

P-GE-008 HEATING PERFORMANCE OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP


SYSTEM APPLIED IN COLD CLIMATE REGION (MONGOLIA)
Byonghu SOHN1*, Jae Ho CHOI2 and Kyung Chun MIN2
1
Green Building Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology,
Goyang, Korea
2
Research Development Division, KOTEC Engineering, Anyang, Korea

P-GE-009 PERFORMANCE PREDICTIN OF gSHP SYSTEM APPLIED IN COLD


CLIMATE REGION (MONGOLIA) USING SIMULATION APPROACH
Hyoung Jin KONG1, Jae Ho CHOI2, Kyung Chun MIN2 and Byonghu SOHN3*
1
Geothermal Energy Education Center, Hoseo University, Asan, Korea
2
Research Development Division, KOTEC Engineering, Anyang, Korea
3
Green Building Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology,
Goyang, Korea

P-GE-010 PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP


SYSTEM FOR HYPOTHETICAL OFFICE BUILDING
1 2
Byonghu SOHN * and Hyoung Jin KONG
1
Green Building Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology,
Goyang, Korea
2
Geothermal Energy Education Center, Hoseo University, Asan, Korea

P-GE-011 COOLING AND HEATING PERFORMANCE OF GHP SYSTEM USING


CAST-IN-PLACE ENERGY PILES
Byonghu SOHN1* and Hangseok CHOI2
1
Green Building Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology,
Goyang, Korea
2
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University,
Seoul, Korea

P-GE-012 OPTIMUM OPERATION OF OPEN-LOOP GROUND HEAT EXCHANGER


CONSIDERING GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT
Hyun-Jun CHOI1, Sangwoo PARk1, Khanh Linh Nguyen PHAM1, Hyungkyou RYU2
and Hangseok CHOI1*
1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University,
Seoul, Korea
2
Technology Research & Development Institue, Daelim Industrial Co., Ltd., Seoul,
Korea

87
P-GE-013 PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A DEEP LAKE COLD WATER COOLING
SYSTEM FOR IDC
Gyeong Sung Kim1, Sun Hee Oh1 and Yong Cho1*
1
K-water Institute, Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon 305-730, Korea

P-GE-014 LONG-TERM VARIATIONS OF GROUND TEMPERATURE IN A


MEDIUM SIZED GEOTHERMAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM
Yong Ki KIM1 and Tae Won LEE1
1
Department of Building Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building
Technology, Seoul, Korea

88
SH : Small Hydro Power

P-SH

November 19 [Wed], 14:40~15:20 [Robby]

P-SH-001 ANALYSIS ON THE HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF A


PUMP-TURBINE MODEL
Van Thanh Tien NGUYEN1, Patrick Mark SINGH1, Chengcheng CHEN1,
2 3
Baoshan ZHU and Young-Do CHOI *
1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National
University, Mokpo, Korea
2
Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of New and Renewable Energy
Technology Research, Mokpo National University, Mokpo, Korea

P-SH-002 DESIGN TECHNIQUE FOR TURBINE PERFORMANCE


ENHANCEMENT OF A COUNTER-ROTATING PUMP-TURBINE
Jin Hyuk KIM1*, Toru MIYAJI2, Toshiaki KANEMOTO2, Joon-Hyung KIM1,
1 1
Sung KIM and Young Seok CHOI
1
Thermal&Fluid System R&BD Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology,
Cheonan, Korea
2
Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan

P-SH-003 IMPROVEMENT OF FLOW STABILITY IN THE PIPELINE AND


PRESSURIZED TANKS FOR A HYDRO TURBINE TEST
Sang Hyuk Lim, Se Wyan Tac, Yong Whan Oh and Yong Cho*
K-water Institute, Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon 305-730, Korea

P-SH-004 PERFORMANCE AND INTERNAL FLOW OF A FRANCIS HYDRO


TURBINE MODEL BY INTERNAL FLOW PASSAGE SHAPES
Zhen Mu CHEN1, Qing Sheng WEI1, Patrick Mark SINGH1 and Young Do CHOI2*
1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National, Mokpo,
Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of New and Renewable Energy
Technology Research, Mokpo National University, Mokpo, Korea

89
WU : Wasted Energy & Utilization

P-WU

November 19 [Wed], 14:40~15:20 [Robby]

P-WU-001 FEASIBILITY STUDY ON HIGH TEMPERATURE HEATPUMP TO


PRODUCE STEAM USING RECOVERY HEAT
Joo Sang KIM, Sun Ik Na, Gil Bong LEE, Ho Sang RA and Min Sung KIM*
Thermal Energy Conversation Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research

P-WU-002 CARBON DIOXIDE RECOVERY SYSTEM USING LOW TEMPERATURE


LIQUEFACTION PROCESS FROM BIOGAS UPGRADING PLANT
1 1 2 2
Hack Eun Kim *, Myong Won Bae , Ki Dong Kim , Young Sam Oh and
Jong Choul Won3
1
Korea Gas Technology Corporation, Daejeon, South Korea
2
KOGAS, Ansan, South Korea
3
Sudokwon Landfill Site Management Corporation, Incheon, South Korea

P-WU-003 GASIFICATION OF CASSAVA RHIZOME AND PEANUT SHELL WASTE


WITH NI/CHAR CATALYST USING A MODULAR FIXED BED GASIFIER
Jurarat NISAMANEENATE1, Duangduen ATONG2, Panchaluck SORNKADE, and
1
Viboon SRICHAROENCHAIKUL *
1
Department of Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn
University, Bangkok, Thailand
2
National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thailand Science Park,
Pathumthani, Thailand

P-WU-004 NUMERICAL STUDY ON ENHANCEMENT OF FLOW UNIFORMITY IN


A TRAY DRYER CHAMBER
Myeongho SONG1, Kyoungyoun KIM1* and Hyung-Kee YOON2
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon
305-719, South Korea
2
Energy Efficiency Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon
305-343, South Korea

P-WU-005 CFD MODELING OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED CHAR


COMBUSTOR IN A TILTED-SLIDE FAST PYROLYZER
Sang Kyu CHOI1*, Yeon Seok CHOI1, Seock Joon Kim1, Yeon Woo JEONG2 and
2
Ramesh SOYSA
1
Environmental and Energy Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery
and Materials, Daejeon 305-343, Republic of Korea
2
Department of Environment and Energy Mechanical Engineering, Korea University
of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea

90
P-WU-006 A STUDY ON THE AEROBIC LIQUID COMPOSTING OF LIVESTOCK
EXCRETIONS USING NITRIFYING MICROORGANISMS
Hee Suk JUNG1, Seong Kuk HAN1, Young Man YOON2 and Hyoung Woon SONG1*
1
Clean Energy Team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Biogas Research Center, Hankyong National University, Anseong, Korea

P-WU-007 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR OPTIMUM DESIGN OF MEMBRANE


PLATE IN FILTER PRESS
Hee Suk JUNG1, Dong Shin KO2, Seong Kuk HAN1 and Hyoung Woon SONG1*
1
Clean Energy Team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Mechatronics team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea

P-WU-008 A STUDY ON THE PROPERTY BEHAVIORS OF DEWATERED


ORGANIC SLUDGE ACCORDING TO THERMAL HYDROLYSIS
REACTION
Hyoung Woon SONG1*, Hee Suk JUNG, Seong Kuk HAN and Tae Gyu SONG2
1
Clean Energy Team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Gyeonggi-do,
2
Dong Il Canvas Engineering Co. Ltd, Gyeonggi-do, Korea

P-WU-009 THE OPERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF PILOT SCALE


CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED DED BOILER FOR RDF
Dal-hee BAE1, Dowon SHUN and Jaehyoun PARK*
1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

P-WU-010 A STUDY ON REMOVING HCL FROM THE GASIFICATION PROCESS


BY USING ASR
Jaehong MIN*, Young Sik YOON, Su Nam PARK and Jae Hoi GU
Department of Environment Energy, Institute of Advanced Engineering, Youngin,
Korea

P-WU-011 STUDY ON CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLID PRODUCT GENERATED


FROM TORREFACTION OF EFB (EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH)
1 1 1 2 2
Yeong Su Park , Sung Bang Nam , Jae Hoi Gu , Jae-ou Chae , Sang Ick Nam and
2
Ji Ho Choi
1
Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Creative Engineering Service, Incheon, Korea

P-WU-012 CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER GENERATED FROM


GASIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Yeong Su Park1, Soo Nam Park1, Na Rang Kim1, Young Sik Yoon1,
1 1 1 2 2
Yong Taek Lim , Ho Jin Sung , Jae Hoi Gu , Ji Hong Min and Ki Hyun Kim
1
Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Waste Facility Inspection Team, Korea Environment Corporation, Incheon, Korea

P-WU-013 REFINING OF SYNGAS BY WESP IN THE GASIFICATION FROM SRF


MANUFACTURING RESIDUE
Young Sik YOON1*, Su Nam PARK1, Jae Hoi GU1 and Young Taek LIM,
2 2
Sang Ok Choi and In Su LEE
1
Department of Environment Energy, Institute of Advanced Engineering, Youngin,
Korea
2
Department of Experiment & Research, Samsung-BP Chemicals, Ulsan, Korea

91
P-WU-014 EFFECT OF VARIOUS HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIME ON AMOUNT
OF BIOGAS, METHANE AND H2S PRODUCTION IN
GROUND-FOOD-WASTE LIQUID UNDER ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
1 1 1
Tae Han Yoon *, Deok Man Han and Kyung Young Jin
1
Department of Dodram Environment Research Center CO., LTD., Icheon, Korea

P-WU-015 APPLICATION OF MILD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY TO A SOLID


REFUSE FUEL INCINERATOR
Sung Hoon SHIM1, Sang Hyun JEONG1 and Sang-Sup LEE2*
1
Environmental and Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery &
Materials, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University,
Cheongju, Korea

P-WU-016 NONLINEAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF A HIGH-TEMPERATURE


ROTOR-BEARING-SEAL SYSTEM IN GAS TURBINE
Zhu Rui 1,2*, Jianxing Ren1*, Hongguang LI2 and Meng Guang 2
1
College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric
Power, Shanghai, 200090 China
2
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiaotong
University, Shanghai, 200240 China

92
HF : Hydrogen & Fuel Cell

P-HF

November 19 [Wed], 14:40~15:20 [Robby]

P-HF-001 DEVELOPMENT OF 1KW DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL STACKS


WITH CARBON OR METALLIC BIPOLAR PLATES
Dong-Hyun Peck1*, Jin-Woo Lee2, Young-Rae Cho2, Doohwan Jung1 and
1
Sang-Kyung Kim
1
Fuel Cell Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon, Republic
of Korea
2
LIGnex1, Gumi, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea

P-HF-002 PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN-RICH SYNGAS FROM METHANE


REFORMING IN A STEAM MICROWAVE PLASMA
Dae Hyun Choi, Se Min Chun, Suk Hwal Ma and Yong Cheol Hong*
Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan, Korea

P-HF-003 WGS REACTION FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING AN


ATMOSPHERIC STEAM PLASMA TORCH SYSTEM AND ITS
CORRELATION OF REACTION TEMPERATURE
1,2 1 1 1
Suk-Hwal Ma , Dae-Hyun Choi , Se-Min Chun and Yong-Cheol Hong *
1
Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan,
Korea
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea

P-HF-004 ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF A LONG ENDURANCE HYBRID


UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE BASED ON A REGENERATIVE FUEL
CELL SYSTEM IN THE STRATOSPHERE
1,2 1,2 1,2 1
Moon-Yong Cha , Minjin Kim *, Young-Jun Sohn and Tae-Hyun Yang
1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Advanced Energy Technology, Korea University of Science and
Technology, Daejeon, Korea

P-HF-005 PATTERN SIMULATIONS FOR THE HIGH-ALTITUDE


LONG-ENDURANCE HYBRID UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USING
REGENERATIVE FUEL CELL SYSTEM
Seong Hyun CHO1,2, Minjin KIM1,2*, Young-Jun SOHN1,2 and Tae-Hyun Yang1
1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Advanced Energy Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology,
Daejeon, Korea

P-HF-006 DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE OPERATING METHODS FOR


A HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL
CELL STACK
Ji-Hun KIM1,2, Taegon KANG1, Minjin KIM1* and Young-Jun SOHN1
1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research , Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Nam University, Daejeon, Korea

93
P-HF-007 CHARACTERISTICS OF A TUBULAR CARBON-FUELED FUEL CELL
(CFC) FED BY GASIFIED CARBON FUEL WITH K2CO3 CATALYST
Sun Kyung Kim1,2, Usman Mushtaq1, Jong Won Lee1, Seung Bok Lee1,
1 1 2 1
Seok Joo Park , Rak Hyun Song , Joong Hee Lee and Tak Hyoung Lim *
1
Fuel Cell Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon, S.Korea
2
Department of Energy Conversion & Storage Engineering, Chonbuk National Univ.,
S.Korea

P-HF-008 SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS FOR OPTIMIZATION


OF PEM FUEL CELL DEAD-END OPERATION
Bong Gu Lee1, Minjin Kim1,2 and Young-Jun Sohn1,2*
1
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Department, University of Science and Technology, 217,
Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea
2
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Department, Korean Institute of Energy Research, 152,
Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

P-HF-009 DESIGN AND OPERATING TEST OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE POLYMER


ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL PORTABLE SYSTEM
Sung-Kwan Ryu1,3, Bong-Gu Lee2,3, Seung-Gon Kim3, Min-Jin Kim3 and
Young-jun Sohn2,3*
1
Department of Chemical & Biomole. Engineering, Yonsei University, 134,
Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea
2
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Department, University of Science and Technology, 217,
Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea
3
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Department, Korean Institute of Energy Research, 152,
Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

P-HF-010 A NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF COOLANT CHANNEL


ON PERFORMANCE OF PEMFC WITH STRAIGHT
GAS CHANNELS
Hyo-Yup KIM and Kyoungyoun KIM*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea

P-HF-011 A THIN FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL WITH THE COST-EFFECTIVE
ANODE MATERIAL
1 1 1 1 1
Joonho PARK , Yeageun LEE , Yoon Ho LEE , Gu Young CHO , Taehyun PARK
1
and Suk Won CHA *
1
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul,
Korea

P-HF-012 EFFECT OF CONTACTING BETWEEN THE FUEL AND THE ANODE


IN BIOMASS-DRIVEN FUEL CELL SYSTEM
Jong-Pil KIM*, Soon-Ho LEE and Chung-Hwan JEON
School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (PNU), Busan
609-735, Republic of Korea

P-HF-013 EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE CROSSOVER ON HYBRID SULFUR


CELL PERFORMANCE
Seong Uk Jeong, Won Chul Cho, Ki Kwang Bae, Chu Sik Park, Chang Hee Kim
and Kyoung Soo Kang*
Hydrogen laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research

94
P-HF-014 Ni-M/MgAl2O4 (M=Ca, K, La, Ce) CATALYST IN COMBINED H2O AND
CO2 REFORMING OF COKE OVEN GAS FOR SYNGAS PRODUCTION
Jin Hyang Lee1,2, Kee Young Koo1, Ji Eun Park1,3, Un Ho Jung1, Sung Hyun Kim2
and Wang Lai Yoon1*
1
Hydrogen Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)
2
Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Korea University
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University

P-HF-015 FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF A 150W CLASS TUBULAR SOFC


STACK WITH POX REFORMER
Wan Je Kim1, Seung Bok Lee1*, Rak Hyun Song1, Seok Joo Park1,
1 1 1,2
Tak Hyoung Lim , Jong Won Lee and Seong Woo Park
1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

P-HF-016 A NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE DESIGN AND THE


OPERATION CONDITION OPTIMIZATION OF PLASMA REFORMER
1 2
Hyoung Woon SONG *, Hee Suk JUNG, Seong Kuk HAN and Chang Sik CHOI
1
Clean Energy Team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Gyeonggi-do

P-HF-017 EXPERIMENTAL ANALAYS OF 5KW SOFC SYSTEM WITH EXTERNAL


STEAM REFORMER
Jinwon Yun1 and Sangseok Yu2*
1
Graduate school, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea

P-HF-018 WATER CONTENT OF POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL


CELL PASSIVE CONTROL BASED ON AIR FLOW REGULATION
Kai Ou1, Ya-Xiong Wang1 and Young-Bae Kim1*
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

P-HF-019 A STUDY ON ME/MESOPOROUS Co3O4 (Me = Ni, Cu, Fe, Mn) CATALYSTS
FOR THE LOW TEMPERATURE WATER-GAS SHIFT REACTION
1 1 1 2
Dae-Woon JEONG , Won-Jun JANG , Hyun-Seog ROH * and Jong Wook BAE *
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea
2
Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea

P-HF-020 LOW TEMPERATURE WATER-GAS SHIFT REACTION OVER


MESOPOROUS CO3O4 SUPPORTED BIMETALLIC NI-CU CATALYSTS
Dae-Woon JEONG1, Hyun-Suk NA1, Hyun-Seog ROH1* and Jong Wook BAE2*
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea
2
Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea

P-HF-021 AN ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC CODES FOR SAFETY MANAGEMENT


OF LOW-PRESSURE HYDROGEN FACILITIES
Duk-Gwon Lee*, Jung-Woon Lee, Geun-Jun Lyu and Ho-Seok Lim
Institute of Gas Safety R&D, Korea Gas Safety Corporation

P-HF-022 A DESIGN OF TEST BED FOR LOW PRESSURE HYDROGEN


FACILITIES
Jung-Woon Lee*, Duk-Gwon Lee, Geun-Jun Lyu and Ho-Seok Lim
Institute of Gas Safety R&D, Korea Gas Safety Corporation

95
LC : Low Carbon technology

P-LC

November 19 [Wed], 14:40~15:20 [Robby]

P-LC-001 CO2 GASIFICATION BEHAVIOR OF BIOMASS AND MIXED FUEL


1 2
Jin Woo Kook, Ji Hoon Shin, In Seop Gwak, Yea Rah Kim , Chung Ho Lee and
1
See Hoon Lee *
1
Department of Mineral Resources and Energy Engineering, Chonbuk National
University, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 570-752, Korea
2
KOSPO, Korea

P-LC-002 CO2 REFORMING OF CH4 BY A HYBRID SYSTEM COMBINED WITH


MICROWAVE PLASMA TORCH AND A CATALYST
Se Min CHUN, Dae Hyun CHOI, Suk Hwal MA and Yong Cheol HONG*
Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan, Korea

P-LC-003 PROCESS ANALYSIS ON A HIGH EFFICIENCY COAL-FIRED POWER


PLANT USING A SUPERCRITICAL CO2 RECOMPRESSION BRAYTON
CYCLE
Dong-Ryul RHIM*, Sung Ho PARK, Su Hyun KIM, Jin Ho KIM and
Choongsub YEOM
Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea

P-LC-004 INTRINSIC REACTION BEHAVIORS OF FISCHER-TROPSCH


SYNTHESIS REACTION IN A FIXED-BED REACTOR
Tae Wan KIM, Ji Chan PARK, Heon JUNG and Jung-Il YANG*
Clean Fuel Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

P-LC-005 THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF POWER-TO-GAS PLANT BASED ON


CO2 METHANATION USING H2 FROM DUMP POWER IN KOREA
Su Hyun Kim1* and Young Don Yoo1
1
Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Suwon, Korea

P-LC-006 CHARACTERIZATION OF K2CO3-MgO BASED SOLID SORBENT FOR


CAPTURING CO2 FROM FLUE GAS
Tae Hyoung EOM1, Joong Beom LEE1, Kyeongsook KIM1,
2 1
Young Woo RHEE * and Chong Kul RYU *
1
Future Technology Research Laboratory, KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon, Korea
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea

P-LC-007 INTERNAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF OIL PALM-DERIVED


BIOMASS AND THEREBY REINFORCED COMPOSITES
Kazutoshi KUNIMOTO1, Yoshito ANDO2, Yoshihito SHIRAI1,2 and Haruo NISHIDA1,2
1
Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of
Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan
2
Eco-Town Collaborative R&D Center for the Environment and Recycling, Kyushu
Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu Japan

96
P-LC-008 PREDICTION OF INSIDE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION FOR A
REHEATING FURNACE USING NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
Cheon Hyun CHO, Su Hyun KIM, Sung Ho PARK and Dong-Ryul RHIM*
Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea

P-LC-009 THE EFFECT OF PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF p-Nitrophenol


BY SYNTHESISED TICL4 AND ETHYLENE GLYCOL
Eul Noh1, Kang Seop Yun1, Hee June Jeong1, Na Hyun Jun1, Woo Seung Kang2,
3 1
Sang Chul Jung and Sun Jae Kim *
1
Institute/Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engin., Sejong
University, Seoul 143-747, Korea
2
Dept. Of Metallurgical & Materials Engin., Inha Technical College, Incheon
402-752, Korea
3
Dept. Of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon,
Jeonnam, 540-742, Korea

P-LC-010 STUDY ON THE ANALYSIS OF GASEOUS PRODUCTS FROM LIGNITE


STEAM GASIFICATION WITH MINERAL CATALYSTS
Roosse LEE1, Dong Hyun HEO1, Jong Ha HWANG1 and Jung Min SOHN1*
1
Department of Mineral Resources & Energy Engineering, Chonbuk National
University, Jeonju, Korea

P-LC-011 REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON CO2 ADSORPTION


IN COAL
Tanveer AHMAD and Sang-Sup LEE*
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju,
Korea

97
ESS : Energy Storage System

P-ESS

November 19 [Wed], 14:40~15:20 [Robby]

P-ESS-001 A STUDY ON ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM FOR RAILWAY SYSTEM


Han Min LEE1
1
Urban Transportation Practical Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute,
Seoul, Korea

P-ESS-002 FACILE SYNTHESIS OF COPPER OXIDE/ACTIVATED CARBON


COMPOSITES USING LIQUID PHASE PLASMA METHOD FOR
SUPERCAPACITOR APPLICATION
Heon Lee1, Sung Hoon Park1, Sun-Jae Kim2, Byung-Joo Kim3, Kay-Hyeok An3 and
Sang-Chul Jung1*
1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Korea
2
Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University,
Seoul, Korea
3
Korea Institute of Carbon Convergence Technology, Jeonju, Korea

P-ESS-003 ACTIVE CELL BALANCING SYSTEM OF FORWARD TOPOLOGY TYPE


BY MULTI EXCITER STRUCTURE
Jae-ha Ko1, Suk-Ho Lee1, Cheol-hyun Lim1 and Sung-jun Park2*
1
Green Energy Institute, Mokpo, Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chonnam University, Kwangju, Korea

P-ESS-004 SYNTHESIZED BY WET METHOD OF SiOx ANODE MATERIALS FOR


LITHIUM ION BATTERIES
Hee June Jeong1, Hyeon Woo Yang1, Kang Seop Yun1, Eul Noh1, Na Hyeon Jun1,
2 3 1
Wooseung Kang , Sang Chul Jung and Sun Jae Kim *
1
Institute/Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engin., Sejong
University, Seoul, Korea
2
Dept. Of Metallurgical & Materials Engin., Inha Technical College, Incheon, Korea
3
Dept. Of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon,
Jeonnam,, Korea

P-ESS-005 NATURAL CELLULOSE DERIVED CARBON MATERIALS


Seong Ok HAN1*, I Na SIM1, Heeyeon KIM1, Doo Won SEO1, Seyoung KIM1,
In Sub HAN1, Young-Hoon SEONG1 and John FOORD2
1
Energy Materials Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Chemistry, Oxford University, Oxford, UK

P-ESS-006 DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH ENERGY DENSITY Li-s BATTERY


JI EUN KIM, Sun-Hwa Yeon*, Hana Yoon, Sang-Ho Lee and YEONG A LEE
Energy Storage Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Deajeon, Korea

P-ESS-007 CARBON ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR ENERGYE STORAGE SYSTEMS


Sun-Hwa Yeon*, Ji-Eun Kim, Dong-Ha Kim and Sang-Ho Lee
Energy Storage Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Deajeon, Korea

98
SG : Smart Grid

P-SG

November 19 [Wed], 14:40~15:20 [Robby]

P-SG-001 IMPLEMENTATION OF AN OPTIMIZATION BASED POWER


MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR SMALL-SACLE MICROGRIDS
Yoon Dong SUNG1*, Wenbo Shi2, Sea Shung OH1, Su Yong CHAE1, Il Oun LEE1,
3 1
Eun Kyu LEE and Yu Jin SONG
1
Energy Saving Lab., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Smart Gird Energy Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
3
Symantec Research Laboratory, Culver City, CA, USA

P-SG-002 AN EFFICEINCT POWER CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR A DC-DC


CONVERTER IN DC DISTRIBUTION APPLICATIONS
Su Yong CHAE1*, Jin Ju PARK1, Sea Shung OH1 and Yu Jin SONG1
1
Energy Efficiency Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

P-SG-003 INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT ENERGY


STORAGE SYSTEM (ESS) IN DAEGU SMART GRID TEST SITE
Jonghoon Kim1* and Jungpil Park2
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea
2
Energy Solution (ES) Division, Samsung SDI, Cheonnan, Chungcheongnam-do,
Korea

P-SG-004 THE CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF AC DIRECT LED DRIVE


METHOD SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING OF LED LIGHTING SYSTEM IN
A BUILDING
1 1 1 1
Jin Woo JEONG *, Su Yong CHAE , Suk In PARK and Hak Guen JEONG
1
Energy Efficiency Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

99
CCT&CCS

P-CCT&CCS

November 19 [Wed], 14:40~15:20 [Robby]

P-CCT&CCS-001 PALLADIUM-BASED H2/CO2 SEPARATION MEMBRANE HAVING A


PROTECTION LAYER
Sung-Wook Lee, Kyung-Ran Hwang*, Duck-kyu Oh, Jin-Woo Park, Chun-Boo Lee,
Dong-Wook Lee and Jong-Soo Park*
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

P-CCT&CCS-002 STEAM EFFECTS FOR PREVENTING CARBON DEPOSITION IN


SNG(SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS) PROCESS
Su Hyun Kim1*, Young Don Yoo1, Jinho Kim1, Dongjun Koh2 and Kwangjun Kim3
1
Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Coal Chemical Research Group, Research Institute of Industrial Science &
Technology, Pohang, Korea
3
Gas & Coal Chemical Business Department, POSCO, Seoul, Korea

P-CCT&CCS-003 A SIMULATION ON EFFICIENCY OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED


CO2 CAPTURE PROCESSES DIFFERENT IN SCALE
Jeong-Hoo Choi1*, A-Reum Jeong1, Yoo-Sube Won1, Chang-Keun Yi2, Sung-Ho Jo2
and Young Cheol Park2
1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong,
Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343,
Korea

P-CCT&CCS-004 RISER PRESSURE DROP OF DIFFERENT SCALE CIRCULATING


FLUIDIZED-BEDS CAPTURING CO2 FROM FLUE GAS
Jeong-Hoo Choi1*, Pil-Snag Youn1, A-Reum Jeong1, Yoo-Sube Won1,
2 2 2
Chang-Keun Yi , Sung-Ho Jo and Young Cheol Park
1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong,
Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701,Korea
2
Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343,
Korea

P-CCT&CCS-005 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOLIDS FLOW RATE AND STATIC BED


HEIGHT IN A RISER OF A PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED
BED USING AN L-VALVE
Muhammad Shahzad Khurram1, Jeong-Hoo Choi1*, Yoo-Sube Won1, A Reum Jeong1
and Ho-Jung Ryu2
1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Energy Research, 305-343, Daejon, Korea

100
1MFOBSZ4FTTJPO
AFORE 2014, NOV. 17-20, YEOSU, KOREA
PLENARY SPEECH I

THE TRANSFORMATION TO FREE ENERGY SYSTEM THROUGH


CONVERGENCE
Namsung Ahn

President of KETEP(Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning), Korea

* Corresponding author: nsahn@ketep.re.kr

Since the industrial revolution, the world has experienced industrial bubbles such as social crisis and
environmental crisis represented by inequality of wealth and climate change respectively. Environmental
crisis(Climate Change) and Social Crisis(Economic Concentration) flowed inexorably from the communication/
energy matrices that were the foundation of the first and second industrial revolutions. A powerful new
technology platform is developing out of the bowels of the second industrial revolution, speeding the central
contradiction of capitalist ideology to the end game mentioned above. The coming together of the communications
internet with the fledgling Energy internet and logistic internet in a seamless 21st century intelligent infrastructure
-the Internet of Things- is giving rise to a Third Industrial Revolution.
Technology may advance incrementally on the margins for long periods of time without substantially affecting
established players. Indeed, developing technologies may remain uneconomical on average, even as leading
innovators approach breakthroughs. But once technology delivers cost and performance that is materially superior
to the status quo, it may well be adopted en masse. History shows that innovations in technology can cause
dramatic increases in productivity, transforming industries and setting whole societies on new paths to growth.
Specially, the technology progress in renewable energy shows very similar trajectory to the IT technology,
known as Moores law. It is expanding as following the exponential growth curve and its cost is dropping
in similar to the exponential curve. In the future within 20-30 years, We will experience the free energy period,
which resulted from the expansion of renewable energy.

103
AFORE 2014, NOV. 17-20, YEOSU, KOREA
PLENARY SPEECH II

SMART GRID - OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN THE


ST
CREATION OF THE 21 CENTURY POWER GRID
Rajit Gadh - Professor, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science

Director, UCLA Smart Grid Energy Research Center (SMERC)

* Corresponding author: gadh@ucla.edu

Major portions of the US electric grid are half a century old, and compared to other infrastructure, the adoption
of new technology into the US grid has been relatively slow. This slow adoption of technology compared to
other sectors such as telecommunications has been attributed to the reason that the existing grid is 99.97% reliable
and therefore should not need upgrading. However, its structure and topology are relatively inflexible since its
underlying framework was designed assuming unidirectional flow of power, control and information. As a result
of this inflexible structure, integrating common renewable energy sources such as solar and wind into the grid
is prohibitively expensive and unwieldy. Also, electric vehicles, now having been introduced in several markets
of the country especially California, present major challenges when plugged into the grid.
A smart grid would allow two-way power flow, two-way communications flow and two-way control flow.
This will allow the grid to be more flexible, smart, self-healing, resilient, and efficient. To enable such a grid,
a host of advanced technologies such as information technology, wireless and mobile devices, sensor and control
systems, etc., have to be architected and integrated into the existing grid. Research at UCLAs Smart Grid
Energy Research Center (SMERC) focuses on the integration capability of such technologies between the
medium voltage distribution grid and the consumers interface into the grid.
Research is being performed on the creation of smart grid services that are aggregated from consumers and
offered through a distribution network in a smart grid. The fundamental idea is to aggregate services at the
consumers level with the permission and control of the consumer and then enable these aggregated services
into utility-grade offerings. For example, if sufficient numbers of electric vehicle (EV) owners allow their local
utility to extract power from their EVs during peak-demand periods, the utility should be willing to offer
customers incentives to do so. An intermediate enterprise that aggregates 100 EVs with a nominal 6.6KW
charging capacity / EV would be able to offer a 0.66MW Demand Response service into the local regulatory
markets. Beyond this service, vehicles with bi-directional power flow can theoretically offer up to10x the power
while discharging for short periods of time, which would imply a 6.6MW short-term, aggregation service
capability. With 1000 EVs in a region, this capacity can in principle reach 66MW, which is approximately
UCLAs peak power consumption. With about 20,000 cars parked in UCLA on a typical day, if in the future
5% of its vehicles were EVs, UCLA could participate in a short-time period micro-grid market and should be
able to completely operate off-the-grid for a window of time without cutting power consumption in its facilities.
UCLA SMERC is been developing a wireless monitoring and control platform called WINSmartGridTM
(Wireless Internet Smart Grid http://winmec.ucla.edu/smartgrid) that is currently being deployed in parts of UCLA
called the UCLA Smart Grid Living Lab. Also, UCLA SMERC is a participant in a DOE-ARRA regional
demonstration project and is experimenting with research concepts in Automated Demand Response, EV
Integration (G2V and V2G) and Micro-grids using the WINSmartGridTM platform within the Living Lab. The
research platform accepts inputs from electrical loads such as EVs or air-conditioners, ambient condition sensors
such as temperature, humidity or occupancy sensors, and grid operator / grid condition input. It is the platform
on which an EV monitoring, aggregation and control network has been developed Gmore than 150 smart EV
charging station nodes have been installed as part of a research test-bed in and around UCLA. Research is being
performed on models of EV aggregation under constraints of user, utility and facility, verification of such models,
network architecture and performance verification for real time market service, and, wireless-based monitoring
and control systems. The talk will present research and technical opportunities and challenges, upcoming
opportunities and their challenges, and current research progress at UCLAs Smart Grid Energy Research Center.

BIO G RAJIT GADH: http://smartgrid.ucla.edu/director

104
AFORE 2014, NOV. 17-20, YEOSU, KOREA
PLENARY SPEECH III

JAPANS ENERGY STRATEGY AND PLAN


Gento Mogi*

Department of Technology Management for Innovation, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

* Corresponding author: mogi@tmi.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Since centuries, fossil fuels has been the primary energy source for mankind. Our consumption constantly
grew, mainly in accordance with the growth of the economy, especially since the end of the 2nd World War.
Now we consume around 13Gtoe (567EJ) of energy per year, which is almost equal to 18TW or 144ppm of
the solar energy arriving to the surface of the earth.
Similar to Korea, Japan has fundamental vulnerability in the energy supply system due to its high dependency
on overseas energy resources. Volatility of the international energy market tends to increase due to changing
market conditions. Global greenhouse gas emissions already increased beyond the critical level. Bitter social
acceptance against nuclear power since the Fukushima disaster even limits our options for the future energy
mix.
Considering the several constraints, the New (4th ) Strategic Energy Plan of Japan has been approved by
the Cabinet on 11th April 2014. Energy security, Economic efficiency on the premise of Safety, and
Environment are the basic viewpoints of the energy policy. Position and role of each energy source have
been identified in the plan without setting specific targets.

PLENARY SPEECH IV

JEOLLANAMDO RENEWABLE ENERGY STATUS AND


DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
1 1 2 2
Dong Seok SEO , Seung Won Jeong , Jin Sun Bum and Bong cheol Jang *

1
New Renewable Energy Team, Jeonnam Technopark, Suncheon, Korea
2
Energy Industry Division, Jeollanamdo Provincial Government, Korea

* Corresponding author: dsseo@jntp.or.kr

It features a natural environment and geographical conditions of renewable energy, Jeollanamdo are blessed,
focused attention has been made to the PV industry and the industry paradigm shift. Jeollanamdo holds the
maximum horizontal insolation(3,323kcal/m2 G day) of national annual average of 1 day and 10% insolation
of the national average, more than 20% insolation of the metropolitan area.
Jeollanamdo is abundant offshore wind resources, best place for wind farms, 60% of the nation's potential
offshore reserves, compared to other local wind speed and air flow is excellent, the southwest coast of the
island sea area average wind speed 7.0 ~ 7.5m/s, It is possible to install a large number of island, It is easy
to create offshore wind farm is due to shallow water. It reserves the excellent offshore structure design and
solid construction technology as expanding renewable energy projects in the region also shipbuilders.
In the future, with the goal of creating more than 40% of the nation's renewable energy production, supply,
and solar and offshore wind farms, tidal power is pushing the country-specific space for renewable energy parts
industry cluster composition, the space behind the harbor.

105
4QFDJBM4FTTJPO
4QFDJBM4FTTJPO*
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SSI-001

RENEWABLE ENERGY SITUATION IN NEPAL


Ghimire Laxman Prasad

Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National
University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: laxman@snu.ac.kr

Nepal is facing the problem in terms of economic development which is not possible without reliable energy
supply. Although Nepal has bestowed capacity in terms of renewable energy supply like hydropower, solar
energy, wind energy and biomass. Only 65 % population has access to electricity including 14% from Renewable
Energy Technologies. It is not possible to significantly improve the living standard of the rural poor if their
demand for clean energy services is not sufficient. Extension of national grid to reach those areas is not possible
in many years to come due to the difficult terrain, high cost and also there is an enormous energy crisis in
the country. So government of Nepal is giving high priority in Clean and sustainable energy such as renewable
energy technologies by providing subsidy. Nepal has around 83 GW of hydropower potential among which
around 40 GW is technically and financially feasible from large hydropower sector. According to estimation
conducted by the alternative energy promotion center stated that the economically feasible potential is 2100
MW in solar energy. While from the assessment report published from the government of the Nepal, around
1.1 million household has potentials of the biogas plants. To address this health problem together with to save
the deforesting, government of Nepal through alternative energy promotion center has been launching smoke
less improve cooking stove. In the wind energy, the theoretical potential roughly considered around 3000 MW,
but so far Nepal has not achieved the significance progress in the wind energy sector. Nepal has huge potential
of renewable energy, but there many barriers for the harnessing as per the country requirement.30, 000 jobs
have been created on the renewable energy sector. On of the key factor that Nepal is facing is limitation of
the financial resources for the further development renewable energy projects. So Nepal has enough potential
for exploitation of renewable energy from locally available resources and harnessing the renewable energy
provides the significant improvement on the electricity access in the country.

Key words: Nepal, Renewable energy, Subsidy, Rural Area, Hydropower

111
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SSI-002

OVERVIEW OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN YEMEN


Abdulsalam Al-Dakhin

Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National
University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: abdulsalam1970@snu.ac.kr, aldukhain04@gmail.com

Assessment study of the resource show that the Republic of Yemen is endowed with significant renewable
energy resources such as wind, solar and geothermal energies. These resources are found to sustain large-scale
commercial power development as well as small-scale decentralized system to meet the energy needs of rural
and remote communities. To develop these resources and stimulate private investments, national renewable
energy policy and strategies are being proposed to justify governments intervention and to spell out strategic
actions to scale up renewable energy technology deployment.
Various very promising initiatives are underway in Yemen to foster renewable energies. The Yemeni
government decided on a 15% renewable electricity target by 2025. This is a realistic time frame and such
a target is also compatible with the future electricity system requirements and capabilities (regarding loss
reduction and overall stability). In other words, renewable energy target identified as 14.6 percent of the total
grid-based electricity generation in 2020. This corresponds to around 1953 GWh of renewable energy generation
capacity.
Technical barriers of renewable energy development represent in: lack of technical code and standards for
grid interconnection of renewable power projects, lack of certification standards that ensure quality of renewable
energy technologies sold in the country, lack of technical skills in design, planning and implementation of
renewable energy projects in the country in general as well as in government owned utilities such as PEC,
lack of support to research and development, and Large scale power generation from renewable energies such
as wind are also associated with environmental problems such as noise, shadow and migratory bird issues.

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O-SSI-003

EFFECTIVE SUPPORT MECHANISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF


RENEWABLE ENERGY IN KAZAKHSTAN
Rakhimov Kairat

Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering,


Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: kairat@snu.ac.kr

Kazakhstan is endowed with significant fossil fuel resources and its power generation is mostly based on
the use such resources. However, Kazakhstan also has plenty of supply of hydro, wind, solar, biomass, and
geothermal energy. The total potential of all renewable energy types in Kazakhstan is estimated at 2700 TWh
(theoretical), over 100 TWh/year (technically feasible). However, this potential is currently used only to a minor
extent. Wind, solar and biogas cover less than 1% of final energy consumption. Therefore, the strategy for
developing renewable energy should aim precisely to optimize the use of these resources, in order to minimize
Gor keep as low as possible Gthe impact on the electricity tariff whilst at the same time ensuring that there
are enough incentives for investors. Kazakhstan has already moved a step ahead in this direction by setting
the indicative target for renewable power generation in 1 TWh of renewable energy production by 2014, and
about 3.5 TWh by 2020. In 2009, the Government of Kazakhstan passed a renewable energy law (Law of
the Republic of Kazakhstan on Support of Use of Renewable Sources of Energy), which establishes project
based support mechanisms and priority dispatch. However, a number of issues remain unresolved. The main
question as a first step is design effective mechanism of support renewable energy development in Kazakhstan.
In this work we try to show an objective look at the benefits and downsides to using strategies for Kazakhstan
case. Our presentation is intended to raise awareness about Kazakhstan's situation in renewable energy sector
and support mechanism for renewable energy in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Key words: Renewable energy, electricity distribution, support mechanism, GHG emissions, a feed-in tariff (FIT)
system

113
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SSI-004

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA:


OVERCOMING ENERGY POVERTY
Nnaemeka Vincent EMODI and Kyung-Jin BOO

Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National
University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: emeka50@snu.ac.kr, kjboo@snu.ac.kr

Energy availabilty is crucial for the economic growth of any nation in the world today. Access to clean,
affordable and reliable energy are necessities in order to achieve a sustainable development in the modern world.
Energy poverty in a country can be said to be a scenario where its citizens lack power to meet even their
own basic needs such as lighthing and cooking. In Africa, access to sustainable energy which is rudimentary
for the social, political and economic development for the continet as a whole has been an immerse challenge.
Nigeria, a country described as the gaint of Africa and the most populated black nation in the world still
faces the crisis of energy poverty. Nigeria is blessed with an abundant energy resources of both fossil fuels
and renewable energy, but the main challege is with the countrys inability to adequately and efficienty utilize
these energy resources. These lack of efficent energy utilization has lead to the near depletion of the fossil
fuel resources within the countrys boarder and the energy crisis afflicting Nigeria will be on the rise if the
government does not act immediately by the diversification of countrys energy sources and exploit the abundant
natural renewable resources avaliable in the country. This paper reviews the standpoint of efficent energy
management with strategic concentration on the demand side energy savings and renewable energy resource
potential in Nigeria to ensure sustainable development. Also in the paper, the energy situation is reviewed with
the consumption parttern of the various fossil fuel resources in the country, this is followed by a review on
the electricity generation and consumption parttern. On the issue of energy sustainablity, we examined the
various renewable energy potentials, locations and present ways in which they can be harnessed for useful and
uninterupted energy supply in order to alleviate energy poverty in both rural and urban areas within the country.
Strategic energy savings on the demand side were examined in order to descover the areas that needs attention
and solutions were presented. The Nigerian Energy Policy was also reviewed including the Renewable Energy
Master Plan after which we review the various renewable energy promostion strategy undertaken by some
African countries and present ways in which these could be implemented in Nigeria. An effective strategic
energy policy is presented in order to overcome the energy poverty situation in Nigeria, with these we give
our conclusion on the paper.

Key words: Sustainable Energy, Development, Energy Poverty, Renewable Energy, Stragegic Energy Savings

114
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O-SSI-005

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN MEXICO: ANALYSIS ON POLICY


GOALS AND BARRIERES
Nacxitl Calva Gonzalez

Department of Technology Management Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National
University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: Nacxitl@snu.ac.kr

The purpose of this essay is to present the actual situation and to analyze the barriers to accomplish the
government goals to increase the renewable energy production in Mexico. In 2013 a new six year presidential
term started in Mexico and new country planning took place, the Special Program for Renewable Energy was
published, it is the policy instrument that drives the government support to renewable energy and set the goals
for generation increase within the presidential term, in addition to this Climate Change policy also consider
energy transition as key component for CO2 emissions mitigation. Recent changes in Mexican legislation ended
with the monopoly of the state-owned utility allowing private companies to participate in the energy market.
Regulation and incentives in the new open market will help to transit into a low carbon economy through
renewable energy.

Key words: Renewable Energy, Mexico, Market liberalization

115
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SSIV-001

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF RED SYSTEM


Chan-Soo Kim1*, Han-Ki Kim1, Seo-Yoon Lee1, Nam-Jo Jeong1, Eun-Jin Jwa1, Sung-Jo Kwak1,
1 2 3
Kyo-Sik Hwang , Young-Woo Choi and Sung-Kook Hong

1
Marine Energy Convergence & Integration Lab., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jeju, Korea
2
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Center for Industry, Academy, and Laboratories, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Buan, Korea
3
Advanced Combustion Lab., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: damulkim@kier.re.kr

Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technique to produce electricity from the mixing of two feed waters with
different salinity. Recently, RED has been considered the attractive technology because this new process has
huge potential and possibility to generate energy from abundant but largely unused resources. To make RED
an economically attractive technology, the large scale RED stack should be developed. In this study, we have
developed the kW class RED stack and evaluated the performances for the first time in Korea. And the effect
of operation conditions on power density was confirmed. To minimize the internal resistance and to increase
power density of RED, we developed the highly durable ion exchange pore filling membranes with high ion
transfer coefficients. The thickness of the prepared pore filling membranes was controlled between 20 and 25
micrometers to extremely lower membrane resistance and to increase ion transfer. The prepared ion exchange
pore filling membranes were compared with commercial membranes. We obtained the highest power density
comparing to the result reported in elsewhere.

O-SSIV-002

THE EFFECT OF CELL ASPECT RATIO AND FLOW RATE


ON REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS SYSTEMS
Kilsung KWON1, Byung Ho PARK1 and Daejoong KIM1*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: daejoong@sogang.ac.kr

Here, we discuss an energy recovery strategy to utilize this chemical energy using so-called reverse electrodialysis.
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a membrane-base electrochemical technique to convert concentration gradient
directly into electrical energy. It is simple in system design and highly efficient. We evaluated different
RED-hybrid systems including reverse osmosis and forward osmosis. We included the energy cost due to the
additional component (RED). The simulation results show how RED systems respond to the change in
concentrations, compartment thicknesses, and flow rates in terms of power generation.

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O-SSIV-003

REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS BY USING NANOSTRUCTURES


Dong-Kwon KIM1*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea

* Corresponding author: dkim@ajou.ac.kr

Power generation by reverse electrodialysis by using nanostructures was experimentally investigated by


placing the nanostructures between two solutions with various combinations of concentrations. The power
generation per unit area was obtained from measured current-potential characteristics. The present data indicate
that nanostructures are comparable to organic ion exchange membranes in terms of power generation density.
Power generation from a concentration gradient in nanostructures by reverse electrodialysis could be used in
a variety of applications, including micro batteries and micro power generators.

O-SSIV-004

REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS (RED) AS A NEW ELECTRICAL


POWER SOURCE FOR UNIQUE APPLICATIONS
Seung-Ryong Kwon, Su Hong Kwak and Taek Dong Chung*

Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: tdchung@snu.ac.kr

Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the promising process for generating electrical power from renewable
energy sources. In the early 1950s, Pattle demonstrated the production of electrical power by mixing the fresh
and salt water which are inexhaustible resources at the mouth of river for the first time. However, this concept
had not been receiving keen attention before we seriously faced the depletion crisis of natural power resources.
Recently, a couple of European countries, including Netherland, Sweden, and Italy, have been interested in
the study and development of salinity gradient power-based electricity production systems. For instance, Wetsus
center in Netherland built up experimentally and theoretically optimized RED systems to obtain maximum
electrical power for sustainable water technology with given materials and mechanical engineering resources.
They are developing the pilot RED plant capable of 200 MW electricity production and ultimately planning
to supply local public/private housing. Meanwhile, some scientists paid attention to unique applications based
on eco-friendly RED systems. As an application, Logan group at Pennsylvania State University showed
significantly increased electricity production (5.6 W/m2) with simultaneous purification of waste water using
the hybrid system of RED and microbial cell. They also reported the hydrogen production strategy by generating
electricity in the same combinations. In this talk, a few unique applications based on RED system as a new
electrical power source are introduced and discussed.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SSIV-005

CHARACTERIZATION OF ELCTRODES AND MEMBRANES FOR


REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS
Seung-Hyeon Moon*, Sung-Hyun Yun and Jin-Hyun Lee

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 123
Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: shmoon@gist.ac.kr

Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a renewable and clean energy system that generates electricity by diffusion
of ions through ion-exchange membranes by using sea water and river water. Membrane potential occurs via
a specific salinity gradient, while electrode reactions allow energy conversion between the membrane potential
and redox potential at surface of electrodes. In this study, the physicochemical properties of membranes and
several carbon electrodes (i.e., untreated graphite felt, acid-treated graphite felt, heat-treated graphite felt, and
carbon cloth) are characterized. The effects of the electrodes on RED performance are examined by cyclic
voltammogram, impedance spectroscopy, RED unit cell, and stack tests. As a result, significantly improved RED
performances are achieved by the use of carbon electrodes with high hydrophilic and active surface area.
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analyses prove that the surface modification of the carbon electrodes
reduces charge transfer resistance, thereby contributing to enhanced RED performance. Finally, the RED system
was successfully scaled-up from a pair of 0.5 W/m2 class to 10-pair stack of 6 W/m2 class RED. Thereby
this study suggests prospective materials issues for a high performance RED.

121
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SSIV-006

EFFECT OF POTENTIAL FOULANTS ON THE PERFROMANCE OF


REVERSE ELECTRODIALYSIS
1 1 2 2
Ye-Jin JEONG , Jin-Soo PARK *, Chan-Soo KIM and Nam-Jo JEONG

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Sangmyung University, Cheonan, Korea
2
Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Jeju, Korea

* Corresponding author: energy@smu.ac.kr

Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the possible processes for generating energy from the salt gradient
between concentrated salt solutions (e.g., sea water) and diluted salt solutions (eg., river water). For maximizing
a Donnan effect of sea and river water, cation- and anion-exchange membranes between two electrodes by
the permselective passage of ions through the membranes were placed. Thus those membranes is directly exposed
to the complicated water chemistry of the feed solutions. It is inferred that the fouling on membrane surface
might occurs due to potential foulants such as organic and inorganic materials in natural conditions. In this
study, we investigated influence on the performance on RED system due to the potential foulants contained
in sea and river water. To study the effect of fouling of the membranes in RED exposed to natural conditions,
open circuit voltage (OCV), stack resistance and power density were measured at different operation conditions.

Acknowledgement
This research was financially supported in part by the New and Renewable Energy of Korea Institute of
Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korean governments Ministry of
Trade, Industry and Energy (No. 20143030071240) and in part by the Ministry of Education, Science
Technology (MEST) and National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) through the Human Resource Training
Project for Regional Innovation (No. 2012H1B8A2025906).

122
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SSIV-007

ADVANCED ENGINEERED OSMOSIS MEMBRANES FOR


SUSTAINABLE WATER AND ENERGY
1 1 2
Soon-Bum KWON , Seockheon LEE and Jung-Hyun LEE *

1
Water Resource Cycle Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
2
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: leejhyyy@korea.ac.kr

Engineered osmosis (EO) such as forward osmosis (FO) and pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is an emerging
technology for the sustainable management of clean water and energy. However, a major challenge in EO is
the lack of high performance EO membranes. Although polyamide (PA) thin film composite (TFC) membranes
has been proven to be a promising material platform for the EO membrane, the conventional interfacial
polymerization (IP) technique to prepare the PA selective layer lacks control over its structure, imposing a
severe constraint on improving EO performance. In this talk, we present a recently-devised, alternative method
for the fabrication of the PA selective layer, termed molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) that can construct the
selective layer with precisely controlled structure at the molecular level. We demonstrate that the
mLbL-assembled membrane exhibits EO performance (osmotic water flux and selectivity toward a monovalent
salt (NaCl)) exceeding the commercial EO and conventional IP-assembled membranes. In addition, the stability
of mLbL-assembled membranes under high ionic strength environments was carefully examined.

O-SSIV-008

NANOELECTROKINETIC WATER PURIFICATION /


DESALINATION METHOD USING ION CONCENTRATION
POLARIZATION
Jae Suk PARK1, Hyomin Lee1, Inhee CHO1, Wonseok KIM1, Sungmin PARK1,
1 1
Soonhyun KWON and Sung Jae KIM *

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: gates@snu.ac.kr

Ion Concentration Polarization (ICP) phenomenon is traditional electrochemical ion transportation process and
appears as a steep concentration gradient near nanoporous membrane under dc bias. The major function of
ICP is an electrical filter by an external electric field so that it is significantly useful to apply the bio-molecular
preconcentrator and high energy efficient desalination system. In this presentation, small scale water purification/
desalination system for portable application of both with external electricity and without external voltage source
would be introduced. In addition to this, energy saving strategy for an electrochemical membrane system by
analyzing hydrodynamic flow field will be discussed.

123
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O-SSV-001

EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM SST VARIATION ON OFFSHORE WIND


RESOUCE IN THE SEAS AROUND JAPAN
1 1 1 1
Teruo OHSAWA *, Daiki USUI , Shunsuke OTSUKI and Katsutoshi KOZAI

1
Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan

* Corresponding author: ohsawa@port.kobe-u.ac.jp

The authors investigated how temporal and spatial variations of sea surface temperature (SST) affect offshore
wind resources in the seas around Japan, using long-term wind speed data from ECMWF re-analysis, SST data
from UK Met Office and output data from numerical simulation with the mesoscale model WRF. It was found
that an area (a year) with higher SST generally has higher wind speed, and the relationship has a high correlation
of more than 0.7. The largest annual variation of SST around the Japan Archipelago was found along the Pacific
coast of the Tohoku region, where the Fukushima Floating Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project is being
undertaken. Moreover, the largest variation of offshore wind resource was found in almost the same area as
the largest SST variation. This indicates that offshore wind resource is very sensitive to SST variations. The
WRF simulation showed that the mean wind speed and energy production in that area can vary by about 20
%, depending on SST, which is closely associated with strengths of the Kuroshio (warm current) and the Oyashio
(cold current).

O-SSV-002

RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF TIDAL CURRENT ENERGY


IN KOREA
Chul Hee Jo1, Kang Hee Lee1, Do Youb Kim1 and Su Jin Hwang1*

1
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, Korea

* Corresponding author: sjhwang@inha.edu

With the increased demand of renewable energies, the resource assessment has been an issue before any
detail planning and development of the sites. The coastal regions from the west to south coastal line, Korea
are known to be of strong tidal current speed. However, there have been several resource estimations for tidal
current energy with various approaches. This has to be defined and conducted as per the recently published
resource assessment methods. This can be categorized as four methods; theoretical, geographical, technical and
market potentials. This paper describes the energy potential assessment of tidal current power in Korea. Since
the ocean environments and the restricted zones are different for each area, the coastal region has been divided
into 6 regions and 11 sectors along the west to the south coast of Korea. The extensive ocean survey including
echo sounder, side scan sonar, multi-beam echo sounder, ADCP, etc. has been conducted. Also the investigation
of the restricted zones such as shipping channel, military zone, fishing area, subsea pipeline/cable, nature
preserve zone, etc. has been carried out. The geographical potential for each region was calculated disregarding
the restricted zones from the theoretical potential. The technical potential was estimated considering the recently
developed TCP (Tidal Current Power) technologies. The results show that the Incheon-Gyeonggi region and
Mokpo coastal area in Jeolla province are very promising TCP areas in Korea.

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O-SSV-003

RESHAPING PLAN FOR ULLEUNGDO, GREEN ISLAND


Yong-Heack KANG, Chang-Yeol YUN and Hyun-Goo KIM*

New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hyungoo@kier.re.kr

As a volcanic formation island located in the East Sea 130 km off the Korean Peninsula, Ulleungdo measures
73 km2 and has a population of 10,000. To reshape Ulleungdo as the worlds first energy-independent island
with new & renewable energy by 2035, a task force team of more than 100 experts led by the Korea Institute
of Energy Research with 11 new & renewable energy sources involved, 6 participating consulting organizations,
and an advisory group established the Green Island Master Plan. The plan set the GREEN (Green energy,
Revisitable, Ecological, Evolving, and National island) vision to present the future-oriented identity and direction
of economic growth of the island to the residents. It also proposed sequential long-term change to house heating
supplied by new & renewable energy sources, electricity base load supplied by geothermal or hydraulic energy,
and eco-friendly tourism and transportation using biodiesel as the key strategy to realize the vision. The plan
is expected to be fulfilled only when it is based on the benefits of development proven by thorough economic
feasibility assessment and strong support of the local community.

O-SSV-004

NWP APPROACH ON SOLAR RADIATION FORECASTING


Dong-Hyeok KIM1, Hwa-Woon LEE2*, Jae-Hyung PARK2, Hyun-Goo KIM3,
3 3
Yong-Heack KANG and Chang-Yeol YUN

1
Institute of Environmental Studies, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea
2
Department of Atmospheric Science, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea
3
Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: hwlee@pusan.ac.kr

NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) is necessary to a short-term forecast because of the weather conditions
get significantly affect solar radiation reaching the surface. In this study, using the WRF model annual forecast
data generated to clarity the local sensitivity regarding weather conditions and atmosphere turbidity. Lower
forecast accuracy is shown in severe weather disturbances of the summer and in the largest metropolitan areas
in which atmospheric scattering effects of aerosols are significant.

128
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O-SSVI-001

POTENTIAL OF BIOMASS POWER GENERATION FROM DESERT


WITH WATER CONTENT IN CHINA
1 1 1 2
Jiang Kejun , He Chenmin , Liu Jia * and Zhou Sheng

1
Energy Research Institute, Beijing, China,
2
Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

* Corresponding author: hecm@eri.org.cn

China has made big effort to prevent desertification by various measures. A new model was developed in
Maowusu desert by integrating desert preventing, biomass utilization and health care medicine. Such kind of
desert has water content, and it is suitable to plant salix mongolica. Salix mongolica need to be retreat and
cut every year in order to grow up. There will be 3 ton biomass output per hector. There are more than
600000km2 desert with water content in China. Therefore, there is great potential to utilize the biomass produced
from such kind of desert. This paper analyze the biomass utilization scenario from desert with water content
in the low carbon scenario for China, in order to identify the role of it in the background of national energy
supply and demand. In the 2 degree scenario for China, there will be 140million toe biomass demand in 2030.
Biomass from desert with water content could be 280million toe if all 600000km2 desert fully utilized. This
means there will be a very significant role for biomass from the desert.

O-SSVI-002

SUPPLY SYSTEM OF DOMESTIC RAW MATERIALS FOR


BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IN KOREA
Jihyo Kim1* and Sangmin Cho2

1
Climate Change Policy Research Group, Korea Energy Economics Institute, Gyeonggi-Do, Korea
2
Research Planning and Coordination Team, Korea Energy Economics Institute, Gyeonggi-Do, Korea

* Corresponding author: jihyokim@keei.re.kr

The Korean government has promoted biodiesel as a means of meeting joint goals of decreasing greenhouse
gas emissions, enhancing energy security, and increasing air quality since 2002. However, over 70% of the
raw materials for biodiesel production from 2006 to 2012 has come from imported vegetable oils. Thus, whether
the promotion of biodiesel contributes to enhance energy security has been under question. To increase the
localization rate of raw materials for biodiesel production, the government planned to implement the following
three policy measures. The first is to expand overseas plantation for biodiesel crops. The second is to research
and develop domestic, next generation raw materials for biodiesel, such as microalgae. And the third is to
increase the collection rate of waste cooking oil (WCO), which accounts for over 95% of the domestic raw
materials for biodiesel production in Korea. The two formers can be effective in long-terms whereas the latter
can be effective immediately. Under this circumstance, we review the current collection system of WCO and
policy options for increasing collection rate of WCO in Korea. In particular, we investigate a policy option
of providing incentive for WCO collection by applying contingent valuation.

131
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SSVI-003

DOES THE INSTITUTIONAL FAILURE UNDERMINE THE


PHYSICAL DESIGN PERFORMANCES OF THE SOLAR WATER
PUMPING SYSTEMS IN RURAL NEPAL?
Yutaka Ito, Takahiro Ito, Satoru Komatsu, Ram Prasad Dhital, Daisaku Goto, Masaru Ichihashi,
Keisuke Kawata, Yuki Yamamoto, Yuichiro Yoshida and Shinji Kaneko

IDEC, Hiroshima University, Japan

* Corresponding author: kshinji@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

Mountainous hinterland in rural Nepal lacks fundamental social infrastructure. Lack of electricity causes
difficulty of water provision, especially in mountainous area where villagers, especially ladies, youths and
children, often spends large amount of time just to convey water. To overcome this challenge, a subsidy policy
on installation of solar-photovoltaic water pumping system (SWPS) is recently being implemented nation-wide
in Nepal. Confrontation of the Nepali government with her tight financial constraint requires the installation
process be both economically and technologically sound. However the institutional design of the current
subsidization policy is price-distortionary and potentially inducing installation of inefficient systems. By
collecting original field data from 38 wards in all seven regions in the entire Nepal, this paper thus measures
the technical efficiencies of SWPS, and then identifies relevant economic policies that will enhance the
performance of SWPS. Our results show, inter-alia, that higher dependency on financial support from the
government indeed results in excessive investment on SWPS.

O-SSVI-004

A CRITICAL REVIEW OF RPS(RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO


STANDARD) POLICY IN KOREA
Tae Yong Jung1* and Hyun Je Kim2

1
Professor, KDI School of Public Policy & Management, Korea
2
Vice-President, Korea Energy Economics Institute, Korea

* Corresponding author: tyjung00@gmail.com

The renewable energy policy in Korea has been drastically changed in 2012 after the Renewable Portfolio
Standard (RPS) policy replaced the Feed-in Tariff (FIT) policy. The introduction of RPS seems to be successful
in accelerate the installation of renewable energy options despite of the weak potentials of renewables in Korea.
However, it is not easy for Korea to achieve the national goal of renewable portion in the primary energy
demand and the share of renewable energy sources in Korea is still very low, compared with that of most
OECD countries. It is about time to re-consider the policy combination of RPS and FIT in order to promote
more renewable options. In this paper, we critically review the current RPS policy in Korea.

132
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


IN-WE-001

DYNAMICS AND VIBRATION OF GEARED ROTOR SYSTEMS IN


WIND TUBINE
1 2
Qing Kai HAN * and Jing WEI, Hao ZHANG

1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, PR China
2
Department of Physics, Beta University, Pusan, Korea

* Corresponding author: hanqingkai@dlut.edu.cn

Geared rotor systems are the core parts in wind turbine gearbox which can realize the transmission and
energy transfer from wind blades to electric generator. The dynamics and vibration problems of the geared
rotor systems directly determine the whole life expectation and reliability of the wind turbine. In this paper,
the analysis of dynamic characteristics and the prediction of vibration responses for the geared rotor systems
of wind turbine gearbox are proposed according to one type of large wind turbine gearbox which composed
by two stages of planetary gear train and one parallel gear-pair.
Firstly, the torsional vibration resonances are obtained by using of Campbell diagrams based on the
lumped-mass model of torsional dynamics of the geared rotor system. Based on the whole gearbox finite
element model, the vibrations of both the geared rotor systems and the gearbox housings are calculated
under the internal excitations coming from gear sets and external loads transferring from wind loads. In
addition, complicated vibrations of the geared rotor system are simulated. Experimental measurements of
vibrations on the wind turbine gearbox are performed on the test-rig and on-site. The technologies and results
of this work provide some good references for dynamic design and vibration prediction for power
transmission system of wind turbine and other similar machinery.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-001

FIBER VOLUME INFLUENCE ON THE DEFORMATION OF


COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADES (ON AN EXAMPLE OF
MULTILAYER COMPOSITE PLATE)
Olga Bitkina1, Jang-Ho Lee2*, Ki-Weon Kang2 and Elena Bitkina3

1
CUWES, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea
3
WMG, International Manufacturing Centre, The University of Warwick, United Kingdom

* Corresponding author: jangho@kunsan.ac.kr

Composite material in each layer of real structure is a heterogeneous medium which is formed by the
components of composite that have a significant influence on the formation of composite wind turbine blades.
Taking account of heterogeneous structure of the composite layers in laminated structural elements, or
structural analysis, allows more fully and accurately analyze the processes of the deformation and destruction
of fiber composite materials. Thus, the influence of changing the fiber volume on the deformation of the
composite structures was studied. Studies were conducted on the model in the form of a carbon multilayer
composite panel with dimensions of 300x300 mm. For this investigation, the method of analysis of the
deformation of multilayer composite panels is based on the classical composite theory by applying the
Kirchhoff hypotheses and Cauchy equations. Mathematical model of this method and software for analytical
calculations of the stress-strain state of composite structures was developed. The results of the dependence
of the volume of composite fibers to the plate deformation (plate hogging) are obtained and analyzed, and
practical recommendations are provided for real manufacturing process of composite structures.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy of Korea Institute of Energy Technology
Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) (No.20123021020010) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology
(KIAT) (No. A002200482) grant founded by the Korea government Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-002

WAKE INDUCED DYNAMIC LOAD ANALYSIS OF A WIND


TURBINE IN PARKED CONDITION
1 1 2 3
Minu Jeon , Seunghoon Lee , Taesung Kim and Soogab Lee *

1
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
2
Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark
3
Center for Environmental Noise and Vibration Research, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: solee@snu.ac.kr

Many aerodynamic phenomena on wind turbines are extremely complicated, such as the ground boundary
layer effects, directional and spatial variations in wind shear, unsteady yaw effects. Especially in parked
condition, blade element momentum (BEM) is questionable, particulary at the very high post-stall angles of
attack. Instead, Unsteady vortex lattice method (UVLM) is suitable for non-rotating blades of idling wind
turbines. Thus, UVLM coupled with a linear aeroelastic model is applied for an NREL 5MW rotor blade in
the parked configuration. The results show better performance than BEM method, which is conventionally used
method.

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the Human Resources Development program(No. 20124030200030) of the Korea
Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government
Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy. This work was also supported by the International Collaborative Energy
Technology R&D Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted
financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea. (No. 20138520021140)

O-WE-003

MODEL TEST OF FOWT WITH NEW STATION KEEPING SYSTEM


Sung Bae Lee1, Yu Bin Park1, Byung Cheol Kim1, Jung Tae Kim1 and Hyun Kyoung Shin1*

1
Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Ulsan University, Ulsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: hkshin@ulsan.ac.kr

The world is facing the lack of resources recently. To solve that problem, we are turning our eyes into
the ocean which has infinite possibilities. Now, its inevitable to use offshore structures which can be run in
deep and wild sea to develop the diverse resources like oil, gas and diverse renewable energy. To operate
offshore structures under that kind of rough condition, the most important thing is Station Keeping. Because
of that, most of offshore structures including FPSO(Floating Production Storage and Offloading) have mooring
system and dynamic positioning system. However, its too difficult to install mooring line system in deep sea
and also its expensive to run and keep dynamic positioning system continuously. In this study, we performs
model test of FOWT(Floating Offshore Wind Turbine) using new foil station keeping system.

139
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-004

A NEW SLOPE ESTIMATION MODEL OF NEW WIND


FARM PRODUCTION
Jin HUR1* and Ross BALDICK2

1
Department of Energy Grid, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, USA

* Corresponding author: jinhur@smu.ac.kr

Wind power is variable, uncontrollable, and uncertain compared to traditional generating resources. In order
to understand the characteristics of wind power outputs, we estimate the Power Spectrum Density (PSD) from
empirical data. We classify the estimated PSD into four frequency ranges having different slopes. Since most
of the energy is in the lower frequency components (the second, third, and fourth slope regions have much
lower spectral density than the first), the dominant issues regarding energy will be captured by the low frequency
behavior. In this paper, we propose a new slope estimation model of new wind farm production. When the
existing wind farms are highly correlated and the slope of each wind farm is estimated at a low frequency
range, we can predict the slope with low frequency components of a new wind farm through the proposed
spatial interpolation techniques.

O-WE-005

SPATIAL METRIC TO ESTABLISH MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER


LIMITS USING THE SPATIALLY CORRELATED WIND
GENERATING RESOURCES
Jin HUR1*

1
Department of Energy Grid, Sangmyung University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: jinhur@smu.ac.kr

Large scale wind farm penetration to existing power systems provides many challenging environments to
ISOs these days. Recently, wind developers are installing more advanced wind turbines with better dynamic
response capability. As a result, many ISOs are concerned about the security impact on the power system.
Most ISOs are setting an important power transfer limit from wind generating resource area to load area by
steady-state analysis based on the N-1 contingency study. As the maximum transfer limit will vary depending
on the spatially distributed wind generating resources, spatial prediction of wind generating resources should
be considered when establishing a security limit. In this paper, we propose the spatial metric to increase power
transfer limits using the predicted spatially correlated wind generating resources. In the proposed spatial metric,
the calculation of maximum power transfer limits is performed by security analysis and a new spatial prediction
model to predict wind farm outputs at unmeasured locations or new wind farm sites is proposed.

140
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
IN-WE-002

DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ON FLOATING OFFSHORE WIND


TURBINE AT GOTO, JAPAN
1 2 3 4 5
Tomoaki UTSUNOMIYA *, Iku SATO , Takashi SHIRAISHI , Etsuro INUI and Shigesuke ISHIDA

1
Department of Ocean Energy Resources, Kyushu University, Nishi-Ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
2
Toda Corporation, Kyobashi 1-7-1, Chuo-Ku, Tokyo 104-8388, Japan
3
Hitachi Ltd, Shiroganecho 1-1-1, Hitachi, Ibaragi 317-0056, Japan
4
Fuyo Ocean Development and Engineering Co Ltd, Kuramae, Taito-Ku, Tokyo 111-0051, Japan
5
National Maritime Research Institute, Shinkawa 6-38-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004, Japan

* Corresponding author: utsunomiya@nams.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Ministry of the Environment, Japan has kicked-off the demonstration project on floating offshore wind turbine
(FOWT). The project will continue for six years beginning from 2010fy to 2015fy. In the project, two FOWTs
have been installed. The first FOWT mounts a 100kW wind turbine of downwind type, and the length
dimensions are almost half of the second FOWT (so called as half scale model). The second FOWT mounts
a 2MW wind turbine of downwind type, and called as full scale model. The FOWTs consist of PC-steel hybrid
spar and are moored by three mooring chains. The half scale model was installed at the site on 11th June,
2012 as the first grid-connected FOWT in Japan. The half scale model was attacked by very severe typhoon
Sanba (1216), the greatest tropical typhoon in 2012 in the world. The behavior during the typhoon attack,
including the measured environmental data and the FOWT responses, will be presented. The behavior during
power production will also be presented. The installation of the full scale model has successfully been made;
the opening ceremony was held on 28th October, 2013 as the first multi-megawatt FOWT in Japan. The
installation procedures will be briefly presented.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-006

STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION FOR NREL 5MW WIND TURBINE


BLADE USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD
1 1
Yun Jung JANG and Ki Weon KANG *

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: kwkang68@kunsan.ac.kr

This study aims to perform structural optimization for NREL 5MW wind turbine composite blade using
response surface method. First, the composite blade was modeled according to the published NREL report. Here,
considering the anisotropy of composite materials, the blade layup was designed using PreComp, developed
by the NREL. And, the three design variables that have governing effect on the structural integrity of composite
blade were selected. The optimization was performed using the response surface method with the design of
experiment (DOE). The object function and constraint are to minimize the whole weight of blade and to keep
the maximum stress in blade less than the allowable stress, respectively. The sensitivity analysis was also
conducted to indicate the effects of the design variables on the structural integrity of composite blade. Finally,
the subsequent optimal design was verified through the FE analysis on the blade.

Acknowledgement
This work was financially supported by the Human Resources Development of the Korea Institute of Energy
Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) through a grant funded by the Korean governments Ministry
of Knowledge Economy (No. 20124010203240), by the Basic Science Research Program of the National
Research Foundation (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (No.2011-0007012)
and by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology
(KIAT) and Honam Institute for Regional Program Evaluation through the Leading Industry Development for
Economic Region(No. R0001595).

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-007

FREQUENCY-DOMAIN FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF


VIBRATION-BASED ENERGY HARVESTER FOR WIND TURBINE
BLADE MONITORING SYSTEM
Ji-Won Jin1, Jae-Hoon Kim2, and Ki-Weon Kang1*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea
2
HighSpeedSystemResearchCenter,KRRI,Uiwang,Korea

* Corresponding author: kwkang68@kunsan.ac.kr

Vibration-based energy harvesters (VEHs) intend to replace or extend service life of batteries for condition
monitoring system for high-risk structures such as wind turbine, in which it is hard to supply the electrical
power for data measurement and transmission. VEHs should have the sufficient durability, to monitor the
safety or structural integrity of structure. This study aims to predict fatigue life of the VEH, which may
be used for power supply of the condition monitoring system of the blade. For this, the acceleration was
calculated using the GH-BladedTMatthemostprobablezoneoffailureinthe blade. Based on these results, random
response analysis was performed to identify structural integrity of VEHs considering the resonance of VEHs.
Vibration fatigue analysis was performed in frequency domain to identify of fatigue life of VEHs considering
the resonance between excitation and natural frequencies.

Acknowledgement
This work was financially supported by the Human Resources Development of the Korea Institute of Energy
Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) through a grant funded by the Korean governments Ministry
of Knowledge Economy (No. 20124010203240), by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE), Korea
Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) and Honam Institute for Regional Program Evaluation through
the Leading Industry Development for Economic Region(No. R0001595) and by Research Program
(B551179-12-07-00) funded by the Korea Research Council for Industrial Science & Technology (ISTK).

O-WE-008

NON-LINEAR MOTION ANALYSIS OF TWO FLOATING


STRUCTURES IN A TANDEM CONFIGURATION
Byung Cheol Kim1, Jung Tae Kim1, Sung Bae Lee1, Yu Bin Park1 and Hyun Kyoung Shin1*

1
Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: hkshin@ulsan.ac.kr

Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT) which is installed and operated on the sea is influenced by various
environmental external forces such as wave, current and wind forces. Those forces make us hard to install
and maintain FOWT on the sea and even cause minor collision between a FOWT and an Offshore Wind Support
Vessel (OWSV) while a FOWT is installed and maintained.
In this study, we assume a FOWT and an OWSV are connected by a mooring hawser in a tandem
configuration. And the non-linear motion of both FOWT and OWSV is evaluated by numerical simulations.

143
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-009

COMBINED OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE BLADE


BASED ON WILSON METHOD AND GENETIC ALGORITHM
1 1 1 1
Hao WANG *, Shuaibin LI , Bing MA and Haizhe FAN

1
College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China

* Corresponding author: whouco@163.com

When the Wilson method was applied in the optimization design of wind turbine blade, the design results
need modifying and there exists some nonlinear constraints. Therefore, a combined optimization design method
was presented based on Wilson method and genetic algorithm. This method reasonably integrated the respective
advantages of Wilson method and genetic algorithm. Using the torsional angular distribution designed by the
Wilson method as the input of genetic algorithm, and the chord length was optimized globally. Then a 1.5
MW wind turbine blades was optimized, using the wind energy utilization coefficient as objective function
and the chord length distribution as constraint condition. Compared with the separate design results of Wilson
method and genetic algorithm, for the combined optimization method, there are great advantages in aerodynamic
performance and power output. The maximum wind energy utilization coefficient can achieve 0.547which
is larger than 0.487 of Wilson method and 0.524 of the genetic algorithm. In addition, the maximum power
output efficiency can achieve 96.21%which is larger than 89% of Wilson method and 93.10% of the genetic
algorithm. So the feasibility of the combined optimization design method could be verified and this method
can be applied in the wind turbine blade optimization design.

O-WE-010

PREDICTION OF ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCTION FOR


NEARSHORE WIND FARM IN JEJU ISLAND
Kun-Sung Park1, Ki-Wahn Ryu2* and Hyun-Goo KIM3

1
Graduate Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea
2
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea
3
New & Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: kwryu@jbnu.ac.kr

The main objective of this study is to calculate power generation of 21 MW class wind farm at Hankyung
which has 9 wind turbines located in the western part of Jeju island. CFD analysis of Wind farm is carried
out using WindSim. Jensen wake model is adopted for wind turbine wake modeling. The total power available
generated from the Hankyung wind farm using WindSim is verified by comparing with the electricity production
at the same site. To verify the computed result for the site, the wind data cross-checking for two specified
positions was performed. Relative errors show 3.3 % and 3.8 % respectively. Therefore two relative errors
are in small percentile levels. It turns out that the predicted annual energy productions agree very well with
measured results.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-011

PREDICTION OF TURBULENCE INTENSITY AND WAKE PROFILE


ON WIND FARM USING PARABOLIC NAVIER-STOKES
EQUATION
Byeongho Hwang1, Eunkuk Son1 and Soogab Lee1*

1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-744, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: solee@snu.ac.kr

Numerical method for calculating a turbulence intensity and wake profiles on wind farm were developed.
In order to add to an optimization tool of a wind farm layout, TOPFARM, a parabolic Navier-Stokes equation
was used because of its low computing cost. To calculate coefficient matrix and reduce computing cost,
tri-diagonal matrix algorithm, which can neglect time-step iteration was used. The Monin-Obukhov length was
used for modelling the properties of the non-uniform incident flow over the wind turbine. The developed
numerical method is based on the k-Gmethod for the closure of the turbulent flow equation. The turbulence
intensity was obtained by using properties of the flow which can be calculated using equation of mass,
momentum, energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy. The model
has been validated with experimental results obtained from Technical university of Denmark.

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the International Collaborative Energy Technology R&D Program of the Korea
Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry
of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea. (No. 20138520021140)

This work was supported by the Human Resources Development program (No.20124030200030) of the Korea
Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government
Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
IN-WE-003

RESONANT DYNAMICS OF GEARED ROTOR SYSTEM


SUBJECTED TO CHANGING OIL-BEARING STIFFNESS DUE TO
EXTERNAL LOADs
Hao Zhang1, Qingkai Han1* and Meiling Wang2

1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, PR China
2
College of Bullet Train Application and Maintenance Engineering & College of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian
Jiaotong University, Dalian, PR China

* Corresponding author: hanqingkai@dlut.edu.cn

The geared rotor system is a typical structure configuration commonly used in modern energy equipments,
such as windturbine gearbox, integral centrifugal compressor, etc. One of the most important dynamic
characteristics of it is emphasized recently that its resonant dynamics is affected seriously by the time-varying
bearing stiffness caused by external loads, besides interaction of the multiple rotors coupled by gears. In this
paper, the rotor dynamics of a geared parallel-rotor system is modeled and explored focusing on the efforts
of changing oil bearing stiffness due to different external loads. A typical geared rotor system including five
shafts supported by oil bearings is taken as the research prototype. Its finite element (FE) model is established
based on rotating beam elements firstly, where linear mesh stiffness of the engaged helical gears is involved,
and the changing stiffness and damping of the bearings affected by different loads are calculated based on
traditional oil-film fluid formula. Then, Campbell diagrams of the whole rotor system under different loads
are calculated based on the built FE model. Finally, the one conclusion valuable for design and maintain tasks
of the rotor system is obtained that the some external loads may lead resonances near its operating speeds.

O-WE-012

ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF VOLTAGE SOURCE


CONVERTER AND CURRENT SOURCE CONVERTER FOR 5MW
PMSG MEDIUM VOLTAGE WIND TURBINE SYSTEM
Tahyun Kang1*, Taewon Kang1, Beomseok Chae1 and Yongsug Suh1

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea

* Corresponding author: yukie@jbnu.ac.kr

This paper provides a comparison of voltage source converter (VSC) and current source converter (CSC)
for 5MW Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) Medium Voltage (MV) wind turbines. VSC and
CSC are same high power semiconductor devices of press-pack type Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor
(IGCT). Benchmarking is performed on back-to-back type 3-level Neutral Point Clamped voltage source
converter (3L-NPC VSCs) and back-to-back type series connection of Reverse Blocking IGCT (RB-IGCT)
current source converter supplied from grid voltage of 4160V. Through the loss analysis considering both
conduction and switching losses under the given operating conditions of 5MW PMSG wind turbines, particularly
for the application in offshore wind farms. The loss analysis and thermal analysis are confirmed through PLECS
Blockset simulations with Matlab Simulink.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-013

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF FLAT-BACK SHAPED BLADE FOR


10MW CLASS WIND TURBINES
1 1 1 1
Soo-Hyun KIM *, Hyungki SHIN , Young-Chul JU and Hyung-Joon BANG

1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: kishing@kier.re.kr, +82-42-860-3482

A flat-back shaped composite blade for 10MW wind turbine was designed, and its failure mode was estimated
based on 3D structural finite element (FE) nonlinear analysis of laminate failure and buckling stability. The
blade was composed of carbon and glass epoxy prepreg composite materials, and consisted of two sandwich-type
skins with balsa core and a box-type spar with two spar-caps and two spar-webs along the pitch axis line.
To design a large size wind blade, thick airfoils are desired to increase the sectional stiffness and structural
strength of the inboard section of a blade near the root. However thick airfoils generally have a poor aerodynamic
performance and were sensitive of premature transition between the airfoils. To solve these problems, flat-back
airfoils with a blunt trailing edge were applied to the inboard section of the blade, while generic DU and NACA
airfoils were used for outboard section. It was designed using Hicks-Henne shape function and genetic algorithm
(GA) optimization method based on DU airfoils. As the trailing edge thickness was designed to have about 10%
of the chord length, the cross sectional area of the airfoils were increased about 20% compared to base airfoils.

147
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-014

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR THE ARRAY EFFECT OF VERTICAL


WIND BLADE
1 2 2 3
Won Sik SHIN , Sang Moon LEE , Choon Man JANG and Jang Ho LEE *

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate school of kunsan Natl Uni.
2,3
Korea Institute of construction Technology
*Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, School of Kunsan Natl Univ

* Corresponding author: won_sick@naver.com

In this study, mutual rotation direction influence of two Savonius vertical axis wind turbine blades were
investigated, and the performance was studied experimentally. During this experiment, the Savonius wind turbine
models had Semi-Circular Type and were installed inside of a digital wind tunnel in the horizontal direction,
in which experimental models aspect ratio is equal [0.226 m * 0.226 m]. Distance between two wind turbines
had the following values: 0.5 of the wind turbine diameter, 1, 1.5 and 2 wind turbine diameter. Test cases
are three:
1) rotation of two wind turbine blades was in clockwise direction (CW) (basic test case);
2) left wind turbine rotate in clockwise directions (CW), and right wind turbine rotate in counter-clockwise
direction (CCW);
3) left wind turbine rotate in counter-clockwise direction CCW, and right wind turbine rotate in clockwise
directions CW.
Obtained test data were compared and analyzed relative to basic test case. These results, as expected, will
be used for turbine design in case of small wind turbine farms.

Acknowledgments
This study was supported by the major project (2014-0085) of the Korea Institute of Construction Technology
and the Human Resource Development program (No.20144030200590) of the Korea Institute of Energy
Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy.

148
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-015

COUPLED SIMULATION OF OC4 5MW SEMISUBMERSIBLE FOWT


USING FAST AND ORCAFELX
1 1 1 1 1
Jung Tae Kim , Byung Cheol Kim , Sung Bae Lee , Yu Bin Park and Hyun Kyoung Shin *

1
Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: hkshin@ulsan.ac.kr

This paper studies the importance of mooring dynamics on motion responses and mooring line tensions of
OC4 semisubmersible floating wind turbines(OC4) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
(NREL). A motion analysis of OC4 was carried out in compliance with the OC4 definition using FASTlink.
OrcaFlex is a time domain simulation program for modeling floating structures, mooring lines etc. It can
calculate dynamic analysis of model & mooring line. And FAST is also time domain simulation program for
the aerodynamics, turbine controls etc, but with the mooring line forces treated using a quasi-static
approximation. FASTlink has been developed by Orcina and compiled with some extra source code that links
the two programs. OrcaFlex replaces FASTs qusi-static to dynamics of mooring line. Quasi-static mooring
approximation can underestimate peak tensions versus Dynamics

149
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
IN-WE-004

RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES IN MONGOLIA AND ITS


FUTURE POTENTIAL APPLICATION
Sukhbaatar Tsegmid

CEO Clean Energy LLC, 9F, Naiman Zovkhis Bldg, 21 Seoul Street, Ulaanbaatar 14251 Mongolia

* Corresponding author: sukhbaatar@newcom.mn

1. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCE IN MONGOLIA


Renewable energy resources will play important role for the energy balance of Mongolia are wind, solar,
hydro, geothermic and biomass types. Presently, the resources have not yet been included fully in the energy
resource balance. Some studies are in progress to use these resources for energy production purposes. The
National Renewable Energy Laboratory of USA developed a wind energy resource map for Mongolia in
cooperation with Renewable Energy Natioanal Center of Mongolia and National Institute of Meteorology. This
map was done in six categories considering the wind power density regions.
Regions in Mongolia with more than 160000 sq. km area have possibility and are convenient to use high
capacity wind power stations connected to the electric grid network. Ten percent of the whole territory has
good wind resource. It could be produced 2.5 trillion kW electricity in this selected area.

2. LEGAL FRAMWORK
The Parliament of Mongolia adopted National Renewable Energy Program on June, 2005, document targeted
to support renewable energy development in Mongolia. The program targeted to increase the share of renewable
energy in total energy production by supporting construction of renewable energy power sources in two stages.
In first stage (2005-2010 near term) the country should reach 3-5 percent share of renewable energy in total
energy production and 20-25 percent in second stage (2011-2020 midterm). Renewable Energy Law had been
adopted by Parliament of Mongolia in January, 2007. The law is settled to regulate generation and supply of
energy utilizing renewable energy sources. According to the Renewable energy law of Mongolia the Energy
Regulatory Committee of Mongolia is obliged to approve model of power purchase/sales agreement based on
feed-in tariff for renewable energy depending from utilized type of renewable energy. The feed-in tariff for
renewable energy is adopted. It is granted set to be stable for a period of minimum ten years starting the date
of entry.

3. FURTHER RENEWABLE PROJECTS IN MONGOLIA


There are several hydro projects like as Egiin gol, Orkhon river, Shureng, and Chargait. There wind farms
in the next future, Tsetsii, Sainshand, Choir and Khanbogd Wind Farm.

4. MONGOLIAS FIRST WIND FARM


In 2004, Newcom LLC set up Clean Energy LLC to survey potential wind power generation sites, eventually
settling on Salkhit Mountain, 60 km southeast of Ulaanbaatar, as the site for the first project in the wind energy
sector, the 50MW Salkhit Wind Farm Project. Clean Energy LLC is now owned by jointly by Newcom LLC,
General Electric Pacific Pte Ltd, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the
Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO).Clean Energy LLC is a renewable energy company focused
on developing first wind farm in Mongolia, the Salkhit Wind Farm Project, which aims to improve the living
conditions of the population in the capital of Mongolia through the production of electricity by wind.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-016

VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF A SANDWICHWIND TURBINE BLADE


WITH MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL FLUID
1 1 1
Hao WANG *, Bing MA and Shuaibin LI

1
College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China2

* Corresponding author: whouco@163.com

In order to suppress of vibration of wind turbine blade with the smart magnetorheological(MR) fluid, a new
concept of a sandwich wind turbine blade with MR fluid was presented. A 3-D model of the MR fluid sandwich
wind turbine blade was established, through the use of UG software. As there is no entirely appropriate element
type which can be directly used to simulate the nonlinear behavior of MR fluid in ANSYS software, MR fluid
model can be simplified as Kelvin-Voigt structure. Then the 3-D model was imported into the finite element
analysis software ANSYS, and the modal analysis was carried out on the sandwich wind turbine blade with
MR fluid. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the sandwich wind turbine blade with MR fluid were
obtained under the conditions of different magnetic fields and different rotation angular velocity. The research
results show that, with the changes of the magnetic field intensity and the rotating angular velocity, the natural
frequencies of MR fluid sandwich wind turbine blade will change significantly. This method will probably play
a great guiding role in the vibration suppression of wind turbine blade.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-017

EXPERIMENTAL REVIEW OF TEST METHOD FOR THE


DOWNSCALE WIND TURBINE BLADE
1 1 2 3
Deok Hun KANG , Sang Kyun KANG , Young Kun KIM and Jang Ho LEE *

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeollabuk-do, Korea
2
Jeonbuk Institute of Automotive Technology, Jeollabuk-do, Korea
3
School of Mechanical and Automative Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeollabuk-do, Korea

* Corresponding author: jangho@kunsan.ac.kr

The aerodynamic performance test of wind turbine blade is used for control of the system and check of
the operation safety. This test is usually carried out by way of the wind tunnel test or the field test. However,
preference should be given to the wind tunnel test rather than the field test due to the savings of the time,
expenses, and space. For the wind tunnel test, the reduced blade model is used because of the size limit of
the experimental stretch. This technique helps to achieve the similarity between natural conditions in field test
and simulated conditions in wind tunnel test. This test considers the TSR (Tip Speed GRatio) value by means
of the ratio between the blade rotational speed and the inlet velocity conditions. The motor or the brake connects
to the rear end of the blade with the aim of the test condition control, to cause limit condition according to
test methods. Obtaining of the data with the low speed conditions is not possible using the brake because of
stopping of the blade rotation. Using the motor, in the high-rotational speed, the control of the blade is difficult
and flow around blade become much more different with real scale; moreover additional dangerous factors may
occur because of too much high rotational speed.
In this paper, each of the two test methods were carried out, and the results of this study was shown by
the TSR-Cp (Power Coefficient) curve. By using two different test methods based on the results of this study,
the possibility of use the scale model for the test of the aerodynamic performance on the horizontal axis wind
turbine blade is experimentally reviewed in the expansion of test conditions to the entire operation region.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported the Human Resource Development program (No.20144030200590) of the Korea
Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy and
Honam Institute for Regional Program Evaluation through the Leading Industry Development for Economic
Region(No. R0002634).

152
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WE-018

THE EFFECT OF AMPLITUDE MODULATION ON THE


DETECTION THRESHOLD OF WIND TURBINE NOISE
1 1 2 2
Doo Young GWAK , Kiseop YOON , Seunghoon LEE and Soogab LEE *

1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
2
Engineering Research Institute, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National
University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: solee@snu.ac.kr

Wind turbine noise is known to be very easily perceived and cause annoyance at relatively lower sound
level. Most studies attribute this to its sound characteristic, particularly the amplitude modulation usually
expressed as swishing sound. The aim of this study is to investigate if the amplitude modulation is truly
the main cause of high detectability of wind turbine noise, and if so, how much the detection threshold can
be lowered according to a modulation depth. In order to test this, an experiment was conducted using threshold
tracking method. Twelve participants determined the detection thresholds of four target sounds in the presence
of masker sounds. Three wind turbine aerodynamic noises and one random-phased wind turbine noise were
tested as target sounds, and sound recorded in a rural area was used as masker. The results show that detection
threshold is lowered as the modulation depth is increased. The results are compared with predictions from partial
masking model, and the effect of amplitude modulation on the sound perception is discussed by analyzing
spectral modulation and masking effect. This work was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment as
the Environmental Health Action Program and the Human Resources Development program (No.
20124030200030) of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning grant.

153
)ZESPHFO'VFM$FMM
0SBM4FTTJPO

AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


IN-HF-001

THOUGHTS ON IMPROVING PEMFC PERFORMANCE AND


LIFETIME
Zhigang Qi

Wuhan Troowin Power System Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan, Hubei, China

* Corresponding author: zhigangqi2005@yahoo.com

One critical factor that affects the performance and lifetime of a PEMFC is that the electrode can be easily
flooded, especially for those with an ionomer such as Nafion as the proton transport species and the binding
agent. Electrode flooding not only lowers the fuel cell performance but also can cause fuel starvation in local
areas. Once fuel starvation occurs, the anode can be damaged in seconds. Worldwide, numerous work has been
done on normal electrodes with a catalyst layer thickness of around 10~20 m, but catalyst layer flooding
appears to be unavoidable. In order to avoid the impact of electrode flooding, to lower the catalyst loading,
and to improve the fuel cell performance, an ultra thin catalyst layer with a thickness of less than 20 nm was
postulated by the author. Such an ultra thin catalyst layer does not need ionomers for proton transportation,
and the Pt loading can be reduced to about 0.04 mg cm-2 for the oxygen reduction reaction.

157
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-001

HIGH PERFORMANCE ZINC BASED CATHODE FOR LOW


TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL
1 2
Ghazanfar Abbas and Rizwan Raza

1
Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, 44000-Pakistan
2
Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000-Pakistan

* Corresponding author: ghazanfar_abbas@comsats.edu.pk

Fuel cells can be considered one of the best energy conversion technologies in this millennium. La0.10Sr0.90Co0.20
o
Zn0.80O3- (LSCZ) cathode material was synthesized by wet chemical method followed by sintering at 800 C
for four hours and characterized by XRD and SEM. The particle size was found to be 47.55 nm from the
XRD patterns applying Scherers formula. The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out by four-
probe DC method and found to be 20.290 and 4.875 S/cm at air and hydrogen atmosphere, respectively. The
area specific resistance of LSCZ cathode was found to be 0.07.cm2 at 550oC. Arrhenius plot has been drawn
and activation energy was calculated 0.09eV at air atmosphere. Asymmetrical three layers fuel cell was
assembled using Ni-NSDC/NSDC/LSCZ as anode, electrolyte, and cathode respectively by dry press technique.
Excellent performance of 850mW/cm2 has been achieved at 550oC. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
(EIS) was also analyzed at various temperatures using ceria doped electrolyte to investigate the oxygen reduction
mechanism.

O-HF-002

OPTIMIZATION OF FC-GSHP HYBRID SYSTEM BY USING FUZZY


LOGIC CONTROL FOR MULTIPLE BUILDING
Andrew Putrayudha S.1, Eun Chul KANG2, Evgueniy E.3, Libing Y.3, Moh. Ghorab3 and Euy Joon LEE2*

1
Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea
2
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Renewable and Integrated Energy System Laboratory, CanmetENERGY, Ottawa, Canada

* Corresponding author: ejlee@kier.re.kr

Big industrial countries in the world holds the important rule to produce an efficient, effective and
economically technology for a better and sustainable environment. Vast developing of renewable energy
technology especially in residential and commercial buildings triggers researcher to make it as optimize as
possible. Fuel Cell and Geothermal hybrid system has been introduced in the previous research [1] and it showed
a great result from its efficiency also its power consumption for multi-building case. In this paper, Fuzzy Logic
control has been applied to optimize the efficiency of the system. By comparing it with conventional on-off
control, fuzzy logic control system shows a better result in reducing primary energy consumption for both
heating and cooling system in a year. Two cases was introduced in this paper, GSHP system and FC-GSHP
system with both on-off and fuzzy logic applied respectively. As the result, it shows that fuzzy logic control
consumed 12% less energy compared with on-off controller for GSHP system annually and 18.4% less energy
compared to on-off controller for FC-GSHP system annually.

158
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-003

CONVERTER COORDINATED POLYMER ELECTROLYTE


MEMBRANE FUEL CELL VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CONTROL
1 1 1
Ya-Xiong Wang , Fei-Fei Qin and Young-Bae Kim *

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: ybkim@chonnam.ac.kr

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a potential alternative power source in vehicular
application since it generates electricity with zero emission and operates on low temperature; however, the output
voltage of PEMFC is varied with the PEMFC stack current change. PEMFC-fed DC/DC converter power
solution is applied to condition the voltage and/or the current of PEMFC to satisfy the operational requirements
(e.g., tracking constant bus voltage 24V, or optimizing PEMFC current stress fixed at 5.4 A). This study develops
a DC/DC converter coordinated PMEFC voltage and current control based on time delay control (TDC). First,
PEMFC-fed DC/DC converter system control-oriented model is constructed in MATLAB/Simulink. To track
constant bus voltage and/or to fix PEMFC current, TDC is utilized to regulate PWM duty ratio. TDC is a
non-linear control approach that is using system time-delayed information to represent disturbance. Moreover,
to validate the efficacy of TDC, a method of proportional-integral control (PIC) is employed and compared.
Finally, experimental implementation is carried out on LabVIEW-based test rig. The simulation and the
experimental results are similar and they show superior characteristic, i.e., bus voltage is tracking reference
voltage of 24 V, and/or PEMFC current is fixing at 5.4 A, with acceptable errors.

159
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-004

METAL ELECTRODE DEPOSITION FOR ANODIC ALUMINUM


OXIDE-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH ATOMIC
LAYER-DEPOSITED ELECTROLYTE
Sanghoon Ji1, Joonho Park2, Taehyun Park2, Gu Young Cho2, Waqas Hassan Tanveer2, Sungmin Kang2,
2 1,2
Wonjong Yu and Suk Won Cha *

1
Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: swcha@snu.ac.kr

Electrolyte thinning is one of the effective ways to reduce operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells
(SOFCs), which is mostly being conducted via vacuum-based deposition techniques. To be free from pinhole
issues such as gas diffusion and electrode diffusion, thin film electrolytes need to be dense regardless of the
substrate type and the use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) forming highly dense and conformal films is being
spotlighted as a promising deposition technique. Actually, it was identified that ALD electrolytes can be
successfully applied to porous substrates for scalability improvement of thin film SOFCs [1]. Meanwhile, anodic
aluminum oxide (AAO) having easy productivity and excellent chemical stability is one of the porous substrates.
Because AAO is not catalytically and electronically active, its surface needs to be coated with material
functioning as electrode catalyst. Our group expected that the microstructure of material coated on a porous
substrate is strongly influenced on deposition of the ALD electrolyte due to its highly conformal property. In
this study, ALD electrolyte SOFCs having different-thick bottom electrode layers were electrochemically at 500
degree Celsius and physic-chemically characterized. Thickness of ALD electrolyte was 210-nm, and platinum
was used as electrode material for both anode and cathode.

Reference
[1] S. Ji; I. Chang; J. Park; Y. H. Lee; J. H. Shim; S. W. Cha. Application of dense nano-thin platinum films
for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells by atomic layer deposition. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2014, 39,
12402-12408.

160
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-005

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL


CELL BY UTILIZING SYNGAS FROM STEAM
GASIFICATION AS FUEL
Syed Asad Ali Naqvi1,2, Tak-Hyoung Lim1,2*, Jong-Won Lee1,2, Seung-Bok Lee1,2,
1,2 1,2
Seok-Joo Park and Rak-Hyun Song
1
Department of Advanced Energy Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350, Korea
2
Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon
305-343, Korea

* Corresponding author: ddak@kier.re.kr

The operating characteristics of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) on syngas obtained from steam gasification
of activated carbon (AC) were studied. Steam gasification was employed to produce syngas from fine powdered
activated carbon (BET surface area: 1800 m2/g). The gasification was carried out in an indigenously designed
fixed bed gasifier, which was directly integrated with tubular SOFC test station. Ni-YSZ (Nickel-Yttria stabilized
Zrconia) anode supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell with YSZ electrolyte and LSM-LSCF composite cathode
was fabricated with an active area of 10 cm2. The operating characteristics of SOFC on syngas were studied
at different temperatures (700oC - 850oC). The effect of steam to carbon ratio and gasification temperature on
the electrochemical performance of SOFC was determined. The syngas compositions were quantified by gas
chromatography (GC) and optimum steam gasification condition for AC fuel were deduced. At 700oC, 750oC,
800oC, 850oC, the maximum power density from steam gasified syngas was 110 mW/cm2, 225 mW/cm2, 329
mW/cm2, 338 mW/cm2, respectively.

161
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-006

STEAM REFORMING OF DIMETHYL ETHER USING


COAL-SUPPORTED METAL CATALYST
Soohyun KIM, Hokyung Choi, Donghyuk CHUN, Sangdo KIM, Youngjoon RHIM, Jeonghwan LIM,
Sihyun LEE and Jiho YOO*

Clean Fuel Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: jyoo@kier.re.kr

Steam reforming of dimethyl ether (DME) for hydrogen production would not only be environmentally
friendly but also open new prospects for the utilization of natural resources. DME is the emerging and promising
reforming candidate for H2 production due to its high energy density, ease of handling and transportation. In
this research, hydrogen was produced by catalytic steam reforming of DME over Ni catalyst dispersed on low
rank coal (LRC) support. Low rank coal contains oxygen functional groups, such as carboxyl and hydroxyl,
which provide the dispersion sites for the ion-exchange of metal ions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
was used to determine particle size and its distribution and the results revealed the presence of particles of
small size (< 10nm). Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis was used to quantify the metal content (5-20
wt%) in the coal support. Above 80% of 10,000 ppm DME was converted when catalyzed by 10 wt% Ni/LRC,
producing mainly H2, CO2, CH4, and CO at 400 C. The conversion efficiency varied with the space velocity
and steam to carbon ratio (S/C ratio). However, the efficiency was not much affected by the amount of Ni
in the range of 10-17 wt% at 400 C.

O-HF-007

THREE-DIMENSIONAL MORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF FUEL


CELL CATALYST LAYERS WITH NANO-STRUCTURED NEURAL
NETWORKS FOR MULTI-PHASE TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
1 1 1
Seungho SHIN , Ah-Reum KIM and Sukkee UM *

1
Division of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: sukkeeum@hanyang.ac.kr

A three-dimensional morphologic simulation has been incorporated into a path-tracking process (i.e.,
quasi-percolation) model to identify effective transport paths for multi-phase components of nano-structured fuel
cell catalyst layers. Extensive stochastic approaches by the Monte Carlo method is performed and subsequently
followed by a Hoshen-Kopelman cluster labeling process in order to estimate the effective multi-phase transport
properties in the entangled neural networks of multi-component catalyst layers. A set of random samples are
generated over a representative elementary volume (REV) domain to satisfy a 95% confidence level. Specifically,
we focus on evaluating effective porosity and electrical resistance through successively-connected void spaces
and carbon clusters in catalyst layers, respectively. In addition, the influences of aggregated catalyst diameter
and catalyst grain size on electrochemical reaction rates are computationally modelled and compared by defining
an effective catalyst utilization factor. This statistical engineering approach to multi-component, multi-phase fuel
cell catalyst enables us to gain a priori insights into the morphological effects of various catalyst configurations
on effective transport properties and electrochemical reactions in fuel cells.

162
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-008

STEAM REFORMING OF ETHYL ACETATE OVER


NICKEL-LOADED LOW RANK COAL CHAR CATALYST
Nikola RUHSWURMOVA, Hokyung CHOI, Donghyuk CHUN, Sangdo KIM, Youngjoon RHIM,
Jeonghwan LIM, Sihyun LEE and Jiho YOO*

Clean Fuel Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: jyoo@kier.re.kr

Ethyl acetate is one of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the harmful environmental pollutants that
emerge from a wide range of sources, such as painting or printing industries. By now, direct thermal combustion
and catalytic combustion have been the most commonly used methods for VOCs removal. In this study, the
suitability of catalytic steam reforming as another ethyl acetate pollution abatement technology and its feasibility
for hydrogen production were investigated. The steam reforming reactions were carried out over nickel-loaded
low rank coal char catalyst. Low rank coal was chosen as a catalytic support since it is inexpensive, contains
numerous carboxylic and phenolic functional groups and therefore has high ion exchange capacity. The
reforming catalyst was thus prepared in the form of finely dispersed metal over the coal matrix. The influence
of nickel loading, reaction temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and space velocity on conversion of ethyl
acetate, hydrogen yield and carbon-containing products (CO, CO2 and CH4) selectivities was studied.
Furthermore, the performance of the catalyst was continuously tested during long-term operation in order to
establish the extent of coke formation.

O-HF-009

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL THERMAL


MANAGEMENT BASED ON ACTIVE CONTROL
Fei-Fei Qin1, Ya-Xiong Wang1 and Young-Bae Kim1*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: ybkim@chonnam.ac.kr

Thermal condition of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is crucially important for protecting
PEMFC from degradation and for increasing fuel cell efficiency. The high temperature may cause thermal stress
to a membrane that degrades PEMFC performance, whereas low temperature limits produced water evaporation
and reduces the rate of the electrochemical reactions. This study employs a cooling fan to actively regulate
PEMFC stack temperature to keep fuel cells optimal thermal condition. First, a thermal control-oriented PEMFC
model is constructed in MATLAB/Simulink platform. The optimal thermal point and/or range investigations
are subsequently carried out based on the analysis model and experimental tests. Furthermore, to regulate
PEMFC temperature to the reference temperature, proportional-integral (PI) control is applied. The total PEMFC
model including energy balance is constructed followed by designing a PI controller to regulate the optimal
temperature of a fuel cell. The electrical fan is used to regulate the temperature and the efficacy of the proposed
controller is addressed through simulation. Finally, experimental validation based on PEMFC benchmark1.2
kw Ballard Nexa Power Modular is shown.

163
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-010

H2 AND CO PRODUCTION FROM CARBON DIOXIDE REFORMING


OF METHANE OVER NI-MGO-CE0.8ZR0.2O2 CATALYST:
EFFECT OF MGO LOADING
Kyung-Won JEON, Dae-Woon JEONG, Won-Jun JANG, Jae-Oh SHIM, Hak-Min KIM,
Yeol-Lim LEE and Hyun-Seog ROH*

Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea

* Corresponding author: hsroh@yonsei.ac.kr

The Ni-MgO-Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts with varying MgO loading are investigated for H2 and CO production
from carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR). The Ni-MgO-Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalyst with 50 wt.% MgO exhibits
the highest catalytic activity as well as stability at the extremely high gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of
1,000,000 h1 in the CDR reaction. In addition, the catalyst with 50 wt.% MgO has the highest resistance
against coke formation. This is mainly due to the small Ni crystallite size, high Ni dispersion, intimate interaction
between Ni and MgO, and strong basicity.

O-HF-011

100W CARBON FUEL CELL STACK: FABRICATION, OPERATION


AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
Usman Mushtaq1, Sun-Kyung Kim1,2, Rak-Hyun Song1*, Tak-Hyoung Lim1, Seung-Bok Lee1,
1 1
Jong-Won Lee and Seok-Joo Park

1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Energy Conversion & Storage Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Korea.

* Corresponding author: rhsong@kier.re.kr

Carbon Fuel Cells (CFCs) use Carbon-rich fuels such as coal, biomass and syngas etc. They have a high
theoretical efficiency and are suitable for portable and stationary power generation. In this work, we have
fabricated and operated 100W CFC stack, which consisted of 5 bundles with 6 tubular cells per bundle. The
tubular-type cell consisted of an extruded Ni-Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (8YSZ) anode support, coated with 8YSZ
electrolyte and layers of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Co0.2O3 cathode. With an active electrode area of 60cm2
per cell, 6 cells were embedded vertically on a fuel gas manifold: sealed with gas-tight sealing materials and
interconnected electrically in parallel within a bundle. Five such bundles were stacked in series. The stack was
then combined with fuel chambers containing activated carbon mixed with K2CO3. The stack and the fuel
chambers were operated simultaneously in a heating furnace. Reverse Boudouard reaction was promoted by
supplying CO2 to the fuel chambers and thus enhancing CO production for stack fuel. The combined stack
and fuel system delivered 80.4W (44.7mW/cm2), 93.5W (52mW/cm2) and 111.5W (62mW/cm2) at 750, 800
and 850 oC, respectively. The stack was operated on a galvanostatic mode at a current density of 5mA/cm2
at 750oC. The average voltage degradation rate is 550V/hr for 200 hrs. In this talk, the stack degradation during
long-term operation will be discussed relating the open circuit voltage loss and the cell polarization loss.

164
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-012

PREPARATION OF NANO FABRICATED SOFC WITH BILAYER


ANODE USING SPUTTERING
1 1 1 1 1 1
Seungtak Noh , Gu Young Cho , Sungmin Kang , Yeageun Lee , Wonjong Yu and Suk Won Cha *
1
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: swcha@snu.ac.kr

Ni, which is well known for enhancing catalytic activity of hydrogen oxidation reaction, is used for anode
material of thin film SOFCs. In order to extend TPB length, NiO-GDC, typical MIEC materials, is additionally
deposited on Ni thin film anode layer. Several cells, which have different composition ratio of bilayer anode,
are prepared so as to investigate effect of composition ratio on cell performance. Mesoporous AAO template
is used for substrate of cell. YSZ, stable material under electrochemical reactions, is chosen for electrolyte and
platinum is used for cathode. Thickness of the cell is maintained around 1m, and entire cell elements are
fabricated by reactive sputtering. Cross-sectional area of the cell is analyzed using FIB-SEM, and thickness
of anode layer is also measured. Electrochemical characterization is successfully conducted using potentiodynamic
technique. As a result, we measure a maximum power density closed to 180mW/cm2 at 500 oC, and OCV is
1.13V. Subsequently, we conduct EIS analysis in order to distinguish various resistances of thin films. Finally
composition ratio of bilayer anode for best performance is determined based on the results.

O-HF-013

NANO FABRICATED PLATIMUM BASED COMPOSITE


ELECTRODE FOR PERFORMANCE AND STABILITY
ENHANCEMENT
Yoon Ho LEE1, Gu Young CHO1, Ikwhang CHANG2 and Suk Won CHA1*

1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering , Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
2
Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (GSCST), Seoul National University, Seoul Korea

* Corresponding author: swcha@snu.ac.kr

Application of nanotechnology on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an effective way to solve disadvantages
of high temperature operation (800~1000oC) and several researches has been successfully demonstrated SOFC
under 400-600oC operation. However, nano-fabricated SOFC has a serious problem of poor durability due to
coarsening of platinum electrodes. There are several methods to enhance heat resistance of metals and one of
the most effective methods in metallurgical methods are known as dispersion hardening. By uniform dispersion
of thermally stable oxide nano particles in to metals, it prevents thermal coarsening even at a high temperature.
In this paper we used gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) as a dispersion material to enhance both physical and
electrochemical property of platinum. Co-sputtering methods are used for fabricating platinum and CGO nano
composite electrodes with various compositions. Various sputtering power between 50~200W on Pt and CGO
were applied to differentiate the ratio. Fabricated electrodes are operated at 500oC to analyze morphological
and electrochemical durability.

165
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-014

ENHANCEMENT OF STABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF LOW


TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL BY UTILIZING THE
STRUCTURE OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE
Yeageun LEE1, Joonho PARK1, Ikwhang CHANG2, Wonjong YU1 and Suk Won CHA1*
1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
2
Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: swcha@snu.ac.kr

One of the most critical defects of the anodic aluminum oxide(AAO)-supported solid oxide fuel cell(SOFC)
is the performance degradation coming from agglomeration of the electrodes. At the operation temperature, the
pores and triple phase boundaries(TPBs) are diminished, as Pt particles adhere each other. In this study, the
AAO structure was employed to enhance the poor electrode stability and performance, since this porous and
solid structure is rarely affected by the temperature. The comparison of two cells which have different layer
formations was conducted to figure out the contribution of the AAO structure to the stability. In addition, the
variation of the performance has been investigated according to the electrode porosity. To support the result,
EIS, i-V characteristics and SEM images were utilized.

166
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-015

QUANTITATIVE RELATION BETWEEN COMPRESSIVE STRESS


ON MEA AND PERFORMANCE IN FLEXIBLE POLYMER
ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL BASED ON PDMS COATED WITH
SILVER NANOWIRES CURRENT COLLECTOR
1 2 1 3
Taehyun PARK , Ikwhang CHANG , Yoon Ho LEE , Jinhwan LEE ,
1 1
Seung Hwan KO and Suk Won CHA *

1
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
2
Department of Intelligent Convergence System, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon,
Korea

* Corresponding author: swcha@snu.ac.kr

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) was fabricated using highly stretchable Ag nanowires percolation
network as current collector in the previous study. It showed comparable electrochemical performance to normal
PEFC. Interestingly, the performance increased with increase of bending. It was found that internal compressive
stress normal to membrane-electrode assemply (MEA) generated by bending polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)
endplate was main factor affecting ohmic and faradaic resistances to decrease, thus increasing the performance
of flexible PEFC. In this study, setup for flexible PEFC was specially designed in order to measure the generated
compressive stress and resulting performance. As a result, difference between the compressive stresses firstly
calculated from finite element method and measured directly from force sensor in this setup was not more
than 50 % of original values. Tendencies of variations of ohmic and faradaic resistances were also same as
the previous result that both resistances decrease exponentially as compressive stress increases. In addition, test
setup for compressing the flexible fuel cell was specially designed again in order to explore the thickness effect
of MEA and corresponding stress distribution effect. It showed almost no performance variation, indicating that
quantitative value of compressive stress and resulting electrochemical performance was successfully measured.

167
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-016

LA-PROMOTED NI/MGAL2O4 CATALYST IN COMBINED H2O AND


CO2 REFORMING OF COKE OVEN GAS (COG)
1,2 1 1,3 1 2 1
Ji Eun Park , Kee Young Koo , Jin Hyang Lee , Un Ho Jung , Hyun-Seog Roh and Wang Lai Yoon *
1
Hydrogen Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University
3
Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Korea University

* Corresponding author: wlyoon@kier.re.kr

Coke oven gas(COG) composed of H2(48-55%),CH4(28-30%),N2(1-3%),CO(5-7%) and CO2(-3%) is a by-product


of coke making process in steel industry. The syngas can be produced by combined H2O and CO2 reforming
(CSCR) of COG for the reducing gas of DRI. So it is advantageous for reducing the CO2 emission by minimizing
the amount of used coke. The commercial Ni-based reforming catalysts are deactivated due to the coke
deposition and the particle sintering. In particular, it is necessary to design a highly dispersed catalyst with
high activity and anti-sintering at high reaction temperatures because little coke is formed in the reforming
of COG due to the excessive H2. In this study, we have investigated the effect of La addition onto
10wt%Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst and determined the optimum amount of La to improve the sinter-stability in CSCR.
10wt%Ni-La(x)/MgAl2O4 catalysts were prepared by co-impregnation method with various La content (0~5wt%).
The surface area, crystallite size, metal dispersion and reduction temperature were characterized by BET, XRD,
H2-chemisorption and H2-TPR, respectively. The CSCR of COG was performed under the reaction condition
of CH4:H2O:CO2:H2:CO=1:1.2:0.4:2:0.3, GHSV=4,680,000ml/h-gcat, 700oC~900oC, 5atm. The acceleration treatment
was performed under 9%H2/H2O at 900oC over 50h to compare the sinter-stability of catalyst. The Ni-crystallite
size of used catalysts were observed through XRD and TEM analysis.

168
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-HF-017

RECENT RESEARCH PROGRESS OF H2 PRODUCTION


TECHNOLOGY
Won Chul Cho, Kyoung Soo Kang*, Ki Kwang Bae, Change Hee Kim, Seong Uk Jeong and Chu Sik Park

Hydrogen research center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343,
Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: kskang@kier.re.kr

Chemical-looping process has been suggested as an energy efficient method for capture of carbon dioxide
to generate electricity, syngas, oxygen, or hydrogen, etc. The process has many benefits of feasible use of a
variety of form of feedstock (solid, liquid, and gas), potential cost reduction of CO2 avoidance, and combination
of several process steps into one. Different metal oxides such as CuO, NiO, Mn2O3, and Fe2O3 have been used
as active metal of an oxygen carrier considering thermodynamic limit, reaction rate, and oxygen transfer capacity.
In general, these metal oxides are combined with an inert that acts as a porous binder enhancing the intraparticle
gaseous diffusivity probably, as an ionic conductor for oxygen. Chemical-looping process for hydrogen
production offers the prospect of generating very pure hydrogen and electricity with simultaneous capture of
pure stream of CO2, suitable for sequestration.
In this presentation, we will report recent research progress in KIER of chemical looping process for hydrogen
production on the development of iron based oxygen carrier and continuous operation of test unit. The activation
mechanism of the oxygen carrier and the successful operation test unit will be discussed.

O-HF-018

WATER GAS SHIFT REACTION OVER CO-PRECIPITATED


CuCeO2, CuZrO2, AND CuCe(1x)Zr(x)O2 CATALYSTS
Hyun-Suk NA1, Dae-Woon JEONG1, Jae-Oh SHIM1, Won-Jun JANG1, Hyun-Seog ROH1*,
2 2
Un Ho JUNG and Wang Lai YOON *

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea
2
Hydrogen Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, S. Korea

* Corresponding author: hsroh@yonsei.ac.kr (H.-S. Roh) and wlyoon@yonsei.ac.kr (W.L. Yoon)

A co-precipitation method was employed to prepare Cu dispersed on CeO2, ZrO2 and Ce(1x)Zr(x)O2 support
to obtain catalysts useful for water gas shift reaction (WGS). To optimize CuCe(1x)Zr(x)O2 catalysts, the
CeO2/ZrO2 ratio have been systematically changed. The cubic phase CuCe0.8Zr0.2O2 catalyst exhibited the
highest CO conversion among the catalysts tested and the activity was maintained without significant
deactivation during the reaction for 25 h. The enhanced catalytic activity and stability of co-precipitated Cu
Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 is mainly attributed to a strong interaction between CuO and cubic phase Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 resulting
in the highest turnover frequency, the lowest activation energy, and a strong resistance against sintering of Cu.
Also, the catalytic activity depends partly on Cu crystallite size.

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O-HF-019

WATER DISTRIBUTION VARIATION FROM INLET TO OUTLET IN


POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL (PEMFC)
1 2 2
Donggun KO , Seungwoo DOH and Hyunsun PARK *

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology(POSTECH), Pohang, Korea
2
Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology(POSTECH), Pohang,
Korea

* Corresponding author: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr

Quantification and management of water inside Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is
essential for high power density and stable operation. In this study, in order to find the variation of the water
distribution in the PEMFC, the amount of water inside the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) and Membrane
Electrolyte Assembly (MEA) is visualized and measured using X-ray radiography. The water distribution was
measured in plane direction and a one way serpentine channel was used for experiment. In this study, the current
density was changed from 0 A m-2 to 1.2 A m-2 and other parameters are maintained. The result shows that
in the GDL and MEA, at low current density, as the current density increase the water saturation increases
until certain current density and at the high current density, as current increases the water saturation deceases.
On the other hand, the water saturation in land region is much higher than in channel region. This result suggests
that flow rate mainly affects to the water saturation in GDL and MEA. At high current density, more water
is generated but, due to high flow rate, the water can be removed easily, so the remained water is smaller
than low current density.

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IN-GE-001

DROPWISE CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER: A REVISIT VIA


SURFACE ENERGIES MINIMIZATION METHODS
1 2
Kwang J. KIM * and Kuok CHENG

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA

* Corresponding author: kwang.kim@unlv.edu

Recent advances in coating manufacture allow wetting characteristics of a surface to be tuned with micro/nano
morphologies. Complex surface geometries can be manufactured with varies surface treatment methods. These
advances can be implemented in phase change heat transfer applications. Phase change heat transfer such as
condensation relies on droplet behavior on the surface. It is important to gain fundamental understandings on
wetting characteristics of textured surfaces with different geometries configuration. Drop dynamic model was
developed to estimate contact angle hysteresis on different surface geometries and degrees of wetting. Some
experimental validation is also included in this study.

O-GE-001

ESTIMATING ENERGY PRODUCTION WITH GSHP: AN ON-GOING


TASK OF IEA GEOTHERMAL
Yoonho SONG1*

1
Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: song@kigam.re.kr

Ground-source heat pumps or geothermal heat pumps (GSHP) have become the main type of geothermal
direct use, making up more than 50% on a worldwide basis. We have seen a dramatic increase in GSHP
installation during the last decade and this high growth rate is expected to continue in the future. The contribution
of GSHPs to world geothermal statistics is larger, in terms of installed capacity, than in thermal energy produced
because of their low capacity factor or equivalent full load hours per year. Furthermore, there is significant
uncertainty in the statistics for geothermal energy use with GSHPs, both on national and world levels.
In order to determine a method for estimating geothermal energy utilization with GSHPs as accurately as
possible, Annex VIII - Direct Use of Geothermal Energy, a major activity of the International Energy Agency
Geothermal Implementing Agreement (IEA Geothermal) initiated a collaborative task (Task D) starting with
the comparison of methods used in computing the national statistics of several countries. The main objective
of the Task is to develop a suitable form of statistical table to be adopted both for national and for world
statistics. The table will include all types of GSHP utilization, and consider cooling as well as heating. This
will hopefully lead to comparable statistical data, and less confusion.

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O-GE-002

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CASCADE HEAT PUMP WITH


THE VARIATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONDITIONS
1 1 2 3
Samuel Boahen , Seung Byung Park , Eunoh Kim and Jong Min Choi *

1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea
2
R&D Center, DAESUNG HEAT Pump Co., Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jmchoi@hanbat.ac.kr

The cascade heat pump has been used over the years to provide heating, cooling and hot water for domestic,
commercial and industrial purposes. The changes in ambient temperature throughout the year affects the load
imposed on the cascade system and this has the tendency of affecting the performance of the cascade heat
pump unit, especially at extreme winter and summer conditions. The performance of a cascade heat pump unit,
operating in heating mode, was evaluated in this study as its indoor and outdoor entering water temperatures
were changed. The heating capacity and COP of the cascade heat pump were changed as the outdoor and indoor
entering water temperatures varied. The heating capacity and COP of the unit decreased as the indoor entering
water temperature increased, while they increased as the outdoor entering water temperature increased. Thus,
variation in the load of the cascade heat pump system affects its performance.

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the research project of Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development
and Application in Riverside(Geowater+) in Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology
Innovation C05) of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

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O-GE-003

EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY ON HEAT


EXCHANGE-INDUCED THERMAL STRESS IN ENERGY PILE
1 1 1 2 1
Chihun SUNG , Byeongyeon KIM , Sangwoo PARK , Kyoungsik JUNG and Hangseok CHOI *

1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
2
S-TECH Consulting Group, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: hchoi2@korea.ac.kr

The energy pile is a multi-functional structural foundation to bring about heat exchange by circulating a
working fluid, and a viable alternative to conventional close-loop vertical ground heat exchangers. As heat
exchange occurs in the energy pile, the temperature inside the energy pile changes and results in thermal stress
and strain in the pile body and surrounding ground formation. In order to study the thermo-mechanical behavior
of an energy pile, a comprehensive field measurement of temperature and thermal strain (stress) was performed
in an cast-in place concrete energy pile equipped with five pairs of U-type heat exchange pipes. The field
measurement lasted for 30 days. The thermal strain (stress) in the longitudinal direction of the energy pile
was monitored for 15-cooling-operation days. In addition, an FE numerical model was developed to simulate
the thermo-mechanical behavior of energy pile. The numerical model was calibrated with the field measurement.
A non-linear contact model was adopted to interpret the interaction at the pile-soil interface, and thermal-
induced structure mechanics was considered to handle the thermo-mechanical coupled multi-field problem. The
results obtained from the field test and the numerical analysis indicate a significant effect of the interaction
at the pile-soil interface on the mechanical behavior of energy pile because the thermal-induced stress varies
with soil properties and depth.

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O-GE-004

A SURVEY ON TESTING PLANT FOR VAPOR COMPRESSION


REFRIGERATION CYCLE
1 1 2
Daniel Apraku , Seung Byung Park and Jong Min Choi *

1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jmchoi@hanbat.ac.kr

Most of vapor compression refrigeration cycle systems, either for domestic, commercial or industrial purposes
need to be certified before distribution into the market. The certification deals with the investigation of the
performance and reliability of the system. Recognized testing plants use standard conditions obtained from the
standard board organizations (ISO, ANSI, ARI, ASHRAE, NGRT) in regulating the certification procedure.
Conventional these testing plants provide so much energy in the form of heat source and heat sink to the indoor
and outdoor sides of the refrigeration cycle in order to maintain the standard conditions during the testing.
In this study, the structures of the conventional testing plant for testing refrigeration system were investigated,
and the newly designed system was proposed to reduce the energy consumption of testing plant for vapor
compression refrigeration system.

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources Core Technology Program of the Korea
Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) granted financial resource from the Ministry
of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20132020101980)

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O-GE-005

REVIEW OF SNOW MELTING SYSTEMS


Kwesi Mensah1, Il Hyun Kang1 and Jong Min Choi2*

1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jmchoi@hanbat.ac.kr

Precipitation is liquid or solid water falling from clouds to the Earths surface. Snow is a solid precipitation
in the form of ice crystals. Due to many risky problems associated with snow accumulation during winter season,
the removal of snow in the winter season is not only a convenience, but can as well enhance safety and prevent
property damage. Residential, commercial and industrial applications of snow melting have gained widespread
acceptance. This paper reviews major research trend on snow melting application systems. Basic concepts of
snow, such as snow density, snow water equivalent and snow loads are reviewed. It is found that, most
researches have focused on snow melting system as applied to pavement and bridge. One of the important
pending issues in the snow melting system filed is to develop high efficient heat generation technology for
reducing operating cost.

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute
of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade,
Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No.20143030111000)

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IN-GE-002

INCREASING GSHP PERFORMANCE WITH ICT AND RETSCREEN


Ivor Francis DA CUNHA1* and Euy-Joon LEE2

1
LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada
2
New and Renewable Energy Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Professor and Head,
Renewable Energy Department, University of Science and Technology (UST).,Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ivor.dacunha@gmail.com

The Ground Source Heat Pump (GHSP) is a well established and mature technology. Conventional GSHP
control is accomplished using a fixed set points and with limited consideration for the dynamic performance
of the GSHP, or anticipated changes to ambient conditions or time-of-use electricity pricing. As the set points
and control address one operating point as ambient conditions or electricity price changes, the GSHP may be
operating sub-optimally. The method developed leverages the real time information through ICT to dynamically
control the GSHP. ICT information can be gathered from multiple sources like weather agencies and utility
system operators. Using the freely available RETScren Plus software, the performance baseline for the individual
GSHP is determined. The RETScreen Plus baseline equation is expressed as a multivariate polynomial equation
with ambient temperature and electricity price as main variables. Based on real time weather and electricity
price information via ICT, the control settings for the GSHP can then be adjusted using the underlying baseline
equation. The ICT infrastructure is also used to dispatch revised operating set points to the GSHP. Over several
days, the dynamic behavior of the GSHP is monitored and the underlying baseline equation is continuously
fine-tuned. This results in a more energy efficient, cost-responsive and continuously optimized method to operate
a new or existing GHSP. Beneficiaries of this method include Koreas GSHP installations, electric utilities and
ICT companies.

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O-GE-006

A STUDY ON MAGNETOTELLURIC-BASED 4D IMAGING OF


ENGINEERED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR
1 2
Myung Jin NAM and Yoonho SONG *

1
Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea
2
Geothermal Resources Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon,
Korea

* Corresponding author: song@kigam.re.kr

For the sustainable development of geothermal reservoir in an enhanced or engineered geothermal system
(EGS), the capacity or productivity of the EGS reservoir should be timely evaluated in response to changes
of physical properties of the reservoir. The productivity is dependent of not only pore-space but also fluid-flow
path of the reservoir, which can experience changes during production or by hydraulic-stimulation for the
enhancement of the reservoir. Time-lapse (TL) three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) survey can be an
effective in monitoring the changes in EGS reservoirs, since MT can detect changes in electrical resistivity
of deep-subsurface geothermal reservoir caused by the variation in pore-space and fluid-flow path. For the
MT-based 4D imaging of EGS reservoirs, we developed a TL 3D MT inversion algorithm to detect changes
in resistivity of deep-subsurface reservoirs. In the inversion, we consider regularization in not only space but
also time to effectively reduce inversion artifacts while focusing TL differences between MT-data sets of
different vintages to the reservoir regions. To test the developed algorithm, a homogenous reservoir is assumed
to experience decrease in resistivity from 50 to 10 ohm-m due to the growth of fractures. Resultant TL resistivity
sections from 4D inversion of the TL MT data give much focused changes in the area of the reservoir than
those from separate 3D inversion.

O-GE-007

REVIEW ON THE POTENTIAL AND RENEWABILITY OF


GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
Ki-Bok Min1*

1
Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: kbmin@snu.ac.kr

Geothermal Energy is one of the major renewable energy in the world with approximately 12 GW of installed
electricity capacity and 50 GWe of direct utilization. By 2050, IEA foresees that 200 GW of installed electricity
capacity including 100 GW from (EGS) Enhanced Geothermal Systems is possible, which is almost 17 times
of current capacity. For sustainable deployment of geothermal energy, renewability is one of the key issues
that have to be properly considered for the estimation of its true potential. This work intends to offer review
on various analysis on the potential of geothermal energy. Key parameters for this analysis are surface heat
flux, geothermal gradient, temperature drawdown, hydrothermal properties of reservoir, and other technical and
geographical considerations associated with geothermal energy development.
Acknowledgement: This work was supported by a grant from the New and Renewable Energy Technology
Development Program of the Korea Institute of Energy technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) funded
by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy of the Korean Government (No.20123010110010)

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O-GE-008

SELECTION AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF GEOTHERMAL


ENERGY HARNESS TECHNIQUES BASED ON PRACTICAL
LIMITATIONS
Muhammad Usman1,2, Buyng-Sik Peter Park1,2*, Dong Hyun Lee1 and Muhammad Imran1,2

1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, South Korea
2
University of Science & Technology, South Korea

* Corresponding author: bspark@kier.re.kr

World energy demand is rising and in order to have a sustainable energy framework, renewable energy
resource utilization is becoming the focus of energy policy experts. Geothermal energy is among the promising
sources of renewable and environment friendly alternative to fossil fuels. Geothermal sources with relatively
low temperature heat sources are yet to be fully utilized. Organic rankine cycle based power systems are
considered to be a mature technology to handle such systems but recently other techniques, like, transcritical
power cycle have been considered a viable solution as well. This study presents a comparison of organic rankine
cycle and transcritical power cycle system based on thermodynamic modelling performed in matlab programing
environment. Net power, efficiency, exergy analysis and other parameters suggest that systems outperform each
other in performance when same temperature heat source is considered. But practical limitations like silica
crystallization in return water may hinder the operational limits of energy source. Such practical limitations
have not yet been fully discussed in available literature, when cycle simulations are performed for power cycle
design and selection. The simulation result prove, for low grade heat sources, organic rankine cycle systems
are more practical and thermodynamically favorable than transcritical systems, considering practical limitations.

O-GE-009

CHARACTERIZATION OF DRILL CUTTINGS FOR EVALUATION


OF DEEP GEOTHERMAL DRILLING
Kwang Yeom KIM1*, Sun YEOM1, Ho Geun KIM1 and Tae Sup YUN3

1
Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Gyeonggi, Korea
2
Department of Geothermal Development, NEXGEO Co., Seoul, Korea
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: kimky@kict.re.kr

The deep drilling is necessary for energy exploitation industry like oil, gas and geothermal. Drill cuttings
meaning rock fragments resulted from drilling, are almost only object to be used for characterization of rock
formation drilled though they are restricted to be characterized by conventional physical and mechanical tests
due to their size and shape. The mineralogical analysis based on chemical composition is typical way to
characterize drill cuttings. We evaluated the size distribution of drill cuttings to make the most of them and
how it is influenced by drilling parameters, e.g., weight on bit (WOB), rotary speed (RPM), rate of penetration
(ROP) and mechanical specific energy (MSE). Drill cuttings and drilling parameters analyzed in this study are
acquired from Pohang EGS site where the well (PX-1) is drilled to 4.127 km depth. Drilling data is elaborately
filtered to minimize the effect of noises by using the FFT smoothing algorithm. The utilization of the results
of this study for deep drilling is discussed including applying it to the second well (PX-2) in Pohang site.

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O-GE-010

COMPARISON OF ESTIMATION METHODS FOR GROUND


THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
1 1 1 2 1
Sangwoo PARK , Byeongyeon KIM , Dongseop LEE , Chulho LEE and Hangseok CHOI *

1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Civil engineering and building Technology (KICT), Gyeonggi-do, Korea

* Corresponding author: hchoi2@korea.ac.kr

As one of the promising renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has been widely utilized as a ground
source heat pump (GSHP) system for heating and cooling buildings due to its accessibility and effectiveness.
To design a closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger (GHEX) in the GSHP system, the thermal conductivity
of ground formation should be accurately predetermined. As usual, the thermal conductivity of ground formation
is estimated by performing in-situ thermal response tests (TRTs) on a GHEX and by analyzing its result in
accordance with the infinite line source model. However, reliability of the TRT method has been not fully
verified. In this study, a closed-loop vertical GHEX with 30m depth was constructed in a test bed for the
experimental purpose. The GHEX is equipped with a single U-type heat exchange pipe. A series of in-situ
TRTs was performed in the constructed GHEX, and the thermal conductivity of the ground formation around
the test bed was estimated by analyzing the TRT results with consideration of the infinite line source model.
In addition, soil and rock specimens were sampled from different depths of the borehole during the GHEX
construction. The specimens were cured in the laboratory to measure directly thermal conductivity with the
aid of thermal conductivity meters such as QTM-500 and KD2Pro. Finally, the in-situ TRT results were
simulated by performing a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis in order to back-analyze the thermal
conductivity of the test bed ground formation. The estimation methods for the ground thermal conductivity
were compared to provide the more reliable method.

O-GE-011

HVAC USING BIOMIMICRY AND GEOTHERMAL ENERGY


Jeong Kyun Seo1*

1
Department of Extreme Energy systems, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: jkyunseo@kimm.re.kr

Recently environment friendly technology due to global warming and energy saving technology are required
for HVAC. In the Field of biomimicry, termite engineering is attractive in applications HVAC in building where
environment friendly and high energy saving are desired. In addition, geothermal is highly influential in maintain
of termite nest temperature and natural ventilation. Therefore development if termite engineering can be expected
in effective use of geothermal.

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O-GE-012

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS ON BUILDING INTEGRATED GROUND


SOURCE HEAT PUMP (GSHP)-ICT HYBRID SYSTEM
Andrew Putrayudha S.1, Eun Chul KANG2, Euy Joon LEE2 and Ivor F. Da Cunha3
1
Department Renewable Energy Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, Korea
2
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Leapfrog Energy Technologies Inc., Ontario, Canada

* Corresponding author: ejlee@kier.re.kr

Application of Geothermal energy technology as the substitute of conventional heating and cooling devices
to provide energy to building has been proved and showed that geothermal heat pump (GHP) or Ground Source
Heat Pump (GSHP) system has a better system in energy and economic wise [1]. In this study, improvement
to optimize the system has been done by applying Information and Communication Technology (ICT) control
system to minimize the unnecessary load during peak hours so that building energy demand can be reduce
respectively. Spreadsheet modelling was used in this study as the platform to analyze the effect of ICT to the
GSHP system. By putting the details of the building size, ambient temperature, room temperature and others
heating, cooling and electricity demand can calculated and spreadsheet model can easily become a dashboard
to see when is the peak load and decide which part that should be reduced to decreased the energy consumption.
For the standard house size in Korea which is 200m2 application of ICT can reduce the building load demand
up to 10-20%.

O-GE-013

EVALUATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF COIL-TYPE


CAST-IN-PLACE ENERGY PILES
Sangwoo PARK1, Chihun SUNG1, Kyoungsik JUNG2, Byonghu SOHN3 and Hangseok CHOI1*
1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
2
S-TECH Consulting Group, Seoul, Kore
3
Korea Institute of Civil engineering and building Technology (KICT), Gyeonggi-do, Korea

* Corresponding author: hchoi2@korea.ac.kr

As a viable alternative to the conventional closed-loop vertical ground heat exchanger (GHEX) in a ground
source heat pump (GSHP) system, an energy pile which assembles heat exchange pipes inside a structural pile
has been introduced. In this paper, two cast-in-place energy piles were constructed that encase a coil-type heat
exchange pipe with different coil pitches of 200 mm and 500 mm, respectively. A series of field tests (thermal
performance test and in-situ thermal response test) was carried out to evaluate thermal behavior of the coil-type
cast-in-place energy piles. The thermal performance tests were performed by applying intermittent (8 hours
operating16 hours pause) artificial cooling/heating operation with the aid of a constant-temperature water bath
to simulate a cooling/heating load for commercial buildings. The experimental result indicates heat exchange
efficiency is not directly proportional to the pipe length because the tight coil pitch may cause thermal
interference between each loop of the heat exchange. In addition, a computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) model
was developed in this paper and verified by simulating the field tests. Along with the CFD model, a parametric
study was conducted to assess the effect of coil pitch and thermal interference, and an optimum coil pitch
configuration was proposed with consideration of both heat exchange efficiency and economic feasibility.

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IN-SG-001

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNICATION


ARCHITECTURE IN A DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCE
SYSTEM USING IEC 61850 STANDARD
Rui Huang1*, Wenbo Shi1, Daoyuan Yao1, Chi-Cheng Chu1, Rajit Gadh1, Yu-jin Song2 and Yoon-dong Sung2

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), CA, U.S.A.
2
Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: rhhuang@ucla.edu

A Distributed Energy Resource (DER) system uses renewable generation and energy storage to provide power
and ancillary services directly to users in the distribution system, and benefits the power grid by offering a
solution to the energy crisis and mitigating the waste pollution to the environment. A key impediment in
implementing a DER system is the unification of its communication network. This paper proposes the
communication architecture of a DER system using IEC 61850 standard, with the aim to unify the
communication network in a common framework. A prototypical test bed for the DER system has been
developed. The test bed contains various DERs such as photovoltaic, energy storage systems, LED lightings
and electric vehicle charging stations in UCLA campus and in KIER buildings. The procedure of integrating
the IEC 61850 standard includes system architecture configuration, data set design, and communication
gateway/client deployment, with the design of related logical nodes, data object names and data attributes that
describe the DER system by following the standard. The research results and data collected from the current
test bed indicate a quality integration of the IEC 61850 standard with stable power flow and unified
communication architecture in the DER system.

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IN-SG-002

A MICROGRID ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON


LYAPUNOV OPTIMIZATION
1 1 1 1 1 1
Wenbo Shi *, Eun-Kyu Lee , Rui Huang , Daoyuan Yao , Chi-Cheng Chu , Rajit Gadh ,
2 2
Yu-Jin Song , and Yoon-Dong Sung

1
Smart Grid Energy Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
2
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: wenbos@ucla.edu

A microgrid is characterized by the integration of distributed energy resources and controllable loads. Such
integration brings unique challenges to microgrid management, which is significantly different from conventional
power systems. To accommodate the challenges, a conventional energy management system (EMS) needs to
be re-designed with consideration of the unique characteristics of microgrids. Unfortunately, existing researches
have either tackled portions of the characteristics or validated their EMSs only via simulations. This paper
proposes a microgrid EMS named a microgrid platform (MP) and a novel energy management strategy based
on Lyapunov optimization that aims to optimize the long-term operational cost of the microgrid. We design
the MP by taking into account all the functional requirements of a microgrid EMS (i.e., forecast, optimization,
data analysis, and human-machine interface) and by addressing the engineering challenges (i.e., flexibility,
extensibility, and interoperability). Moreover, a prototype system is developed and deployed in two smart grid
testbeds: UCLA Smart Grid Energy Research Center and Korea Institute of Energy Research. We then conduct
experiments to evaluate the proposed energy management strategy in real-world settings. The experimental
results demonstrate that the MP is able to manage various devices in the testbeds, interact with external systems,
and perform efficient energy management.

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O-SG-001

DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF DUAL ACTIVE BRIDGE


CONVERTER FOR SOLID STATE TRANSFORMER IN SMART
GRID APPLICATIONS
Hyun Jun CHOI1 and Jee Hoon JUNG1*

1
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UNIST, Ulsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: jhjung@unist.ac.kr

Recently, as the demand for green energy increases, solid state transformer (SST) which is one of the key
technologies for smart grid and distribution system is actively developed. Especially, dual active bridge (DAB)
converter is widely used in SST applications as a high efficiency bi-directional dc to dc converter for SST
applications. It has several benefits of easy and seamless power control in bidirectional manner and the
possibility of zero voltage switching (ZVS). However, the DAB converter also has demerits such as high
circulating current (reactive power) and ZVS failure at light load. To minimize and compensate those drawbacks,
optimal design methodology of the DAB converter such as coupling inductance and dead time duration is derived
using the mathematical model of the converter. The magnetizing inductance in the transformer is also designed
to protect the saturation. In addition, a soft start algorithm is introduced to reduce the switch stress during
the converters start-up sequence. As a result, the maximum ZVS region is guaranteed and the overall power
conversion efficiency is improved. A 3.3kW prototype converter is developed to verify the performance
improvements of the proposed design methodology.

O-SG-002

RAILWAY ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(REMS)


DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR OPTIMAL ENERGY ALLOCATION
Hansang LEE1, Hosung JUNG2, Hyungchul KIM2 and Sungkwan JOO3*

1
School of Electrical & Railway Engineering, Kyungil University, Gyeongsan, Korea
2
Metropolitan Transportation Research Center, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang, Korea
3
School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: skjoo@korea.ac.kr

This paper deals with the energy management system for electric railway systems to improve energy efficiency
and to minimize dependence to AC network. In addition to the high interest for regenerative energy,
interconnected operation with photovoltaic generations(PVs) and fuel cells(FCs) increases the need for railway
energy management system(REMS). The REMS suggested in this paper implements optimal energy allocation
using large capacity of energy storage systems(ESSs) through minimization of uncertainty induced from AC
loads, DC loads, PVs, FCs, and regenerative power from railway vehicles. That is, the REMS have functions
of SOC monitoring of ESSs and charging/discharging signal generation for each ESS. Verification for the effects
of REMS has been performed in case study based on the real railway line data which are track data, vehicle
schedule data, measured AC load, etc.

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O-SG-003

MULTI-FACTOR ACCESS CONTROL: WEIGHTED ACCESS


CONTROL DIFFERENTIATING PROTECTION LEVELS
1 2 2 3
Eun Kyu LEE , Chi Cheng CHU , Rajit GADH and Yoon Dong SUNG *

1
Symantec Research Laboratory, Culver City, CA, USA
2
Smart Grid Energy Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
3
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: syd9035@kier.re.kr

In a smart grid, an IT system accesses various energy resources in different ways. One interesting observation
is that these access operations result in diverse impacts on power systems and human beings and thus are
perceived with different importance. Say, controlling a nuclear plant and reading data from it must be given
different priorities. This paper argues that access requests for these operations must be authorized distinctively
with different protection levels, named prioritization problem. We also show that the existing practice, a
multi-factoring technique, does not work efficiently in a smart grid system. To solve the prioritization problem,
we propose a new access control mechanism, named Multi-Factor Access Control (MFAC), which extends the
multi-factoring technique. In MFAC, a user is granted multiple secret keys (i.e., factors) from independent
authorities. When accessing a highly prioritized resource, the user must present more than two factors, each
of which is issued from different authorities. This decreases the probability that she presents false evidence
of qualification, increasing protection level. To demonstrate the feasibility, we implement the proposed scheme
and apply it to our smart building testbed. Throughout real world experiments, we evaluate the performance
of computation cost and illustrate automated, prioritized smart building controls.

188
8BTUF&OFSHZ6UJMJ[BUJPO
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


O-WU-001

POWER OPTIMIZATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CO2 BRAYTON


CYCLES FOR A SHIPBOARD WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM
Young-Jin BAIK, Jeachul JANG, Junhyun CHO, Ho-Sang RA and Minsung KIM*

Energy Efficiency Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: minsungk@kier.re.kr

Recently, there has been growing interest in s-CO2 (supercritical carbon dioxide) power cycle technology
because of its compactness and superior efficiency. It has been also known that the s-CO2 Brayton cycle is
promising in the area of renewable energy such as CSP (Concentrating Solar Power) and geothermal power
generation as well as in the area of waste heat recovery, fossil fuel-fired power generation, and nuclear
applications. In this study, a shipboard Waste Heat Recovery System (WHRS) that uses s-CO2 as a working
fluid was investigated. Both a simple and a cascade s-CO2 Brayton cycles were modeled and optimized by
using two and five design variables, respectively, to maximize the power under operating conditions of a WHRS
in typical large ships. The results show that the power of a shipboard WHRS can be improved by 5% or more
by adopting the cascade s-CO2 Brayton cycle when compared to a conventional steam Rankine cycle-based
WHRS under the simulation conditions considered in the present study.

O-WU-002

A STUDY ON TORREFACTION OF FOOD WASTE


Jeeban Poudel1 and Sea Cheon Oh2*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan, Korea

* Corresponding author: ohsec@kongju.ac.kr

Torrefaction of biomass can produce an energy dense and consistent quality solid biomass fuel for combustion
and co-firing applications. This study presents the effects of torrefaction on the basic characteristics of food
waste. Food waste was torrefied in a horizontal tubular reactor at temperatures ranging from 150 oC to 400
o
C, for torrefaction periods varying from 0 min to 50 min. To torrefied food waste was characterized in terms
of their elemental composition, energy yield, ash content, and volatile fraction. The gaseous products were also
analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the samples was carried out in order to obtain the apparent
activation energy for the torrefaction of food waste. The energy and mass yield were found to decrease with
an increase in the torrefaction temperature, whereas the higher heating value increased. From this work, it was
found that the compounds with oxygen were emitted at a temperature lower than that for hydrocarbon gases
and the temperatures of 290 oC to 330 oC were the optimum torrefaction temperatures for food waste.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WU-003

CO-PYROLYSIS OF DOUGLAS FIR AND COFFEE GROUND AND


PRODUCT BIOCRUDE-OIL CHARACTERISTICS
1 2 1 2 2
Ramesh SOYSA , Sang Kyu CHOI *, Yeon Woo JEONG , Seock Joon KIM and Yeon Seok CHOI

1
Department of Environment and Energy Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology,
Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea
2
Environment and Energy System Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon
305-343, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: skchoi4091@kimm.re.kr

Woody biomass from Douglas Fir was co-pyrolyzed with waste coffee ground on a 1:1 weight basis, in
a bubbling fluidized bed reactor at a nitrogen flow rate of 25 L/min, in order to investigate the effects on
biocrude-oil yield and composition. Pyrolysis temperatures were selected to be 400C, 450C, 500C, 550C
and 600C and the co-pyrolysis effect on the yield is presented. Co-pyrolysis kinetic behavior was also
investigated using TGA and DTG. The investigation was carried out in inert nitrogen atmosphere with
temperature ranging from 20C to 900C at heating rates of 5K/min, 10K/min, 15K/min and 20 C/min. The
highest decomposition rate occurs between 330 C and 370 C at each heating rate. As a result of the evaluations
obtained by Friedman iso-conversional method the activation energy values vary between 70 - 255 kJ/mol with
an average activation energy of 136 kJ/mol for the co-pyrolytic conversion range of 10% to 80%. This was
well within the range of reported kinetic data for wood pyrolysis. Investigation of functional groups in the
product biocrude-oil was carried out through FTIR analysis.

O-WU-004

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON THE RELIABILITY TEST OF


COMPRESSOR USING BYPAS GAS CYCLE
Joo Sang KIM, Gilbong LEE, Ho Sang RA and Minsung KIM*

Thermal Energy Conversation Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research

* Corresponding author: minsungk@kier.re.kr

This study is on the reliability test of compressor for high temperature heat pump. There are many kinds
of heat source in industrial field(hot water, cooling water, steam source, etc). Heat pump can be used in industrial
field to product high temperature water heat using recovery heat. So, recently, researches have been conducted
on heat pump using recovery heat. It is important to select compressor ensuring high temperature operation.
Based on the bypass cycle, the test facility for compressor reliability check was designed and constructed.
Compressor was installed to evaluate the test facility for compressor reliability and used R134a as refrigerant.
During the test, operation variable(openness ratio of 1st & 2nd expansion device, amount of refrigerant, flow
rate of 2nd fluid and temperature of 2nd fluid) was changed in accordance with the test condition. For high
temperature, R245fa was selected as working fluid. R245fa drop-in test was performed for a screw compressor.

192
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WU-005

STUDY ON CHRACTERISTIC OF SYNTHESIS GAS WITH


ADVANCED WASTE GASIFICATION SYSTEM TO APPLY
CHEMICAL CONVERSION PROSSESS
Sung Bang Nam1, Soo-Nam Park1, Yong-Taek Lim1, Young-Sik Yoon1, Na-Rang Kim1, Jae-Hoi Gu1*,
2 2
Sang-Ok Choi and In-Su Lee

1
Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, 663-2 Goan Baekam Youngin, 449-863, Seoul,
Korea
2
Samsung BP Chemical Corporation Ltd, 1320-10 Seocho Seoul, 137-070, Korea

* Corresponding author: jaehoi@iae.re.kr

Because it is a most promising alternative compared to incineration, the gasification technology for waste
has been received growing attention to throughout this decade. The gasification process, which is the conversion
of carbonaceous materials into gases rich in carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is more applicable than combustion
by generating energy or producing chemical products from synthesis gas. Due to their advantage, many countries
has promoted the waste gasification system to alter their conventional incineration facilities by the implement
of encouraging policy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic of synthesis gas
production from industrial solid wastes (ISW) with respect to various gasification conditions to apply the
chemical conversion process such as acetic acid or methanol. The advanced gasification system was employed
including the fixed-bed oxygen-blown gasifier, high temperature purification system with wet purification
system, conversion process for producing methanol and heat recovery system. The composition of synthesis
gas was in the range for CO 38.65~39.62%, H2 23.89~26.59% and O2 0.05~0.08% depending upon the
gasification condition. In addition, the cold gas efficiency were 63.75~74.04% and H2/CO was around 0.65.
The present study has shown that the highly purified synthesis gas on the advanced gasification system can
be adjusted to the commercial scale of chemical conversion process.

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy
Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge
Economy (No. 20123010100010)

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WU-006

CATALYTIC PYROLYSIS OF WASTE PULPING CHEMICALS BY


MICROWAVE HEATING
1 1 2
Panchaluck Sornkade , Duangduen Atong and Viboon Sricharoenchaikul *

1
National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani, Thailand
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

* Corresponding author: viboon.sr@chula.ac.th

Microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MW-P) in the presence of a microwave absorbent (SiC) and catalyst
(10-30%Co/Al2O3) was tested on waste pulping chemicals (kraft black liquor, KBL, and soda black liquor, SBL.
The studied variables were quantity of metal supported alumina and microwave power setting (400-800 Watt).
With microwave heating for 30 min, the effects of microwave heating time, microwave power, and metal
supported alumina dosage on black liquors were discussed. For KBL, a temperature of 550C, with no catalyst
was the optimal conditions, resulting in a maximum liquid yield of 27 wt% and 31 wt%, respectively. The
liquid product from KBL reached 35 wt% and that from SBL reached 41 wt% through 15%Co/Al2O3 catalytic.
13
C NMR spectroscopy was implemented to provide detailed structure information for the liquid phase and the
BLs. The GC-MS was performed on the liquid product showing compounds such as phenol,
cyclododecasiloxane, tributyl acetylcitrate, and benzenedicarboxylic acid. The gas composition during the
pyrolysis process was mainly H2, CO, CH4, and smaller amounts of CO2. On both liquors, the average gas
and solid yields were 251.8 wt%, and 521.2 wt%. These results show that the use of microwave absorbents
in MW-P increased both yields and quality of liquid product and it is a promising technology that may be
commercially developed. Additionally, other promising catalysts such as Co/Al2O3 catalyst would need to be
studied to further improve the liquid and gas product quality.

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O-WU-007

EFFECT OF SPENT CHEMICAL IN PULP MILL PROCESS ON


SYNTHESIS GAS PRODUCTION FROM LIGNIN GASIFICATION
UNDER SUPERCRITICAL WATER CONDITION
Yotwadee HAWANGCHU1, Duangduen ATONG2 and Viboon SRICHAROENCHAIKUL3*

1
International program on hazardous substance and environmental management Graduate School, Chulalongkorn
University, Bangkok, Thailand
2
National Metal and Material Technology Center, Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani, Thailand
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

* Corresponding author: viboon.sr@chula.ac.th

Lignin is the major component in black liquor which is the waste of pulping process. The cooking chemicals
have been used in pulping process will be reformed in spent chemical and come along with lignin. Both of
lignin and the spent chemicals will be sent to combustion unit for converting into heat and solid residue,
respectively. However, there is a possibility that some spent chemicals have an effect to the thermal reaction.
Therefore, this study focused on the potential of the spent chemical in black liquor to the synthesis gas
production under the supercritical water gasification (SCWG). Pure lignin compound was used as comparing
results of the reaction from a mixture of lignin and spent chemical in black liquor. SCWG was performed
in batch fused quartz reactor at 673-873K/ 250-400Pascal/ 10 minutes reaction time. The results showed the
different in synthesis gas production causing from the spent chemicals in black liquor. Leading to simulate
the chemical adding to pure lignin compound, more investigations of trying to ensure the spent chemicals have
a potential to be a catalyst for synthesis gas production from lignin.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WU-008

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE


(ORC) CONFIGURATIONS FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY
1,2 2,1 2,1 1,2
Muhammad Imran , Byung-Sik Park , Hyouck-Ju Kim and Muhammad Usman

1
Energy System Engineering, University of Science & Technology, Daejeon, Korea
2
Energy Efficiency Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: bspark@kier.re..kr

The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system is mature low grade waste heat engine and it does not only mitigate
the environmental impact but also improve overall efficiency of the primary system. The current article deal
with the comparative assessment of 3 different configurations of ORC cycle including basic, recuperated and
regenerative ORC system for low grade waste heat recovery applications on the basis of their thermal and
economic performance. The optimization was performed for each cycle configuration using Non-dominated
Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II. The minimum specific investment cost (SIC) & maximum efficiency were selected
as objective functions. The decision variables consist of evaporation temperature, pinch point temperature
difference, and super heat. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to investigate the effect of decision variables
on SIC and efficiency of each configuration. The optimization results show that the basic ORC system has
low cost & low efficiency while regenerative cycle has high cost and high efficiency. The regenerative ORC
system has low net power than basic and recuperated ORC system when it was optimized for low SIC and
high efficiency. The effect of evaporation temperature on efficiency and specific investment cost was more
promising than other decision variables.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WU-009

DEVEOPMENT OF A BIOCRUDE-OIL BURNER AND STUDY ON


THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS
1 1 1 2 2
Sang Kyu CHOI *, Yeon Seok CHOI , Seock Joon Kim , Yeon Woo JEONG and Ramesh SOYSA

1
Environmental and Energy Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon
305-343, Republic of Korea
2
Department of Environment and Energy Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology,
Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: skchoi4091@kimm.re.kr

Biomass is considered one of the promising renewable energy sources due to the depletion of fossil fuels
and the global warming issue. Biocrude-oil can be produced by the fast pyrolysis of various biomass feedstocks
such as wood, crops, agricultural and forestry residues. Biocrude-oil has high water content and the organic
compounds contains large amount of oxygen, which leads to a smaller heating value in comparison with
conventional petroleum fuels. Also, its higher viscosity and char content inhibit the spray and atomization
characteristics from the fuel nozzle. Due to these characteristics, biocrude-oil cannot be directly applied to
conventional oil burners. In the present study, a burner system was designed for the biocrude-oil combustion
by adopting a two-fluid nozzle for atomization. Biocrude-oil was prepared from the fast pyrolysis of woody
biomass and was blended with ethanol to improve the ignition characteristics. The characteristics of flame
stability and pollutant emissions were investigated at various mixing ratios of biocrude-oil and ethanol. It was
found that the flame stability can be achieved up to 90 vol% of biocrude-oil.

O-WU-010

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF 1KW ORGANIC RANKINE


CYCLE SYSTEM TEST BED
Muhammad Usman1,2, Buyng-Sik Peter Park1,2*, Dong Hyun Lee1 and Muhammad Imran1,2

1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, South Korea
2
University of Science & Technology, South Korea

* Corresponding author: bspark@kier.re.kr

Energy crisis has led scientists to focus on energy recovery from waste heat sources and ensure the use
of heat source to its fullest possible. Organic rankine cycle systems are known for their ability to harness such
waste heat and convert to useful work even when temperatures are lower than 120oC where rankine power
systems cannot be operated. The automated operation of such systems is the focus of our study. In order to
test, the control strategies, start up and shutdown sequence and their optimization, a state of the art organic
rankine cycle system test bed has been designed and fabricated. A custom designed scroll type expander has
been used for output power. Considering the operational cost of heat input for the experiments, the size of
system (rated output power) has been intentionally kept low at 1kW. The system will use steam as a heat
source which makes this test bed unique for its small size for steam application.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-WU-011

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE SILOXANE ABSORBENTS


PERFORMANCE
1 1 1
JUNG Keuk PARK *, Jung Keun LEE and Kwang Beom HUR *

1
Future Technology Lab., Korea Electric Power Corporation, Daejon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jkpark@kepco.co.kr

Since online siloxane analysis methods are recently introduced, precise evaluation of siloxane removing
absorbents ability. However, the siloxane absorption ability of various absorbents is a key factor for proper
absorbents selection and absorption tank design. In this experiment, we have adopted online siloxane analysis
method with FTIR and therefore we could evaluate absorbents performance more precisely. Test siloxane gas
was produced by evaporation into nitrogen stream and passing through the hot chamber (100C). Siloxane
compounds in the nitrogen stream were removed by absorption tank and FTIR analyser measured siloxane
concentration in outlet gas stream. Through the experiment, we could confirm the difference in siloxane
absorption ability of activated carbon and silica-gel. Silica-gel seems to absorb 34.5% higher amount siloxane
than activated carbon under the condition of 2 bar and 42.8C.

O-WU-012

EXPANSION CHARACTERISTICS OF POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT


EXPANDER FOR VEHICLE ENGINE WASTE HEAT RECOVERY
UNDER OFF-DESIGN OPERATING CONDITIONS
Young Min KIM*, Dong Gil SHIN, Se Jong WOO and Chang Gi KIM

Environmental and Energy Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon,
Korea

* Corresponding author: ymkim@kimm.re.kr

A positive displacement expander such as a piston or scroll expander has many advantages over the
turbo-expander typically employed in small-scale systems. In a dual-loop engine waste heat recovery system,
a swash plate-type expander and a scroll expander are used for high temperature and low temperature cycles,
respectively. In the case of vehicle engine, the engine waste heat can widely vary depending on the operating
conditions. Therefore, the positive displacement expanders inevitably operate under off-design conditions in both
under- and over-expansion states. This paper presents an analysis method for optimizing the design pressure
ratio of the positive displacement expander in a dual-loop engine waste heat recovery system considering the
expansion characteristics under off-design operating conditions and a reduction in the size.

198
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


IN-ME-001

A NEW CONCEPT IN TIDAL TURBINES


Johnny C L Chan

Ability R&D Research Centre, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong

* Corresponding author: Johnny.Chan@cityu.edu.hk

Traditionally, tidal turbines are designed for places with strong tidal currents because the energy that can
be generated varies with the cube of the current speed. Because strong tidal currents will produce very strong
torques on the turbines, the engineering design is much more demanding; the material to be used needs to
be more robust and the anchoring of the device becomes a much more daunting task. All these have led to
strong limitations on the harvesting of ocean energy along coastal areas.
Here, we propose a new concept of generating electricity from tidal turbines in weak tidal flows of around
1-2 meters per second. We will use two examples in Hong Kong to show that this is indeed possible. At both
sites, the tidal current is around 1 meter per second. But by using a duct and making an array of mini-turbines,
we should be able to generate an amount of electricity comparable to that of a large turbine. Calculations indicate
that we can generate an appreciable amount of power by making such an array even for such weak flow speeds.
We are still testing the durability and viability of such devices. If these demonstration devices prove to be
robust, the application in many coastal areas would be tremendous.

O-ME-001

EXPERIMENTS ON THE HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF


HORIZONTAL AXIS TIDAL
Guang Zhao*, Xiaohui Su, Yan Liu and Qingkai Han

Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy utilization and Energy Conversion of Ministry of Education, Dalian University
of Technology, Dalian, China

* Corresponding author: zhaoguang@dlut.edu.cn

Horizontal axis tidal turbine is designed, adjusted and installed after the properties of existing turbine
experiment are analyzed. Then, the experiments for self-starting performance, tip speed ratio and yaw testing
are conducted. The experimental efficiency of the newly developed turbine could reach up to 47.6%. Under
the condition of big yaw angle, the turbine could still remain high working efficiency. The experimental turbine
starting torque is 1Nm, and the starting flow speed with 0 yaw angle and 0 initial attack angle is 0.745m/s.
The experiment rig could simulate the tidal current below 6m/s, and its maximum loading torque is 158.5Nm.
The experiment rig work with stability, reliability and small vibration as experimental flow speed is 2.2m/s
and maximum rotational speed is 301rpm. The experiment rig is multifunctional, which can implement the
experiments on pitch, yaw and tip speed ratio and the influence of front and rear the diversion dome on turbine
performance. The research results provide basic experimental data for tidal current energy development, and
also provide beneficial references for design of similar experiment rig and turbine marine environment
experiments in the future.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ME-002

TOWER STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ON A COMBINED SYSTEM OF


WIND AND OCEAN ENERGY CONVERTERS
1 2
Patrick Mark SINGH and Young-Do CHOI *

1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National University, Mokpo, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of New and Renewable Energy Technology Research, Mokpo
National University, Mokpo, Korea

* Corresponding author: ydchoi@mokpo.ac.kr

Instead of competing among different types of renewable energy converters, why not combine them for
maximum energy extraction from a single location? This research takes a step closer at combining three offshore
energy converters onto a single tower. Therefore, the main tower that will host the three systems needs to
be studied for structural stability. The study implements a mono-pile tower as this is the most simple and low
cost towers currently used by the marine industry. If this tower can withstand the extreme conditions of wind
and ocean, than it could be an excellent choice for industries planning to construct offshore wind and ocean
energy converters. The proposed tower is 140 m tall and diameters at base and top are 10 and 4 m respectively.
To conduct the structural analysis of the tower Fluid-Structure Interaction, Harmonic Response, Multi-Body
Dynamics and Buckling Analysis are utilized to conduct calculations based on real and physical boundary
conditions. The extreme conditions for wind, tidal current and wave were set as 50 m/s, 4 m/s and wave height
3m respectively. FSI analysis was conducted to calculate the stress, deformation, strain, and frequency response
to confirm the stability of the tower.

O-ME-003

POTENTIAL ON THE ENERGY SAVING OF ICE RINK THROUGH


THE APPLICATION OF SEA WATER HEAT PUMP
Gilbong Lee*, Kichang Chang, Young-Jin Baik, Hosang Ra and Jun-Hyun Cho1

1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: giblee@kier.re.kr

Many activities have been conducted to utilize low-temperature energy for energy saving. This research
focused on suggesting applications of sea water to ice rink arena. Main thermodynamic characteristics of ice
rink are low evaporation temperatures and excessive surplus of condensation heat to heating demand. The major
refrigeration loads are radiation, convection, and re-surfacing load. General approach to reduce energy
consumption in ice rink is reusing its condensation heat for heating demand. Considering the temperature of
sea water, two systems layout were proposed Gserial layout and parallel layout. In the serial layout, sea water
acts as heating sink of low temperature part and heat source of high temperature zone. The parallel layout
has same number of compressors of conventional system and each compressor circuit can select either sea water
or heating demand side as its heat source. The energy consumption analysis was performed for conventional
heat recovery system and the two suggested systems. Weather data of two cities were applied. The results
showed that 30% energy saving with serial layout and 20% with parallel layout were expected under given
weather data.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ME-004

PERFORMANCE OF TIDAL CURRENT TURBINE WITH


PRE-DEFORMED BLADES
1 1 1 1
Chul Hee JO , Kang Hee LEE , Chan Hoi GOO and Do Youb KIM *

1
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, Korea

* Corresponding author: doyoubkim815@inha.edu

The importance and understanding of renewable energy have been increased even more after the incident
of an nuclear power plant in Japan three years ago. Among the various renewable energies, the tidal current
power is recognized as the most promising energy sources with predictability and reliability. In general, a tidal
turbine has two or three blades being subjected to hydrodynamic loads. The blades are continuously deformed
by various incoming flow velocities. Depending on flow velocity, blade size, and material property, the
deformation rates would be different that could affect on the performance of turbine and power rate as well.
Since the deformed blades would decrease the performance of the turbine, the power generation can be affected
accordingly. This paper describes the design criteria of the tidal turbine and the results of the fluid-structure
interaction (FSI) analysis conducted by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the finite element method
(FEM). Also, a pre-deformed blade is considered to optimize the blade geometry in operating condition. This
concept could contribute to the performance enhancement and commercialization of the tidal turbine.

O-ME-005

PERFORMANCE TEST OF DUAL HULL FLOATING TYPE WAVE


ENERGY CONVERTER USING BI-DRECTIONAL TURBINE
Byung Ha KIM1, Sang Yun KIM1 and Young Ho LEE2*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate school, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU, Busan, Korea

* Corresponding author: lyh@kmou.ac.kr

The novel wave energy converter is a device designed to utilize the surface energy of ocean waves. It
generates a characteristic pitching motion which causes a column of water to rise and fall periodically in the
caisson hence creating a bidirectional flow. A cross flow turbine within the device uses this bi-directional flow
to rotate in a single direction. This study presents the scaled model test of the device conducted near the shores
of Korea maritime and ocean university. The size of the device has been reduced by a factor 0.5 to generate
1 kW intercepting the optimal wave height of 1 m. The length and width of the device are 7.5 m and 1.6
m with a cross flow turbine of 0.5 m diameter rotating inside of it. The weight of the device sums up to
8.5 tons including the fresh water inside the hull and the device components. The parameters to be monitored
in the testing of the device include power generation, torque, turbine's RPM and overall efficiency at different
wave conditions.

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IN-ME-002
O-ME-006

A NUMERICAL STUDY TO REPLACE THE CROSS-FLOW


TURBINE IN WAVE POWER CONVERTOR WITH AN ORIFICE
TUBE BY CFD AND MATLAB CODES
Sang Yoon KIM1, Byung Ha KIM1 and Young Ho LEE2*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU, Busan, Korea

* Corresponding author: lyh@kmou.ac.kr

Huge ocean mass that covers almost 70% of the earth space has been noted in the ever changing energy
market. The method of wave power converter is highlighted as eco-friendly and with semi-permanent
characteristics. This study focuses on developing alternative device to replace the cross-flow turbine generally
used in WEC and save energy in experimental methods. Firstly in this study, a cross-flow turbine is used with
bi-directional flow for self start and consequently rotating the turbine in one direction; the efficiency and power
output is measured. Secondly, since it is not always convenient to use a turbine in every experiment due to
time and financial limits, an orifice tube is inserted to replace the cross-flow turbine. And hence, the experiment
is carried out making it possible to predict losses in discharge and water velocity. The CFD and MATLAB
is applied for the numerical method; special relationship is shown between the orifice tube and cross-flow turbine
at various cases.

IN-ME-002

THE CURRENT STATUS OF MARINE ENERGY IN TAIWAN


Jiahn-Horng Chen

National Taiwan Ocean University 2 Pei-Ning Raod, Keelung, Taiwan

* Corresponding author: b0105@mail.ntou.edu.tw,

The whole world has been faced with the stringent issue of global warming and climate change. No country
can be safe if she ignores this issue. This is particularly true for Taiwan, an ocean state surrounded by seas.
In recent years, various projects from the public and private sectors have been launched. Among them is the
top-down 2nd-phase National Energy Project (NEP-II) which can be categorized into two main architectures:
(1) virtual power plant and energy management and (2) emerging energy and carbon reduction.
In this presentation, we focus on Taiwans roadmap of marine energy development in a broad sense. We
will first address the marine energy resources available and worth of development in Taiwan. They include
offshore wind, ocean current, ocean thermal energy, and wave energy. Then the important projects which are
ongoing or under planning follow. In addition, some of basic researches to support these projects will be
described, the cultivation of talent in marine energy demand shared, and the progress of marine energy test
sites for wave, tidal current and ocean current energies also addressed. Finally, the challenges of the marine
energy development are discussed. While some of them are global, a few of them are local.
To conclude the presentation, we point out that Taiwans effort represents a part of the global map on the
enhancement of marine energy technology development and mitigation of climate change. With the foreseeable
yet challenging vision to harness energy in the ocean, we also look forward to more international collaboration
and smarter sparks which link the global, regional and local issues.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ME-007

COUNTER-ROTATING TYPE TIDAL STREAM POWER UNIT


Yuta USUI1*, Kohei TAKAKI2, Bin HUANG3, Toshiaki KANEMOTO3 and Koju HIRAKI3

1
JSPS Research Fellow, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Japan
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Japan
3
Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Japan

* Corresponding author: m584105y@mail.kyutech.jp

Tidal stream energy greatly attracts attention to get sustainable society with accompanying hydro, wind and
solar energies. Then, the authors have invented a unique counter-rotating type tidal stream power unit, which
is composed of tandem propellers and a double rotational armature type generator without a stator. The front
and the rear propellers counter-drive, as for an upstream type, the inner and the outer rotational armatures
respectively, in keeping the rotational torque counter-balance between both propellers / armatures. This paper
investigates experimentally the forces acting on a mounting pile of the power unit in a water channel and
confirms that the tandem propellers have no reaction force of the rotational torque to the pile, although a single
propeller have a reaction force orthogonal to the stream direction. This advantage means that the power unit
with the tandem propellers can be moored by only one cable, which can control automatically the nose position
in response to the stream direction. Therefore, it verify experimentally that the moored type power unit can
perform stable operation with only a cable, and its vibration may be induced from not only the individual
but also the interacting rotations of the front and the rear propellers.

O-ME-008

OPTIMIZATION OF BLADE SETTING ANGLES OF A


COUNTER-ROTATING TYPE HORIZONTAL-AXIS TIDAL TURBINE
USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY AND
EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
Bin Huang1*, Yuta Usui2, Kohei Takaki2 and Toshiaki Kanemoto1

1
Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan

* Corresponding author: huang.bin404@mail.kyutech.jp

This paper describes an optimization method for blade setting angles of a counter-rotating type horizontal-axis
tidal turbine (HATT). Both of the front and rear blades were designed by the traditional blade element
momentum (BEM) theory, which fails to simulate the interaction between the dual rotors. However, the
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis can predict the mutual performance accurately to make up the
drawback of BEM theory. A second-order response surface methodology (RSM) with aid of three-dimensional
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis, was employed to obtain the optimal match of front and
rear blade blade setting angles. Furthermore, experimental tests in the wind tunnel were carried out to verify
the numerical predictions. The performance of the optimal turbine has been proven to be greatly improved
by both of CFD predictions and experimental results.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ME-009

DESIGN AND CONTROL OF AN ADVANCED MECHANISM FOR


ADAPTIVE PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF A WAVE
ENERGY CONVERTER
Quang Truong DINH1, Minh Tri NGUYEN1, Kyoung Kwan AHN1*, Hyung Gyu PARK1,
1 2
Se young Lee and Quoc Thanh TRUONG

1
School of Mechanical Engineer, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, Korea
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Hochiminh University of Technology, Hochiminh, Vietnam

* Corresponding author: kkahn@ulsan.ac.kr

The aim of this paper is to design and control of an advanced mechanism for adaptive performance
optimization for a wave energy converter (WEC). To enhance this task, the novel system is designed as a
combination of three advanced modules which are a hydrostatic transmission-based point observer (HSTPO),
a performance optimization mechanism (POM) and an optimize controller (OC). The HSTPO takes part in
converting energy from wave power into electricity. The POM as an electric linear actuator is employed to
adjust properly the tilting angle of the HSTPO corresponding to each wave condition. To enhance this task,
the OC is designed to analyze the wave as well as system information to derive the driving command for
the POM and consequently, the wave energy generation (WEG) with the highest efficiency is achieved.
Simulations and real-time experiments have been done to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

O-ME-010

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DEFORMED TIDAL TURBINE BY


HYDRODYNAMIC LOADS
Chul Hee JO1, Su Jin HWANG1, Cristian NICHITA2 and Kang Hee LEE1*

1
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Le Havre, Le Havre, France

* Corresponding author: kanghee@inha.edu

The turbine is one of the most important components of a tidal current power device, and can convert current
flow to rotational energy. Generally, a tidal turbine has two or three blades that are subjected to hydrodynamic
loads. The blades are continuously deformed by various incoming flow velocities. Depending on the velocities,
blade size, and material, the deformation rates would be different that could affect the performance of turbine
and power rate as well. The power estimation and analysis should consider the deformed blade shape for accurate
output power. This paper describes a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis conducted using computational
fluid dynamics (CFD) and the finite element method (FEM) to estimate turbine performance considering blade
deformation. For various incoming flow velocities, blade deformations were calculated and turbine performances
were estimated accordingly. The maximum loss of turbine efficiency was calculated as 2.5% with maximum
deformation of 430mm at the blade tip. The principal causes of power loss were discussed and summarised
in this paper.

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IN-ME-003

ASSESSMENT OF OCEAN ENERGY RESOURCES IN THE SOUTH


PACIFIC
M. Rafiuddin Ahmed

Division of Mechanical Engineering, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji

* Corresponding author: ahmed_r@usp.ac.fj

The South Pacific region spreads over tens of millions of square kilometers of ocean. The land-mass for
the countries in this region is very small compared to the total area; for example, for a country Kiribati, the
ratio of sea-area to land-area is more than 4000. This unique nature of PICs makes offshore energy a clearly
attractive option. The countries have immense potential for ocean energy such as wave energy, tidal current
energy and ocean thermal energy; in fact, some of the PICs have the highest potential for ocean thermal energy
due to a nearly constant surface-water temperature throughout the year. Temperature measurements have been
performed at a number of locations to assess the OTEC potential. A maximum temperature difference of 24oC
is recorded between the surface and the water at a depth of 1000 m at a few sites, making them ideal for
OTEC power generation. There are hundreds of small islands and a large number of reef openings, passages
and sea-connected rivers where there are strong bi-directional currents. ADCP measurements are completed at
some of the locations and some more are in progress/in the pipeline. At one of the sites where there is a
strong uni-directional current, after the initial measurements, it was decided to deploy a number of ADCPs
and perform a complete flowfield investigation to gain an insight into the flow pattern. The detailed data are
being analyzed now. The maximum current speed at this location is found to be about 2.5 m/s. Wave energy
assessments have been completed at three sites in Fiji islands: two near-shore sites with shallow water depth
and one in deep water. The wave energy potential at one of the near-shore sites is 28.78 kW/m at a depth
of 18 m. The geographical layout of the region with scattered islands and unavailability of power grid requires
tailor-made solutions. In this scenario, kiloWatt-size wave and tidal current plants have a very strong potential
for becoming a sustainable source of power. Some of the remote islands have severe shortage of water and
it is planned to obtain desalinated water using wave-powered desalination systems.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ME-011

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON AN INNOVATIVE


WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER USING MECHANICAL PTO
SYSTEM
Phan Cong BINH1 and Kyoung Kwan. AHN2*

1
Graduate School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, University of Ulsan, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, University of Ulsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: kkahn@ulsan.ac.kr

This paper presented a highly efficient wave energy converter using a simple conceptual design. The system
based on a novel mechanical device power take-off which can absorb wave energy by converting bidirectional
motion of wave ocean into one way rotation of an electric generator. First, a prototype system is designed,
fabricated and assembled in the Research Institute of Small & Medium Shipbuilding (RIMS). The tests are
carried out under different conditions. Wave simulator is controlled to make harmonic waves with different
amplitudes and frequencies. Also, the sliding angle, compared to vertical direction, is adjusted to investigate
the influence of surge mode and heave mode combination on the absorption energy. Next, the output power
is measured and compared to wave estimated power to evaluate the efficiency of the prototype under different
conditions. Finally, at some optimum conditions, the efficiency of energy conversion can reach 90% compared
to absorption energy and 45% compared to average wave.

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O-ME-012

CFD PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A COUNTER-ROTATING


TIDAL CURRENT TURBINE WITHIN A DUCT
1 1 2 3
Nak Joong LEE , In Chul Kim , Beom Soo Hyun and Young Ho LEE *
1
Graduate School, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime & Ocean University(KMOU), Busan, Korea
2
Division of Naval Architecture and Ocean System Engineering, KMOU
3
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU

* Corresponding author: lyh@hhu.ac.kr

The effect of global warming on the climate is one of the important issues in modern history. This amongst
many reasons has caused many countries to increase the importance of alternative energy in the 21st century.
One of the sources of energy is the ocean, where the sun's energy is converted into various natural phenomenon.
Among the multitude of energy resources in Korea's ocean, the tidal currents in the south-western sea has a
large range of currents that have potential for tidal current power generation. The main advantage of tidal power
over most renewable energy sources is that it is independent of seasons or weather and is always constant.
Thus making power generation predictable and tidal power a reliable energy source. Marine current turbines
convert the kinetic energy in the marine current into a more usable form of energy. Marine current technology
does not disturb the surrounding marine environment significantly as sea water is still able to flow naturally
through the tidal current turbines as it produces power from the water velocity. The horizontal-axis type turbine
appears to be the most technologically and economically viable option at this stage. While single rotor turbines
can obtain a theoretical maximum efficiency of 59.3%, a dual rotor turbine can obtain a maximum of 64%.
Therefore by optimizing the counter rotating turbines, more power can be obtained than the single rotor turbines.
According to Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT), a 3 bladed 40W horizontal axis type marine current
turbine was designed. This turbine is used for small scale experimental tests to analyze its performance
characteristics. The turbine is planned to be scaled up to a size to produce 10kW within a submerged floating
structure in future. In this study, we investigated the performance and efficiency of a Counter-rotating current
turbine within a duct by using CFD.

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute
of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade,
Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea. (20133030000260)

209
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ME-013

COUNTER-ROTATING TYPE WELLS RUNNERS FOR FLOATING


WAVE POWER STATION
1 2 2 2
Shun Okamoto , Toshiaki Kanemoto *, Huang Bin and Toshihiko Umekage

1
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan
2
Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan

* Corresponding author: kanemoto.toshiaki886@mail.kyutech.jp

The authors have proposed the unique ocean wave power station, which is composed of the floating type
platform with a pair of floats lining up at the interval of one wave pitch and the power unit where the runner
submerged at middle of the platform. Such a profile can make the flow velocity at the runner twice faster
than that of Oscillating Water Column (OWC) type constructed adjacent to the seashore. The counter-rotating
type hydroelectric unit installed in the platform is composed of the tandem Wells type runners and the special
generator with the double rotational armatures. The tandem runners counter-rotate and keep the rotational
direction, respectively even at the oscillating flow. It was verified, in the previous paper, that the station is
effective to get the power from the ocean wave at the normally oscillating motion. This paper discusses
experimentally the performances and flow condition of the counter-rotating Wells type tandem runners. The
authors prove that they can be useful for the wave power station and get on base to improve the performances.

O-ME-014

ANALYSIS OF A 10KW BLADE FOR MARINE CURRENT


TURBINES USING CFD AND SCALED DOWN EXPERIMENTS
In Cheol Kim1, Nak Joong Lee1 and Young ho Lee2*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School, Korea Maritime and Ocean University(KMOU), Busan,
Korea
2
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, Busan, KMOU

* Corresponding author: lyh@kmou.ac.kr

This study looks at the design of 10 kW HAT model using the airfoil NACA-63421 as the profile of the
blade using Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT). In order to analyze the 10kW design, a scaled down
40W model turbine was fabricated and it was experimentally tested in re-circulating water channel. The
experiment was conducted by keeping the rotational speed of the turbine constant while changing the water
velocity. The power output and efficiency of the turbine was then recorded and analyzed. In addition to this,
a computational analysis of the performance characteristics of the 40W model was done. The simulation used
the same experimental conditions using a commercial finite volume based CFD software. This paper looks at
the comparison of the experimental results and the numerical results of the 40 W marine current turbine. In
addition, a comparison of the performance of the 10kW design in both single and counter rotating turbine
configurations is made by CFD.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ME-015

OPTIMIZATION OF MOORING SYSTEM FOR MULTI-ARRAYED


TIDAL TURBINES IN A STRONG CURRENT AREA
1 1 2 1
Chul Hee JO , Do Youb KIM , Cameron JOHNSTONE and Yu Ho RHO *

1
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Scotland, United Kingdom

* Corresponding author: doyoubkim815@inha.edu

Recently, focus is put on ocean energy resources as the environmental concerns regarding exploitation of
hydrocarbons are increasing. The enormous energy potential in tidal current power fields is proposed utilized
by installing floating tidal current power turbines. As for all other floating structures operating within a limited
area, stationkeeping is needed in order to keep the motions of the floating structures within permissible limits.
In this study, methods for selecting and optimizing the mooring system for floating tidal current power system
in shallow water are investigated. The mooring system contributes to providing restoring forces and moments
on a floating structure, pulling the structure back against its equilibrium position. Typically, the mooring lines
are segmented in order to optimize the force/displacement characteristics known as the mooring line
characteristics. Furthermore, the different mooring system concepts investigated in the study are described. They
include distributed mass-, clump weight-, and buoyancy element mooring system.

211
1IPUPWPMUBJDT
0SBM4FTTJPO

AFORE2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


O-PV-001

CHARACTERISTICS OF CuSbS2 AS AN ABSORBER FOR


PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELLS
1,2 1,2 1 1 1 1
Shahara Banu , Se Jin Ahn , Jihye Gwak , Young Joo Eo , Jae Ho Yun and Ara Cho *

1
New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research
(KIER), Daejeon, South Korea
2
University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, South Korea

* Corresponding author: icemua@kier.re.kr

Solar energy technologies have been spotlighted as a major in the recent decade. Among them, CuInGaSe2
(CIGS) is an attractive candidate for the use in photovoltaic devices due to its high light absorption co-efficient
(~105 cm-1) and tunable direct band gap (1.0~2.4eV). So far, the maximum conversion efficiency of CIGS solar
cell has been recorded over 21%. Nevertheless, scarcity and prices are the main obstacles for the widespread
use of this absorber. To resolve those problems, copper Antimony Sulfide (CuSbS2) could be an alternative
promising absorber material for sustainable and scalable photovoltaic due to its low toxicity, low cost and earth
abundant raw materials.
CuSbS2 is a ternary I-V-VI2 chalcogenide semiconductor with direct optical band gap in the range 1.38-1.5eV,
which is close to the optimum value required for solar energy conversion (1.4eV). Also, it has a high optical
absorption co-efficient more than 104 cm-1, which is comparable to the above chalcopyrite and kesterite materials.
In our study, we used two types of process: one is hybrid ink process and the other is solution process.
Thin films were deposited on soda lime glass using a spin coater. After sulfurization, EDS, XRD, SEM were
used to analyze the film composition and morphology. The characteristics of CuSbS2 with both processes will
be presented.

215
AFORE2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-PV-002

PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF A SOLAR POWER DEVICE


CONSISTED OF CPV AND LFR WITH SECONDARY REFLECTORS
1 2 3
Jae Hyuk SHIN , Hyun Jin KIM and Joon Hong BOO *

1
Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, Jinju, Gyeongnam, Korea
2
Graduate school, Korea Aerospace University, Gyeonggi, Korea
3
School of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, , Gyeonggi, Korea

* Corresponding author: jhboo@kau.ac.kr

A solar power device which produces electricity and thermal energy simultaneously was fabricated utilizing
concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cells and linear Fresnel reflectors (LFR). The performance of the device was
investigated in outdoor conditions. The CPV was a triple-junction type having an aperture dimension of 10
X 10 mm and the maximum conversion efficiency of 40% for a concentration ratio of 400. An LFR having
a planar dimension of 1.2 m by 1 m was built in this study as a main concentrator. Since a PTC or an LFR
has an intrinsic disadvantage of low concentration ratio, the secondary reflectors were used in order to achieve
a higher concentration ratio between 200 and 400, with the same planar area of the main reflector. A CPV
module was made of a series of CPV cells mounted on the front side of a metal PCB, of which the rear
side was cooled by a coolant which flowed through a cooling channel in contact with the CPV module. The
coolant inlet temperature was controlled by an isothermal bath and the flow rate which was adjusted in the
range of 6 to 18 liters per hour to test the performance of the CPV at various operating conditions. The power
efficiency of an LFR-CPV module system was analyzed as a function of the Direct Normal Insolation (DNI)
and cell temperature. The outdoor experimental results showed that the electricity efficiency over 23% for the
DNI intensity between 0.6 and 0.8 SUN(600-800 W/m2). And the heat-recovery efficiency ranged at least 52%,
so that the combined efficiency became nearly 75%. Detailed discussion was provided in terms of the cell
temperature and the DNI.

216
AFORE2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-PV-003

NEXT GENERATION PROMISING CU2(ZNxFE1-x)SNS4 ABSORBER


MATERIAL PREPARED BY PULSED LASER DEPOSITION
TECHNIQUE
G. L. Agawane, S.W. Shin, M.P. Suryawanshi, S.A. Vanalakar, A.V. Moholkar and J.H. Kim*

Optoelectronics Convergence Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam
National University, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea

* Corresponding author: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr

In this study, pioneering work has been carried out for the preparation of Cu2(ZnxFe1-x)SnS4 (CZFTS) thin
films by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The effects of changing the Zn/Fe ratio of the targets on the
properties of CZFTS thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy studies revealed
that all CZFTS thin films exhibited highly compact, smooth, and homogeneous surfaces. X-ray diffraction and
Raman studies on CZFTS thin films showed the transformation of the kesterite to stannite phase with variation
of Zn/Fe ratio. High resolution transmission electron microscope image for CFTS film showed d-spacing of
0.32 nm consistent with the (112) plane. The direct optical band gap for CZFTS thin films was found to be
in the range of 1.33 to 1.74 eV.

O-PV-004

CU-CONTAMINATION OF SINGLE CRYSTALLINE SILICON


WAFERS WITH THICKNESS OF 100 UM DURING MULTI-WIRE
SAWING PROCESS
Sun Ho CHOI1, Bo Yun JANG1*, Joon Soo KIM1, Hee Eun SONG2 and Moon Hee HAN3

1
Advanced materials and devices laboratory , Korea institute of energy research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Photovoltaic laboratory, Korea institute of energy research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Graduate school of energy science and technology, Chungnam national University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: byjang@kier.re.kr

(100)-oriented p-type single crystalline silicon (Si) wafers with a thickness of 100 um were obtained in a
free abrasive (slurry on) multi-wire sawing process. When wafer thickness decreased to 100 um,
Cu-contamination on sliced wafer surface occurred. We investigated the contamination mechanism and its
solution, and finally eliminated this contamination by applying the solution found herein. The thinner the wafer
thickness became, the more Cu debris were detached from brass-coated wire, and those ultrafine debris (0.08
~ 0.2 um) begun to be aggregated on SiC abrasive particles when wafer was as thin as 100 um. The aggregated
Cu debris was strongly attached on wafer surface by mechanical load from wire and thermal energy during
the sawing process. By adding a coolant to prevent agglomeration during the process, Cu-contamination was
successively removed. The influences of contamination on physical properties of sliced wafers such as thickness
variation, roughness were also investigated. The contaminated wafers exhibited relatively higher reflectivity after
texturing process, which resulted in degradation of photoelectric conversion efficiency from 17.8 to 17.0 %.

217
AFORE2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-PV-005

EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE ON mOLYBEDENUM


DENSIFICATION AND ITS OVER-ALL EFFECT ON SOLAR CELL
PERFORMANCE
Muhammad SAIF ULLAH1,2, SeJin AHN1,2, Jihye GWAK2, Seungkyu AHN2 and Jae Ho YUN2

1
University of Science & Technology, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon,305-350, Korea
2
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-343, Korea

* Corresponding author: saifi.551@gmail.com

Effect of substrate temperature (Ts) (490 to 580C) during 3-stage deposition of CuInSe2 (CIS) on of
Molybdenum (Mo) back contact densification and its over-all effect on CIS based solar cells was examined.
XRD and specular reflection data demonstrated that Mo thin-film get densified on increasing Ts. SIMS data
showed the increase in sodium (Na) concentration in CIS film with mounting Ts which implied that Na migration
from SLG to CIS thorough Mo back contact gate is strongly dependent on thermal activation rather than on
Mo density in the temperature range studies. CIS film morphologies and photovoltaic conversion efficiencies
of cells based on CIS films grown at different Ts were analyzed by SEM and solar simulator (AM1.5, 25
C, 100 mW/cm2), respectively. Voc, FF, Jsc, and eff increased on raising Ts. But at the highest temperature,
i.e. 580 C, too high concentration of Na created deep level trap centers. External quantum efficiency data
showed that these deep seated recombination centers reduced the minority carrier diffusion collection at longer
wavelength, which resulted in reduction of Jsc. Improvement in Voc and FF with corresponding decrease in
Jsc implies that at the highest temperature (580C), active deposition time should be optimized to get high
photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

O-PV-006

ENHANCED HETEROJUNCTION INTERFACE QUALITY IN CU2O


THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BY ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
Jaeyeong Heo1*

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Optoelectronics Convergence Research Center, Chonnam
National University, Gwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: jheo@jnu.ac.kr

Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is considered a promising Earth-abundant semiconductor material for thin-film solar
cells. Although the theoretical power conversion efficiency (PCE) is over 20%, the PCE of heterojunction-based
Cu2O thin-film solar cells has remained lower than 1% for long time. One of the major issues for Cu2O-based
solar cells is its low open-circuit voltage due to rapid interfacial recombination, originating from non-ideal band
alignment between absorber and conventional n-type layers (i.e. ZnO or TiO2) and high density of trap states
at the junction. In this talk, I will first demonstrate the low temperature growth of zinc-tin-oxide n-type buffer
layers enabled by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of ZTO
buffer layers with different zinc-to-tin ratio will be studies. Reduced interface recombination, resulting in sizable
open-circuit voltage (0.553V) and PCE (2.65%) enhancements, will be demonstrated by adopting 5nm-thick
ZTO buffer layer in conjunction with related band alignment and interfacial trap densities.

218
AFORE2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-PV-007

FORMATION MECHANISM OF COPPER INDIUM SELENIDE CISe


THIN FILM BY METAL SALTS BASED MOLECULAR INKS
1,2 2 2 2 2 1,2
Shanza Rehan , Young-Joo Eo , Ara Cho , Jihye Gwak , KyungHoon Yoon and SeJin Ahn *

1
Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon, South Korea
2
Photovoltaics Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, 305-343, South Korea

* Corresponding author: swisstel@kier.re.kr Fax.+82-(42)-860-3739

Direct Solution coating approach stands out in the cost effective and simplistic fabrication of CuInGaSe2
absorber films due to its advantages such as no requirement of expensive vacuum equipments, less energy
intensive deposition and much better material utilization. Furthermore, the complete dissolution of starting
chemicals in solvents ensures a nearly perfect mixing of the precursors on a molecular-level without the need
of pre-fabrication of nanoparticles as in particle based approach. The film is deposited and annealed to form
the dried precursor layer which is then selenized in high temperature Se environment to form CISe. However,
in spite of the noticeable device efficiency and the technological progress through this route, transformation
mechanism of precursor films to final polycrystalline CISe film during this selenization process is not fully
understood. It is certain that there are complex reactions taking place during this selenization process including
metal ion movement, crystallization, phase transformation, and grain growth etc., all of which must affect the
final film property and device performance. Up till now, no clear understanding based on such facts is available.
Therefore, in this study, systematic investigation on transformation mechanism of precursor film formed by
direct solution coating to CISe will be discussed.

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O-PV-008

DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS WITH GEL ELECTROLYTE


USING PYRIDINIUMIODIDE ATTACHED NANO-SILICA
1,2 2 2
Hye Jin Song , Kwan Woo Ko and Chi Hwan Han *

1
University of science and technology, Daejeon, Korea
2
Photovoltaic lab, Korea Institute of Energy Reserch, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: Hanchi@kier.re.kr

Integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems, in which a window type solar cell is a key component, are among
the most promising emerging energy sources. After the introduction of dye sensitized solar cell by ORegan
and Gratzel, numerous groups have put forth effort toward commercialization of window type solar cells due
to advantages thereof such as printability, tunable colors and half transparency. However, dye-sensitized solar
cells (DSSCs) have yet to make substantial inroads into the photovoltaic market because of long-term stability
issues those are mainly stem from the liquid electrolyte. The problems such as leakage and volatilization due
to the liquid electrolyte in the DSSCs remain serious obstacles. The problems associated with the use of liquid
electrolytes in DSSCs can be alleviated by the use of gel electrolytes, which are generally prepared by the
gelation of a liquid electrolyte. Various kinds of gel electrolytes have been reported with polymers such as
polyacrylonitrile, polyacrylamide, poly(methylmethacrylate), polyethylene oxide and with nano oxides such as
nano silica and nano titania.
In the present work, we describe the preparation of a nano-gel electrolyte using pyridiniumiodide attached
nano-silica and its deposition on a dye-adsorbed TiO2 film via the screen printing process. The nano-gel
electrolytes have been prepared by the mixing of liquid electrolyte and pyridiniumiodide attached nano silica
which has been synthesized by two step reactions from nano silica, 2-(4-pyridylethyl)triethoxysilane and
alkyliodide. The performance of the DSSCs with the gel electrolytes was compared with that of the reference
DSSC without using the nano-gel electrolyte. The effect of the operating temperature on the performance of
the cells was also investigated in the range of 25 - 100 oC, considering that their actual operating temperature
may exceed 55 oC.

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O-PV-009

ELECTRODE FORMATION USING LIGHT INDUCED


ELECTROLESS PLATING IN THE CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR
CELLS WITH VARIOUS ANTI-REFLECTION COATING
Myeong Sang JEONG, Min Gu KANG, Jeong In LEE and Hee-eun SONG*

Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hsong@kier.re.kr

Screen printing is commonly used to form the electrodes in crystalline silicon solar cell. But it has caused
high resistance, resulting in decreased efficiency in c-Si solar cell. Recently Ni/Cu/Ag plating method can be
applied for the electrode formation in crystalline silicon solar cells to reduce the contact resistance and improve
the conductivity. Another issue with plating process is ghost plating. Ghost plating occurred in the non-metallized
region, resulting from pin-hole in anti-reflection layer. It causes increase of recombination velocity on the front
surface and decrease on Voc.
In this paper, we investigated the effect of Ni/Cu/Ag plating in the plated solar cells, compared with screen
printed solar cells. In addition, we studied to reduce laser damage and contact resistance and ghost plating
in crystalline silicon solar cell fabrication. The solar cells were fabricated with 156 x 156mm2 area, 200 G thickness,
0.5 to 3.0
cm resistivity and p-type c-Si wafer. All wafers textured, doped, anti-reflection coated, laser patterned
and rear Al screen printed, followed by firing. In addition, phosphoric acid layer was spin-coated prior to laser
ablation. Phosphorous elements in phosphoric acid generate the selective emitter throughout the emitter layer
during laser process. To minimize the ghost plating, the various anti-reflection coating layers such as SiNx/SiNx,
SiO2/SiNx and SiNx/SiOx were applied to reduce density of pin-holes. As a result, electrical properties in Jsc,
FF and Efficiency were improved due to ghost plating decrease, but Voc was lower than screen printed solar
cells because of damage induced by laser process. Measurements with a solar simulator showed that Voc of
637mV, Jsc of 37.2 mA/cm2, FF of 79.0 % and efficiency of 18.7% was obtained for Ni/Cu/Ag plated solar
cell.

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AFORE2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-PV-010

AG-ALLOYING EFFECTS IN WIDE-BANDGAP CIGS SOLAR


CELLS FABRICATED BY A THREE-STAGE CO-EVAPORATION
1 1,2 1 1 1 1 1
Kihwan Kim *, Joo Wan Park , Jin Su Yu , Jun-sik Cho , Jihye Gwak , Sejin Ahn , Ara Cho ,
1 1 1 1 1 1
Seung Kyu Ahn , Young-Joo Eo , Joo Hyung Park , Keeshik Shin , Kyung Hoon Yoon and Jae Ho Yun

1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343, Republic of Kore
2
Department of Electronic Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: kimkh@kier.re.kr

Bandgap widening of CuInGaSe2-based solar cells has been considered to provide multiple advantages in
terms of device performance and electricity production. Theoretically, the bandgap widening not only gives
a higher efficiency at the device level, but also mitigates constraints on module design regarding cell spacing
and TCO thickness. Furthermore, this provides a lower temperature coefficient so that greater electricity can
be obtained in a real electricity-production environment. In this talk, we will discuss Ag-alloyed wide-bandgap
CIGS absorber layer grown from a three-stage co-evaporation. During the 2nd stage of the three-stage
co-evaporation, Ag and Cu were simultaneously co-evaporated to form (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers.
Ag-alloying was found to provide particular potential benefit including decreased structural/electronic disorder.
Resulting devices were also affected by the degree of Ag alloying. In particular, ACIGS solar cells with wider
bandgap turned out to need greater Ag content (ie. Ag/(Ag+Cu) compositional ratio) to improve their device
performances. With Ag/(Ag+Cu) ~ 0.2 and 0.6, highest device performances of 16.9% (at Eg > 1.3 eV) and
11.3% (at Eg > ~1.5 eV) have been achieved, respectively.

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O-PV-011

SINGLE SOURCE PRECURSOR FOR VACUUM EVAPORATION OF


MOBI2SE5 PHOTOACTIVE THIN FILMS
1 2 3 1 2
Prof. Popatrao N. Bhosale *, S. S. Mali , S. S. Mohite , R. R. Kharade , C. K. Hong ,
3 4
D. G. Kanase and P. S. Patil

1
Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416 004, MH, India
2
Department of Advanced Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University,Gwangju-500 757, South Korea.
3
Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Katraj, Pune-441 046, MH, India
4
Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416 004, MH, India

* Corresponding author: p_n_bhosale@rediffmail.com

In this investigation we report new approach for deposition of nanocrystalline MoBi2Se5 thin films using
vacuum evaporation employing single source precursor synthesized by arrested precipitation (APT) technique.
As deposited and vacuum annealed MoBi2Se5 thin films were characterized for opto-structural, morphological,
compositional and electrochemical analysis. It was observed that optical band gap decreases from 2.07eV to
1.87eV with vacuum annealing. The X-ray diffraction studies confirm rhombohedral crystal structure of
MoBi2Se5 thin films. The SEM images show compact arrangement of spherical grains without pin holes. TEM
and HRTEM results reveal nanocrystalline nature having particle size ~100nm and SAED pattern confirms
rhombohedral crystal structure. The compositional analysis done by XPS shows presence of Mo4+, Bi3+ and
Se2- oxidation states confirming stoichiometric MoBi2Se5 thin film material. The photoelectrochemical parameters
of as deposited and vacuum annealed thin films were determined using 0.5M aqueous Na2S electrolyte. The
PEC cell parameters obtained from J-V measurements are Voc=0.423V, Jsc=4.71mA/cm2, ff=0.269, h=0.565%
and Voc=0.419V, Jsc=4.06mA/cm2, ff=0.388, h=0.698% for as deposited and vacuum annealed samples,
respectively.

Key words: vacuum evaporation, MoBi2Se5 thin films, rhombohedral crystal structure, solar cell parameter
h=0.698%.

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AFORE2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-PV-012

HIGHLY ENHANCED PERFORMANCE OF INVERTED POLYMER


SOLAR CELLS USING PENTACENE
Feng YANG, Eung-Kyu PARK, Jae-Hyoung KIM and Yong-Sang KIM*

School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 440-746, Republic
of Korea

* Corresponding author: yongsang@skku.edu

Pentacene has been widely involved in organic solar cells and especially plays an important role in singlet
fission process. In this study, we investigated the role of pentacene in inverted polymer solar cells based on
poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6,6)-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), fabricated by the blends
of P3HT: PC61BM: Pentacene. A high thermally stable and long lifetime device in the air was obtained by
introducing pentacene into the active layer. The pentacene in the P3HT: PCBM blends modified the
crystallization of P3HT and PCBM. The donor-accepter interfaces of devices with pentacene was found to be
more stable than that without pentacene in the active layer, which was characterized by Atomic Force
Microscope images, Optical Microscope images, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The carrier transport of
active layer was also investigated. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of pentacene based device was 4.3%.
The PCE of non-encapsulated device was reduced by 25% within four months. The morphology of active layer
with pentacene was more smooth and suitable for the tandem solar cells. Based on these finding, we propose
a new method to improve the fabrication and properties of organic solar cells.

O-PV-013

FABRICATION OF ULTRATHIN MONO CRYSTALLINE SILICON


2
SOLAR CELL WITH 156X156 mm AREA BY
CONVENTIONAL PROCESS
Min Gu Kang1, Tae-hyun Baek1, Sung Jin Choi1, Jung In Lee1 and Hee-eun Song1*

1
Solar Energy Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: hsong@kier.re.kr

A reduction in silicon material consumption in the photovoltaic industry is required for cost reduction.
Reducing crystalline silicon wafers thickness is a promising way for cost reduction in the solar cell production.
The standard thickness of crystalline silicon solar cells is currently around 180 microns. If the wafers are thinner
than 100 microns in the silicon solar cells, the amount of silicon will be reduced by almost half, which should
result in prominent cost reduction. With this aim, many groups have worked with thin crystalline silicon wafers.
However, most of them have studied with small size substrates. We present the electrical characteristics for
thin single crystalline silicon solar cells of 100 and 110 m thickness and 156156 mm2 area manufactured
through a conventional process. We have achieved 18.3% conversion efficiency with a 110 m silicon substrate
and 17.6% with a 100 m substrate. This enables the commercialization of the thin crystalline silicon solar
cells with high conversion efficiency. We also suggest issues to be solved in thin crystalline silicon solar cell
manufacturing.

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O-PV-014

SOL-GEL BASED Cu2ZnSnS4 THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS


Na Kyoung YOUN1,2, Dahyun NAM3, Jihye GWAK1*, Jin Hyeok KIM4, Jae Ho YUN1, SeJin AHN1,
1 1 1 3 2
Ara CHO , Young Ju EO , Seung Kyu AHN , Hyeonsik CHEONG , Dong Hwan KIM ,
1 1
Kee Shik SHIN and Kyung Hoon YOON

1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
3
Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea
4
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: bleucoeur@kier.re.kr

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) quaternary semiconductor has recently emerged as a promising candidate for absorber
layers in thin film solar cells since it has low cost, less toxic and earth abundant constituents, optimal and
direct band gap (~1.5 eV) and high absorption coefficient (>104 cm-1) which are key factors for high conversion
efficiency of thin film solar cells [1]. W. Wang et al. published the world record efficiency of 12.6% achieved
with a Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cell using a hydrazine-based approach [2]. However, hydrazine is a
highly toxic and unstable compound that requires extreme caution for handling [3-4].
A facile sol-gel process applied in this study based on a 2-methoxyethanol solution of metal salts and thiourea
did not require the iterative spin-coating, but only a single coating was needed to get the desirable thickness
of nearly-carbon free CZTS thin films after post-sulfurization. Various characterizations were carried out on
the as-prepared absorbers, and solar cells were also fabricated with the CZTS absorbers to investigate the
photovoltaic performance.

[1] J.J. Scragg, P.J. Dale, L.M. Peter, G. Zoppi, I. Forbes, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b), 245 (2008) 1772-1778.
[2] W. Wang, M.T. Winkler, O. Gunawan, T. Gokmen, T.K. Todorov, Y. Zhu, D.B. Mitzi, Adv. Energy. Mater.
4(7) (2014) 1301465.
[3] S.K. Saha, A. Guchhait, A.J. Pal, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14 (2012) 8090-8096.
[4] W. Ki, H.W. Hillhouse, Adv. Energy Mater. 1 (2011) 732-735.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


IN-ST-001

A SYSTEMATIC METHOD TO MEASURE THE PERFORMANCE OF


SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC AND SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY
1 2
Ivor Francis DA CUNHA * and Euy-Joon LEE

1
LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada
2
New and Renewable Energy Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Professor and Head,
Renewable Energy Department, University of Science and Technology (UST).,Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ivor.dacunha@gmail.com

As Korea and other countries adopt solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal energy a methodology is needed
to track the equipment performance for several reasons. For example, an investor or building owner may need
to know if the equipment is performing at intended performance. An investor may need to know if the equipment
is providing the economic return desired. An equipment supplier may need to know how to improve the next
generation of product. Apart from a minor degradation of annual PV performance, solar thermal efficiency
generally remains constant. The key variables influencing renewable solar energy output include the amount
of sunlight and to a lesser extent the outdoor temperature and wind speed. The RETScreen Plus software is
a free software tool developed by the Government of Canada. A user can input the daily output energy produced
by solar PV or solar thermal equipment. Next, using a built-in feature the tool obtains the corresponding
historical weather data from a NASA database. Using the built-in regression and statistical tools included with
RETScreen, the user can then develop a cause and effect for the baseline energy performance. On an ongoing
basis, the user can update the file and the software will detect when a change occurs using the cumulative
sum of variance (CUSUM) statistical method. The RETScreen Plus software has been used to identify and
quantify lost production from renewable solar PV and thermal systems. For example, the failure of an inverter
or snow cover on the PV panels can be identified. RETScreen Plus is a universal tool that can be used by
property managers, government agencies and technology developers to detect performance anomalies improve
the overall performance and benefit of renewable energy.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
IN-ST-002

COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON A SOLAR


CHIMNEY POWER PLANT FOR POWER GENERATION IN PACIFIC
ISLAND COUNTRIES
M. Rafiuddin Ahmed1* and Sandeep Patel1

1
Division of Mechanical Engineering, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji

* Corresponding author: ahmed_r@usp.ac.fj

A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is a renewable-energy power plant that transforms solar energy into
electricity. The SCPP consists of three essential elements G solar air collector, chimney tower, and wind
turbine(s). The present work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of the SCPP using
a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX to study and improve the flow characteristics
inside the SCPP. The overall chimney height and the collector diameter of the SCPP were kept constant at
10 m and 8 m respectively. The collector inlet opening was varied from 0.05 m to 0.2 m. The collector outlet
height was also varied from 0.5 m to 1 m. The collector outlet diameter was also varied from 0.6 m to 1
m. These modified collectors were tested with chimneys of different divergence angles (0 G 3) and also
different chimney inlet openings of 0.6 m to 1 m. The diameter of the chimney was also varied from 0.25
m to 0.3 m. Based on the CFD results, the best configuration was achieved using the chimney with a divergence
angle of 2 and chimney diameter of 0.25 m together with the collector opening of 0.05 m and collector outlet
diameter of 1 m. Based on the best configuration obtained from the 10 m SCPP, a scaled down model of
1:2.5 was modelled and simulated. The 4 m SCPP had a fixed chimney height of 4 m and a collector diameter
of 3.2 m. The collector outlet height was also kept constant at 0.2 m. the collector outlet diameter was varied
from 0.24 m to 0.4 m and the chimney throat diameter was varied from 0.10 m to 0.12 m. The collector
opening was also varied from 0.02 m to 0.08 m. This configuration was then fabricated and tested. PT G100
temperature sensors were used to measure temperature across the collector and along the chimney. A pitot static
tube was used to measure the dynamic pressure at the throat. The dynamic pressure was converted into velocity.
The experimental results were then compared to the 4 m CFD results. The results were very similar. A 100
m SCPP was later modelled and simulated to predict the power available for bigger size towers. The 100 m
tower produced a maximum available power of 35.8 kW and maximum air velocity of 22.72 m/s. Such a plant
will be suitable to meet the power requirements of small islands in Pacific Island Countries where the
requirements are of the order of tens of kilowatts.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
IN-ST-003

SOLAR THERMO-CHEMISTRY FOR CONVERTING


CONCENTRATING SOLAR HEAT TO FUELS
Tatsuya Kodama

Dept. of Chem. & Chem. Eng., Faculty of Engineering Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku,
Niigata 950-2181, Japan

* Corresponding author: tkodama@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp

The greatly insolated sun-belt regions include south-western United States, southern Europe, most of
Australia, etc., where the direct normal irradiation exceeds 1800-2000 kWh/m2/year. The re-flection and
concentration of direct insolation can be achieved by sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats. Some modern
solar-concentrating systems have concentration factors in 10002000 range and can provide high-temperature
solar heat of several hundreds kilo- or mega-watts scales. A two-step thermochemical water splitting cycle using
a redox pair of ceria is one of the promising processes for converting solar high-temperature heat of 1000
G 1500C to hydrogen. Niigata University is currently developing two types of solar water-splitting reactors:
one is a fluidized beds reactor with cerium oxide particles and another is a cerea-coated foam device reactor.
The fluidized beds solar reactor concept needs to be combined with a beam-down solar concentrating system.
Niigata University, University of Miyazaki, and Mitaka Kohki Co. Ltd. recently started an R&D joint project
to demonstrate the up-scaled fluidized beds reactor on solar. A new type of 100 kWth beam-down solar
concentrating system was built in August, 2012 at the campus of University of Miyazaki. In addition, a new
CPC specific to this new beam-down system was designed and fabricated to concentrate the solar fluxes into
the solar reactor aperture. The solar demonstration of the reactor will start at the Miyazaki beam-down system
from the late 2014.

231
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ST-001

AN EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE COMPARISON STUDY OF


AIR AND WATER PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL MODULES FOR
HEAT AND POWER CO-GENERATION
Kwang Seob Lee1, Andrew Putryudha S.1, Eun Chul Kang2 and Euy Joon Lee2*

1
Department of Renewable Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Energy Efficiency Research, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ejlee@kier.re.kr

A PVT(Photovoltaic-Thermal) system can simultaneously generate electricity and thermal energy. In this
study, KIER SET module has been developed for testing performance of PVT and several experiments were
carried out with the module. Then, a method to increase the photovoltaic efficiency and amount of thermal
energy was suggested based on a comparative analysis. Three experiments were conducted: 1) PV_r as a
reference case which uses only the photovoltaic system, 2) PVT_a which uses air as the heat source, and 3)
PVT_w which uses water as the heat source. The result shows ETC(%/C) that efficiency of the PVT cases
is increasing compared to the reference case due to the decreasing of the surface temperature. , total efficiencies
which are electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of each PVT are tested as 12.22% on PV_r, 29.50% on
PVT_a and 68.74% on PVT_w.

O-ST-002

A LCOE ESTIMATION FOR A NEW SOLAR COGENERATION


EQUIPMENT AS A BACKSTOP TECHNOLGY
Jong Sun KIM1, Heoung Jung KANG2 and Yong Sang YOON3*

1
Department of International Business, Konkuk University, Chungju, Korea
2
Department of Tariff and Logistics, Konkuk University, Chungju, Korea
3
Department of Building Research, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang, Korea

* Corresponding author: ysyoon@kict.re.kr

This study is to present a LCOE estimation for a CPV-thermal combined solar power system which was
developed in 2013 through a 3-year project funded by GSTEP (Gyeonggi Institute of Science Technology
Promotion). The performance data of the system proved that the combined efficiency was around 75% or higher,
with a 25% electrical efficiency and a 50% thermal collection efficiency.
Until now, the best efficiency of silicon solar cell is known just around 25 % in the lab. However, in the
field, the actual efficiency of solar to electricity stay just around 15 %. We can say that It means we shall
have to give up 85 % energy and we have to go further. We are quite sure that CPV cell based solar cogeneration
technology could one of the best solutions. In this regard, it is interesting Japanese solar companies are
concentrating on this CPV cell (Sharp has 44.4% champion cell in the lab) and its electricity-thermal hybrid
technologies and its industrialization. It is the very time of solar energy, free accessible & backstop technology.

232
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ST-003

AN OPTICAL MODELING PROGRAM FOR THE SOLAR CENTRAL


RECEIVER SYSTEM-HATSAL
1 1 1 1 2
Hyun Jin Lee *, Jong Kyu Kim , Sang Nam Lee , Hwan Ki Yoon and Yong Heack Kang

1
Solar Thermal Laboratory , Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
New & Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hj.lee@kier.re.kr

Analysis and evaluation of solar concentrator systems are critical for concentrating solar power (CSP)
technology. Recently, hundreds-of-megawatt-scale solar central receiver system (CRS), in which sun-tracking
reflectors called heliostats concentrate solar radiation into the target surface placed atop a central tower, was
commercialized. Because heliostats individually track the sun and a large number of heliostats are used, their
analysis and evaluation are very challenging. We have developed a code to model optical performance of CRS
based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. The code enables to break down the optical efficiency into its
components, that is, cosine, air transmission, shadowing, reflectivity, blocking, and spillage, while taking into
account the solar limb darkening without circumsolar radiation as well as reflector surface slope error. We
upgraded the code to a program with a graphic user interface and named it as Hatsal which means sun ray
in Korean. In this paper, we will present features of Hatsal and exemplary results using it.

O-ST-004

SUPPLY AND OPERATION OF 10 kW DISH-STIRLING


SYSTEM IN KOREA
Jong Kyu Kim1*, Sang Nam Lee1, Yong Heack Kang2 and Byung Hyun Jo3

1
Solar Thermal Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
New & renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
3
KOCH Membrane Korea, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: rnokim@kier.re.kr

In South Korea, through several stages of research and development, 10 kW class dish-Stirling solar thermal
power generation system was developed. Three units of the system are in operation under the joint funding
of government and the private sector as a dissemination business model. Korea Institute of Energy
Research(KIER) has developed the concentrating and control part of the system and the engine was purchased
from the Swedish company of Cleanergy. Previously, Germany made Solo-161 Stirling engine was adapted
but currently partially modifyed the same engine produced in Sweden are used. Annual direct normal insolation
amount of South Korea is around 1,000 kWh/m2 not suitable for solar power due to about 30 to 40% of high
solar radiation area but when the day of fine weather, it shows the high amount of solar radiation. Therefore,
it is determined that the driving experience in South Korea is suitable in order to examine the operating
characteristics of the system in adverse conditions. This paper describes the 10 kW dish-Stirling system and
the charateristics of operating results according to the domestic solar radiation conditions and the difference
in the system between the development stage of the past and the current.

233
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


O-LC-001

AMMONIA FUELED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN


DUAL FUEL CONCEPT WITH GASOLINE OR DIESEL
1 1 2
Youngmin WOO *, Jin Young JANG and Jong-Nam KIM

1
Energy Saving Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Petroleum and Gas Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ywoo@kier.re.kr

Ammonia is now practically recognized as an energy carrier for it does not bring about any problem when
it is produced, transported and stored through renewable energy utilization. It is hydrogen carrier by nature
and it releases as much energy as any other conventional transport fuels in a measure of combustible mixture
with air. Thus, it is under investigation in many countries to substitute the conventional fossil fuels in the
transportation sector for its use as a primary fuel for an internal combustion engine, since it does not create
any carbon dioxide when it burns.
In this study, both a spark ignition engine and a compression ignition engine are considered to use ammonia
as primary fuel. In a spark ignition engine, both ammonia and gasoline are injected separately into the intake
manifold in liquid phase via dual fuel system. As ammonia burns 1/6 time slower than gasoline, the spark
timing is needed to be advanced near 40 degree before top dead center. As a result, 70% of gasoline is
substituted into ammonia and all the same amount of carbon dioxide emission is reduced from the test engine.
In a compression ignition engine, ammonia is taken along with the fresh air from the intake manifold and
small quantity of diesel fuel is injected inside the cylinder to have the ammonia-air mixture ignited. The final
goal of the study is to implement a methodology to ignite ammonia-air mixture and have complete combustion
without any use of the conventional fuels to demonstrate ammonia as a carbon-free fuel.

237
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-LC-002

SCENARIO ANALYSIS FOR GHG EMISSION REDUCTION


POTENTIAL IN THE INNOVATION CITY OF
REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Seohoon Kim1,3, Jonghun Kim1, Choelyong Jang2, Kyoodong Song3 and Hakgeun Jeong1*

1
Energy Saving Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
2
Quality Management Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
3
Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: hgjeong@kier.re.kr

This paper applies the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system for modeling the total energy
consumption and GHG(Greenhouse gas) emissions from the residential and commercial sector of Innovation
City of Republic of Korea. A Business-as-Usual (BAU) scenario for the existing GHG emission of I-City was
applied. The past and future GHG emission of the I-City was predicted in the BAU scenario. Furthermore,
the GHG emissions for the I-City were analyzes for 2007-2030. This paper is a study for to analyze greenhouse
gas (GHG) emission reduction calculations for fuel switching scenario (FSS) and energy saving scenario (ESS)
in I-city. The FSS analyzes potential to impact their effects towards GHG reducing emissions. The ESS focuses
on energy efficiency improvement technologies and policies for energy consumption reduction. If fuel switching
were applied, the emissions would attain 139,533 tCO2/yr (9.6 % reduction) and in the energy saving scenario,
the emissions would attain 184,576 tCO2/yr (12.6% reduction) in 2030. Therefore, the combined scenario reduces
the total GHG emissions by 323,872 tCO2/yr (22.2% emission reduction). The results indicated that in 2030,
GHG emissions would attain 1,459,826 tCO2/yr in the baseline scenario and 1,135,954 tCO2/yr in the combined
emission reduction scenario.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-LC-003

HEAT REMOVABLE LED LUMINAIRE EFFECT ON COOLING


LOAD IN OFFICE BUILDINGS
1,3 1 2 3 1
Byunglip Ahn , Jonghun Kim , Choelyong Jang , Seung-Bok Leigh and Hakgeun Jeong *

1
Energy Saving Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
2
Quality Management Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
3
Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: hgjeong@kier.re.kr

There has been an increasing trend in the amount of lighting and cooling energy used in modern buildings
constructed in the 2000s, and a decreasing trend in the amount of heating energy used because of the high
energy efficiency of the building design, and the use of thermal materials and efficient HVAC utilities. Among
the general lightings in modern office buildings, fluorescent lights emit radiant heat into the indoor space with
visible light, and this increases the indoor cooling load. However, LED lights emit convective heat from heat
sink of lighting fixture, and this heat can be rejected because the heat sink is didvided across the LED chip
and can be used to reduce the cooling load of buildings. In this study, therefore, the heat generation from
LED lights was estimated through an experimental test, and the indoor air temperature of mock-up office space
was measured when the LED heat was rejected to ourdoor. As results, 60W LED lighting fixture emitted 50.45W
heat into the indoor space, and the indoor air temperature of mock-up space when the LED lighting heat was
rejected to outdoor was decreased 1.3G than typical installed case.

O-LC-004

ELECTROLYTIC SYNTHESIS OF AMMONIA FROM WATER AND


NITROGEN
Hyung Chul Yoon1, Kwiyong Kim2, Chan-Heui Hyung1, Jong-In Han2 and Jong-Nam Kim1

1
Petroleum and Gas Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, 305-343, Republic of Korea
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon,
305-701, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: hyoon@kier.re.kr

Ammonia has been recognized as a carbon-free fuel which can be applied to the current energy systems
including vehicle, gas turbine, fuel cells, etc. Ammonia contains 17.6 wt% of hydrogen and has significant
advantages over hydrogen in storing and transporting energy. The current industrial ammonia production (i.e.
Harbor-Bosch process) is an energy-intensive process (over 30 GJ/ton NH3) operating at high pressure (150-300
bar) and high temperature (450-600oC). It also requires hydrogen produced by steam reforming of natural gas
or coal gasification resulting in high greenhouse gas emission (2.16 kg CO2/kg NH3). In order to lower the
energy consumption and reduce the greenhouse gas emission, an alternative process is the electrolytic synthesis
of ammonia from water and nitrogen.
In the present contribution, electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen in molten salts as
an electrolyte was experimentally investigated at atmospheric pressure. Different electrode materials were tested
under controlled conditions for electrolytically reducing dinitrogen to nitride ion and their ammonia synthesis
rates were compared.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-CCT&CCS-001

EFFECTS OF WATER VAPOR PRETREATMENT AND


REGENERATIG GASES ON CO2 CAPTURE USING
POTASSIUM-BASED SOLID SORBENTS IN A BUBBLING
FLUIDIZED-BED REACTOR
1 2 2 2 2
Yunju KIM , Young Cheol PARK , Sung-Ho JO , Chang-Keun YI and Yongwon SEO *

1
School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan,
Korea
2
Climate Change Research Disivion, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ywseo@unist.ac.kr

A bubbling fluidized-bed reactor was used to investigate CO2 capture characteristics using potassium-based
solid sorbents, primarily focusing on the effects of water vapor pretreatment and regenerating gases. A dry
sorbent, SorbP2, is composed of K2CO3 for CO2 absorption and supporters for mechanical strength. The
carbonation was conducted at 60 oC and the regeneration was conducted at 180 oC. The extent of reaction
after carbonation or regeneration was characterized mainly via 13C NMR. The initial water vapor pretreatment
with no further supply of water vapor during carbonation resulted in significantly reduced reaction heat during
an early stage of carbonation, which can be attributed to the complete conversion of K2CO3 in the SorbP2
to K2CO31.5H2O after water vapor pretreatment. N2 generally showed a better regeneration performance than
CO2. When N2 + H2O was used as a regenerating gas, the formation of K2CO31.5H2O, which could be
advantageously used for carbonation of the 2nd cycle, was confirmed even at 180 oC. However, when CO2
+ H2O was used as a regenerating gas, regeneration was not well performed and formation of K2CO31.5H2O
was not detected. In addition, there was still a large peak from KHCO3 even after regeneration and accordingly,
significantly lowered CO2 absorption was observed in the 2nd cycle. The experimental results obtained in this
study can be used as basic data for designing and operating a large scale CO2 capture process with two
fluidized-bed reactors.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-CCT&CCS-002

NEW PLANT DEMONSTRATING CO2 CAPTURE FROM REAL


COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT BY DRY SORBENT
Chang-Keun YI*, Sung-Ho JO, Young Cheol PARK, Hang-Dae JO,
Dae-Hyun KYUNG and Jae-Young KIM

Climate Change Research Disivion, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ckyi@kier.re.kr

The CO2 capture by dry sorbent is thought to be an innovative concept because this technology has advantages
of limited corrosion, no secondary pollution, and little waste water. It has been developed by many developed
countries as second generation CO2 capture technologies. 10 MWe scale dry sorbent CO2 capture process has
been operated successfully in the continuous mode for 1000 hours. It is the first and the largest in the world
CO2 capture plant by dry sorbent as a new method. It was integrated with flue gas slip stream from real 500
MW coal fired power plant at the Hadong coal fired power plant of Korean Southern Power Company. Korea
Southern Power Company and KIER have executed the test operations in order to find out the optimal
operational conditions and to achieve the target goals of the 10 MWe scale dry sorbent CO2 capture technology
since October 2013. The test operation of the pilot unit has been successfully performed so that the 80% level
of CO2 removal with a real coal-fired flue gas has been maintained. Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)
and Korea Electric Power Company Research Institute (KEPCO RI) have developed the dry-sorbent CO2 capture
technology using potassium carbonate as solid sorption materials in the fluidized-bed reactors since 2002.
KEPCO RI has developed the dry sorbents and KIER has developed the dry sorbent CO2 capture process which
consists of carbonation fast fluidized-bed reactor and a regeneration bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


IN-BE-001

THE STATE OF ART OF BIOMASS ENERGY IN CHINA


Zhenhong Yuan* and Xinshu Zhuang

Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, CAS, Guangzhou China, 510640

* Corresponding author: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn

Biomass is one of the promising energy which would be the imperative components in energy and industry
chemical system in the future for its renewable, clean and CO2 neutral. Chinese government has issued
Renewable energy laws and some projects to promote bioenergy development. In this paper, biomass resources
and its potential amount are estimated, the development of the biomass energy technologies for industry
application and pilot scale in China are presented respectively. In China, the industry technologies include power
generation by gasification or anaerobic, G1 and G1.5 fuel ethanol, pelleting fuel, biodiesel and jet fuel; The
pilot or lab scale technologies include liquid alkane, butanol, DME, cellulosic ethanol etc. Furthermore the
corresponding laws, rules and policies are introduced. At the end, the developing tendencies of different biomass
energy are prospected.

O-BE-001

COMPARATIVE MICROBIAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE


ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS TREATING FOOD WASTEWATER
Woong KIM1 and Ji-Won Yang1,2*

1
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 291 Daehakno, Yuseong-gu, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701,
Republic of Korea
2
Advanced Biomass R&D Center, KAIST, Daehakno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: jwyang@kaist.ac.kr

In this study, an acidogenic digester and a methanogenic pilot plant were operated for 234 days for treating
food wastewater and the microbial community structure was investigated. Eight bacterial species and an
uncultured bacterium were detected in the digesters via bacterial analysis. Lactobacillus helveticus and L.
amylovorus were observed only in the acidogenic process and Syntrophospora bryantii, Anaerovorax sp.,
Acetivibrio sp., and Desulfotomaculum sp. were detected only in the methanogenic process. In addition,
Candidatus Cloacimonas acidaminovorans and Synergistetes were found only in the seed sludge. For the
methanogenic analysis, eight methanogenic species and uncultured clones were detected in the process. Among
these ones, four species were hydrogenotrophs and belonged to Methanomicrobiales, three species were
aceticlastic methanogens and belonged to Methanosarcinales, and the remaining species was classified under
Methanoplasmatales. As a result of comparative study, Methanoculleus bourgensis, and Methanosarcina siciliae
were common in anaerobic digesters treating between food and swine watewaters throughout the process.
Therefore, it was speculated that, because of the versatility of Methanosarcina siciliae and Methanoculleus
bourgensis in anaerobic digestion, both methanogenic species are dominant in anaerobic digesters used to treat
swine and food wastewaters.

245
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-BE-002

FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ACID HYDROLYSATES


ACCORDING TO NEUTRALIZING CHEMICALS
Su Young YOON, Jai Sung LEE and Soo-Jeong SHIN*

Department Wood and Paper Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Korea

* Corresponding author: soojshin@chungbuk.ac.kr

Acid hydrolysate obtained from lignocellulosic biomass can be used to produce bioethanol by microorganisms.
Calcium hydroxide or carbonate have been used as neutralizing chemical for acid hydrolysate, which forms
little soluble calcium sulfate (gypsum) salt. Adsorption of monosaccharides to calcium sulfate causes the sugar
loss. In this work, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide were tried as replacement of calcium hydroxide
or carbonate. Due to high solubility of sodium sulfate or potassium sulfate, yield of monosaccharides in acid
hydrolysate was improved. However, dissolved and ionized sodium or potassium may acts as fermentation
inhibitor for ethanol fermentation microorganisms.
As a result of fermentation for sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide neutralized acid hydrolysate,
Potassium hydroxide was well fermented within 24h but acid hydrolysate neutralized by sodium hydroxide was
not fermented at all.

Acknowledgement
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation
of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2013R1A1A2004658).

246
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-BE-003

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PRETREATMENT OF CASHEW


NUT SHELL LIQUID
Jun Hwa Kwon, Hang Seok Choi*, Hoon Chae Park, Jae Gyu Hwang and Ho Seong Yoo

Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea

* Corresponding author: hs.choi@yonsei.ac.kr

Environment and energy security problems such as climate change, air pollution by fossil fuels and depletion
of fossil fuels are global issues. For solving these problems, alternative energy which can be replaced with
fossil fuels has been widely studied. Especially, bioenergy is highlighted as a renewable energy source. Cashew
nut shell liquid (CNSL) extracted from cashew nut shell that is waste after harvesting cashew nut is one of
the bioenergy source. CNSL mixed with heave oil can be used for industrial boiler facility to get heat because
CNSL has high HHV and flash point. But high ash content and low oxidation stability of CNSL are major
obstacles for its industrial applications. In boiler, heat transfer efficiency is reduced and maintenance cost is
increased by accumulated ash. In addition, CNSL is easily oxidized by external factors. Hence, for stability
of CNSL for long-term storage, pretreatment of CNSL is necessary. In this study, purification using acid and
micro filtration were conducted for reducing ash content in CNSL. Also, several types of antioxidant were
developed for increasing oxidation stability of CNSL. 2, 5 and 10 percent of aqueous sulfuric acid and aqueous
hydrochloric acid were used for purification and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxytoluene
(BHT), propyl gallate (PG) and pyrogallol (PY) were used as antioxidant. From the results, hydrochloric acid
was high effective for purification than sulfuric acid. Also, we found that CNSL including antioxidant is
relatively less oxidized through accelerated oxidation test. Through the developed pretreatment of CNSL, the
deterioration of the industrial facility can be prevented and the long-term storage of CNSL in extreme
environment such as high temperature and exposure in air can be easily obtained.

247
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-BE-004

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMMERCIAL CATALYSTS FOR


TAR STEAM REFORMING
1 2 3 3
Seo Yun PARK , Kun Woong OH , Sang Jun YOON and Jae Goo LEE *

1
Department of Environment Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea
2
Department of Advanced Energy Technology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea
3
Department of Fossil Energy and Environment Research, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jaegoo@kier.re.kr

Biomass is increasingly gaining international attention as a renewable energy source. However, during woody
biomass gasification, tar formation is one of the major problems to deal with because of blocking and fouling
of following processes such as heat exchanger, gas engine and turbines. Therefore, tar in the syngas must be
removed for stable operation of processes and syngas application. In this study, removal of biomass tar by
steam reforming reaction over the commercial ruthenium catalyst was performed. Toluene was used as a model
biomass tar with a concentration of 100g/Nm3. Changes of toluene conversion was investigated with various
reaction temperatures (400-800), space velocities (5000-30000), and steam/toluene ratios (2-20). The
composition of gas produced by toluene reforming was analyzed by GC. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide content
in the product gas were increased with increasing temperature. Fractions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide
in the product gas increased when ruthenium catalysts were used. As the reaction temperature increased, carbon
conversion increased, and conversions higher than 90% was obtained above 800 C.

248
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
IN-BE-002

INVESTIGATION OF PLANT CELL WALL DECONSTRUCTION


WITH TWO HYBRID PENNISETUM AFTER LIQUID HOT WATER
PRETREATMENT
Jing LIU1,2, Qiang YU1, Xinshu ZHUANG1*, Wen WANG1 and Zhenhong YUAN1

1
Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Guangzhou 510640, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

* Corresponding author: zhuangxs@ms.giec.ac.cn

Two energy crops hybrid Pennisetum I and II were chosen as studying materials which have same
hybridization parents but vary from one another in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to further understand
how Liquid Hot Water(LHW) pretreatment reduces biomass recalcitrance. At same optimized pretreatment
condition (180 , 40min, 5% dry solids and saturation vapor pressure), their xylose yields are 88.46% and
98.09% respectively, and their enzymatic digestibility increase nearly 20% and 40% compared to raw materials.
Scanning Electron Microscopy, components analysis and other techniques were used to find out their differences
in composition and structure, and try to deduce correlation between difference and pretreatment performance.
After pretreatment, most of hemicellulose and some lignin were degraded; their flat surface were damaged,
more fibers exposed, the crystallinity index increased, the chemical groups in cellulose and lignin were destroyed
like hydrogen bonding, which all may help the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Meanwhile two grasses had
different performances after LHW, for example compared to hybrid Pennisetum I, PennisetumII had stronger
delignification, more intense surface damage and the changes of XRD and FTIR. These changes can greatly
improve the enzymatic effect, and which can thanks to LHW pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis.

Key words: Hybrid Pennisetum, Liquid hot water, Enzymatic digestibility.

249
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-BE-005

STEAM REFORMING OF TOLUENE OVER Ni-BASED


COMMERCIAL AND Ni/Ru-Mn/Al2O3 CATALYSTS
1 2 3 3 3
Kun Woong Oh , Seo Yoon Park , Myung Won Seo , Yong Ku Kim , Ho Won Ra ,
3 1,3
Jae-Goo Lee ** and Sang Jun Yoon *

1
Advanced Energy Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea
3
Climate Change Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: yoonsj@kier.re.kr

The catalytic steam reforming of toluene, a major component of biomass tar, was studied using several
catalysts such as Ni-based commercial catalysts, Ru catalyst, and Ru-Mn promoted Ni-base catalysts, at various
temperatures in a range of 400-800. Generally, the conversion of toluene and H2 content in a product gas
increased with temperature. The H2-rich gas was generated by steam reforming of toluene. The CO and CO2
content in the product gas were settled by a reverse Boudouard reaction. The naphtha reforming catalyst (46-5Q)
had a better performance on steam reforming of toluene at temperatures over 600Gthan the methane reforming
catalyst (Reformax330). The Ru was confirmed to be effective for steam reforming of toluene. Ni/Ru-Mn/Al2O3
catalysts show high performances on the steam reforming of toluene at temperatures over 600. The results
indicated that high stability and coking resistance comes from the promotional effect of Mn on a
Ni/Ru-Mn/Al2O3 catalyst.

250
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-BE-006

COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GREEN DIESEL


PRODUCTION FROM CRUDE PALM OIL AND WASTE COOKING
OIL VIA PYROLYSIS
Pisitpong INTARAPONG1,2, Seksan PAPONG3 and Pomthong MALAKUL1,2*

1
The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2
Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
3
National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathumthani, Thailand

* Corresponding author: pomthong.m@chula.ac.th

Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely accepted as an effective tool to assess the environmental impacts
of various bio-fuels/green fuels in comparison with conventional fuels to quantify the potential benefits in both
energy and environmental aspects. This work focused on life cycle assessment of the production of green diesel
via pyrolysis using two potential feedstocks in Thailand: crude palm oil (CPO) and waste cooking oil (WCO).
The system boundary consists of the cultivation, harvesting, transportation, pyrolysis, distillation, blending, and
vehicle testing (combustion). Inventory data were collected at the pilot plant of Center for Fuels and Energy
from Biomass of Chulalongkorn University located in Saraburi province. All collected data were input into
SimaPro program to evaluate the relevant environmental impacts such as global warming potential (GWP),
acidification, and ozone depletion based on a functional unit of 1 MJ of fuel. For the fuel production, the
resulting green diesel was blended with conventional diesel at 2, 5, and 20 wt% to obtain blended diesel fuels
(B2, B5 and B20), respectively. The energy and potential environmental impacts of the diesel fuels produced
from two different feedstocks, CPO and WCO, were compared based on cradle-to-grave. The results show that
net energy ratio (NER) of WCO-based diesel (3.09) was higher than that of CPO-based diesel (2.77). For GWP,
the production of diesel from CPO emitted less CO2 than diesel from WCO and fossil-based diesel.

251
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-BE-007

OPTIMIZATION ON CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID


HYDROLYSIS FOR GLUCOSE FROM AVICEL CELLULOSE
1
Jai-Sung Lee and Soo-Jeong Shin*

1
Department of wood and paper science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763, Korea

* Corresponding author: soojshin@cbnu.ac.kr

Kinetics of polysaccharide hydrolysis in concentrated sulfuric acid was analyzed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy
with different reaction time, temperature and sulfuric acid concentration in secondary hydrolysis. In this work,
reaction condition of secondary hydrolysis was similar to concentrated sulfuric acid process with electrodialysis
or simulated moving bed chromatography process for sulfuric acid recycling.
In acidic medium, cellulose could be hydrolyzed to glucose, which is not stable end-product, dehydrolyzed
and rearranged formic acid and levulinic acid via 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Quantitative analysis of glucose,
5-HMF, and formic acid is important for better design in acid hydrolysis of biomass. The furan-based compounds
combined with the lignin present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Delignified Avicell cellulose was used as the
cellulose-based to find the optimum point of the generation and decomposition of the monosaccharide without
the inference from lignin.
Cellulose to glucose conversion was highly depended on reaction temperature, acid concentration and reaction
time. During acid hydrolysis in this working condition, part of glucose was converted to galactose by
isomerization, glucose to unknown compounds and degradation of glucose to organic acid via furans. In
particular, it was confirmed that the degradation of the monosaccharide sensitively changes depending on the
temperature.

O-BE-008

A STUDY ON LIQUID FUEL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS


Jae-Kon Kim, JoYong Park, Eui Soon Yim and Jonghan Ha

Research Institute of Petroleum Technology ,Korea Petroleum Quality & Distribution Authority, Cheongju-city,
Korea

* Corresponding author: jkkim@kpetro.or.kr

This study provides a production technology of liquid fuel same as Biomas-To-Liquied(BTL), bio-oil using
thermal/chemical process from biomass. Biomas-To-Liquied(BTL) can be used for conventional diesel engines,
pure or blended with conventional diesel due to its similar physical properties to diesel. BTL fuel was first
produced by Fischer-Trosch(F-T) process with syngas(H2/CO), Fe based catalyst in low temperature
condition(240 ) in Korea. BTL with diesel compositions after distillation process is consisted of C12 ~ C23+
mixture of n-paraffin and iso-paraffin compounds. Especially, it showed higher content n-paraffin products
compared with iso-paraffin products. This study was also focused on fuel application of bio-oil from biomass
by using fast pyrolysis to use heating fuel, power fuel and transport. Biomass fast pyrolysis is a novel and
most effective method to convert biomass into liquid fuel with yields a high as 80% based on dry feed uses.
In fast pyrolysis, bio-oil is produced by rapidly heating biomass to intermediate temperature (450 ~ 600 )
in the absence of any external oxygen followed by rapid quenching of the resulting vapor.

252
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-BE-009

THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND COMBUSTION BEHAVIORS OF


WOOD PELLETS
1 2
Joon AHN * and Hyouck Ju KIM

1
School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jahn@kookmin.ac.kr

We have investigated combustion characteristics of wood pellets, both Korean and imported. The pellets are
placed in a test section made of quartz and exposed to hot gas, whose temperature ranges from 500oC to 900oC.
We have recorded the combustion process within the section and analyzed time required to reach three
combustion modes. We have also conducted the numerical simulation, to establish a proper scheme to predict
combustion process. The pellets are burned with flame via gasification from ignition at each temperature, then
the char mode has been observed. The combustion time can be predicted by the present numerical simulation.
However, we have observed discrepancies in ignition temperature and ignition point.

253
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


IN-SH-001

CURRENT STATUS AND PROSPECT OF HYDROPOWER IN JAPAN


Morihito INAGAKI1*

1
Transmission Department, Power Grid Company, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo, Japan

* Corresponding author: inagaki.morihito@tepco.co.jp

The amount of electric power generation by general hydro power station in Japan is estimated to be 12,113
MW and 2,715 spots in total. The potential quantities of the respective renewable energy sources except for
the hydro power are photovoltaic power 72,000MW, wind power 14,000MW, geothermal power 6,000MW, and
biomass power 0.5MW. The respective amounts of electric power generation based on capacity factor of the
renewable energy sources are photovoltaic power 75.7 billion kWh, wind power 24.5 billion kWh, geothermal
power 42 billion kWh, and biomass power 30.6 billion kWh per year. The hydro power can generate the
electricity up to 1,399 billion kWh per year and is an eco-friendly energy resource which does not give the
influence to natural environments too much. This amount of hydro power generation corresponds to about 31
million kiloliters of crude oil, as well as about 12% of total crude oil import amounts of Japan. Moreover,
small hydro power using city water, sewage and agriculture irrigation canal spreads widely and quickly in Japan
by the social environment of increasing new business model and new technology development of the small
hydro power. As the feed-in-tariff(FIT) system of renewable energy has been enacted from July 2012 in Japan,
hydropower plants including small hydropower will be expanded still more.

Education:
Bachelor Tokyo University of Science, 1981
Course: Electric Engineering, Control Engineering
Dr. Engineer Yokohama National University, 2006
Course: Fluid Engineering,Hydroelectric Power System

Experience:
Tokyo Electric Power Company(TEPCO), 1981 -
mainly Development and Construction of Pumped-Storage hydroelectric Power System
The Tokyo Electric Generation Company(TEG), 2005-
Business of Micro Hydroelectric Power Plant
Tokyo Electric Power Company(TEPCO), 2012-
Development, Construction and Maintenance of Hydroelectric Power System

Research Skills:
Development of Micro Tubular Turbine.
Development of Cylindrical Casing Francis Turbine.
Development of Tirolean cross Flow Turbine.

Presentations:
International Symposium on Low Carbon Technology in Beijing, China, September 2009.
Asian International Conference Fluid Machinery in Jeju, Korea, October 2004.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SH-001

PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION OF A PROPELLER TURBINE


FOR MICRO HYDRO APPLICATION
1 2
Byung Kon KIM * and Eung Kyo KIM

1,2
DSK Engineering Co.,Ltd., Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: sealaunch@dskeng.com

The aim of the present research based on model test and numerical prediction is to clarify the performance
characteristics of newly developed turbine for low cost and high performance. Performance test including
runaway speed , efficiency, cavitation and pressure pulsation tests is carried out on model universal test stand
complying with IEC standard and then numerical simulation is conducted to investigate the internal flow field
of the turbine. The test results and scale-up calculation reveal that the maximum prototype efficiency of the
runner reaches as high as 91.63% (the corresponding maximum model efficiency is 91.03%). In the range of
output 50 kW and 100kW with the head between 6 and 18 m, high efficiency, low pressure pulsation and
good cavitation behavior are exhibited. Numerical results agree well with experimental data. The difference
between turbine reference level and tail water level of power plant should not be kept less than 2.82 m.

O-SH-002

A STUDY ON A VERY LOW HEAD OPEN DUCTED CROSS FLOW


TURBINE WITH INLET GUIDE NOZZLE
Zhen Mu CHEN1 and Young Do CHOI2*

1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National, Mokpo, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of New and Renewable Energy Technology Research, Mokpo
University, Mokpo, Korea

* Corresponding author: ydchoi@mokpo.ac.kr

Cross Flow Turbine (CFT) also known as Banki turbine or Ossberger turbine is usually used in the small
hydropower, because of its simple structure and economical. This study is developing a new kind of CFT suitable
for very low head and remote rural region which turbine is researched barely before. The new design of the
turbine is with free flow inlet channel to simplify the structure. The free flow inlet channel can also suitable
the remote rural region where there are some materials of sediment such as sand and pebble come with flow
from upstream to breakdown the turbine structure. However, the CFT with free flow inlet channel and low
head show relatively low efficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this study is developing a new CFT and modifying
the turbine guide nozzle shape to improve the performance of the turbine. The characteristics of the internal
flow are investigated to examine the influence of turbine guide nozzle shapes on the performance. The results
show that an appropriate turbine guide nozzle shape plays an improvement role on improving the turbine
performance, and there is 12.5% of efficiency improvement by optimal turbine guide shape.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SH-003

EFFECT OF INLET BLADE ANGLE ON POWER PERFORMANCE


FOR OPEN TYPE CROSS-FLOW TURBINE
1 2
Yusuke KATAYAMA * and Shouichiro IIO

1
Department of Mathematics and System Development, Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan
2
Department of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan

* Corresponding author: 13st201c@shinshu-u.ac.jp

The aim of this study was to develop an nano-hydraulic turbine utilizing drop structure in irrigation channels
or industrial waterways. This study was focused on an open type cross-flow hydraulic turbine without any
attached equipment for cost reduce and easy maintenance. In this study, the authors used an artificial indoor
waterfall as lab model. Test runner which is a simple structure of 20 circular-arc shape blades sandwiched
by 2 circular end plates was used. A stainless steel shaft of 15 mm penetrates the center of the end plates.
The runner diameter was DR=200 mm and the width was L=250 mm. The curvature radius of the blades
was 33 mm, the chord length LB=42 mm, and the thickness tB=1.5 mm. It was investigated the optimum inlet
blade angle and the relationship between the power performance and the flow rate approaching theoretically
and experimentally. As a result, it was changed optimum inlet blade angle due to the flow rate. Additionally,
allocation rate of power output in 1st stage and 2nd stage is changed by the blade inlet angle.

O-SH-004

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 70 KW FRANCIS TURBINE


RUNNER WITH COMBINE STUDY OF FSI AND CAVITATION
Atmaram KAYASTHA1, Bhola THAPA3 and Young Ho LEE2*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University(KMOU), Busan, Korea
2
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal

* Corresponding author: lyh@kmou.ac.kr

Micro-hydro is one of the most efficient and cleanest options to utilize the potential of run of river waters
for it can provide power generation without any significant adverse effects to the environment. The design
of micro-hydro Francis turbine is comparatively very simple and robust which can be installed for wide range
of operating head and discharge. But the trends to operate the turbines in conditions far from their best efficiency
point induce inconsistent performance. So, this paper is an attempt to study the combine effect of cavitation
and fluid structure interaction on performance of the runner. The output parameters like efficiency and
mechanical power output have been monitored and compared in the analysis for different cases of load conditions
at respective inlet angle for optimal head. The total equivalent stress generated on the runner and the maximum
deformation of the runner at all load conditions, with different engineering steels so used, has been found well
under the enduring limit of the steels ensuring the safety of the structure. Hence, a concrete idea has been
developed on conducting coupled analysis of Francis runner for selecting suitable steel type and determining
major cavitation affected regions so, further research on the performance improvement of the Francis runner
can be done with ease.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SH-005

MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF A REVERSIBLE


PUMP-TURBINE RUNNER
1 2 1 3 1
Baoshan ZHU *, Qiong Zhang , Xuhe Wang , Young-Do Choi and Shuliang Cao

1
State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua
University, Beijing, China
2
Hunan Vanguard Group, Co., Ltd, China South Industries Group Corporation, Changsha, Hunan Province, China
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National University, Mokpo, Korea

* Corresponding author: bszhu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

The two directions operation feature of a reversible pump turbine brings great challenge for its runner design.
In the present paper, an optimization design system for the pump turbine runner is present by coupling
three-dimensional (3-D) inverse design with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Design of Experiment
(DoE), Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA). A
pump-turbine runner was designed using the system. In the first optimization step, blade loading and blade
lean angle at high pressure side were optimized and a runner with big positive blade lean angle was selected.
In the second optimization step, meridional channel shape, blade loading and blade lean angle at high pressure
side were optimized and a runner with big negative blade lean angle was selected. In order to validate the
optimization system, the two selected runners were manufactured and model tests were made. Experimental
results show that both runners had good power performances, and runner with big negative blade lean had
better stability than runner with big positive blade lean.

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O-SH-006

ESTABLISHMENT OF TURBINE TEST RIGs AT TURBINE TESTING


LAB (TTL) FOR CAPACITY AND COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT
TO UPLIFT THE MICRO HYDRO STATUS OF NEPAL
Anup KC1*, Bhola Thapa1, Hari Prasad Neopane1, Sailesh Chitrakar1,
2 3
Biraj Singh Thapa and Young-Ho LEE

1
Turbine Testing Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University, Nepal
2
Waterpower Laboratory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
3
Flow Informatics Lab, Department of Mechanical & Energy System Engineering, Korea Maritime & Ocean
University, South Korea

* Corresponding author: anupkc@ku.edu.np

Micro hydropower plants, playing cardinal role in rural electrification of Nepal, run on turbines which are
designed and manufactured locally. Lack of technical dexterity in design, manufacturing and proper test facilities
renders inefficiency in performance of these plants. The development of turbine test rigs at TTL is a major
milestone to establish it as a centre of excellence for research, development and testing of all the small scale
hydro turbines manufactured and installed in Nepal and to enhance the overall technical capabilities in micro
hydro sector. With this physical facility, the lab will be capable of testing the performance of micro hydro
turbines- Pelton, Cross-flow and Francis, translating scientific and robust design methods to Nepalese turbine
manufacturers, and establishing turbine testing standards and procedures for micro hydropower relevant to
Nepal's context. The guidelines and testing procedures set by the Lab will work as a benchmark for the
manufacturers and stakeholders to follow design and manufacturing methods, choose and install appropriate
turbine as per the test results to harness maximum output, optimally utilize resource and economy and transform
the overall micro hydro scenario of the country. This paper will also describe the challenges in manufacturing
Francis turbine in Nepal.

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O-SH-007

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF RUNNER BLADE OF FRANCIS TURBINE


USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHOD
1 1 2
Jae Won KIM , Sun Seok BYEON and Youn Jea KIM *

1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea

* Corresponding author: yjkim@skku.edu

Runner blade of hydraulic turbine plays an important role in converting the kinetic energy of water into
the rotational energy and its configuration drastically affects the performance of hydraulic turbine. In this study,
the effect of runner blade configurations on the performance of Francis turbine was numerically investigated
with various control points on Bezier curve, which determines the runner blade geometry on the meridional
plane. For optimization of the runner blade geometry, the obtained results were considered for formulating the
range of input parameter for each control point. The optimization was conducted using response surface method
(RSM) based on the design of experiment (DOE) and the optimal runner blade geometry providing the maximum
hydraulic efficiency was suggested.

O-SH-008

EVALUATION OF PRESSURE PULSATION IN TWO DIFFERENT


TYPES OF FRANCIS TURBINE
Jungwan PARK1*, Han-su CHOI2 and Yoon-Heung JEON3

1
Department of Machinery and Materials, KHNP-CRI, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jungwan.park@khnp.co.kr

Pressure pulsation in two different types of Francis turbine, one with plane type blade and the other with
X-blade, is investigated by an experimental method. The two water turbines are designed with same technical
specification which is characterized by relatively low specific speed and manufactured for the scale-down model
test. The measurement of the pressure is made at four different locations, before the turbine where in spiral
case and after the turbine where in the draft tube, and the measurement data were analyzed in spectral method.
Pressure fluctuation in different operating range is investigated and the characteristics of vibrational mode is
drawn under various flow rates as well as different head conditions. Comparison of pressure fluctuation in two
types of Francis turbine is executed and the effect of blade type on vibration model is studied. The result is
to be utilized by the rotor-dynamic engineers in order to evaluate the dynamic stability of the turbine providing
with valuable information of external excitation induced by the flow.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-SH-009

CFD SIMULATION OF A CROSS FLOW TURBINE FOR PARTIAL


FLOW CONDITIONS
1 2
Mausam SHRESTHA and Young-Ho LEE

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, Korea
2
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, College of Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean
University, Busan, Korea

* Corresponding author: shresthamausam24@gmail.com

Scale hydropower plants can be a better option to meet the energy demand of the rural and small communities
and can be part of the solution for socially inclusive sustainable development. Cross- flow turbines are used
widely in such hydropower plants due to their simple design, easier maintenance, low initial investment and
modest efficiency. Also considering that the efficiency of the turbine remains similar for the partial flow rates.
The main objective of this study is to conduct the CFD simulation results for the different flow rates and study
the efficiency of the turbine. The necessary modification of the turbine was conducted to achieve the maximum
efficiency of the turbine. For numerical simulation, two phase (air & water at 25C) steady state with SST
turbulence model was selected in the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX 13.0. The design parameters include
10 m head, 0.1 m3/s flow rate and rotational speed of 642rpm. At the design speed for full opening numerical
result show 63.73%. The simulation was conducted for the partial flow rates and the efficiency of the turbine
was analyzed. The performance efficiency comparisons at full flow rate and partial flow rate (half and quarter
flow) were conducted.

O-SH-010

ROLE OF HYDROPOWER IN MYANMAR


Nay Lin

International Energy Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University

* Corresponding author: dd.naylin.dhpi@gmail.com

Myanmar is rich in several types of natural resources, such as hydropower potentials, natural gas and solar
energy. Although Myanmar possesses rich natural resources, it still needs to exploit and utilize effectively by
using proper modern technology and enough investment to fulfill the needs of peoples high electricity demand
and to export to energy consuming neighbor countries. Myanmar is one of a developing country and
electrification rate is only at 30%, the lowest electrification rate within ASEAN region.
Myanmar government set up a power policy to obtain higher electrification based on hydropower sector.
According to the investigations, hydropower potentials can generate about 46,100MW from possible 92 sites.
Nowadays M.O.E.P allows three types of investment in electricity generation sector: firstly, solely invested of
Myanmar government, secondly invested by local entrepreneur and thirdly invested by foreign investors (F.D.I)
as JV/BOT basic. On the other hand of low electrification rate, 70% of people and developing industrial sectors
are extremely expecting to upcoming electricity generation utilities. So it became challenges and opportunities
for the government and investors. Since there is huge and highly demanded electricity market in Myanmar,
nowadays a lot of local and foreign investors are interesting and negotiating to participate.

Key words: Electricity Generation, Hydropower Potential, Electrification Rate, Investment

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IN-PN-001

A PROVEN METHOD TO QUANTIFY AND PRIORITIZE PROJECTS


FOR THE RENWABLE HEAT OBLIGATION (RHO)
1 2
Ivor Francis DA CUNHA * and Euy-Joon LEE

1
LeapFrog Energy Technologies Inc., Toronto, Canada
2
New and Renewable Energy Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Professor and Head,
Renewable Energy Department, University of Science and Technology (UST)., Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ivor.dacunha@gmail.com

We have developed a quick, economic and efficient method to identify and prioritize buildings in Korea
to participate in the Renewable Heat Obligation (RHO). A similar system has been developed and implemented
for the Province of Ontario, Canada. The method can be used by Koreas public policy officials to quantify
the potential for RHO, and by regional building operators to establish a prioritized list of buildings, and to
pre-screen appropriate implementation costs and technologies. The method involves several automated steps and
includes the freely available RETScreen software. Starting with basic information of buildings such as address,
building area (m2) and building end use (e.g. hospital, school or other public building designation), the geographic
coordinates (GIS) are determined. RETScreen is then used to apply one of five typical archetype characteristics
for a building having that end use. The RETScreen archetype is customized to have a predetermined set of
common renewable heating options (e.g GSHP, solar thermal, and others). In combination with the GIS the
RETScreen output will provide decision makers with a ranked list of buildings by address and appropriate
technology, and preliminary cost estimate for consideration under the RHO. By using this method, Korea can
assign priority implementation and monetary resources for the RHO projects having the greatest chances of
technical and economic success. The method can also be used by policy makers to establish realistic targets
and to track the implementation of projects.

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O-PN-001

ENERGY PERFORMANCE BASELINE OF DETACHED HOUSES


FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS IN SOUTH KOREA
1,2 2 2 2 1,3
Junghwa KIM , Byunglip AHN , Jonghun KIM , Hakgeun JEONG and Cheolyong JANG *

1
Energy System Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
2
Energy Saving laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Quality Management Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: cyjang@kier.re.kr

This study presents a methodology for heating energy performance baseline of detached houses for
low-income households, according to the Home Energy Efficiency Assistance Program in South Korea. In order
to select the most effective retrofit measures and to qualify the energy saving potentials of the existing houses,
the analysis should be performed on reference building. In particular, the heating energy performance of the
reference house was 279.42 kWh/y by using the monthly calculation method of ISO13790.
As defined in Home Energy Efficiency Assistance Program, two set of retrofit measures were considered
for building typology, a standard and an advanced one, both for the building envelope. The standard
measure was assessed the basic level to eliminate of energy poverty, whereas the advanced was applied to
be those of a building constructed to the Korea Building Insulation Standard of the 2014s. The heating energy
consumption to achieve the standard measure is 173.15 kWh/yr as compared to the advanced measure of
58.17 kWh/yr for the building typology. The comparison shows a considerable difference of 30.03% and
79.18%, respectively. Furthermore, the outcomes of the study provide cost optimal and energy effective approach
to the upgrading of detached houses for low-income groups.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-PN-002

CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF THEORETICAL WITH ACTUAL


ENERGY CONSUMPTION ACCORDING TO
INSULATION STANDARD
Jeonggook Kim1,2, Jonghun Kim1, Cheolyong Jang3, Doosam Song2 and Hakgeun Jeong1*

1
Energy Saving laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea
3
Quality Management Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hgjeong@kier.re.kr

Climate change has an effect on humanity and natural ecosystem by increase of average temperature. The
average annual temperature of a globe was increased 0.74K by global warming during the past century and
the temperature of South Korea was increased 1.7K during the last ninety six years. However, this phenomenon
has not arises by regional and seasonal groups. Especially, in South Korea, the heating degree days was increased
by the climate change in December.
Therefore, this study suggested the building energy-saving design criteria which can comparing the heating
degree days and heating energy demand by the climate change of the winter season with the actual heating
energy consumption and results value, cope with the climate change and reduce the deviation by area. Heating
degree days were increased about 3% by climate change and the heating energy demand deviation was differing
by about 9%. In addition, Comparison results of the actual energy consumption of the 208 an apartment house,
the deviation was differing by about 7%.
The results of suggestion has 3% by regional deviation decreased 6%, and energy demand was reduced by
about 18%. This result is the evidence that the insulation standard which this study suggests is appropriate
and effective.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-PN-003

THERMAL COMFORT CONTROL BASED ON OCCUPANTS


INTUITIVE THERMAL SENSATION
1 2 3 3 3
Hyesim HAN , Jinsook LEE , Jonghun KIM , Cheolyong JANG and Hakgeun JEONG *

1
Weatherization Assistance Dept., Korea Energy Foundation, Seoul, Korea
2
Department of Architectural Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea
3
Energy Efficiency and Materials Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hgjeong@kier.re.kr

The predominant policies associated with building in South Korea focuses on greenhouse gas reduction,
construction of energy efficiency facilities, and reinforcement of regulations. In order to help avoid wastage
of heating and cooling energy, temperature restriction in indoor environment is one of the common ways of
reducing energy consumption; however it may make the indoor environment uncomfortable for the people living
or working there. It is commonly deepened when rooms cannot be controlled individually. Furthermore,
occupants cannot feel the same thermal sensation even they are in the same place.
The Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model has used to control for thermal comfort. It has developed as an
adaptive principles, which the people react in ways which tend to restore their comfort, when change occurs
such as to produce discomfort.
For the reasons, occupants should express their thermal sensation intuitively and HVAC system should be
able to adapt their demand. In this paper, we take it into account as an intuitive PMV model.
We analyzed major variables of PMV and simplified the parameters in order to implement without additional
cost or equipment like sensors. In addition, we designated an existing office building as a reference building
to gather actual field data. Furthermore, we gathered occupants thermal sensation and clothing insulation in
real-time in order to design HVAC control strategies based on the intuitive PMV model.
As a result the intuitive PMV model was reasonable under the poor thermal condition with alarm messages.
It benefits from 10.8% of thermal comfort and 7.4% of energy reduction compared to basic PMV control. It
is more effective in intermittent operation period which is getting warmer by the end of winter in South Korea.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-PN-004

THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORARY HOUSE CONSIDERING


THE INDOOR THERMAL ENVIRONMAENT
1 2 3 3
Hwa Yeon SHIN , Jeong Gook KIM , Jeong Hun KIM , Hak Geun JEONG ,
3 4
Cheol Yong JANG and Won Hwa HONG

1
Department of Architectural of Engineering, Kyungbuk National University, Daegu, Korea
2
Department of Architectural of Engineering, SungKyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea
3
Building Energy Research Center, KIER, Daejeon, Korea
4
Department of Architectural of Engineering, Kyungbuk National University, Daegu, Korea

* Corresponding author: shyyeon@hanmail.net

Temporary hosing should be developed to support long-term residence for the victims whose house damaged
from natural disaster. The purpose of this study is to establish a temporary housing units; Mobile Energy Shelter
House(MeSH). The MeSH was reflected the Korea dwelling Insulation Standard to save cooling & heating
Energy. As the first step, in order to assess energy performance, indoor thermal environment was measured
during winter and summer seasons. In summer, average outdoor temperature was 32.3Gand Indoor temperature
of MeSH was from 18Gto 24Gwhen cooling system was not used. During winter season, average outdoor
temperature was -11.3G and Indoor temperature was from 16.09G to 20.63G when floor heating using
temperature controllers were installed. Furthermore, the PMV was satisfied with the ISO comfort criterion ranged
from 0.5 to +0.5 Based on calculation, the PMV value in summer was 0.4~+0.9 and these of winter was
0.08~-0.85. It was confirmed residential environments suitable was for victims. The future study might focus
on cooling and heating energy consumption as well as cost analysis of this house.

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O-ESS-001

INSIGHT EFFECTS OF MIXED HYDRATE PROMOTERS ON


METHANE HYDRATE FORMATION AND DISSOCIATION
1 1
Atsadawuth SIANGSAI , Pramoch RANGSUNVIGIT *,
1 2
Boonyarach KITIYANAN and Santi KULPRATHIPANJA

1
The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2
UOP, A Honeywell Company, Illinois, USA

* Corresponding author: pramoch.r@chula.ac.th

Clathrate hydrates or gas hydrates are solid crystalline composed of gas guest molecules, which are trapped
in the cavities of a water lattice. Recently, gas hydrates are of interest not only for the potential energy resource
but also for the separation process, storage, capture, and transportation of various gases. However, the main
issue to be concerned is the slow kinetics of gas hydrate formation, which is related to the low hydrate capacity.
In this work, mixed hydrate promoters, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), have been
investigated for methane hydrate formation and dissociation. The experiments were performed in a quiescent
condition in a fixed volume crystallizer at 6 MPa and 8 MPa and 7 C. The results indicated that a small
amount of THF and SDS could enhance the methane hydrate formation rates. Mixed THF-SDS solution showed
the synergetic effects on the methane hydrate formation and dissociation. The methane hydrate formation and
dissociation profiles with the presence of promoters were also reported as well as the methane hydrate phase
equilibrium.

O-ESS-002

EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF SI


NANOPATICLES SYNTHESIZED BY USING MICROWAVE
PLASMA
Jeong Boon KOO1,2, Jung Hoon CHEON1, Sun Ho CHOI1,2, Bo Yun JANG1*, Joon Soo KIM1,
1 2 2
Jin Seok LEE , Sung Soo KIM and Kyoo Seung HAN *

1
Advanced Materials and Devices Laboratory,Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: byjang@kier.re.kr

Silicon (Si) nanoparticles were synthesized by using atmospheric microwave plasma and the effects of
hydrogen (H2) as reactive gas on their microstructure were investigated. Various amounts of H2 were injected
into nitrogen (N2) plasma with silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) vapor as the precursor. Microstructures of synthesized
Si nanoparticles were characterized by using XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS. The amount of H2 during the synthesis
was critical to determine crystallinity of Si nanoparticles. Even though the mole ratio of H2 for a thermodynamic
reaction with SiCl4 was 2, kinetically, much more H2 was required to obtain Si nanoparticles. This result was
from extremely high flow rates of reactive gases, which decrease a residence time of reactive gases in plasma.
Electrochemical properties of synthesized Si nanoparticles as anode materials in lithium-ion battery (LIB) were
also investigated. The initial reversible capacity of Si nanoparticles was higher than 1000 mAh/g with initial
coulomb efficiency (ICE) of 40 %, and the capacity retention was approximately 50 % after 100 cycles.

275
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
O-ESS-003

EFFICIENT ENERGY STORAGE METHOD BY MULTISTAGE PUMP


OF THE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM USING CFD
1 1 2 2
Ji Hoon Park , Byeoung Jun Kim , Chang Goo Kim and Young Ho Lee *

1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University(KMOU), Busan,
Korea
2
Division of Mechanical and Energy System Engineering, KMOU

* Corresponding author: lyh@kmou.ac.kr

This research work focuses on a novel energy storage system which uses the concept of combined
pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage. The system consists of two tanks, one open
tank to the air and one closed tank which stores water and compressed air by using a multistage pump and
store water and compressed air in the closed tank. And the energy of compressed air can be released to drive
water which passes through the hydro turbine, resulting in the generation of electricity when the grid power
is insufficient. The multistage pump and hydro turbine are used to achieve the energy storing and generating
process respectively. To help predict the characteristics, a numerical model was made and analyzed. Using these
methods, an efficient method to store and discharge the energy using this hybrid system can be studied. But,
during the charging process, the multistage pump may or may not perform efficiently when operating at a fixed
rotational speed. So, a possible solution is to vary the rotational speed for the different operating conditions
and store energy in the closed tank. Numerical analysis was conducted on a numerical model of the small
scale multistage pump to find the most efficient method of charging for the hybrid system.

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P-PV-001

PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS


USING MOO3 NPS AND MOS2 NPS
Jae-Hyoung Kim and Yong-Sang KIM*

School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 440-746,
Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: yongsang@skku.edu

The photoactive layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as electron donor and electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl
C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), have shown the most advanced power conversion efficiency (PCE).
However, despite having a high absorbance, the current density of these devices is less because of the low
energy band gap. Therefore the use of metal nanoparticles and other additives for harvesting light energy has
drawn great attention.
An improved hybrid solar cell was developed by focusing on the effects of MoO3 nanoparticles and MoS2
nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS layer. The device structure is ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS(NPs)/Ag.
Metal NPs acts as a hole transporting layer. We studied the effect of MoO3 NPs and MoS2 NPs by ranging
its concentration from 1mg/ml to 5mg/ml. Increasing concentration of NPs showed good power conversion
efficiency(PCE). Due to the reduction of recombination, the short circuit current density increased. Based on
these results we propose a stable hybrid organic solar cell using Metal NPs in PEDOT:PSS layer.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-002

INTEGRATION OF METALLURGICAL PURIFICATION AND


CONTINUOUS CASTING FOR GROWING MONO-LIKE
CRYSTALLINE SILICON INGOT FROM
METALLURGICAL-GRADE SILICON
1,3 1 1 1 1
Jun-Kyu LEE , Jin-Seok LEE *, Bo-Yun JANG , Joon-Soo KIM , Young-Soo AHN ,
2 3
Gi-Hwan KANG and Churl-Hee CHO

1
Advanced Materials and Devices Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jslee@kier.re.kr

Mono-like crystalline silicon ingot with high purity was continuously casted with metallurgical-grade silicon
(MG-Si) as feedstock. The advanced electron beam melting (EBM) system with the combination of vacuum
refining and directional solidification (DS) performed the purification of large amounts of MG-Si, where the
two parts are connected by an overflow of Si melts for undergoing a continuous refining and casting process
in a chamber. In order to grow the mono-like crystalline silicon ingot by our EBM, the single crystalline seed
was placed on the graphite dummy cylinder with DS zone. The EB round shape pattern with non-irradiated
inner diameter of 5mm and outer diameter of 85mm was irradiated on the surface of silicon melt. The growth
rate of silicon ingot was carefully controlled. The effect of single crystalline seed was estimated by investigating
the microstructure of silicon ingot without using seed. The purity of mono-like crystalline silicon ingot was
up to 99.99997% (almost 7N). The photovoltaic (PV) performance was measured in conventional solar cell
processing which has a higher potential for applying to the PV industry.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-003

FABRICATION OF CuInSe2(CIS) THIN FILM SOLAR CELL VIA A


NON-VACUUM PROCESS
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Young-Joo Eo , Wonha Lee , Kyunhwan Kim , SeJin Ahn , Ara Cho , Jihye Gwak , Kyunghoon Yoon ,
1 1 1 1 1 1
Keeshik Shin , Seung Kyu Ahn , Jun Sik Cho , Ju Hyung Park , Jin Su Yu , Kihwan Kim ,
2 3 3 1
Se Youn Moon , Hyo Rim Jung , Jin Hyeok Kim ** and Jae Ho Yun *

1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER),Daejeon, Korea
2
High Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea
3
Dept.of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: yunjh92@kier.re.kr


** Corresponding author: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr

Carbon-free CuInSe2 (CIS) thin film with a dense microstructure has been prepared using a novel non-vacuum
based fabrication route. CuxSy and In2Se3 binary nanoparticles, approximately 10 nm in size, were synthesized
by a low temperature colloidal process. The precursor film was deposited using the coating ink formulated
with the binary nanoparticles and pyridine, and then annealed in the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) chamber
at 540C for 15mins under selenium (Se) atmosphere. Scanning electron micrographs, X-ray diffraction patterns
and Raman spectra showed a phase pure carbon-free and dense CIS thin film was prepared in this method.
A solar cell device fabricated using this CIS thin film showed the following photovoltaic characteristics: VOC
= 350 mV, JSC = 24.72 mAcm-2, FF = 38.73 % and O = 3.36 % under standard AM 1.5 condition.

P-PV-004

IMPROVED LIGHT TRAPPING IN SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR


CELLS IN N-I-P CONFIGURATION USING HIGHLY TEXTURED
ZINC OXIDE FILMS
Eunseok JANG, Dongmin LIM, Seungkyu AHN, Joo Hyung PARK, Jinsoo Yoo,
Kyung Hoon YOON and Jun-Sik CHO*

Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jscho@kier.re.kr

Hydrogenated silicon-based thin-film solar cells have been considered as alternatives to crystalline silicon
solar cells to enable the low-cost generation of solar electricity over the past few decades because of the reduced
consumption of raw materials and large-volume production capacity. Despite the strong possibility of becoming
a next-generation photovoltaic technology, a challenge to the development of flexible Si thin-film solar cells
is their relatively low conversion efficiency because of low light absorption. To overcome this limitation, a
light trapping strategy to enhance the light absorption has been intensively studied. In this study, we developed
new light trapping methods using highly textured zinc oxide films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor
deposition (LPCVD). The optical properties of LPCVD-grown ZnO films were investigated systematically. Their
effects on the performance of the silicon thin-film solar cells in n-i-p configuration were also examined.

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P-PV-005

KERFLESS WAFERING FROM SILICON MELT VIA DIP COATING


TECHNOLOGY
Changbum Lee and Wooyoung Yoon*

Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: wyyoon@korea.ac.kr

We have prepared kerfless wafering for solar cell using a dip coating technology (Fig 1). The computational
simulation is behaved to understand the heat transfer, solidification behavior and thickness parameter. Effect
of dipping speed of substrate and substrate surface condition is studied by computer simulation and the
simulation results are affect process parameter for optimize the condition of dip coating process. The
experimental results of samples are characterized using SEM and EPMA. SEM confirms that the morphology
of wafer by dip coating method and EPMA detect the impurity may from substrate or crucible of melts. 50G
thickness of silicon wafer obtained with kerfless using dip coating technology.

P-PV-006

CHARACTERIZATION OF ZINC OXYSULFIDE BUFFER LAYERS


GROWN BY ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
Hee Kyeung HONg, Hui Kyung PARK, Jaeseung JO and Jaeyeong HEO*

Department of Materials Science Engineering and Optoelectronics Convergence Research Center, Chonnam
National University, Gwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: jheo@jnu.ac.kr

High conversion efficiency of thin-film-based solar cells has been demonstrated for various solar cells. One
of the crucial parts of making high-performance devices is an n-type buffer layer of CdS grown by chemical
bath deposition. Instead of the commonly used but toxic CdS buffer layer, the development of alternative
Zn-based buffer layers has long been pursued. Here, we report the growth of zinc oxysulfide (Zn(O,S)) by
atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD has been highlighted as an ideal method for forming very conformal and
ultrathin films and therefore this technique is well suited for the pinhole-free formation of n-type buffer layers.
The structural, chemical, electrical, and optical properties of the grown Zn(O,S) buffer layers were investigated.
The main variation in our study was the oxygen-to-sulfur ration achieved by varying the ZnO:ZnS cycle ratio.
Finally, the Zn(O,S) buffer layers were applied to CZTSSe solar cells and the device properties will be discussed
in the presentation.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-007

ELECTRON-BEAM EVAPORATED TIN SULFIDE FILMS FOR


SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS
Hui Kyung PARK, Hee Kyeung HONG, Jaeseung JO and Jaeyeong HEO*

Department of Materials Science Engineering and Optoelectronics Convergence Research Center, Chonnam
National University, Gwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: jheo@jnu.ac.kr

SnS has a direct band with bandgap around 1.3 eV, near the optimum for photovoltaic solar energy
conversion. It also has a high optical absorption coefficient such that layers only a few microns thick are needed
to absorb most of the incident light. We report the structural and optical properties of SnS films deposited
using electron-beam evaporation method. To achieve the optimized SnS films, the growth temperature and
evaporation rate were varied (25 - 200G and 0.3 - 3 nm/s, respectively). In addition, we studied the effect
of sulphurization in H2S atmosphere at temperature ranging from 250 to 450 . The prepared SnS films were
analyzed by ellipsometer, FE-SEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Finally, the
optimized SnS films were applied as p-type absorber layer and the device properties will also be discussed
in the presentation.

P-PV-008

OPTIMIZATION OF ZnO@mesoporous TiO2 Core@Shell


STRUCTURES FOR ENHANCED PHOTOCATALYTIC EFFICIENCY
Woohyoung LEE1, Suk-Ho LEE1 and Cheolhyun LIM1*

1
Green energy institute, Mokpo-Si, Jeollanamdo, Korea

* Corresponding author: chlim@gei.re.kr

ZnO is a very attractive alternative to TiO2 in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells(DSSCs) since it has a similar energy
band gap to that of TiO2 while possesses a higher electron mobility that would be favorable for electron.
However, ZnO-based DSSCs tend to exhibit relatively lower energy conversion efficiencies and stability than
of TiO2-based DSSCs.
In this study, we investigated the effects of ZnO nanoparticles coated with a mesoporous TiO2. By simply
controlling the kinetics of hydrolysis and condensation of tetrabutyl titanate (TBOT) in ethanol/ammonia
mixtures, uniform ZnO@mesoporous TiO2 core@shell structures can be prepared. The synthesized core/shell
structures were investigated via FE-SEM, TEM, XRD and EDS for morphology and compositional study.
Furthermore the analyses of UV-VIS and photocatalytic activity were carried out. The results clealy revealed
that the core/shell structures exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities than that of pristine ZnO
nanoparticles and TiO2 nanoparticles.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-009

EFFECT OF MORPHOLOGY CHANGES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE


CONDUCTIVE FILMS WITH VARIOUS BONDING PARAMETERS
ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SILICON SOLAR CELL STRINGS
Su-Wung Baek1,4, Kwang-Il Choi1, Suk-Ho Lee1, Chan-Hyuk Cheon2, Seung-Min Hong2, Kil-Song Lee3,
3 3 1
Hyun-Woo Shin , Yeon-Won Yang and Cheolhyun Lim *

1
Green Energy Institute, 177, Samhyangcheon-ro, Mokpo-si, Jeollanam-do, 530-400, Korea
2
Aaron Co.,Ltd, Changgok-ri, Paltan-myeon, Hwaseong-Si, Gyeonggi-do, 103-022, Korea
3
Solar tech Co.,Ltd, Suite 712, Yucheon Factopia, #196, Anyang-7 Dong, Mana-Gu, Anyang-City, Kyonggi-do,
403-817, Korea
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea

* Corresponding author: chlim@gei.re.kr

Recently, low-temperature bonding techniques and materials to fabricate solar cell strings have attracted a
great deal of attention applying for solar cells getting thinner such as low-temperature conductive pastes,
conductive films (LT-CFs) and conductive glues. Among these methods, intensive research has been conducted
already on CF bonding as an alternative method to soldering in the field of flip chip packaging. CFs consist
of thermosetting epoxy resins and are filled with randomly dispersed conductive particles. The application of
heat and pressure results in curing of the thermosetting epoxy resins, and this curing provides mechanical and
electrical adhesion between the contact surfaces. Therefore, the adhesion with various bonding conditions such
as bonding temperature, time and pressure should be optimized carefully.
According to the degree of curing and compression dominantly determined by temperatures and pressures,
respectively, deformation and compressed rates of LT-CFs are changed, resulting in the various adhesion failures
between cells and ribbons; e.g. too excess compression causes the outflow of LT-CFs beneath the ribbon. It
is likely to cause degradation in electrical and mechanical contact properties owing to decrease in the contact
volume containing conductive particles.
In this study, we observed effect of morphology changes of LT -CFs after compression on the characteristics
of silicon solar cell strings. After compression, influence of outflow rate and shading rate of LT-CF toward
electric performance of solar cell strings were evaluated.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-010

QUADRANT ANALYSIS IN CORRELATION BETWEEN


MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF
LOW-TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVE FILM BONDED
CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS
1,4 1 1 2 2 3
Su-Wung Baek , Kwang-Il Choi , Suk-Ho Lee , Chan-Hyuk Cheon , Seung-Min Hong , Kil-Song Lee ,
3 3 1
Hyun-Woo Shin , Yeon-Won Yang and Cheolhyun Lim *

1
Green Energy Institute, 177, Samhyangcheon-ro, Mokpo-si, Jeollanam-do, 530-400, Korea
2
Aaron Co.,Ltd, Changgok-ri, Paltan-myeon, Hwaseong-Si, Gyeonggi-do, 103-022, Korea
3
Solar tech Co.,Ltd, Suite 712, Yucheon Factopia, #196, Anyang-7 Dong, Mana-Gu, Anyang-City, Kyonggi-do,
403-817, Korea
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea

* Corresponding author: chlim@gei.re.kr

Low-temperature conductive films(LT-CF) have been examined as a bonding material for fabricating solar
cell string. Epoxy-resin-based LT-CF is especially sensitive to bonding parameters such as bonding temperature,
pressure and time. In general, strong mechanical contacts between metal ribbons and cells guarantee good
electrical properties, however LT-CF faces an over-curing and excess compression, adhesion strength and electric
properties are deteriorated.
In this study, we analyzed the correlation between mechanical (peeling strength) and electrical properties
(power loss) of LT-CF bonded silicon solar cells by a quadrant analysis (horizontal axis (peeling strength),
vertical axis(power loss)). Using the analogous technique, we found that a series of points with various bonding
parameters such as bonding temperature, pressure and time were distributed in the different three regimes; weak
regime (Q2: weak bonding strength and high power loss), moderate regime (Q4 : strong bonding strength and
low power loss) and hard regime (Q3 : weak bonding strength and low power loss). Based on these analysis
results, the bonding conditions between solder- & flux-free ribbons and cells were carefully optimized. We
will discuss the correlation between mechanical (peeling strength) and electrical properties (power loss) of
LT-CF bonded silicon solar cells in details.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-011

THE OPTIMIZED MPPT(MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING)


ALGORITHM UNDER DYNIMIC CONDITIONS
1 1 1 1 1
Suk Whan KO *, Young Seok JUNG , Jung Hun SO , Young Chul JU and JHye Mi HWANG
1
Department of Solar Energy, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: korea19@kier.re.kr

We proposed the optimized MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm under environmental
conditions like to rapid insolation. In order to establish the algorithm, we made the 3 types mode of MPPT
inverter system by using the Matlab & Simulink and simulated the MPPT modeling according to the EN50530
standard. The standard of EN50530 defined the method of efficiency test for photovoltaic inverter for the
dynamic MPPT. MPPT algorithms like to P&O, Incremental is used generally a common photovoltaic inverter
but there is low efficiency under dynamic MPPT conditions. The simulations results showed that control period
is shorter in all algorithms during dynamic MPPT condition. The observed efficiency of simulation is that
optimized algorithm is higher efficiency than others algorithm during simulation period. The efficiency of
Optimized algorithm is a 99.5% averaging value.

P-PV-012

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZE CU2ZNSNS4 (CZTS) BY


GALVANOSTATIC ELECTRODEPOSITION ROUTE
Yu Kyung Kim1, K. V. Gurav1, Jae Ho Yun3, Jong Ha Moon1, Jeong Yong Lee2 and Jin Hyeok Kim1*

1
Optoelectronics Convergence Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam
National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon,305-701, South
Korea
3
Photovoltaic Research Group, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-Dong Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon
305-343, South Korea

* Corresponding author: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS, a promising material for In- and Ga-free absorber in solar cells, were synthesized by
electrochemical method without toxic chemicals. The precursor solutions were prepared at room temperature
consisting of Cu, Zn, Sn. Current is applied to the three electrode electrochemical bath at room temperature.
The electrochemical bath contains Cu, Zn, and S source materials and complexing agent. Effect of current
density on structural, compositional and optical properties of CZTS crystals were investigated using X-ray
diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy respectively. The
XRD results for CZTS indicated that the characteristics were strongly related to the complexing agent and key
plays for synthesis of CZTS. Further detailed analysis and discussion of the CZTS will be discussed.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-013

STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS OF FLUORINE DOPED TiO2


NANOFIBERS VIA THE ROUTE OF POST-TREATMENT ON
ELECTROSPUN TiO2-SiO2 NANOFIBERS
Kwang-il Choi1,2, Woohyoung Lee1, Suk-Ho Lee1, Cheolhyun Lim1*

1
Green energy institute, Mokpo-Si, Jeollanamdo, Korea
2
School of materials Science&Engineering, Gwangju Metropolitan city, Jeollanamdo ,Korea

* Corresponding author: chlim@gei.re.kr

Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been intensively investigated for the purpose of improving its
photocatalytic performance. The anatase TiO2 crystals are genenrally dominated by {101} facets, which are
thermodynamically stable due to a low surface energy (0.44 J/m2). However, {001} facets with a higher energy
(0.90 J/m2) are more atractive due to its higher reactivity. Additionally, F-doped TiO2 exhibits a spectral response
in the visible region owing to intermediate energy levels. Single-crystalline pure-phase TiOF2 has been
synthesized via a simple solvothermal method, reaction of TiF4 (g) and SiO2 (s), and the hydrolysis of TiF3Cl.
In this study, we synthesized homogenous SiO2-TiO2 nanofibers were prepared using commercially available
SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed TiO2 sol-gel solutions (titanium (IV) tert-butoxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone), and
then the SiO2-TiO2 nanofibers were post-treated by various contents of HF solutions for various treatment times.
The synthesized nanofibers were investigated via FE-SEM, TEM, XRD and EDS for morphology, and BET
analyses for specific surface. Furthermore, the analysis of UV-VIS and photocatalytic activity was carried out.

P-PV-014

SYNTHESIS OF GRAIN AND PORE SIZE TUNED MESOPOROUS


TiO2 BEADS WITH ADDITION OF VARIOUS SALTS
Dong-Cheon Kang1,2, Woo-hyung Lee1, Kwang-il Choi1, Suk-Ho Lee1 and Cheolhyun Lim1*

1
Green Energy Institute, 177, Samhyangcheon-ro, Mokpo-si, Jeollanam-do, 530-400, Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, chonnam National University, Kwang-ju, 500-757, Korea

* Corresponding author: chlim@gei.re.kr

Mesoporous anatase titania(TiO2) beads with high surface areas and tunable pore size and grain diameter
have been studied intensively. Among various synthesis methods, careful choice of surfactants and salts can
control the size, porosity and monodispersity of TiO2 particels. According to the surfactants and salts, the range
of size and pore of final TiO2 beads are widely tunable.
In this study, we focused to synthesis comparatively small-size of mesoporous anatase TiO2 beads in a size
range of 10~50 nm, consisting of various pore and grain size, which is presumably favor for working electrodes
for dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC). The mesoporous TiO2 beads were produced in a sol-gel synthesis from
titanium tetrakis Gisopropoxide in ethanol with various salt ions such as NaCl, KCl, KNO3 and etc. The influence
of salt ions on the grain and pore size of the final particle were investigated.
TiO2 beads in different sizes were then applied as the working electrodes of DSSCs and the size-dependent
TiO2 bead were systematically investigated by FE-SEM, TEM, BET, XRD, IPCE and impedance.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-015

CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER DOPED SELECTIVE EMITTER


AND PLATED CONTACTS FOR HIGH EFFIEICNY SOLAR CELLS
Jisun Kim*, Jisoo Kim, Yeonhee Hwang, Jongyoub Lim, Changsub Park, Eunjoo Lee

Technical Research Center, Shinsung Solar Energy, Seongnam-si, Gyeoggi-do, 463-420, Korea

* Corresponding author: kimjs@shinsung.co.kr

A simple but effective way to create a selective emitter is using laser doping to selectively remove the
anti-reflection coating layer and simultaneously melt the silicon underneath it while incorporating dopants into
the melted region, creating a heavily doped layer. In conjunction with laser doping, a plating technique is often
used to selectively plate self-aligned metal contacts onto the laser doped lines. Light induced plating (LIP)
has the potential to provide a very uniform layer provided a reasonably uniform light source is used to illuminate
the cell surface.
In this work, laser doped selective emitter and plated contacts were characterized in various ways for high
effiency solar cells. The laser doped surfaces and shape of plated contacts were observed by microscope images,
quality of laser doping was determined by electrochemical capacitance-voltage (ECV) doping profile, and contact
resistivity of plated contacts was analyzed by transmission line model (TLM) method. Finally, internal quantum
efficiency (IQE) and conversion efficiency was measured to evaluate the cell performance.

P-PV-016

STUDY OF CO-DIFFUSION PROCESS FOR BIFACIAL N-TYPE


SOLAR CELLS
Woo-Jin Lee1, Chang-Mo Lee2, Meong-Il Jeong2, Chel-Jong Choi2 and O-Bong Yang1,2*

1
School of Chemical Engineering & Solar Energy Research center, Chonbuk national university
2
Si-solar cell center for R&D Manpower Education, Chonbuk national university
3
Dongwoo fine-chem Co,, LTD, Electronic Materials R&D Center

* Corresponding author: obyang@jbnu.ac.kr

Recently, because of crystalline silicon solar cells reduce the market price of raw materials, as well as having
a hiatus to study trends. In this study, the n-type wafer is used for high-efficiency solar cells crystalline silicon
solar cell is the last study, but full swing technique is a simple process in order to secure the drawbacks difficult
to enter the high-cost and easier to study n-type development was carried out a process to manufacture the
solar cell. Experimental methods include, for Cleaning and Texturing of the n-type wafer and to dope the n-type
emitter on the rear of SOD solution (2, 5, 9%) under the conditions of the coating and drying. The BPSG
of Doped wafer is removed for 30 to 60 seconds in 5% HF and the AR coating and metallization of bifacial
solar cell type was prepared. IV data analysis Voc is 2% (593mA)> 5% (585mA)> 9% (563mA) and, Fill
factor is 2% (71%)> 5% (70%)> 9% (50%), and the efficiency is 2% (15.5%)> 5% (14.5%)> 9% (10.5%)
was analyzed. For emitter diffusion effect of the front and rear surfaces were analyzed using Sims and SEM
/ TEM.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-017

EFFECT OF SE PARTIAL PRESSURE ON THE PROPERTIES OF


Cu2ZnSnS4 THIN FILM AND THEIR APPLICATION
TO SOLAR CELL
Myeng G. Gang1, Kishor V. Gurav1, Seung W. Shin2, Chang W. Hong1, Min J. Hong3,
1 1 3 1
Mahesh P. Suryawanshi , Sharad A. Vanalakar , Dong S. Lee and Jin H. Kim *

1
Optoelectronics Convergence Research Center and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam
National University, Gwangju, 500-757, South Korea
2
Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, IBS, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea.
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, GIST, Gwangju, S. Korea.

* Corresponding author: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) absorber thin films were prepared on Mo coated soda-lime glass substrates by
sulfurization of stacked Cu/Sn/Zn precursor thin films. Stacked Cu/Sn/Zn metallic precursors with various Se
partial pressure were prepared using DC magnetron sputtering process at room temperature. The Cu/Sn/Zn
precursor thin films were sulfurized inside a graphite box containing Se powder using rapid thermal processing
furnace at 580oC for 10 min. in Ar atmosphere. The effect of Se partial pressure on the structural, compositional,
morphological and electrical properties of the CZTS thin films were studied using FE-SEM (field-emission
scanning electron microscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), XRF (X-ray fluorescence analysis), Raman
spectroscopy, Hall measurement, respectively. It is found that the properties of sulfurized CZTS thin films were
strongly related to the Se partial pressure. In particular, the sulfurized CZTS thin film with Se partial pressure
of 0.0418 atm show MoSe layer compared to other CZTS thin films with different Se partial pressure. Our
fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cell shows the best conversion efficiency of 4.61 % (Voc : 342 mV, Jsc
: 33.71 mA/cm2, FF : 0.40 %, and active area : 0.31 cm2). Further detailed analysis and discussion for effect
of Se partial pressure on the properties CZTS thin films will be discussed.

291
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-018

A STUDY ON DEPOSITIONS OF Cu AND CuSe THIN FILMS


USING MOCVD FOR CIGS SOLAR CELL APPLICATION
1 1,2 1 3
Joo Hyung PARK , Kang Sik SHIN , Jae Ho YUN , Chang-Sik SON ,
4 2 1
Chang Hyun KO , Byungsung O and Kyung Hoon YOON *

1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea
3
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Sila University, Pusan, Korea
4
School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: y-kh@kier.re.kr

As the preceding step to accomplish MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) growth of CIGS
thin film using commercial metal organic sources, Cu and CuSe thin films grown by MOCVD have been
prepared and analyzed. To grow those precursor thin films, we utilized metal organic Cu and metal organic
Se sources instead of using H2Se gas which is more typical in MOCVD system. The deposition conditions
of Cu and CuSe thin films are varied to observe characteristics of the thin film formations. The prepared samples
are characterized by SEM, EDS, and XRD to reveal the surface properties and the crystallographic differences
according to several growth parameters. The best samples of Cu and CuSe thin films exhibit more intensive
and sharper XRD peaks compared to others. Further studies are needed to achieve the complete MOCVD growth
of CIS or CIGS thin films by commercially available metal organic sources for thin film solar cell applications.

292
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-019

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE SULFURIZATION CONDITIONS


ON THE PROPERTIES OF Cu2ZnSnS4 THIN FILMS
1 2 1 1 1 1
Chang Woo Hong , Seung Wook Shin , K.V.Gurav , Eun Ae Jo , Jong-Ha Moon and Jin hyeok Kim *

1
Department of Material Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-Dong, Puk-Gu,
Gwangju 500-757, South Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea

* Corresponding author: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were synthesized by sputtered Cu/Sn/Zn stacked metallic precursors thin films.
The precursor thin films were carried out the sulfurization using H2S gas atmosphere and the annealed thin
films showed the dense microstructure without voids. Although they indicated good characteristics of CZTS
thin films by sulfurization using H2S gas atmosphere, it has toxic gas and it needs the maintenance. In order
to solve this problem, the precursor thin films were carried out the sulfurization using sulfur powder in the
Graphite box. The sulfurization was used Sulfur powder in graphite box in the S vapor atmosphere. Effects
of sulfurization conditions such as amount of Sulfur powder, reaction time, and temperature on the
characterizations of secondary layers and CZTS thin films were investigated using X-ray diffraction patterns,
transmission electron microscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectra, respectively.
From Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results, the MoS2
interfacial layer for the sulfurized CZTS thin films were observed over 500 C and its thickness increased with
increasing sulfurization temperatures. Further the detailed analysis and discussion of MoS2 thin layer such as
atomic alignment, defects, and interface of the CZTS/MoS2/Mo structured thin films will be discussed.

Key words: Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS), sulfurization, sputtering, element loss, sulfurization source

293
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-020

CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL sc-Si AND


mc-Si PV MODULES ON A GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEM BY
MODULE MONITORING
Jae-Seong JEONG1* and Jae-Bin YOON2

1
Components and Materials Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute (KETI), Gyeonggi-do, Korea
2
Department of Global Cooperation, Korea Electronics Technology Institute (KETI), Gyeonggi-do, Korea

* Corresponding author: jjseicp@keti.re.kr

Grid-connected PV(Photovoltaic) power systems shows the results of the most successful renewable power
energy. A photovoltaic energy has been focused on the cell and module efficiency for 10 years. However, system
performance and BOS(balance of system) will be more important as PV power system increases stably in the
commercial energy market. For module performance study in PV systems, we have installed a grid-connected
PV systems test-bed which microinverter is applied in a high temperature and humid environment of Bangladesh.
Monocrystalline (sc-Si) and polycrystalline (mc-Si) PV module are 250W and 5 items of each were set. 10
items of microinverter which has maximum AC output power of 250W have been installed. Vmp (max. peak)
and Imp (max. peak) data of modules were measured every 1second by monitoring module. The data of
performance of PV modules has been collected for 7months after PV power system was installed. As increase
of operating time of the PV power systems, Vmp value of modules in the similar solar irradiance decreased.
Both sc-Si and mc-Si PV modules show the similar aging trend. To analyze the performance of PV modules,
the interaction by using parameters of solar irradiance, module temperature, DC output power was analyzed
month-to-month. Through this, the interaction of effective factor which effects modules performance was
analyzed.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PV-021

CO-EVAPORATION BASED Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 THIN


FILM SOLAR CELLS
1 1 2 1 1 1
Jihye GWAK *, Hye Rim CHOI , Jin Hyeok KIM , Jae Ho YUN , SeJin AHN , Ara CHO ,
1 1 3 1 1
Young Ju EO , Seung Kyu AHN , Hyeonsik CHEONG , Kee Shik SHIN and Kyung Hoon YOON

1
Photovoltaic Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea
3
Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: bleucoeur@kier.re.kr

Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) compound semiconductor has been investigated as an indium-free alternative


to the CIGS absorber layer in thin film solar cells, and many notable research results have been reported. The
best solar cell device has shown maximum conversion efficiency of 12.6% based on CZTSSe prepared using
the hydrazine-solution process by IBM et al. [1] Although co-evaporation technique seems one of the best
methods to control the film composition, only limited studies have been done on thin film solar cells based
on CZTSSe deposited by co-evaporation process [2-3].
Cu-Zn-Sn-Se thin films co-evaporated on substrates at a low temperature as absorber precursors were annealed
via RTA processes. The absorbers deposited by co-evaporation at high temperatures without any post-annealing
were also prepared. As-synthesized CZTSSe thin films were characterized, and solar cells were also fabricated
with the absorbers to investigate the photovoltaic performance.

[1] W. Wang, M.T. Winkler, O. Gunawan, T. Gokmen, T.K. Todorov, Y. Zhu, D.B. Mitzi, Adv. Energy. Mater.
4(7) (2014) 1301465.
[2] I. Repins, C. Beall, N. Vora, C. DeHart, D. Kuciauskas, P. Dippo, B. To, J. Mann, W.-C. Hsu, A. Goodrich,
R. Noufi, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101 (2012) 154-159.
[3] B. Shin, O. Gunawan, Y. Zhu, N.A. Bojarczuk, S.J. Chey, S. Guha, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 21(1)
(2013) 72-76.

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P-PV-022

SYNTHESIS OF METASTABLE WURTZITE CZTS NCs AND THEIR


TRANSFORMATION INTO KESTERITE CZTS ABSORBER LAYER
FOR SOLAR CELL APPLICATION
Uma Ghorpade1,2, Mahesh Suryawanshi1, Seung Wook Shin1, K. V. Gurav1, S. A. Patil2, B. S. Pawar2,
1 2 1
M. G. Gang , Sanjay Kolekar * and Jin Hyeok Kim **

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Optoelectronics Convergence Research Centre, Chonnam
National University, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea
2
Analytical chemistry and Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University,
Kolhapur 416-004, India

* Corresponding author: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr (Jin Hyeok Kim)


** Corresponding author: sskolekar@gmail.com (S. S. Kolekar)

The quaternary indium and gallium-free copper chalcogenide, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) has driven much attention
for its potential application in low-cost and sustainable solar cells. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic strategy
for CZTS NCs and their by a fabrication of CZTS thin films with outstanding absorbing characteristics. In
particular, pure phase metastable wurtzite CZTS NCs are synthesized by using environmentally benign polyol
mediated hot-injection technique. The influence of reaction time on the properties of CZTS NCs is investigated
in detail. The wurtzite-derived CZTS NCs films are observed to undergo a phase transformation to a kesterite
phase when exposed to S and Se-vapor pressure at 540 oC.

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P-ST-001

COMPARISON OF GLOBAL HORIZONTAL IRRADIANCE


BETWEEN KOREA INSTITUTE OF ENERGY RESEARCH AND
KOREA METEOROLOGICAL ADMINISTRATION
Shin Young Kim1, Hyun Jin Lee2*, Chang Yeol Yun1, Jong Kyu Kim2, Yong Heack Kang1,
1 1
Dok Ki Jo and Hyun Goo Kim

1
New & Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Solar Thermal Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hj.lee@kier.re.kr

Typical meteorological data that represent one year on hourly basis are necessary to analyze annual
performance and economic feasibility of renewable energy utilization systems. The typical meteorological data
consist of solar radiation data such as global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and direct normal irradiance (DNI)
and usual meteorological data such as dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed, and so on.
The typical meteorological data are generated by selecting and concatenating individual months from a long-term
database. Therefore, a reliable long-term database is the most critical factor for the typical meteorological data.
In Korea, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) have
independently measured global horizontal irradiance in major big cities. We have compared global horizontal
irradiance data by the two institutions to identify difference in the same city and establish a reliable solar
radiation database. In this paper, we will present hourly, daily, monthly, and annual correlations for the city
of Daejeon.

P-ST-002

EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS FOR SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEM


USING DIFFERENT CONTROL SYSTEMS
Byoungdoo Lee1* and Hyunmin Nam2

1
Division of R&D, Hyundai Engineering & Construction, Seoul, Korea
2
Division of R&D, Hyundai Engineering & Construction, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: bdlee@hdec.co.kr

In general, circulation flow rates are 0.045kg/s per m2 when utilizing solar heat into hot water supply. There
is no power consumption in solar hot water system except for circulation pump, however, it is important that
when the pump starts to operate and how much circulation flow rates are consumed during operation. We
modeled solar hot water systems (Solar collector: 8.16 m2) using schedule-based control (also referred to as
baseline) which is the most common method in Korea, PID control and optimal control method. Also, we
analyzed optimal flow rates, solar panel tilt angle and operation logics of the pump. In conclusion, the relative
increased energy quantity achieved in optimal control model compared to the schedule-based model is +3.2%
during 6months of simulation interval and PID control model is +0.6% compared to the schedule-based model.
The optimal circulation flow rate is 0.48kg/s, solar panel tilt degree is 53.3 degree, and the pump must start
to operate when temperature differences between the solar collector and the heat storage tank are 18.5. The
baseline values are 0.4 kg/s (circulation flow rate), 40 degree (solar panel tilt), 8G(temperature differences).

299
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-ST-003

CRITICAL HEAT FLUX ENHANCEMENT USING OXIDIZED


GRAPHENE IN SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS
Sung-Seek Park, Woo Joong Kim and Nam-Jin Kim*

Department of Nuclear & Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: jnkim@jejunu.ac.kr (N.-J. Kim) Tel. +82-010-8916-8585

Nanofluids are heat transfer fluids containing nanometer-sized particles, called panoparticles, dispersed in a
base liquid. These fluids have been studied in various fields of thermal engineering since Choi showed abnormal
improved thermal properties of nanofluids. Especially, many researchers found that adding tiny amounts of
nanoparticles to a conventional cooling liquid could significantly increase the critical heat flux (CHF). In this
study, the CHF and heat-transfer coefficient under the pool-boiling state were tested using grapheme M-5, M-15,
and oxidized grapheme M-5. The results showed that the highest CHF increase for both graphene M-5 and
M-15 was at the volume fraction of 0.01 %, and that the CHF-increase ratio for grapheme M-5 nanofluid with
long diameter was higher than that for graphene M-15 nanofluid with short diameter. In addition, at the volume
fraction of 0.01 %, the oxidized graphene M-5 nanofluid indicated a 41.82% higher CHF-increase ratio. Also,
the heat-transfer coefficient of the oxidized graphene M-5 nanofluid increases an approximately 20.90% higher
than that of the graphene M-5 nanofluid without oxidation treatment at the excess temperature ( Twall  Tsat )
that the CHF of distilled water is occurred.

Key words: Graphene, Critical heat flux, Heat-transfer coefficient, Pooling boiling, Oxidation

P-ST-004

DEVELOPMENT OF A TURBOMACHINERY FOR THE


SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE POWER CYCLE
Junhyun Cho, Young-Jin Baik, Gilbong Lee, Ho-Sang Ra and Minsung Kim*

Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Energy Efficiency Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research,
Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: minsungk@kier.re.kr

A supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle has been focused as a promising power cycle due to its
compactness, a high efficiency and a wide applicability. A concentrating solar power(CSP), a waste heat
recovery(WHR) and a fuel cell systems are attractive applications for a supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle.
A 10 kWe-class turbo-alternator-compressor unit (TAC) using a centrifugal compressor and a radial turbine
was developed to operate the supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle and to generate electricity. A high
pressure condition of 130 bar induces large pressure different between the front and backside of the compressor
impeller and the turbine wheel. In addition, a high rotation speed and a high density characteristics of the
supercritical carbon dioxide induce large tip clearance loss. Therefore, a fully shrouded type of the compressor
impeller and the turbine wheel were developed to overcome large thrust force and large tip clearance loss.
A labyrinth seal was manufactured to both side of the impeller to regulate pressure difference across the impeller
face. A cold run of 70,000 rpm was successful.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-ST-005

REDUCING ELECTRIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION DURING POWER


GRID ON-PEAK PERIOD FOR PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATING
SYSTEMS WITH ELECTRIC BACK-UP HEATER
Kyoung-Ho LEE1*, Moon-Chang JOO1, Eung-Sang Yoon1 and Nam-Choon BAEK1

1
Solar thermal laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: khlee@kier.re.kr

In this study, we performed experimental evaluation of passive solar water heating systems to shift electric
energy consumption. The passive solar water heating system was set up for experimental evaluation that has
a back-up electric heater at the riser tube instead of at the outlet of the system as the conventional system.
Evacuated tube type solar collectors with heat pipe was used for solar collectors of the system. The collectors
were installed vertically as a design for a building-integrated solar collection system. The storage tank is
separately installed above the solar collectors. The area of solar collectors were 1.33m2 and the volumes of
the cylinder inside and outside of the storage tank were 133L and 13.3L. Prior to the on-peak period, the heater
was turned on to store heat in storage tank of the passive solar water heating system. In this experiment, electric
energy consumption was reduced by about 65% compared to conventional control.

P-ST-006

WIND LOAD ANALYSIS ON THE NORTH-DAEGU CSP PLANT


1 2 3 2
Wan-Ho JEON , Yong-Heack KANG , Hyun-Jin LEE and Hyun-Goo KIM *

1
CEDIC, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea
2
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Solar Thermal Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hyungoo@kier.re.kr

A CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) plant consists of several hundreds of heliostats (mirrors) to concentrate
a large area of sunlight - or solar thermal energy - onto a small upper area of a high-rise tower. Electrical
power is produced when the concentrated light is converted into heat over 1,500oC by a heat engine, or solar
heat can be stored temporarily for use at nighttime. The heliostat array, which accounts for about 40% of the
total construction cost of a CSP plant, is vulnerable to wind load, possibly causing a dangerous out-focus
problem at a high-temperature upper area. Therefore, there is a need for a reliable, accurate design for the
reduction of wind load on heliostat arrays to ease the structural requirement and secure safety as well as cut
down cost. This study demonstrates the CFD analysis on the wind load characteristics for the 200 kW CSP
plant in operation located near the North-Daegu Interchange in South Korea, where 450 heliostats are installed
across a 20,300 m2 area.

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P-ST-007

SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL TWO-STEP WATER-SPLITTING


USING CeO2 COATED FOAM DEVICE FOR HYDROGEN
PRODUCTION
Satoshi Tsuchida1, Hyun Seok Cho1, Shintaro Kawakami1, Takuya Myojin1,
2 1
Nobuyuki Gokon * and Tatsuya Kodama

1
Dept. of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho,
Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, JAPAN
2
Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181,
JAPAN

* Corresponding author: ngokon@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp

The joint international project of Niigata University (Japan) G Korea Institute of Energy Research, KIER
(Korea) on the Solar demonstration of Water-Splitting Reactor using Ceramic Foam Device aims to develop
a novel-type of solar reactor with reactive cerium oxide foam devices for high-temperature two-step
thermochemical water splitting cycle, and to demonstrate its performances on sun with a 45-kWth solar furnace.
The reactive CeO2 foam device for the two-step water splitting is developed by Niigata University, Japan, and
involves coating zirconia foam with reactive CeO2. The project includes the development of reactive foam
devices, the new design and the fabrication of solar reactor with the reactive foam devices, and finally the
solar demonstration on the KIERs 45-kWth solar furnace in Korea. In this paper, 15 cm CeO2-coated MPSZ
(CeO2/MPSZ) foam device was tested for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycle on sun with a 45-kWth
solar furnace in Korea. The temperatures of the foam device at a center position were controlled to 1400-1600C
for the T-R step, and 700-1000C for the subsequent W-D step by blind shutter. Hydrogen was cyclically
produced from the CeO2/MPSZ foam device by a solar thermochemical two-step water-splitting, and the rate
of hydrogen production and CeO2 conversion were calculated.

302
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-ST-008

FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR FOR SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL


TWO-STEP WATER-SPLITTING CYCLE
1 2 1
Akane Takeuchi , Tetsuro Etori, Shinosuke Yokota, Sumie Ito, Nobuyuki Gokon * and Tatsuya Kodama

1
Dept. of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho,
Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, JAPAN
2
Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181,
JAPAN

* Corresponding author: ngokon@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp

This paper firstly described the review of flowability conditions of bed material (CeO2 pasrticles) for the
fluidized bed reactor to produce hydrogen from water. Subsequently, a thermochemical two-step water splitting
using CeO2/CeO2-K redox pair was performed under the flowability conditions by using a sun-simulator. The
process is capable of converting high-temperature heat from concentrated solar radiation into clean hydrogen
from water. In this study, experimental visualization was made to accumulate phenomenological knowledge to
drive the thermochemical two-step water splitting cycle. The visualization for the cold particle bed with no
radiation revealed that the global circulation of CeO2 particles occurs between two towers by the aeration with
the different line velocities. The aerial flow conditions were determined by the visualization test. Based on
the conditions, a windowed fluidized bed reactor was designed, fabricated and tested for the thermochemical
two-step water splitting using CeO2 particles by concentrated Xe light radiation. The loading amount of CeO2
particles was about 1400 gram; N2 gas and N2+steam flowed into thermal reduction and water-decomposition
towers, respectively. Oxygen and hydrogen were successfully produced under each gas flow, respectively.
Average production rate enhanced under the optimized flowability conditions.

303
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-ST-009

DEVELOPMENT OF METAL-DOPED CERIA AIMED AT LOWER


TEMPERATURE OF THERMAL REDUCTION STEP OF
THERMOCHEMICAL TWO-STEP WATER-SPLITTING CYCLE FOR
SOLAR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
1 2 1
Toshinori Suda , Nobuyuki Gokon * and Tatsuya Kodama

1
Dept. of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho,
Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, JAPAN
2
Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181,
JAPAN

* Corresponding author: ngokon@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp

Thermochemical two-step water-splitting using metallic ion (Me) doped cerium oxide (Me-CeO2; M = Fe,
Co, Ni, Mn) particles was examined for hydrogen production from water using concentrated solar radiation.
A characteristic of oxygen productivity and repeatability for the Me-CeO2 was studied using thermal reduction
(T-R) temperatures of 1200-1500 C. Me-CeO2 particles were synthesized by a wet process using a method
involving the co-precipitation of the Me-CeO2 precursor from the mixed aqueous solutions of Ce and metallic
nitrates. The powder sample was heated to the T-R step temperatures of 12001500 C within 1 min using
an infrared furnace while passing N2 gas through the reactor at a flow rate of 1.0 Ndm3min1. During the
T-R step, variations in oxygen partial pressure in the product gases were measured with respect to reaction
time, and the amounts of oxygen evolved were determined from the spectrum of oxygen partial pressures. The
30mol%Mn-CeO2 greatly enhances oxygen productivity than undoped pure CeO2 in the T-R step, and shows
a stable repeatability for the cyclic reaction. Furthermore, the 30mol%Mn-CeO2 can reduce T-R step temperature
with maintenance of superior performance of oxygen productivity and repeatability than the undoped pure CeO2
and the other Me-CeO2.

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P-WE-001

ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR THE LOAD MEASUREMENT OF


WIND TURBINE GENERATOR SYSTEMS
1 1 2
Kyehwan GIL *, Chinwha CHUNG and Je-Sung BANG

1
Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea
2
Department of System Reliability, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: khgil@postech.ac.kr

Load measurement, which is performed based on IEC/TS 61400-13, consists of three stages: first, the stage
of collecting huge amounts of load measurement data through a measurement campaign lasting for several
months; second, the stage of processing the measured data, including data validation and classification; and
third, the stage of analyzing the processed data through time series analysis, load statistics analysis, frequency
analysis, load spectrum analysis, and equivalent load analysis. In this research, we developed an analysis software
in MATLAB to save both time and labor and to secure exact and consistent performance evaluation data in
processing and analyzing load measurement data. The completed analysis software is also capable of processing
and analyzing power performance measurement data in accordance with IEC 61400-12. The analysis software
was effectively applied for the fulfillment of the relevant processing and analyses of load measurement data
obtained from a demonstration research for a 750 kW direct-drive wind turbine generator system, performed
at the Daegwanryeong Wind Turbine Demonstration Complex, Korea. This paper describes the details of the
analysis software and the stages of processing and analysis for load measurement data and presents the analysis
results.

P-WE-002

DEVELOPMENT OF WIND TURBINE EMULATION SYSTEM


BASED ON IEC 61400-25 & IEC 61850
Jae Kyung LEE1*, Ki Yong OH, Dong Wook KIM, Chang Hun CHAE, Seung Hwan JU and
Joon Young PARK

1
Offshore Wind Energy R&BD Department, KEPCO, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jklee78@kepco.co.kr

Recently, wind energy market has been rapidly grown up due to the high economic feasibility. To keep
pace with the rapid changes in the market, Korean government released a roadmap for offshore wind
development in 2010 and planned to establish test-bed offshore wind farm in the South-west coast. The test-bed
offshore wind farm will be created in Young-gwang offshore region with several home-grown offshore wind
power generators. However, each wind turbine manufacturers communicate their SCADA(Supervisory Control
And Data Acquisition) system using their own communication protocol, unified SCADA system should be
designed and operated at the control center to manage the wind farm.
To solve this problem, this paper presents IEC61400-25 and IEC 61850 based wind turbine emulation system
to simulate heterogeneous types of wind turbines. The emulator system modified IEC61850 SCL(System
Configuration description Language) to apply IEC61400-25 schema. The system also designed compatible
enough to emulate heterogeneous wind turbine information model. Developed system tests interoperability when
new type of wind turbine information model has added on the wind farm.

307
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WE-003

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PERMANENT MAGNET


SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR FOR SMALL WIND TURBINE
1
Jae Kyung LEE *, Ki Yong OH, Ji Yeong KWAK and Joon Young PARK

1
Offshore Wind Energy R&BD Department, KEPCO, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jklee78@kepco.co.kr

The wind energy, one of the renewable energy, has been used for centuries all over the world. With the
great concern on the global energy crisis, wind power generation has attracted increasing attention. Especially,
large scale offshore wind farms are developed and under developing because of high economic feasibility.
Though small scale wind energy conversion has not been highlighted as large scale wind turbine, it is still
large enough to cover household-based electricity demand and cost efficient. When converting mechanical energy
to the electrical energy, the key component is wind turbine generator. To improve efficiency and reliability
of wind turbine generator, several researches are carried out such as AFPMSG(Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet
Synchronous Generator) and PMSG(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) for a vertical axis wind turbine.
This paper present an analytic design of small scale wind turbine generator using permanent magent
synchronous generator for the small wind turbine and performance analysis result of designed wind turbine
generator using FEM(Finite Elements Analysis).

P-WE-004

RESEARCH ON DYNAMIC MODELING METHOD OF WIND


TURBINE ROLLING BEARING WITH SURFACE DAMAGE FAULT
Jigang Wu1*, Mian Jiang1, Lingli Jiang2 and Xuejun Li2

1
Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Health Maintenance for Mechanical Equipment, Hunan University of
Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Advanced Mine Equipment, Ministry of Education, Hunan University of Science
and Technology, Xiangtan, China

* Corresponding author: jgwu@foxmail.com

The rolling bearing is the key parts of a wind turbine. Since the bad work condition, the rolling bearings
have faults easily. The key of rolling bearing fault mechanism research is that the built dynamic model of
rolling bearing fault is effective and conform to the actual working condition. The contact equivalent stiffness
and contact equivalent damping are introduced, and the rolling bearing clearance and change of load area are
took into account, and then the spring-damping system vibration model of rolling bearing is established. A
single fault source was added to model of normal rolling bearing on this basis, and the vibration model of
rolling bearing with single fault is built by loading the impulse function generated by surface damage point
into the outer ring, inner ring and rolling body respectively. The vibration models are solved with fourth-order
Runge-Kutta method, and then the vibration data of inner ring are obtained and analyzed in frequency spectrum.
The correctness of vibration model of fault rolling bearing was confirmed by the multi-body dynamics simulation
of fault rolling bearing and practical test experiments.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WE-005

HIGH FIDELITY PARAMETRIC MODELING OF WHOLE WIND


TURBINE AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ITS SIMULATION
RESULTS
Mian Jiang1*, Jigang Wu1, Guangbin Wang2 and Xuejun Li2

1
Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Health Maintenance for Mechanical Equipment, Hunan University of
Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Advanced Mine Equipment, Ministry of Education, Hunan University of Science
and Technology, Xiangtan, China

* Corresponding author: jiangmian1983@aliyun.com

Wind turbine is the large flexible electromechanical system which undertook transient aerodynamic excitation,
and has high degree dynamic effect. In order to obtain the real dynamic effect of the wind turbine, all kinds
of coupling effect of aeroelasticity, mechanical system and control system must be took into account adequately.
A high fidelity whole parametric modeling which contains the flexibility and nonlinearity of components,
interaction between components is built with S4WT based on the nonlinear finite element theory which can
simulate flexible multi-body dynamics system and momentum-blade element theory which can represent the
aerodynamics and unity coupling and integration connected with the control system. The wind turbine time
domain and frequency domain loads simulation results are acquired on the normal generation condition at the
average wind velocity of 3m/s and 12m/s respectively, and the simulation results are comparative analyzed with
the measured results, Bladed simulation results and low fidelity parametric simulation results. It is indicated
by the comparative analysis that high fidelity parametric modeling of whole wind turbine can simulate the
dynamic behavior accurately, and improve the reliability of the design, at the same time, shorten the development
period and reduce the development cost.

309
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WE-006

EFFECT OF SUBSTRUCTURE ON ULTIMATE LOAD ASSESSMENT


OF NREL 5MW OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE
1 1 1
Bae-Sung Kim , Chan-Woong Choi and Ki-Weon Kang *

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: kwkang68@kunsan.ac.kr

This research aims to identify the effect of substructures on the ultimate loads of offshore wind turbine.
For this, the ultimate loads of NREL 5MW generic model were assessed with the two kinds of substructures:
the jacket and monopole structures. Firstly, the NREL 5MW generic model was implemented in the
GH-BladedTM using the published NREL report. Here the specifications of monopole and jacket structures came
from the published NREL and UPWIND report, 9respectively. According to the design load cases (DLC) and
their conditions from the IEC 61400-3 and the published UPWIND project report, we analyzed the ultimate
loads of offshore wind turbine and investigated the effect of substructure types (monopole and jacket structures)
on the ultimate loads of offshore wind turbine.

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by a Human Resources Development of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology
Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (No. 20124010203240)
and by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology
(KIAT) and Honam Institute for Regional Program Evaluation through the Leading Industry Development for
Economic Region(No. R0001595).

310
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WE-007

TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION FOR SUBSTRUCTRE WITH


TRANSISTION PIECE IN NREL 5MW GENERIC WIND TURBINE
MODEL
Won Cheol KIM1, Tae Jin CHUNG2, and Ki Weon KANG2*

1
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate school of Kunsan natl University, Gunsan, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kunsan natl University, Gunsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: kwkang68@kunsan.ac.kr

This study aims to perform topology optimization to anti-resonance design of substructure with transition
piece, greatest impact on vibration characteristics of offshore wind turbine. Topology optimization method was
explored material arrangement of optimum that have design variable of physical constant. After defining the
design and non-design area, the FE-model was applied using the ultimate load of NREL generic model, assessed
through the GH-BladedTm. And then, connecting for substructure with transition piece was performed structural
design by the same method. Topology optimization method was used SIMP. The objective function was to
minimize the deformation energy as to increase stiffness of the structure. Constraint function was limited the
frequency mode of 1st fore-aft, 1st side-side in 1P and 3P. The topology optimization for substructure gave
us the four leg quad structure and x-bracing structure. Finally, we compared the optimized model with
conventional model.

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the Human Resources Development program(No.20124010203240) of the Korea
Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government
Ministry of Knowledge Economy. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through
the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
(No.NRF-2011-0023016).

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P-WE-008

NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF WIND TURBINE AERODYNAMIC


NOISE WITH WALL-PRESSURE SPECTRAL MODEL
1 1
Seunghoon LEE * and Soogab LEE

1
Center for Environmental Noise and Vibration Research, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National
University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: kami00@snu.ac.kr

A numerical method to predict wind turbine aerodynamic noise is proposed by using an analytic trailing
edge noise model and a wall-pressure spectral model for flow with adverse pressure gradient. Reynolds-averaged
Navier-Stokes simulation and XFOIL code are used to obtain the wall-point pressure spectra at wind turbine
blade sections. This method is fast and reliable numerical model which is applicable for use in industrial
applications. For the validation of the numerical method, noise measurement is also carried out for a 10kW
wind turbine, and a comparison is made between the predicted results and the measured data. The comparison
results indicate that the proposed numerical model successfully predicts the aerodynamic noise from wind
turbines. In addition, the aerodynamic noise from a 3MW wind turbine is predicted at various inflow wind
speeds and distances. This method would give more reliable results than other methods for predicting trailing
edge noise such as a semi-empirical formula. This work was supported by the Human Resources Development
program (No. 20124030200030) of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP)
grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy.

P-WE-009

CALCULATION OF A WIND TURBINE DEGRADATION USING


SCADA DATA WITH LIDAR CALIBRATION
Hyun-Goo KIM*, Yong-Heack KANG and Chang-Yeol YUN

New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hyungoo@kier.re.kr

Using the short-term SCADA data of the Shinan Wind Power Plant located on Bigeumdo Island of the
southwestern coast of Korea, degradation of wind turbine due to aging was first analyzed quantitatively in Korea.
The suggested method calculates the difference between the theoretical power production from nacelle
anemometrys wind speed and the actual power production, which is supposed to increase due to aging, instead
of the normalized capacity factor method that requires long-term monthly data. The suggested method is expected
to be able to compensate the variance of wind speed by short time less than the monthly period. Since accurate
wind speed data are needed, the nacelle anemometry agitated by wake generated by blade rotation was calibrated
by comparing with the accurate LiDAR measurements. The analysis of operating record of Shinan Wind Power
Plant for the past 5 years confirmed that the performance of wind turbine deteriorated at the rate of 0.53%/year.
Such is consistent with the capacity factor reduction rate range of 0.4~0.9% of inland wind farms in the UK
and Denmark but lower than the 2%/year of inland wind farms in Canada.

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P-WE-010

OFFSHORE WIND MAP CATALOGUE OF SOUTH KOREA


COMPILED BY SAR WIND RETRIEVAL
*
Hyo-Jung HWANG, Yong-Heack KANG, Chang-Yeol YUN and Hyun-Goo KIM

New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hyungoo@kier.re.kr

With the dissemination of inland wind energy in South Korea facing difficulties because of the environmental
regulation barrier, there is an attempt to achieve the renewable energy dissemination target through the
development of offshore wind farms. In the offshore of Yeonggwang-Gochang, the government-led project to
build a 100 MW pilot plant is currently ongoing as Phase 1 of the 2.5 GW offshore wind project in the southwest
offshore. For that, two offshore meteorological towers have been built in the region. Moreover, two other
offshore meteorological towers were installed at the coastal waters of Hallim-eup in Jeju Island and Sinan-gun.
Since the offshore meteorological tower measurements provide only local wind resource information, EU has
implemented the NORSEWInD project to make a high-resolution, reliable offshore wind map through
satellite-based remote sensing. The Korea Institute of Energy Research pursues the same offshore wind mapping
by validating a numerical weather prediction with the extracted offshore wind fields around the Korean Peninsula
from more than 170 SAR (Synthetic Radar Aperture) satellite images covering the period 2005~2011. This
poster introduces the systematic categorization of the offshore wind field scenes extracted from satellite images
and uncertainty analysis depending on CMOD algorithms, which are necessary to publish an offshore wind
map book.

P-WE-011

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DIURNAL VARIATION OF


WIND PROFILE EXPONENT IN JEJU-DO, SOUTH KOREA
Jorge Ismael Reyes MONTES1,2, Yong-Heack KANG2, Chang-Yeol YUN2 and Hyun-Goo KIM2*

1
Leave from Earth Sciences Department, Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero, Mexico
2
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hyungoo@kier.re.kr

The wind profile exponent, that is the measure of vertical wind shear, i.e., wind profile shape, is mostly
influenced by the surface roughness (zo) and the atmospheric stability, which is the air displacement to a lower
ambient pressure altitude. In this study, the diurnal variation of the vertical wind shear profile or power law
exponent (known as alpha ) of 20 measurement sites at Jeju-Do was analyzed to determine with a
mathematical model and quantitative analysis the productivity of turbine rotor blade influenced by its roughness
terrain at hub-height. According to its mathematical properties, a sinusoidal equation was applied to model G
mathematically in terms of a neutrally stable atmosphere, following the best approximate coefficient of
determination (R2 ~ 1) in each profile. The amplitude of the sine wave equation is expected to favor feasibility
for important wind resource assessment portrayal given its resemblance to wind profile exponent with the
conviction to meet high turbine rotor blade productivity.

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P-WE-012

DEVELOPMENT OF GEARBOX TEST RIG FOR 6 DOF LOADINGS


Ju Seok NAM1, Young Jun PARK1*, Jeong Woo HAN1, Yong Yun NAM1 and Geun Ho LEE1

1
Department of System Reliability, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: yjpark77@kimm.re.kr

We have developed an electric back-to-back type of gearbox test rig capable of applying 6 DOF loadings.
The basic layout of the test rig was constructed for the test of scale-downed model of 3 point suspension gearbox
for wind turbine. The test rig includes an input motor, output dynamometer, and five linear hydraulic actuators
to control 6 DOF loadings and rotational speed. Both static and dynamic loadings can be forced with the capacity
of 300 kN for axial force, and 50 kN for radial force. Because each component has been designed to have
sufficient safety against external loadings, the test rig can be used for durability test as well as performance
test. Also, a CV joint was used for the compensation of shaft deflection effect. Two torque meters and speed
sensors were used for the monitoring of applied torque and speed, and non-torque loading levels were calculated
by force and moment balance equations using each actuator force and structural characteristics of the test rig.
The applicable gearbox capacity is a maximum of 75kW (100hp), and the test rig can be used for various
field of gearboxes because of their high reproducibility of operational conditions.

P-WE-013

INFLUENCE OF NON-TORQUE LOADIGNS ON THE LOAD


SHARING AND LOAD DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF 3
POINT SUSPENSION GEARBOX FOR WIND TURBINE
Ju Seok NAM1, Young Jun PARK1*, Jeong Woo HAN1, Yong Yun NAM1 and Geun Ho LEE1

1
Department of System Reliability, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: yjpark77@kimm.re.kr

The experimental study has been conducted to investigate the effect of non-torque loadings on the load sharing
and load distribution characteristics of planetary gear set. The test gearbox was scale-downed model of 3 point
suspension gearbox used in 2 MW wind turbine consisting of three stages; a low speed planetary gear stage
(LSPG), a high speed planetary gear stage (HSPG), and a parallel shaft gear stage (PSG). The load sharing
and load distributions characteristics in the LSPG were measured by several strain gauges attached on the tooth
roots of ring gear, and comparatively analyzed according to loading conditions. The loading conditions were
divided into two groups, i.e., the torque only condition and adding non-torque loadings condition, and the applied
non-torque loading components were axial force, radial force, and moment. The experimental results showed
that adding non-torque loadings condition worsened the load sharing characteristics compared to torque only
condition. The load distribution characteristics, on the other hand, did not show significant differences between
torque only and adding non-torque loading conditions. The effects of system characteristics such as gearbox
structure, stiffness of each component, and misalignment as well as phase of non-torque loading components
should be studied as a further research.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WE-014

DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANICAL BACK-TO-BACK TEST RIG


FOR WIND TURBINE GEARBOX
1 1 1 1 1
Young-Jun PARK *, Geun-Ho LEE , Jeong-Gil KIM , Yong-Yun NAM and Heung-Sub KIM

1
Department of System Reliability, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: yjpark77@kimm.re.kr

As the wind turbines are getting larger in power and size, the wind turbine gearboxes (WTG) that transfer
input power (low speed & high torque) from a rotor to a generator(high speed & low torque) are also getting
larger. The WTG is very expensive and generally well known as the component with the highest failure rate.
Additionally, because it is installed in the narrow space of a nacelle inside of a high tower, the failure of
the WTG typically results in long repair time and high repair costs. Therefore, there are important parameters
like reliability (performance such as efficiency, noise, vibration and durability) need to be experimentally
investigated in the developed WTG.
Recently, gearboxes more than 3MW have been developing in Korea and domestic companies developing
multi-MW gearboxes are suffering difficulties to prove the reliability of their products acting as barriers for
the entry into overseas markets and lack of test rig and test techniques to evaluate the performance and fatigue
life of produced gearboxes.
Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM) has developed the mechanical back-to-back test rig for
WTG where gearboxes less than 5.5 MW can be tested. Not only performance and endurance test but also
overload test can be carried out in this test rig. It is also evident that the test rig developed will be used to
test multi-MW gearboxes in many applications such as the wind energy, power plant, ship, etc.

P-WE-015

EFFECTS OF DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO VERTICAL-AXIS SMALL


WIND TURBINES ON PERFORMANCE
Sang-Moon Lee1, Jang-Ho, Lee2 and Choon-Man Jang1*

1
Water Resources & Environment Research Department, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building
Technology, Goyang, Korea
2
School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: jangcm@kict.re.kr

The numerical analysis has been performed to investigate the effects of the distance between vertical-axis
small wind turbines (VAWTs) on the aerodynamic performances. The numerical model of the VAWT has been
constructed through the numerical domain consideration, the grid dependency test, the turbulent model selection,
and validation with the experimental results. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations have
been solved as governing equations to calculate the flow phenomena around the VAWTs. The relative locations
and rotating directions of the two or more of VAWTs have been varied to evaluate the effects on the turbine
performance. Blade force and torque are used to estimate the aerodynamic performances of the VAWTs. Uniform
and non-uniform velocities are applied as inlet boundary condition. The results show that the occurrence of
the wake flows between VAWTs is hardly affected to the aerodynamic performances of the VAWTs.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WE-016

CLASSIFICATION OF WIND SYSTEM BY USING A SIMILARITY


OF TIME-SERIES WIND VECTORS
1 1 2
Jinsol KIM , Hyeong-Dong PARK and Hyun-Goo KIM *

1
Department of Energy Resource Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
2
New & Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hyungoo@kier.re.kr

Understanding variability of wind speed and direction is essential for wind resource assessment. In the region
with complex terrain, wind variability increases and various local wind systems can be formed. Since South
Korea is a typical example of complex terrain, it is hard to comprehend local wind systems. Therefore,
classification of wind sectors is needed to figure out the exact wind systems. This paper classifies wind sectors
by applying cluster analysis depending on the similarity of wind vectors. Classification was carried out for
Jeju and Busan, evaluating the general validity of classification method, using the KIER-WindMapTM that
includes wind speed and direction time-series data for multiple years. Jeju is the biggest island in Korea having
a relatively simple topography while Busan is the second biggest city in Korea and complex terrain. The
clustering result shows the effectiveness of the proposed wind sector classification method. Jeju and Busan are
classified into 3 and 9 wind sectors, respectively. Wind systems of Jeju are divided by north, south, east and
west sectors from the almost 2 km-high Halla Mountain peak while Busan wind sectors well correspond to
the topographic characteristics of the city.

P-WE-017

SEISMIC RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF OFFSHORE WIND


TURBINE SUPPORT STRUCTURE
Gee Nam LEE1 and Dong Hyawn KIM1*

1
Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Kunsan National University, Miryong, Kunsan, Jeonbuk, Korea

* Corresponding author: welcomed@naver.com

Seismic reliability analysis of jacket type support structure for offshore wind turbine was performed. When
defining the limit state function by using dynamic response of support structure, a number of dynamic
calculations should be done in such approach as FORM (first-order reliability method). That means analysis
cost goes too much high. Therefore, in this paper, a new reliability analysis approach using static response
is used. Dynamic effect of the response is considered by introducing a new parameter called dynamic response
factor(DRF). The probability distribution of DRF can be estimated by using peak value in dynamic response.
The probability distribution of DRF was obtained for a set of ground motions. Numerical example was shown
to compare the proposed approach with conventional static response based approach.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WE-018

RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY-BASED OFFSHORE WIND


TURBINE FOUNDATION CONSIDERING LOAD UNCERTAINTY
1 2 3
Dong Hyawn Kim *, Sang Geun Lee and Gil Lim Yoon

1
Department of Ocean Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea
2
Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Korea
3
Coastal Development & Ocean Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology,
Ansan, Korea

* Corresponding author: welcomed@naver.com

Reliability analysis of gravity-based foundation (GBF) for offshore wind turbine (OWT) under ocean
environmental loads was performed. And Limit state function (LSF) of GBF is defined by DNV standard.
Estimated the extreme distribution of the wind and wave load using peak over threshold (POT) method.
Reliability index is found using first order reliability method.

P-WE-019

FOWT CONTROL ALGORITHM DESIGN TECHNIQUES TO AVOID


RESONANCE BETWEEN FOWT AND WAVE
Jin Seop Song1, Jong Hwa Kim1*, Chae Whan Rim1 and Seok Jun Moon1

1
Mechanical Systems Safety Research Division, KIMM, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: kjwone@kimm.re.kr

Offshore wind farm developments are increasing because feasible onshore sites for wind farms are almost
exhausted. It is known that floating type costs less than fixed type as the water depth exceeds 60m. Unlike
fixed offshore wind turbine, FOWT (Floating Offshore Wind Turbine) has more dynamic motion depending
on FOWT system characteristics and environmental conditions such as wind, wave and currents, which may
cause FOWT control instability. Therefore some modifications to fixed wind turbine control algorithm are
necessary for FOWT to have stable control performance. In this research, a FOWT control algorithm with
platform pitch motion feedback and blade pitch control gain modification is designed to avoid the resonance
between FOWT and wave. The FOWT with the designed control shows stable control performance under various
dynamic simulation cases as shown in table 1. OC3-Hywind model and NRELs FAST program are used in
this research.

Table 1. Wind and Wave Condition


Simulation Case Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6
Wind(Kaimal) Mean Speed 6.30 9.10 11.89 14.69 17.49 21.63
Significant Height (m) 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Wave(Pierson-Moskowitz) Significant Period (s) 8.77 7.78 7.08 8.42 8.23 7.74

Reference site : This site is located at 61 20GN latitude, 0 0GE longitude on the prime meridian northeast
of the Shetland Islands, which are northeast of Scotland.

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P-WE-020

OPTIMUM DESINGS OF THE HYBRID VERTICAL AXIS WIND


TURBINES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE AND LOW-NOISE
1 1
Sanghyeon Kim and Cheolung Cheong *

1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea

* Corresponding author: ccheong@pusan.ac.kr

The hybrid vertical axis wind turbine consisting of the Savonius and Darrieus turbines can utilize the merits
of two-types of turbines by making up for the weak point of each turbine. However, noise levels radiated from
the hybrid turbine are larger than those of the Savonius or Darrieus type of turbine. In this study, the optimum
design of the hybrid vertical axis wind turbines is proposed in terms of high performance and low-noise. First,
to assess the performance of the hybrid vertical-axis turbine, three-dimensional unsteady flow field around the
hybrid wind turbine is investigated by solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations as the governing
equation with Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) techniques to predict the mechanical performance of the
wind turbine. Then, acoustical performance of the hybrid turbine is predicted by solving the Ffowcs Williams
and Hawkings equation with sources modelled from the numerical results of unsteady flow field results. Based
on these numerical methods, the blade shapes and relative configuration of the two types of wind turbine is
optimized to achieve high performance and low noise.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


P-BE-001

STUDY ON THE UPGRADING OF PYROLYSIS OIL:


HYDRO-DEOXYGENATION OF 2-METHOXYPHENOL OVER
PALLADIUM BASED CATALYSTS
Kyung-Ran Hwang1*, Il-Ho Choi1, In-Gu Lee1, Kyong-Hwan Lee1, Ji Sun Yun2 and Jin-Suk Lee1

1
Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: hkran@kier.re.kr

It is well known that biomass is the only renewable source for producing liquid transportation fuels among
the other renewable resources. Especially, pyrolysis oil, which is the liquid product from the fast pyrolysis of
lignocellulosic biomass, is one of the promising sustainable materials for transportation fuel production. The bio-oil
is dark brown and free-flowing with smoky odor and has more than 300 chemical compounds. In particular, the
bio-oil has very high oxygen content up to 40 wt. %, leading to the low heating value, thermal instability and
high acidity. Thus, the bio-oil is not ready to end use and must be upgraded for further applications. Among
the catalytic upgrading methods, hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) is typically performed to enhance the quality of
the bio-oil. We have studied palladium based catalysts for hydro-deoxygenation upgrading of 2-methoxyphenol
which is one of the minor but significant components in pyrolysis oil. Under the reaction conditions of 300 oC,
4h and 70 bar of hydrogen, conversion and degree of deoxygenation (DO) were 100% and 90% over the Pd/TiO2
catalyst. The main products were cyclohexane and methyl-cyclohexane, all oxygen free products.

P-BE-002

STUDY ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE HIGH QUALITY JET FUEL


IN SINGLE-STEP PROCESS
1 1 1 2 3 1
Kyung-Ran Hwang *, Il-Ho Choi , Kyong-Hwan Lee , Ji Sun Yun , Jeong Sik Han and Jin-Suk Lee *

1
Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul, Korea
3
Agency for Defense Development, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: hkran@kier.re.kr, bmjslee@kier.re.kr

Recently, triglycerides and free fatty acids from low cost feedstocks such as waste cooking oil, palm distillate
fatty acid and dark oil are important sources for the production of renewable liquid fuels which are comprised
of hydrocarbons similar to those found in conventional petroleum-fuels. They all can be converted to
hydrocarbons via heterogeneous catalytic reactions, deoxygenation, cracking and isomerization in sequence. More
recently, a single-stage hydrotreatment of feedstocks has been reported to produce high quality diesel-range
alkanes over zeolites catalysts. This direct and single stage is a significant advance in the process of conversion
of liquid biomass to drop-in fuels, jet and diesel. However, hydrogen is still consumed for this co-process even
though this is more economic and attractive process than the conventional one. The catalytic deoxygenation
of fatty acids was carried out over Pd-based zeolite catalysts in a single-stage reactor without any hydrogen
supply to produce hydrocarbons in the jet fuel ranges. The conversion of stearic acid was achieved to 100%
and the hydrocarbon in the jet fuel range was 76.7 % over Pd/HBeta catalyst, meaning that the high quality
hydrocarbons in the jet fuel ranges could be obtained via the one-step process without hydrogen.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-003

DEOXYGENATION OF STERIC AICD OVER ORDERED


MESOPOROUS CARBON SUPPORTED PALLADIUM CATALYSTS
Si-Ra Hwang, Min-Ji Kim, Tae-Wan Kim*, Ho-Jeong Chae, Jeong-Rang Kim,
Soon-Yong Jeong and Chul-Ung Kim*

Research Center for Green Catalysis, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 141 Gajeong-ro,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: twkim@krict.re.kr

We prepared a series of ordered mesoporous carbon materials (OMCs) possessing well-ordered mesoporosity
with different mesopore structures via hard template route. The OMCs were introduced as supports for the
catalytic deoxygenation of steric acid. The characteristics of the catalysts (Pd-supported OMCs, Pd/OMCs) were
scrutinized through a series of different techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder
X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption analysis, and CO chemisorption. The catalytic performance of deoxygenation
of steric acid was tested in a fixed-bed reactor with various reaction conditions. It was found that Pd-supported
OMCs exhibited the different catalytic activity such as conversion of steric acid and selectivity of products
with different reaction conditions, and structure of supports. Especially, the Pd/OMC showed less prone to
deactivation than the commercial activated carbon supported Pd catalyst. It could be attributed to the highly
dispersed metal nanoparticles, and well-ordered mesoporosity in the OMC supports, which facilitated facile
diffusion of liquid reactant and product in the catalyst during the deoxygenation reaction.

P-BE-004

FERMENTATION OF BASE TREATED KAPOK SEED FIBER


Su Young Yoon1, Yong Joo Sung2, Jong-Moon Park1 and Soo-Jeong Shin1*

1
Department of Wood and Paper Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Korea
2
Department of Biobased Materials, College of Agriculture and Life Science,
Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: soojshin@chungbuk.ac.kr

Base treated kapok (Ceiba pentandra [L.] Gaertn) seed fiber was enzymatic hydrolyzed for bioethanol
fermentation. Cellulose to glucose conversion by cellulase was reached only 10.3% (30 FPU cellulase/ g
substrate) for untreated kapok fiber. But the conversion rate of the pretreated kapok fiber was reached 83.2%
(30 FPU cellulase/ g substrate) and 64.5% (10 FPU cellulase/ g substrate) at 48 h hydrolysis. More than 80%
of glucose was converted to ethanol at 24 h by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation.

Acknowledgements
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation
of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2013R1A1A2004658).

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-005

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION IN


A MICROWAVE PLASMA BURNER
1,2 3 2 1
Sang Ju LEE , Yong Cheol HONG , Min KOO , Yong Wook SHIN ,
2 1,2
Chang Woo OHK and Bong Ju LEE *

1
School of Advanced Green Energy and Environment, Handong Global University, Heunghoe-Eup,
Buk-Gu, Pohang, Kyeongbuk, 791-708, Korea
2
Convergence Plasma Research Institute, Green Science, Jangseong-dong, Taebaek, Gangwon, 235-100, Korea
3
Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno,
Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-333, Korea

* Corresponding author: bjlee@handong.edu

The characteristics of biomass gasification in a microwave plasma burner for obtaining hydrogen-rich syngas
through large volume plasma, high oxygen density and high temperature plasma flame are studied in this paper.
As biomass energy has been identified by means of a clean energy source and a potential alternative fuel,
the experiments had been performed to examine the possibility for biomass gasification by making use of
biomass-injection into microwave plasma burner, which is mainly comprised of a biomass feeder as a biomass
injector into microwave plasma flame, a stainless tube as a plasma flame exit in series to a 2.45GHz microwave
plasma torch. Palm-skins had been taken as a representative biomass fuel, and mixture of air and oxygen had
been used as plasma forming gas to provide partial and near perfect combustion of palm-skin by atomic oxygen
and molecular singlet oxygen of high-density in the microwave plasma. In order to examine the possibility
for the implementation of microwave plasma burners at power plants, We had carried out feasibility tests of
the biomass plasma burner, obtaining the information of the plasma optical emission lines, before and after
plasma flames of palm-skin injection rates, temperature profile at different ratio of oxygen to palm-skin(O/P),
syngas compositions at different palm-skin injection rates, and so on.

P-BE-006

STUDY ON THE SUITABILITY OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE


OILS FOR BIO-FUEL OIL IN POWER PLANT
Eui-soon Yim1*, Jo Yong Park1 and Eun-Jung Jang1

1
Research Institute of Petroleum Technology, Korea Petroleum Quality & Distribution Authority(Kpetro),
Chungcheongbuk-do, 363-883, Korea

* Corresponding author: esyim@kpetro.or.kr

The present paper aims to study the prospect and opportunities of introducing vegetable and animal oils
and the derivatives as bio-fuel in power plant. Animal and vegetable oils for bio-fuel oil present a very promising
scenario of functioning as alternative fuels to fossil heavy oil. The properties of these oils can be compared
favorably with the characteristics required for boiler of power plant. Pour point, kinematic viscosity, total acid
number and flash point are discussed in relation with the bio-fuel oil and fossil heavy oil. Various sources
for bio-fuel oil are also discussed. The big issue for applying the vegetable and animal oils for bio-fuel oil
in power plant is to control kinematic viscosity and total acid number.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-007

EFFECT OF CHOLINE BASE DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENT


ON IN-SITE TRANSESTERIFICATION OF ALGAL LIPID
FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
Weidong LU1,2 and Zhongming WANG1*

1
Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, PR China
2
School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan, PR China

* Corresponding author: wangzm@giec.ac.cn

Algal biodiesel has been receiving increasing concern as an alternative of conventional fossil base diesel
and in-stiu (one-step) transesterification of algal biomass to biodiesel were intensively studied in the past
decades. In this study, choline base deep eutectic solvent (Ch-DES) was proposed as alternatives for sulfuric
acid and employed to evaluate effect on the in-situ transesterification of algal lipid for biodiesel production.
Results indicated that Ch-DES can significantly improve the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield. In addition,
effect of Ch-DES in reducing methanol consumption, reaction kinetics characteristics, effect of agitation and
Ch-DES addition amount were also studied. The results revealed that Ch-DES can reduce methanol consumption
and reaction rate constant (k) was higher compared to that of in-situ transesterification catalyzed by sulfuric
acid. FAME yield were found to be strongly related to agitation and Ch-DES addition amount. The profiles
of fatty acid transesterified from lipid catalyzed by Ch-DES were evaluated and results indicated that the main
components were palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acids. These findings demonstrated that Ch-DES were good
substitutes for sulfuric acid as catalysis of in-situ transesterification of microalgae lipid for biodiesel.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-008

EFFECT OF SILICA CONTENT ON HYDROTREATMENT OF


SOYBEAN OIL OVER SILICA-ALUMINA SUPPORTED
PLATINUM CATALYSTS
Yoon-Cheol Yang, Min-Cheol Kim, Tae-Wan Kim, Ho-Jeong Chae, Jeong-Rang Kim,
Soon-Yong Jeong and Chul-Ung Kim*

Research Center for Green Catalysis, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 141 Gajeong-ro,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: cukim@krict.re.kr

One-step hydrotreatment of soybean oil to produce diesel fuel hydrocarbon has been studied. Pt/silica-alumina
(SiO2-Al2O3) with different SiO2 contents (X, wt%) were used as a hyrotreating catalysts and their catalytic
activities are tested in a fixed-bed reactor. Silica-alumina supports and supported Pt catalysts were prepared
using a co-precipitation method with different silica contents and incipient wetness impregnation method,
respectively. NH3-TPD, N2 sorption analysis, and pyridine-IR spectroscopy were used to characterize the supports
and supported catalysts. The activity of the supported Pt catalyst for hydrotreatment was strongly dependent
on the Brnstead acid sites due to alumina content of the support. It was observed that the conversion of soybean
oil increases with the acidity of the catalyst, while there is an optimal acidity level for the selectivity to diesel
fuel hydrocarbon. Among the catalysts tested herein, Pt/SiO2-Al2O3 having moderate acidity (X = 30) showed
the highest yield for the production of diesel fuel hydrocarbon.

P-BE-009

APPLICATION OF WASTE FCC CATALYST TO PYROLYSIS


OF WILD REED
Myun Lang YOO1, Young-Kwon PARK2 and Sung Hoon PARK1*

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Jeonnam, Korea
2
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: shpark@sunchon.ac.kr

Fast pyrolysis experiments were carried out with wild reed. Waste FCC catalyst obtained from a petroleum
refinery was used as the pyrolysis catalyst. For comparative assessment of the catalytic activity of waste FCC
catalyst, HZSM-5 catalyst with a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 23 was also used. Experiments were conducted in the
temperature range of 450~550C. The kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis reaction were estimated using the
TGA analysis results. The composition of product bio-oil was analyzed using GC/MS. Compared to non-catalytic
pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis led to substantially reduced production of oxygenated species and enhanced
production of phenolic and aromatic species. The catalytic activity of waste FCC catalyst was a little lower
than that of HZSM-5.

Acknowledgement
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of
Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (grant number 2013R1A1A4A01005840).

325
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-010

FAST PYROLYSIS OF RED PEPPER STEM OVER WASTE


FCC CATALYST
1 2 1
Myun Lang YOO , Young-Kwon PARK and Sung Hoon PARK *

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Jeonnam, Korea
2
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: shpark@sunchon.ac.kr

Catalytic activity of waste FCC catalyst for the fast pyrolysis of waste red pepper stem was compared with
that of a representative zeolite catalyst HZSM-5 (SiO2/Al2O3 ratio = 23). TGA was used to investigate the
pyrolysis kinetics of the red pepper stem. Pyrolysis reaction began at approximately 200, almost completing
at 450. Activation energies at different temperature ranges were calculated by linear-fitting the conversion
data obtained from the TGA analysis. Based on the TGA results, pyrolysis experiments were performed at
450~550. GC/MS was used to analyze the product species contained in the bio-oil. The main species found
in the bio-oil obtained over HZSM-5 were phenolics, oxygenates, and aromatics, with a small fraction of
aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas the main product species of the catalytic pyrolysis over waste FCC catalyst
were phenolics, oxygenates, N-containing compounds, and aliphatic hydrocarbons, with a small fraction of
aromatic hydrocarbons. Waste FCC catalyst showed lower selectivity towards valuable chemicals, such as
aromatic hydrocarbons, than HZSM-5, indicating that adequate activation process will be needed.

Acknowledgement
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of
Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (grant number 2013R1A1A4A01005840).

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-011

IN SITU CATALYTIC UPGRADING OF JATROPHA PYROLYSIS


VAPORS IN A FIXED-BED REACTOR USING HZSM-5:
INFLUENCE OF PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES
Supawan VICHAPHUND1, Viboon SRICHAROENCHAIKUL2 and Duangduen ATONG1*

1
Ceramic Technology Research Unit, National Metal and Materials Technology Center,
Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University,
Bangkok, 10330, Thailand

* Corresponding author: duangdua@mtec.or.th

Catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolysis of Jatropha curcus L. wastes were carried out in a semi-continuous
fixed bed reactor for bio-oil production. The influences of pyrolysis temperatures (400-700C) and catalyst
on product yields and compositions were investigated. HZSM-5 prepared by hydrothermal method with surface
area of 625 m2/g was applied as a cracking catalyst. The total bio-oil yields were collected from water cooled
and liquid nitrogen condensers, while the solid yields were mainly obtained from the bottom of the reactor.
Gas yields were generally calculated by weight difference. The chemical compounds of liquid product (bio-oil)
from pyrolysis were analyzed by using GC/MS techniques. From the non-catalytic results, pyrolysis temperature
strongly affected the product yields of solid, liquid, and gas. Solid yield tended to decrease, while gas products
increased at greater pyrolysis temperature. Liquid product (bio-oil) was in range of 22-47% depending on
operating temperature. The maximum liquid yield of 47% was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 500C.
In the presence of HZSM-5 catalyst, the results showed that pyrolytic vapors could be catalytically converted
to hydrocarbon compounds at high pyrolysis temperature (500-700C). The formation of hydrocarbon led to
the high heating values of bio-oils. The presence of HZSM-5 contributed to reduce the undesirable compounds
such as acids, alcohols, ketones, esters, and N-containing compounds which cause poor quality of bio-oil. In
addition, the heating values of catalytic bio-oil from this study were 30.2 G32.4 MJ/kg which closed to those
of conventional liquid fuels, while the pH values of bio-oils were improved significantly.

327
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-012

CATALYTIC PYROLYSIS OF GEODAEUKSAE-1


OVER CHEAP CATALYSTS
1 1 2 3 1,4
Seong Ho JIN , Beom-Sik KIM , Changkook Ryu , Jong-Ki JEON and Young-Kwon PARK

1
Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331-717, Korea
4
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea

* Corresponding author: catalica@uos.ac.kr

The cheap catalysts such as bentonite, natural zeolites, spent FCC catalysts were assessed for the first time
for the catalytic fast pyrolysis of Geodae-Uksae-1, a variety of Miscanthus sacchariflorus. In non-catalytic
pyrolysis, the temperature for the maximum bio-oil yield was 500 C, which allowed sufficient conversion of
the solid to the vapor phase and suppressed the decomposition reactions in the vapor phase. Using the catalysts,
the bio-oil yield decreased with significant changes in composition as a result of active deoxygenation and
cracking reactions. This led to the release of CO2, CO and C1-C4 hydrocarbons to the gas phase. In the bio-oil
composition, the proportions of phenolics, mono-aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
increased, whereas those for acids, oxygenates and furans decreased. In particular, the use spent FCC catalysts
led to the largest proportion of mono-aromatics. Meanwhile the proportion of light phenolics, such as alkyl
phenolics, increased with the natural zeolites and bentonites.

P-BE-013

HYDRODEOXYGENATION OF BIO-OIL MODEL COMPOUNDS


OVER PLATIUM/HY ZEOLITES
Beom-Sik KIM1, Mi Jin YU1, Jong-Ki JEON2, Tae Su JO3, Kwang Seok CHEA3 and Young-Kwon PARK4*

1
Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331-717, Korea
3
Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI), Seoul 130-712, Korea
4
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea

* Corresponding author: catalica@uos.ac.kr

The hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil model compounds such as guaiacol and dibenzofuran which were derived
from the lignin and cellulose components of biomass has attracted considerable attention because of its huge
potential as a substitute for conventional fuels. In this study, platinum-loaded HY zeolites (Pt/HY) with different
Si/Al ratios were used as catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol and dibenzofuran into various
hydrocarbons. The cyclohexane (major product) yield increased with increasing number of acid sites, hydrogen
partial pressure, and stirring speed. To produce bio-oil with the maximum level of cyclohexane and alkylated
cyclohexanes that would be suitable as a substitute for conventional transportation fuels, the Si/Al ratio should
be optimized to balance the Pt particle-induced hydrogenation and acid site-induced methyl group transfer.

328
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-014

CATALYTIC COPYROYLSIS OF BIOMASS AND POLYPROPYLENE


OVER ZEOLITIC MATERIALS
1 1 2 3 1,4
Hyung Won LEE , Suek Joo CHOI , Jong-Ki JEON , Sung Hoon PARK and Young-Kwon PARK *

1
Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan 330-717, Korea
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 540-742, Korea
4
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea

* Corresponding author: catalica@uos.ac.kr

Catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass (L. japonica, wood, cellulose) and a plastic material (polypropylene) was
carried out for the first time using a fixed-bed reactor and Py-GC/MS over different catalysts: HZSM-5
(SiO2/Al2O3 = 23), mesoporous MFI, Pt/mesoporous MFI, and mesoporous Al-SBA-16. The catalysts were
characterized using BET and NH3-TPD analyses. Catalytic upgrading increased the yields of gas products (CO,
CO2, C1-C4) and water content in oil. The contents of oxygenates, acids, and wax species (hydrocarbons with
a carbon number larger than 17) were reduced substantially by catalytic upgrading, whereas the contents of
aromatics and light hydrocarbons in the gasoline and diesel range were significantly increased, enhancing the
economic value of the bio-oil. Among the catalysts used in this study, Pt/mesoporous MFI showed the highest
catalytic upgrading capability, which was attributed to large pore size, strong Brnsted acid sites, and the
catalytic effect of added Pt. The pore size was a more important factor in the removal of oxygenates and wax
species, whereas the strength of the acid sites was more important for the production of aromatics.

P-BE-015

CATALYTIC FAST PYROLYSIS OF CITRUS PEEL


Young Min KIM1, Hyung Won LEE1 and Young-Kwon PARK2

1
Graduate School of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743
2
School of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743, Korea

* Corresponding author: catalica@uos.ac.kr

A large amount of citrus peel is being produced with the increase of citrus production. Although citrus peel
has the potential for the bio-oil production, most of citrus waste is being dumped to land or ocean. Pyrolysis
has been widely adapted as a representative thermochemical process for the biomass conversion into liquid,
gas, and char. Fast pyrolysis of citrus peel produced bio-oils which contained methanol, acetic acid, and 5-HMF.
Although bio-oil has the valuable compounds, catalytic reforming is highly required to obtain the more valuable
and stable bio-oil than bio-oil for the actual commercialization.
In this study, catalytic pyrolysis of citrus peel was performed using rapid catalyst screening reactor-GC/MS.
Three kinds of catalysts which have different catalyst characteristics, HZSM-5, MesoMFI, and Al-MCM-41,
were employed for the comparison of catalytic reaction performance. Large amounts of aromatic compounds
(benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene) were obtained from the catalytic pyrolysis of citrus peel. This result
may indicate that catalytic pyrolysis is able to adapted as the useful tool for upgrading the quality of bio-oil
obtained by citrus peel pyrolysis.

329
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-016

FEASIBILITY STUDY ON BIOMETHANE PRODUCTION BASED


ON MARINE BIOMASS IN SOUTH KOREA
1 1 2 2 2
Seong Gyun Kang , Jeonghyeon Lee , Ji Woon Ma , Gwang Sik Shin , Ki Dong Kim ,
2 1
Young Sam Oh and Kyung Sik Choi

1
Marine Biotechnology Division, KIOST, Ansan, South Korea
2
KOGAS, South Korea

* Corresponding author: kidong@kogas.or.kr

A natural gas company should developed renewable gas such as biogas for energy security and GHG
reduction. Biogas consist of methane which is a greenhouse gas, energy source if it might be properly treated.
Biomethane is recently concerned on high caloric methane gas from biogas using upgrading technology and
could be injected into grid and used for transportation fuel. Biogas could generally be made by anaerobic
digestion of organic wastes and sewage waters but those resources are limited due to land biomass. This study
is to evaluate marine biomass to biomethane possibility.
Korean marine biomass productions were 858.7 kton in 2009 and have been ranked 4th. However, there is
no marine biomass based biomethane R & D and business in South Korea. Through literature survey, we found
that some biogas R & D activities from marine biomass have been done such as BioMara program which is
led by Scottish Association for Marine Science in joint UK and Irish project and Tokyo gas was to do R
& D on seaweed biomass fermentation during 2002 to 2006. We have analyzed patents and papers related
to biomethane from marine biomass. Finally, we have evaluated economic assessment on biomethane from macro
algae.

330
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-017

BIO-OIL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA WASTES BY FAST


PYROLYSIS: CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION
OF PRODUCT YIELD
Prangtip KAEWPENGKROW1, Duangduen ATONG2 and Viboon SRICHAROENCHAIKUL3*

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2
National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani, Thailand

* Corresponding author: viboon.sr@chula.ac.th

The effect of pyrolysis parameters on the yield and quality of bio-oil from Jatropha pressed cake was studied
in this work. The fast pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a semi-continuous fixed-bed reactor, an operating
temperature of 600C, with feed rate of 60 g/h. The effect of particle size and gas flow rate on the bio-oil
was determined. The particle size range and gas flow rate were optimized as 0.125-0.425 mm, and 3 L/min
respectively for obtaining maximum yield of bio-oil (42 wt. %) and bio-char (30 wt. %). The result suggested
that the maximum liquid yield may be achieved by using raw material of the smallest size. Physicalchemical
analyses of bio-oil showed the highest HHV of 32.91 MJ/kg, a pH of 6.77, and the lowest density of 1058
kg/m3. In addition, the quality of bio-oil was determined by its product distribution using GC-MS; the main
products included phenols, aromatics, and hydrocarbons which increased from 20 to 40% (peak area) with
particle size of 0.425-0.850 mm. Therefore, low oxygen compounds, high aromatics and hydrocarbon compounds
of bio-oil are desirable for the pyrolysis of Jatropha wastes. These properties suggest that the bio-oil obtained
from the optimum operating condition can be utilized as quality biofuel.

331
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-018

CATALYTIC UPGRADING OF OXYGENATED CYCLIC


HYDROCARBONS OVER ZSM-5 CATALYST
1
Jin-Hyuk Lee, Kyung-Ran Hwang, Jin-Suk Lee, Jeong Sik Han , Kyong-Hwan Lee*

Climate Change Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 102 Gajeong-ro,
Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343, Korea
1
Agency for Defense Development

* Corresponding author: khwanlee@kier.re.kr

The catalytic upgrading of furan and furfural with a similar oxygenated-cyclic structure, as a representative
compound of bio-oil, to produce the valuable products was studied with a function of reaction temperature.
The catalyst used was commercial ZSM-5 (SiO2/Al2O3 ratio=30) and the experiments were conducted in a
continuous plug flow reactor under atmosphere pressure, in a temperature range of 400 to 650C. After the
reaction during 20 min., the amount of liquid, gas and coke was measured. The liquid and gas products were
analyzed using GC, GC-MS.
Fig. 1 shows the conversion of both furan and furfural using ZSM-5 catalyst into other liquid products, gas
products and coke. According to increase the reaction temperature, the conversions of furan and furfural were
gradually increased. The case of furfural was linearly increased with reaction temperature, whereas the case
of furan was sharply increased at 550C or above. In case of two cases, main liquid products were aromatic
components. The composition of aromatic products in liquid products was increased with increase of reaction
temperature. However, the case of furan was produced much more aromatic products than the case of furfural.
Moreover, the aromatic products from furan were strongly increased at 550C or above and showed about 40
wt% in liquid products at 600C.

Acknowledgment
We would like to acknowledge the partial financial support from the R&D Convergence Program of MSIP
and ISTK of Republic of Korea (Grant B551179-13-03-02).

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-019

COMPARISON OF THE THERMAL HYDROLYSIS REACTION


CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO THE VARIETY OF
ORGANIC WASTE
Seong Kuk HAN1, Hee Suk JUNG1, Hyoung Woon SONG1 and Ho KIM1*

1
Clean Energy Team, Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea

* Corresponding author: kimh0505@iae.re.kr

Diverse studies are being conducted on organic waste treatment and recycling methods, but the demand for
a low-cost treatment technology is high because the sewage sludge has an 80% or higher water content and
a high energy consumption cost. We want to apply the THR(Thermal Hydrolysis Reaction) that consumes a
small amount of energy. Purpose of this study is the demonstration set-up of the optimal THR system using
organic wastes(sewage sludge, food waste, slaughter of chickens etc.). The experiment was conducted at a
reaction temperature of 170-220C and maintain for 1 hour at the final temperature. According to the Capillary
Suction Time(CST) and Time to Filter(TTF) evaluation, the heating value of the solid product(fuel) according
to the variety of organic waste was 4,000-7,500 kcal/kg, and its yield rate decreased from approximately 80%
to 60% with the increase in the reaction temperature. From the overall evaluation of the dehydrating efficiency
and solid fuel quality during the thermal hydrolysis of organic waste, we compared the properties of each.

P-BE-020

A STUDY ON SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION OF ANAEROBICALLY


DIGESTED SLUDGE USING MEMBRANE FILTER PRESS
Seong Kuk HAN1, Hee Suk JUNG1, Hyoung Woon SONG1* and Young Man Yun2

1
Clean Energy Team, Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Biogas Research Center, Hankyong National University, Anseong, Korea

* Corresponding author: hwsong@iae.re.kr

Recently, it is increase in the processing of organic waste using anaerobic digestion. Therefore, the studies
on the processing method for increasing the anaerobic digestion waste water. But it is very difficult to
solid-liquid separation, because the characteristics of anaerobic digestion waste water. So this study evaluate
solid-liquid separation efficiency of anaerobic digestion sludge using CST(Capillary Suction Time), TTF(Time
to Filter). To address this problem, a membrane filter press of the lab scale was produced and the anaerobic
digestion wastewater was applied to it. Polymer coagulants were found to be most suitable 7192PLUS and
1T60, It is necessary to minimum injection concentration is 7192PLUS (200 mg/L), 1T60 (100 mg/L). To
evaluate dehydration efficiency, it was measured the moisture content of the dehydrated cake and Suspended
Solids of decanted water. As a result, showed that a high removal efficiency of 97.4% When the solid-liquid
separation using the membrane filter press. And the moisture content of the dehydrated cake was less than
65%.

333
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-021

ANALYSIS OF HYDROCARBON COMPOUND PRODUCTS


BY THE PYROLYSIS
1
Ji Hoon SHIN, Jin Woo KOOK, In Seop GWAK, Yea Ra KIM and See Hoon LEE *

1
Department of Mineral Resource and Energy Engineering, ChonBuk University, JeonJu, Korea

* Corresponding author: donald@jbnu.ac.kr

Modern society has problems such as the global warming and the instability of energy supply because fossil
fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas have been widely used. Therefore new energy resources must
be needed to solve these problems. Among renewable resources, biomass is specially treated because of various
applications. The aim of the present study is to improve biomass energy density through a pyrolysis process
and analyze hydrocarbon compounds in various bio oils from woodchip, sawdust, algae, coal, petroleum coke,
and so on. The effect of pyrolysis temperature(450, 500, 650) on bio oil compounds were analyzed
in a batch pyrolyzer (100ml).

P-BE-022

EFFECT OF PH CONTROL DEVIATION ON


BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION
Sujin Jang1,2, Chungman Moon1, Mo-Kwon Lee1, Dong-Hoon Kim1, Won-Seok Kang3,
3 1,2
Seung-Shin Kwak and Mi-Sun Kim *

1
Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Division of Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea
3
New Technology Research Team, Korea District Heating Corp. R&D Institute, 781 Yangjae-daero, Gangnam-gu,
Seoul 135-220, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: bmmskim@kier.re.kr

In fermentative H2 production, acids are generated, causing a pH drop in the fermenter. Thus, to achieve
high H2 yield, pH should be controlled generally in a range of 5.0-6.5. In a lab-scale fermenter where
homogeneity is guaranteed with sufficient agitation, pH can be precisely controlled, deviating only 0.1 from
the optimum set value. However, in the case of scale-up and practical implementation, it is difficult to ensure
uniform pH throughout the fermenter.
This work aimed to assess the effect of pH control accuracy, by varying the deviation from 0.1 to 0.9
at a set value of 6.0. Up to deviation of 0.3, there was not a substantial difference in the fermentation
performance, attaining high H2 yield of 1.67-1.73 mol H2/mol hexoseadded. A huge drop of H2 production,
however, was observed at deviation > 0.5 with lowered substrate utilization. The H2 yield gradually dropped
as the deviation increased, with the lowest yield of 0.69 mol H2/mol hexoseadded at deviation of 0.9. Butyrate
was found as the main soluble metabolite at deviation < 0.3 while lactate was found to be dominant at deviation
> 0.5. Next generation sequencing results clearly showed the increased dominancy of lactate-producers with
increase of deviation value.

334
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-BE-023

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE: STRATEGIES FOR


STABLE OPERATION UNDER HIGH ORGANIC LOADING
1 1 1,2 1,2
Dong-Hoon Kim , Mo-Kwon Lee , Sujin Jang and Mi-Sun Kim *

1
Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Division of Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: bmmskim@kier.re.kr

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process in which organic matter is degraded and converted to clean
biogas, methane (CH4), under anaerobic conditions. The produced CH4 can then be utilized for heat or electricity
generation, replacing fossil fuels and thereby reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Korea, the generation of
food waste reached 15,000 tons/d, accounting for 30-40% of municipal solid waste. Since food waste has high
organic content, it could be a suitable substrate for AD. In the present work, several strategies were applied
to treat non-diluted food waste (20% total solids content) under high organic loading condition. To increase
organic loading, hydraulic retention time (HRT) was gradually decreased from 200 d to 40 d. When the
performance was compared between mesophilic (35oC) and thermophilic (55oC) condition, mesophilic one
showed better performance, achieving stable performance up to HRT 60 d. Then, by increasing the number
of feeding time (12) and supplementing trace elements made of 0.5 mg Ni/L and 0.1 mg Co/L, the mesophilic
fermenter was stable up to HRT 50 d. Finally, 0.3 L CH4/g COD (85% of theoretical maximu) of CH4 yield
was achieved by providing settling time 3 h per day, at HRT 40 d.

P-BE-024

THE STUDY ON HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE


BY SUPERCRITICAL WATER GASIFICATION OF GLYCEROL
WITH VARIOUS CATALYSTS
Dong Hyun HEO, Roosse LEE, Jong Ha HWANG and Jung Min SOHN*

Dept. of Mineral Resources & Energy Eng., Chonbuk Natl Univ., Jeonju in Korea

* Corresponding author: jmsohn@chonbuk.ac.kr

Biomass is one of the most abundant renewable resources. One of the methods for producing gaseous fuels
is the gasification of biomass with supercritical water. Supercritical water gasification is a promising technology
for hydrogen production and high gasification efficiency due to the suppression of coke and tar production.
In this work, glycerol as model biomass was used for hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification.
The effects of catalysts (Ni(NO3)2, K2CO3, Mn(NO3)2, NaCO3 and Fe(NO3)3) on gasification were systematically
studied. Experiments were conducted in a reactor at 450G and 270bar for a residence time of 30min. The
ratio of water to glycerol was 100:1and the amount of each catalyst was 10wt% of glycerol. The results showed
that the catalysts greatly enhanced hydrogen yield according to the following order: Mn(NO3)2 > K2CO3 > NaCO3
> Fe(NO3)3 > Ni(NO3)2. In conclusion, the hydrogen yield of 1.34 mmol was achieved with Mn(NO3)2.

335
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


P-PN-001

FORECASTING ENERGY DEMAND ON


KWANG-JU METROPOLITAN
1 1 2 1
Hyo Joon Kim , Seong Kon Lee , Kyung Soon Park and Young Jin Ha *

1
R&D Strategy Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Green Energy Team, Korea Energy Management Corporation, Gwang-Ju, Korea

* Corresponding author: kimhj@kier.re.kr

Kwang-Ju metropolitan is planning to build a regional energy planning from 2014 to 2030. In this research,
we suggest specific forecasting measures and analyze energy demand scenarios of Kwang-Ju metropolitan. This
research implements KEDF(KIER Energy Demand Forecasting) model which evaluates the practical energy
consumption of Kwang-Ju metropolitan.
KEDF model building social economic indicators and each segmental database is composed of Excel spread
sheet module, which divides the final energy consumer sector into Four sector accounting for industry,
transportation, residential and commerce, and public. It analyzes and forecasts on the future needs of each sector
energy source.
The research result will suggest the way of implementing a role model of energy independent city in Korea.

P-PN-002

THE EFFECTS OF THE NETWORK INDEX ON EXPORT OF


PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN CHINA
Hyeong-Ho Lee1 and Young-wan Goo2*

1
Department of Economics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763, Korea
2
Department of Economics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763, Korea

* Corresponding author: ywgoo@cbnu.ac.kr

This paper estimates the effects of the network index on the exports of petroleum refineries made by China
by using the data set during 1980-2003. To show the effects of the network structure on the exports of the
petroleum refineries, this paper reports the results of gravity and H-O model with the network structure of
petroleum refineries. The paper finds that the network structures of the petroleum refineries of China are
relatively high and decreasing. We also find that H-O model are notably affected by the network structures,
but the effect of network structures is decreasing with time. Based on these results, we provide some insights
to the network structures of the energy products with more concentration (high level) than any other
manufactured products so as to effectively increase exports of most energy products in China.

Key words: Network Structure, H-O theory, Gravity model, Technology, International trade flows

339
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PN-003

COST BENEFIT EVALUATION OF GI APPLICATION USING GIS


Chang-Hyun Son1, Young-wan Goo1 and Jaehyuck Choi1*

1
Department of Economics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea

* Corresponding author: aji020511@gmail.com

Green Infrastructure (GI) or Low Impact Development (LID) approach provides significant benefits to cities
and communities on which they are placed in analyzing cost-benefit. GI applications would provide
multi-benefits such as the reduction in building energy demand, stormwater management, urban heat island
reduction, habitat creation, etc. GI is nowadays considered as a multi-benefit best management practice (BMP)
at diverse levels of government. For the purpose of more efficient GI application in the local area to achieve
improved energy efficient land use management, Geographic Information System (GIS) is used in this study.
The use of GIS and mapping has rapidly expanded to find suitable areas or places for GI application in urban
areas. The goal of this study is to conduct GIS-based suitability analysis of GI on the campus of Chungbuk
National University and implement cost-benefit evaluation of GI application to the selected sites. The result
of cost-benefit analysis shows how GI application actually brings not only environmental-related benefits, also
short-term and long-term economic benefits.

P-PN-004

S. KOREAN RENEWABLE ENERGY INDUSTRY PRODUCTIVITY


ANALYSIS
Chang Hyeon SON1 and Young Wan GOO1*

1
Department of Economics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea

* Corresponding author: ywgoo@cbnu.ac.kr

This paper studies Total Factor Productivity growth rates of S. Korean Renewable Energy Industry. We use
the stochastic frontier production function to get Total Factor Productivity(TFP) growth rates. TFP composes
of Technical Progress(TP), Scale Effects(SE) and Technical Efficiency(TE). So we additionally find Technical
Progress, Scale Effect and Technical Efficiency of s. Korean renewable energy industry. Analyzing TFP and
these factors let us know which factors are important to develop s. Korean renewable energy industry. Therefore
finding determinants of TFP is valuable to understand development of s. Korean renewable energy industry.
Why it is important because it let us know which determinant leads TFP growth rates. Furthermore we study
separated time period and s. Korean renewable energy industries. This paper uses unbalanced panel data of
s. Korean renewable energy firms. This study finds how TFPs of separated time periods change. We compare
to TFPs of each time period. This study separates s. Korean renewable energy industries like photovoltaic/solar
heat, bio, wind, hydro, geothermal, fuel, others. So we find TFPs of separated renewable energy industries.
We compare to TFPs of separated renewable energy industries. We achieve which determinant is important
for separated s. Korean renewable energy industries. Achieving these results give valuable information to develop
s. Korean renewable energy industry. Finally we propose policy implication to develop s. Korean renewable
energy industry.

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P-PN-005

SMART CLIENT-BASED WEB GIS SYSTEM FOR


NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY MAP SERVICE
1 2 3 3 3
Tae-Yoon KO , Seul-Bi LEE , Yong-Heack KANG , Chang-Yeol YUN and Hyun-Goo KIM *

1
CEDIC, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea
2
SELAB, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea
3
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hyungoo@kier.re.kr

Nowadays, new & renewable energy, which is attracting growing social interest, fast developing WEB-based
information technology, and GIS (Geographical Information System)-based spatial information technology are
converging. Following this trend, the Korea Institute of Energy Research introduced the Smart Client-based
WEB GIS concept to analyze and use new & renewable energy resources systematically and scientifically and
upgraded the new & renewable energy resource map service. Specifically, it performed standardization from
data to output method to provide identical monitoring and service without being dependent on the OS, web
browser, and platform. In addition, to display big data contents such as more than 150 types of various thematic
maps and geographical information most efficiently and quickly as spatial information, web browser plug-ins
were done away with, and NoSQL (Not Only SQL) has been adopted. By adopting intuitive GUI (Graphic
User Interface) and floating menu system, user convenience in various environments has been prioritized. In
modern society, information is being spread through not only desktop computer but also laptop, tablet,
smartphone, smart TV, smart automobile, and other mobile devices. Following this trend of information
transformation, the introduction of Smart Client-based WEB GIS concept in the new & renewable energy
resource map service is expected to provide freedom of usage to the smart generation and multi-class of users
who are very active in acquiring high-quality information.

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P-PN-006

NEW-RENEWABLE ENERGY MAP BOOK OF SOUTH KOREA


Tae-Eun KWON1, Yong-Heack KANG2*, Hyun-Goo KIM2 and Chang-Yeol YUN2

1
SUNDOSOFT, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea
2
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: yhkang@kier.re.kr

The new & renewable energy resource map consists of 154 thematic maps of 5 energy sources: solar, wind,
hydro, biomass, and geothermal. The resource database was built, with spatial distribution projected into a map
using the Geographical Information System (GIS). The solar resource map was produced based on irradiation
measurements for the past 35 years. For the wind resource map, the numerical flow model for complex terrain
was developed in-house, and accuracy was compensated with satellite-based/ground-based remote-sensing. For
hydraulic energy, precipitation data by standard watershed were converted into the potential. On the other hand,
for biomass energy, statistical production data by agricultural/livestock/forest/urban/waste were converted into
the potential. The New & Renewable Energy Resource Map Book 2nd Edition to be published soon will
highlight the new & renewable energy sources coexisting with people in harmony and introduce the energy
calculation process of each energy source as a flow chart. It also includes the resource maps in key concept
that can be easily understood by not only the expert but also the general public. The New & Renewable Energy
Resource Map Book is expected to play a role of major PR ambassador to show the sustainable future of
Korea by providing objective and correct information on new & renewable energy to the public.

342
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PN-007

METADATA STANDADIZATION OF NEW-RENEWABLE ENERGY


RESOURCE MAP OF SOUTH KOREA
1 2 2 1
Hyo-Jung HWANG , Mi-Jin LEE , Hoon-Ju YOON , Yong-Heack KANG ,
1 1
Hyun-Goo KIM and Chang-Yeol YUN *

1
New-Renewable Energy Resource Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
SUNDOSOFT, Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: yuncy@kier.re.kr

Although the new & renewable energy resource map provided by the New & Renewable Energy Resource
Center of the Korea Institute of Energy Research contains various measurement data, geographical data, and
energy data, the development of the metadata needed by both administrators and clients has yet to reach a
satisfactory level due to the lack of guidelines for systematic standardization. As such, the Korean Ministry
of Science, ICT (Information & Communication Technology), and Future Planning suggested the establishment
of guidelines for metadata standardization for new & renewable energy resource data and map to increase
utilization of valuable information, i.e., key public open-data, and updated the metadata of 154 types of resource
maps. Benchmarking cases in other countries such as US NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory),
IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency), etc., it has recognized the importance of standardization of
metadata; thus, it is preparing the guidelines for standardization. The guidelines for metadata standardization
include the purpose of map production, method of data production, method of verification, method of converting
the resource into energy, time of data, time of production, and spatial/temporal resolution as items to express
the characteristics of new & renewable energy resource map. The new & renewable energy resource map,
standardized in accordance with the metadata standardization guidelines, is expected to improve utility from
the clients viewpoint as well as improve efficiency significantly from the administrators viewpoint.

343
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-PN-008

A STRATEGIC NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY


DEVELOPMENT PLAN WITH THE DIFFERENT
PEER-REVIEW GROUPS IN CASE OF LOW OIL PRICES
AND PRESENT NUCLEAR PLANT
1 2
Seongkon LEE * and Gento MOGI

1
Energy Policy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
2
Department of Technology management for innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo,
7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan

* Corresponding author: sklee@kier.re.kr

Scenario planning is employed to the various areas of public and private sectors for copying with the
upcoming future. This research carries out the systematic procedure to build a strategic national energy
technology development plan with the different peer-review groups, accounting for positive and negative nuclear
plant construction, in case of low oil prices and present nuclear plant. This study suggests how to find key
uncertainty variables under energy environmental changes and implements a strategic national energy technology
development plan reflecting the different peer-review groups feedback. 10 shortlisted variables are selected
and assessed by STEEP and TOPSIS approach. We implement four scenario frameworks and focus on the case
of low oil prices and present nuclear plant. This research suggests insights for implementing a strategic energy
technology development plan by analyzing the different groups feedback.

P-PN-009

COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF R&D OUTPUTS


REGARDING INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL PAPER
AND PATENT ON WIND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY
FOR THE LAST 5 YEARS FROM 2006 TO 2011
Seongkon LEE1*, Jongchul HONG1 and Jongwook KIM1

1
Energy Policy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: sklee@kier.re.kr

Government supported research institutes (GSRI) have been producing the outstanding R&D outputs and
outcomes over 30 years. Government has been interested in the productivity of GSRI for being one of the
world class institutes. Quantitative competitiveness analysis is carried out in the sector of wind energy technology
including GSRI and some major universities in case of Korea because Government suggests international journal
paper (SCI) and patents as key criteria for assessing R&D project outputs. We make a short-list of GSRI and
major universities in Korea. This research focuses on the relative competitiveness analysis on wind energy
technology for 5 years from 2006 to 2011. Korean patents of wind energy technology take the largest ratio
of other related sector, including transmission, independent pitch system, airfoil, and carbon material.

344
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


P-GE-001

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF DIRECT EXCHANGE


GEOTHERMAL HEAT EXCHAGNER WITH SIMPLIFIED
GROUND MODEL
Haroon Bashir1,2, Gilbong Lee2, Jaechul Chang2,3, Ho-Sang Ra2, Young-Jin Baik2 and Minsung Kim1,2*

1
Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, Korea
2
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: minsungk@kier.re.kr

One dimensional steady state numerical model has been developed in a simplified manner for the direct
exchange (DX) vertical type U-tube geothermal heat exchanger (GHX). In this simulation model, two phase
heat transfer and pressure drop were considered. The ground model takes into account the variation of
temperature in the ground. A successive substitution iterative process was applied to solve the problem. The
simulation results are compared with the experimental results obtained from field demonstrative test setup
installed in Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon. Reasonable amount of agreement is found
between the experimental and simulation results. Additional simulation with different pipe configuration is also
carried out in order to check the system performance and set guideline for the improvement in the system.
Based on the simplified ground model in this study, temperature and pressure profiles of refrigerant in GHX
were calculated.

P-GE-002

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL SCALE THERMALLY


ALTERNATING HEAT PUMP DRYING SYSTEM
Ki Bong Kim1, Ki Chang Chang1 and Hyung Kee Yoon1*

1
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hgyoon@kier.re.kr

A thermally alternating heat pump drying system was developed with aim to reduce energy consumption,
improve drying quality, and perform commercial scale bulk drying. The system drying capacity is 5 tons/batch
and the drying chamber size is 12,000 x 3,000 x 3,200(mm). This system employs an air-to-air heat pump
(25RT) using R-134a refrigerant, and a closed scroll-type compressor.
The thermally alternating heat pump drying system is designed to use the hot energy from the condenser
to warm the drying material and the cold energy from the evaporator to dehumidify it. Approximately 30%
reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through mutual complementation of surplus energy by
alternating dehumidifying and warming processes. This system employs the forward direction blower and the
reverse direction blower to minimize uneven drying.

347
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-GE-003

A STUDY ON THE SEA WATER HEAT PUMP SYTEMS FOR


ICE RINK ENERGY SAVING
1 2 1 1 1
Hea Kwang KIM , Seong Yeon YOO , Gil Bong LEE , Ho Sang RA and Ki Chang CHANG *

1
Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: kcchang@kier.re.kr

To maintain good surface quality, ice rink consumes a lot of energy for the refrigeration. Ice rink has a
lot of cooling loads to maintain its ice surface. The major cooling loads are convectional load and resurfacing
load. General approach to reduce energy consumption in ice rink is to reuse it condensation heat as heating
energy. Considering the temperature range of sea water, cascade system and parallel system are suggested. The
energy consumption analysis was performed both for the current system and newly suggested systems. The
results show that new system could save more than 30% energy in heating season. The analysis was performed
with different ambient temperatures and sea water temperatures for heating season. The results showed that
energy saving about 40~50% was expected for system 1. With system 2 of 3 compressors, 30~40% of saving
was expected. As sea water temperature increased from 4Gto 13, compressor power increased about 11%.

P-GE-004

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY SIMULATION MODELLING FOR


GROUD LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER
Il Hyun Kang1, Samuel Boahen1 and Jong Min Choi2*

1
Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jmchoi@hanbat.ac.kr

The distribution rate of ground coupled heat pump system has been increasing continuously in the heating
and cooling fields. However, the higher installation cost comparing with the conventional system should be
overcome. The higher initial cost of the ground coupled heat pump system is generally caused by the installation
cost of ground loop heat exchanger, which has been mainly affected by ground thermal conductivity. In this
study, the simulation modelling was developed to predict the thermal conductivity according to ground heat
exchangers properties and geometries. The analysis of quantitative effect was also executed. The results of
this research can provide the guide to design and optimize the ground loop heat exchanger.

Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute
of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade,
Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No.2012T100100343).

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-GE-005

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON OPERATION OF HEAT PUMP USING


SURFACE SEAWATER
Ki Bong Kim, Gil Bong Lee, Ho Sang Ra, Hyung Kee Yoon* and Ki Chang Chang*

Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: kcchang@kier.re.kr

The purpose of this study is to investigate the field operation characteristics about heating & cooling system
using sea water source in Jeju.
In Jeju, the seawater at the winter season is warmer than the seawater in other regions and seawater
temperature is not over 30G at the summer season. so Jeju has an excellent heat source characteristics for
a heating and cooling system using seawater
So we established a 20-refrigeration-ton (RT) test plant in the Jeju Global Research Center and conducted
an empirical study on a heating and cooling system using seawater as the heat source/sink.

P-GE-006

SOIL TEMPERATURE TRENDS IN KOREA FROM 1973 TO 2012


: RELATIONS WITH AIR TEMPERATURE CHANGE
Bo-Hyun Lee1, Byeong-Hak Park1, Eun-Hee Koh1 and Kang-Kun Lee1*
1
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747, Korea

* Corresponding author: kklee@snu.ac.kr

Recent 40-year (1973-2012) meteorological data of 14 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations
were analyzed to investigate the temporal variations of air and soil temperatures (at depths 0.5 and 1.0m) in
Korea and their relations. The results from cross-correlation analysis of the air and soil temperatures showed
that the soil temperatures respond well to the air temperature change. The long-term increasing trends of the
air and soil temperatures were estimated by using simple linear regression analysis. In KMA stations within
the coastal area, the increasing trends of the soil temperatures showed low values compared to those of the
air temperatures while the trends of the soil temperatures in inland area accorded with those of the air
temperatures. It indicates that the coastal climate weakens the coupling of the air and soil temperatures. Other
factors such as urbanization effects that can affect the relationship were also examined.
Examining the long-term trends of the soil temperature can contribute to securing sustainability of subsurface
thermal environment. It is expected that explaining the effects of several factors on the relationship between
air and soil temperatures in the study can help predict the temporal variation of soil temperatures in the regions
without direct soil temperature measurements.

Key words: Soil temperature, temporal variation, air temperature, simple linear regression, cross-correlation
analysis, coastal climate

Acknowledgement
This work was supported by the research project of Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development
and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology
Innovation C05) of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-GE-007

OPTIMUM OPERATION OF OPEN-LOOP GROUND HEAT


EXCHANGER CONSIDERING GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT
1 1 1 2 1
Hyun-Jun CHOI , Sangwoo PARk , Khanh Linh Nguyen PHAM , Hyungkyou RYU and Hangseok CHOI *

1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
2
Technology Research & Development Institue, Daelim Industrial Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: hchoi2@korea.ac.kr

As a feasible groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system, the standing column well (SCW) has been popularly
adopted as a representative open-loop ground heat exchanger. In this study, to propose the optimum operation
for an open-loop ground heat exchanger with consideration of geothermal gradient, a series of TRTs and artificial
heating/cooling operations was carried out along with a continual monitoring of temperature in the hole of SCW.
The ground temperature naturally increases with depth, which is called geothermal gradient, but a switch between
the cooling/heating mode of the GWHP results in a change in the distribution of ground temperature. The effect
of the mode change was evaluated by performing LMTD & CFD analysis for a reduced model with the depth
of 150 m. In addition, the optimum operation was practiced with variation in the ground temperature by
controlling the flow direction in the open-loop ground heat exchanger. As a result, in the cooling mode, the
upstream operation is more efficient than the downstream operation, and reduces entering water temperature
(EWT) by 2.26. On the other hand, in the heating mode, the downstream operation is advantageous over
the upstream operation, and increases EWT by 3.19. The advantage of the optimum operation can be enhanced
for a real scale of SCW with a depth of 400 ~ 500m.

P-GE-008

HEATING PERFORMANCE OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP


SYSTEM APPLIED IN COLD CLIMATE REGION (MONGOLIA)
Byonghu SOHN1*, Jae Ho CHOI2 and Kyung Chun MIN2

1
Green Building Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang, Korea
2
Research Development Division, KOTEC Engineering, Anyang, Korea

* Corresponding author: byonghu@kict.re.kr

Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems have become an efficient alternative to conventional cooling and
heating methods due to their higher energy using efficiency. These systems use the ground as a heat source
in heating and a heat sink in cooling mode operation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the heating
performance of the GSHP system for a residential building (420 m2) in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. In order to
demonstrate the feasibility of a sustainable performance of the system, we installed the water-to-water
ground-source heat pump unit with 10 vertical ground heat exchangers and measured operation parameters from
October 19, 2013 to March 26, 2014. The results showed that the entering source temperature of brine returning
from the ground heat exchangers was in a range of the design target temperature of -10oC for heating. For
monthly averaged values, the ground heat exchangers extracted heat of 426.57 kWh from the ground. In addition,
the GSHP system supplied heat of 669.23 kWh to building and consumed power of 242.66 kWh, respectively.
Consequently, the average heating seasonal performance factor (SPF) of the overall system was evaluated to
be 2.76 during the measurement period of heating season.

350
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-GE-009

PERFORMANCE PREDICTIN OF gSHP SYSTEM APPLIED IN COLD


CLIMATE REGION (MONGOLIA) USING SIMULATION
APPROACH
Hyoung Jin KONG1, Jae Ho CHOI2, Kyung Chun MIN2 and Byonghu SOHN3*

1
Geothermal Energy Education Center, Hoseo University, Asan, Korea
2
Research Development Division, KOTEC Engineering, Anyang, Korea
3
Green Building Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang, Korea

* Corresponding author: byonghu@kict.re.kr

Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems have become increasingly popular for both residential and
commercial heating and cooling applications because of their higher energy efficiency compared with
conventional systems. Although many experimental and simulation studies have been conducted on the efficiency
of the GSHP systems around the world, relatively little has been reported on the performance of the GSHP
systems for a cold climate region like Mongolia. The aim of this simulation study is to evaluate the heating
and cooling performance of the GSHP system with borehole ground heat exchangers applied to an residential
building (420 m2) in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. For this purpose, we calculated hourly building loads with the
climatic condition of Ulaanbaatar and then designed the GSHP system with a combination of various parameters
such as building loads and ground effective thermal properties, etc. The hourly simulation results show that
minimum entering water temperature (EWT) from the ground is evaluated to be -3.91oC, which is higher than
the design target temperature of -10oC. This study also shows that the GSHP system could be used for residential
heating in the Ulaanbaatar.

P-GE-010

PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP


SYSTEM FOR HYPOTHETICAL OFFICE BUILDING
Byonghu SOHN1* and Hyoung Jin KONG2

1
Green Building Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang, Korea
2
Geothermal Energy Education Center, Hoseo University, Asan, Korea

* Corresponding author: byonghu@kict.re.kr

Geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems have been gaining increasing popularity for space conditioning in
buildings due to reduced energy consumption and maintenance costs. These systems consist of a sealed loop
of pipes, buried in the ground vertically or horizontally and connected to a heat pump through which
water-antifreeze is circulated. The purpose of this simulation study is to evaluate the cooling and heating
performance of a hypothetical GHP system in an office building with a conditioned area of 1022 m2. We
modeled to calculate the hourly building loads using commercial software (DesignBuilder V3.0). In addition,
we used GLD (Ground Loop Design) V8.0.8, a GSHP system design and simulation software tool, to evaluate
hourly and monthly performance of the GHP system. The simulation results show that the energy consumption
of the system based on the hourly simulation are estimated to be 18.6 MWh/year for cooling and 23.0 MWh/year
for heating, respectively. This study also indicates that the seasonal performance factor (SPF) of the GHP unit
and the overall system are calculated to be in the range of 3.2-4.6 and 2.5-3.7, respectively.

351
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-GE-011

COOLING AND HEATING PERFORMANCE OF GHP SYSTEM


USING CAST-IN-PLACE ENERGY PILES
1 2
Byonghu SOHN * and Hangseok CHOI

1
Green Building Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang, Korea
2
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: byonghu@kict.re.kr

Recently there has been an increase in the use of building piled foundations as ground heat exchangers for
a geothermal heat pump (GHP) system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cooling and heating performance
of geothermal heat pump (GHP) system with 45 cast-in-place energy piles (CEPs) for a commercial building.
We conducted transient simulation over 1-year and 20-years period to demonstrate the feasibility of the GHP
system. In the 1-year simulation, results showed that the maximum and minimum temperature of brine returning
from the CEPs were 23.91oC and 6.66oC, which were in a range of the designed target temperature for the
heat pump. After 20-years operation, these returning temperatures decreased to 21.24oC and 3.68oC, and finally
reached to stable state. Annual average extraction heat from CEPs was 94.3 MWh and injection heat was 65.7
MWh from the 20-years simulation. Consequently, it is expected that this GHP system with CEPs can be
operated with the average seasonal performance factor (SPF) of more than 3.45 for the long-term operation.

P-GE-012

OPTIMUM OPERATION OF OPEN-LOOP GROUND HEAT


EXCHANGER CONSIDERING GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT
Hyun-Jun CHOI1, Sangwoo PARk1, Khanh Linh Nguyen PHAM1, Hyungkyou RYU2 and Hangseok CHOI1*

1
School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
2
Technology Research & Development Institue, Daelim Industrial Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: hchoi2@korea.ac.kr

As a feasible groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system, the standing column well (SCW) has been popularly
adopted as a representative open-loop ground heat exchanger. In this study, to propose the optimum operation
for an open-loop ground heat exchanger with consideration of geothermal gradient, a series of TRTs and artificial
heating/cooling operations was carried out along with a continual monitoring of temperature in the hole of SCW.
The ground temperature naturally increases with depth, which is called geothermal gradient, but a switch between
the cooling/heating mode of the GWHP results in a change in the distribution of ground temperature. The effect
of the mode change was evaluated by performing LMTD & CFD analysis for a reduced model with the depth
of 150 m. In addition, the optimum operation was practiced with variation in the ground temperature by
controlling the flow direction in the open-loop ground heat exchanger. As a result, in the cooling mode, the
upstream operation is more efficient than the downstream operation, and reduces entering water temperature
(EWT) by 2.26. On the other hand, in the heating mode, the downstream operation is advantageous over
the upstream operation, and increases EWT by 3.19. The advantage of the optimum operation can be enhanced
for a real scale of SCW with a depth of 400 ~ 500m.

352
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-GE-013

PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A DEEP LAKE COLD WATER


COOLING SYSTEM FOR IDC
1 1 1
Gyeong Sung Kim , Sun Hee Oh and Yong Cho *

1
K-water Institute, Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon 305-730, Korea

* Corresponding author: ycho@kwater.or.kr

Deep lake cold water maintains its water temperature under 15 Celsius degree constantly while the water
temperature of mixed layer is influenced by atmospheric temperature. The deep lake cold water of Soyang
river dam, located in S. Korea, is measured its annual water temperature around 4 to 14 Celsius degree. This
low temperature characteristics of deep lake water has attracted attention as a suitable source for a cooling
system. Especially it is reasonable to install a cooling system using cold water for IDC(Internet Data Center)
where has high cooling load because of thermal emission from communication network system. This pre-feasibility
study is focused on investigating an economic shape and applicability of a new model of BEMS(Building Energy
Management System) using deep lake cold water. As a result of this study considering IDC of 20,000 cubic
meter, the average area of IDC in S. Korea, the electric power consumption rate is reviewed to reduce more
than 45% while the initial investment costs for a cooling system using deep lake cold water are 38% higher
than conventional cooling system. Also, the payback period of the investment cost is calculated around 6-7
years.

P-GE-014

LONG-TERM VARIATIONS OF GROUND TEMPERATURE


IN A MEDIUM SIZED GEOTHERMAL HEATING
AND COOLING SYSTEM
Yong Ki KIM1 and Tae Won LEE1

1
Department of Building Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: kimyk@kict.re.kr

Public demand for the geothermal heating and cooling system is increasing for its eco-friendly and energy
saving advantage. Many researches have been concentrated on how to calculate and develop its own efficiency.
Also, a ground-loop heat exchanger in a ground source heat pump system is an important unit that determines
the thermal performance of a system and its initial cost. In this study, long-term temperature variations in ground
heat exchanger pipe surface at different depths were measured in 4 positions of a number of ground-loop heat
exchangers. As the results, after that geothermal heating and cooling system is installed, ground temperature
were 1~2G descent for five years due to an imbalance of heating and cooling load.

353
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


P-SH-001

ANALYSIS ON THE HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE


OF A PUMP-TURBINE MODEL
1 1 1
Van Thanh Tien NGUYEN , Patrick Mark SINGH , Chengcheng CHEN ,
2 3
Baoshan ZHU and Young-Do CHOI *

1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National University, Mokpo, Korea
2
Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of New and Renewable Energy Technology Research, Mokpo
National University, Mokpo, Korea

* Corresponding author: ydchoi@mokpo.ac.kr

Pump-turbine is the core equipment in pumped storage power plant which is characterized by rapid conversion
between pump mode and turbine mode, comparing with the separate pump and turbine units. The impeller used
in this pump-turbine system is designed based on 3D inverse design method and with some modifications to
achieve high performance in both pump and turbine mode. In order to comprehensively understand the
hydrodynamic performance of the pump-turbine, the investigation is carried out consisting of performance
curves, internal flow and S characteristic at the different operating conditions, by using CFD (Computation
Fluid Dynamic) analysis. In addition, stability limits in both operating modes have to be ensured so that the
exploration is extended with cavitation performance prediction in various operating conditions of both modes.

P-SH-002

DESIGN TECHNIQUE FOR TURBINE PERFORMANCE


ENHANCEMENT OF A COUNTER-ROTATING PUMP-TURBINE
Jin Hyuk KIM1*, Toru MIYAJI2, Toshiaki KANEMOTO2, Joon-Hyung KIM1,
1 1
Sung KIM and Young Seok CHOI

1
Thermal&Fluid System R&BD Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan, Korea
2
Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan

* Corresponding author: jinhyuk@kitech.re.kr

This paper presents the design technique of the counter-rotating runner blades for turbine performance
enhancement of a counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit. The NACA series airfoil was employed for designing
high-efficiency counter-rotating runner blades. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations
with the shear stress transport turbulence model were discretized by finite volume approximations and solved
on hexahedral grids to analyze the flow in the pump-turbine unit. As the geometric parameters, the height and
the distance of maximum camber were defined by using the NACA four digit series equation, with the fixed
airfoil thickness. The turbine efficiency was selected as the performance parameter in the condition of the fixed
head and torque. The 2k factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of two geometric parameters
on the turbine efficiency of the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit. As a result, the pump-turbine design
having NACA 3509 and 5309 series, respectively, for the front and rear runners showed the superior turbine
performance in comparison with other designs.

357
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-SH-003

IMPROVEMENT OF FLOW STABILITY IN THE PIPELINE AND


PRESSURIZED TANKS FOR A HYDRO TURBINE TEST
Sang Hyuk Lim, Se Wyan Tac, Yong Whan Oh and Yong Cho*

K-water Institute, Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon 305-730, Korea

* Corresponding author: ycho@kwater.or.kr

Many countries in the world are facing the serious energy crisis for their relying too much on the fossil
fuels which is not good for sustainable development. We have to ensure the energy of water by the dam
construction and manage water resources of large size dam and river in order to control flood and water quality.
A practice approach is the substitution of renewable energy for those one-off resources, among which the hydro
power is one of the most important components. To make good use of current hydro power resources,
improvement of turbo machinery performance is required. In order to improve hydro turbine performance, test
facility is constructed in K-water. Hydro turbine test facility is equipped with measuring device and sensor
Turbine models are constructed and tested in accordance with the International Code for Model Acceptance
Tests of Hydraulic Turbines, Storage Pumps and Pump-Turbines, IEC Publication 60193. The purpose of the
model tests is verified the performance of the model, and efficiency, cavitation, Winter-Kennedy, vortex, pressure
pulsations, hydraulic axial thrusts are measured. The model tests and geometric similarity between the model
and the prototype shall be in accordance with International Code. The model shall be homologous to all the
proposed turbine parts, such as the spiral case, stay ring, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. The system uncertain
of flow rate measuring in model performance facility is 0.08%. Especially the facility has flow measuring ability
as for the flow meter calibration center. All of the system of hydro performance measuring are under 0.5%
accuracy. Water from a pump flows into a header and a long straight pipeline installed a flow meter. In order
to reduce non-uniform flow, header size has was decided by CFD simulation. The vertical plate was installed
in inlet pressure tank, and the inclined plate was installed in the tailrace tank to make stable test flow. In
the near future, we will carry on the various turbine model test.

358
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-SH-004

PERFORMANCE AND INTERNAL FLOW OF A FRANCIS HYDRO


TURBINE MODEL BY INTERNAL FLOW PASSAGE SHAPES
1 1 1 2
Zhen Mu CHEN , Qing Sheng WEI , Patrick Mark SINGH and Young Do CHOI *

1
Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mokpo National, Mokpo, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of New and Renewable Energy Technology Research, Mokpo
National University, Mokpo, Korea

* Corresponding author: ydchoi@mokpo.ac.kr

Francis turbine is the most widely used turbine in the world. It has a wide head range from 20m to 700m.
Therefore, the Francis turbine is selected for investigating the performance and internal flow by internal flow
passage shapes. A series of different internal flow passage shape are conducted to investigate the performance
of the Francis turbine. Curved leading edge was attached instead of the straight corner shaped. As a result,
recirculation flow occurs on the suction side of the stay vane with curved leading edge. Increasing the stay
vane number contributes to the decreasing of energy loss in the stay vane passages and improving the turbine
efficiency to some extent. The change of runner blade shape caused decrease in turbine efficiency, which is
unwanted in turbine performance improvement. Main reasons for this located in the low pressure regions near
the runner inlet.

359
8BTUFE&OFSHZ6UJMJ[BUJPO
1PTUFS4FTTJPO

AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


P-WU-001

FEASIBILITY STUDY ON HIGH TEMPERATURE HEATPUMP TO


PRODUCE STEAM USING RECOVERY HEAT
Joo Sang KIM, Sun Ik Na, Gil Bong LEE, Ho Sang RA and Min Sung KIM*

Thermal Energy Conversation Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research

* Corresponding author: minsungk@kier.re.kr

There are many kinds of energy supplies in industrial field with different temperatures(hot water, cooling
water, steam source, etc). Among them steam is the most preferable source because it can transfer large amount
of energy with almost constant temperature. Usually, industrial boiler is used to produce steam. Recently,
researches have been conducted on the application of heat pump using recovery heat for energy saving. A lot
of energy is used to produce steam because of boiling water. And high temperature industrial water after process
is thrown away. Lab-scale Heatpump was installed to produce steam and used R245fa as refrigerant. R245fa
is selected as working fluid because of low flammable but high temperature in low pressure. Since the product
is vapor, a specially designed plate heat exchanger was installed in high temperature side. During the test,
operation variable is changed in accordance with the test condition(openness of expansion device, amount of
refrigerant, temperature of fluid, flow rate of fluid).

363
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-002

CARBON DIOXIDE RECOVERY SYSTEM USING LOW


TEMPERATURE LIQUEFACTION PROCESS FROM BIOGAS
UPGRADING PLANT
Hack Eun Kim1*, Myong Won Bae1, Ki Dong Kim2, Young Sam Oh2 and Jong Choul Won3

1
Korea Gas Technology Corporation, Daejeon, South Korea
2
KOGAS, Ansan, South Korea
3
Sudokwon Landfill Site Management Corporation, Incheon, South Korea

* Corresponding author: hackun@kogas-tech.co.kr

Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of waste sludge is generally composed of CH4 (Methane) of 50 ~
70% and CO2 (Carbon dioxide) of 40 ~ 50%. Biogas should be upgraded to Biomethane for high efficient
energy usage such as grid injection, vehicle fuel. In case of biogas upgrading, the major component of exhaust
gas released from biogas upgrading plant to air is CO2 which is known as a primary GHG (Green House Gas).
Most of biogas or biomethane systems emit CO2 to atmosphere without any treatment because of renewable
carbon. Our study is to reduce this CO2 recovery for negative CO2 reduction. A CO2 recovery technology from
discharge gas in biogas upgrading plant could play a key role for GHG reduction and industrial utilization.
Among various CO2 recovery technologies, low temperature liquefaction technology is regarded as an alternative
to baseline technology such as chemical absorption methodologies because of its potential advantages in high
efficiency and compact recovery system point of view. In the present study, the low temperature liquefaction
performance of CO2 recovery pilot plant was demonstrated to show a high purity CO2 recovery capability with
presently available and mature process equipment under various operating conditions. The result indicated that
the ratio of mixture gas between CO2 and CH4 is a crucial factor to determine liquefied CO2 recovery rate
because of dew point temperature drop-down. Although further R&D is required, based on the results from
this study, the present work provides useful guidelines for the optimum process design of CO2 recovery system
to improve low temperature liquefaction performance with low capital cost in a next study of biogas upgrading
system.

Acknowledgment
This study was supported by the R&D Center for Organic Wastes to Energy Business (under the Wastes
to Energy Technology Development Program) funded by the Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea.
(Project No.:2013001580003)

364
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-003

GASIFICATION OF CASSAVA RHIZOME AND PEANUT SHELL


WASTE WITH NI/CHAR CATALYST USING A MODULAR FIXED
BED GASIFIER
Jurarat NISAMANEENATE1, Duangduen ATONG2, Panchaluck SORNKADE2 and
1
Viboon SRICHAROENCHAIKUL *

1
Department of Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2
National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani, Thailand

* Corresponding author: viboon.sr@chula.ac.th

Ni-based catalysts are considered as the most promising of tar removal and improved the quality of gas
production from biomass gasification. Char have been reported to be inexpensive support and also an excellent
adsorbent. In this study, Ni catalyst was made by impregnation method, the Ni was loading for 5% of the weight
of char support. The char support was made from pyrolysis of cassava rhizome. Effects of cassava rhizome
particle size, the air flow rate inlet of a rounding 1.14-3.54 m3/hr, and 5%Ni/char catalyst for secondary syngas
cleanup were investigated. Catalytic performance of the 5%Ni/char catalyst was studied and compared between
cassava rhizome and peanut shell waste. The gasification was characterized in term of gas composition,
conversion, gasification efficiency, air superficial velocity, biomass consumption rate, and specific gasification
rate. Generally, increased of air flow rate enhanced the quality of produced gas. The air flow rate had integrated
effects on production yield and composition; higher air flow rate resulted in higher gas yield with less tar and
char. In the presence of catalyst, the conversion of CO2 was reduced whereas the CO increased for both materials
because of dry-reforming reaction. Particularly the conversion of CH4 and CxHy were decreased. The carbon
and hydrogen conversions with air flow rate of 1.14 m3/hr and 10 mm of cassava rhizome were 92.87%, 55.69%
respectively. At this condition, tar formation was relatively low, the lower heating value was 4.45 MJ/m3 and
H2/CO ratio was 1.22. The Ni/char catalysts can be improved tar condensable to small molecules gases resulting
to the lower heating value and increased cold gas efficiency including the synthesis gas reforming. The produced
gas contained combustible gases which can be readily used in heat and power generation system as well as
engine purpose.

365
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-004

NUMERICAL STUDY ON ENHANCEMENT OF FLOW


UNIFORMITY IN A TRAY DRYER CHAMBER
1 1 2
Myeongho SONG , Kyoungyoun KIM * and Hyung-Kee YOON

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719, South Korea
2
Energy Efficiency Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343, South Korea

* Corresponding author: kkim@hanbat.ac.kr

The flow field inside an air tray dryer chamber with large capacity has been examined by computational
fluid dynamics (CFD). The numerical results for the original chamber showed that the velocity distribution
is significantly inhomogeneous and thus the products are expected not to be dried uniformly. To reduce the
low-velocity-region and increase the spatial homogeneity of velocity above the product, guide vanes have been
installed in the drying chamber. The numerical simulations show that the flow uniformity is significantly
increased by modification of the flow field owing to the guide vanes. In addition, attachment of the solid plate
to the bottom of upper trays can further enhance the uniformity of the flow. Finally, the effects of permeability
of trays on the flow field also have been examined.

P-WU-005

CFD MODELING OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED CHAR


COMBUSTOR IN A TILTED-SLIDE FAST PYROLYZER
1 1 1 2 2
Sang Kyu CHOI *, Yeon Seok CHOI , Seock Joon Kim , Yeon Woo JEONG and Ramesh SOYSA

1
Environmental and Energy Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon
305-343, Republic of Korea
2
Department of Environment and Energy Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology,
Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: skchoi4091@kimm.re.kr

In the fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce biocrude-oil, char separation is important to improve the quality
of biocrude-oil. A tilted-slide reactor which was developed by KIMM adopts a circulating fluidized-bed
combustor to recover the heat for the fast pyrolysis through char combustion. Maximization of the char
combustion is essential not only for the biocrude-oil quality, but also for the stability of the reactor operation.
In the present study, CFD modeling was performed for the circulating fluidized-bed combustor in a tilted-slide
reactor for 20 kg/h feeding rate of biomass. The Lagrangian multiphase model was used to simulate the transport
of sand and char particles, and a first-order reaction was adopted for char oxidation. The k-Gmodel was used
for turbulent flow, and the eddy break-up model is used for the gas-phase combustion. The temperature and
pressure in the combustor were compared with the experimental results, and the amount of unburned char was
also determined. The numerical results can be used as base data for designing a combustor for reactor scale-up.

366
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-006

A STUDY ON THE AEROBIC LIQUID COMPOSTING OF


LIVESTOCK EXCRETIONS USING NITRIFYING
MICROORGANISMS
Hee Suk JUNG1, Seong Kuk HAN1, Young Man YOON2 and Hyoung Woon SONG1*

1
Clean Energy Team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Biogas Research Center, Hankyong National University, Anseong, Korea

* Corresponding author: hwsong@iae.re.kr

In this study, for the treatment of livestock excretions, stable liquid compost production and the improvement
of liquid compost production efficiency were investigated by applying aerobic microorganisms to aerobic liquid
composting processes. Also, aerobic liquid composting conditions, which can maintain the nitrogen content of
livestock excretions at a constant level and can shorten the decomposition period using nitrifying
microorganisms, were examined. The liquid compost decompositions of the anaerobic and aerobic liquid
compostings of livestock excretions were compared and evaluated by manufacturing laboratory-scale apparatus.
In addition, the characteristics of nitrifying microorganisms, which affect liquid compost decomposition, were
investigated.

P-WU-007

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR OPTIMUM DESIGN OF MEMBRANE


PLATE IN FILTER PRESS
Hee Suk JUNG1, Dong Shin KO2, Seong Kuk HAN1 and Hyoung Woon SONG1*

1
Clean Energy Team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Mechatronics team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea

* Corresponding author: hwsong@iae.re.kr

Purpose of this study is the design of the optimal membrane plate in filter press which is one of the
mechanical dewatering of sewage sludge for improving the solid-liquid separation. We tried to improve
Durability of the membrane plate and efficiency of the filtrate drainage through the flow and structural analysis.
Characteristics of Specific pressure performance were also evaluated according to the shape of the membrane
plate.

367
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-008

A STUDY ON THE PROPERTY BEHAVIORS OF DEWATERED


ORGANIC SLUDGE ACCORDING TO THERMAL HYDROLYSIS
REACTION
Hyoung Woon SONG1*, Hee Suk JUNG, Seong Kuk HAN and Tae Gyu SONG2

1
Clean Energy Team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Gyeonggi-do,
2
Dong Il Canvas Engineering Co. Ltd, Gyeonggi-do, Korea

* Corresponding author: hwsong@iae.re.kr

The purpose of this study is to quantify the thermal conductivity and viscosity of dewatered organic sludge
according to reaction temperature for the optimal design of a thermal hydrolysis reactor. We continuously
quantified the thermal conductivity and viscosity of dewatered organic waste according to the reaction
temperature. As the reaction temperature increased, the dewatered organic waste is thermally liquefied under
high temperature and pressure by the thermal hydrolysis reaction. Therefore, the bound water in the sludge
cells comes out as free water, which changes the dewatered sludge from a solid phase to slurry in a liquid
phase. As a result, the thermal conductivity of the sludge was more than 2.2 times lower than that of the water
at 20. However, above 200, it became 0.72 W/m, which is about 5% higher than that of water. As
a result, the change in physical properties due to thermal hydrolysis appears to be an important factor for heat
transfer efficiency. The results of the viscosity measurements according to the reaction temperature showed
that the viscosity was very high at 220,000 kg/msec at a temperature of 100, but rapidly decreased with
increases in the reaction temperature to 14,000 kg/msec at a temperature of 100G and to 4 kg/msec at a
temperature of 200G or higher, similar to the changes in the viscosity of water. And we was obtained the
thermal conductivity and viscosity function of boundary condition for the optimal design of thermal hydrolysis
reactor by numerical modeling based on the this results.

368
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-009

THE OPERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF PILOT SCALE


CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED DED BOILER FOR RDF
1
Dal-hee BAE , Dowon SHUN and Jaehyoun PARK*

1
Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: dalbae@kier.re.kr

For the first time in Korea, a pilot scale CFB(circulating fluidized bed) boiler is constructed and developed
in order to demonstrate efficient and safe utilization of RDF(refuse derived fuel). The capacity of the facility
is 8 steam tons per hour with the steam quality of 450Gand 38ata. It was designed and constructed by KIER
and whole construction process was supervised by research team. KIER also established the operation system
for commissioning and normal operation. The design data for commercial scale boiler was secured by long-term
operation and repeated experiments.
The combustion of RPF(refuse plastic fuel) and RDF produced in Korea was performed to identify and
compare the operation characteristics. The combustion characteristics of solid waste fuel such as pellet type
RDF in CFB boiler were stable and excellent in long term operation. The emission characteristics were
satisfactory except HCl. The test operation proved the high combustion efficiency of 99% and up. The emissions
of NOx, SOx in flue gas are below 100, 60ppm respectively without any emission control. But HCl emissions
were above environmental regulation, and it was controlled with flue gas control technology to meet the
regulation. HCl emissions were above 400ppm at the combustor exit but reduced below 10ppm after scrubber.
The commercial scale (60ton/hr) CFB boiler for RDF was designed based on the research results. The capacity
of the boiler is suitable for 10MWe power generation and 12ton/h steam supply. The specification could be
used in industry and cogeneration power plant for district heating. It is scheduled to be completed in May
2015 and under construction in Wonju, Gangwon province.

369
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-010

A STUDY ON REMOVING HCL FROM THE GASIFICATION


PROCESS BY USING ASR
Jaehong MIN*, Young Sik YOON, Su Nam PARK and Jae Hoi GU

Department of Environment Energy, Institute of Advanced Engineering, Youngin, Korea

* Corresponding author: jhmin@iae.re.kr

The syngas produced from waste gasification needs refinery system. The Cl of waste can be turned into
the HCl in the various purification processes with water. And this HCl will be flown in wastewater and
discharged. Thus, in this study, the concentration of Cl in the waste and the HCl which was emitted from
the refinery process were compared to estimate the HCl concentration where contained in the wastewater. By
this method, it is possible to measure the amount of HCl which can be removed. And the refinery system
has 5 sampling points to remove HCl and the other dusts. The 1.18 wt. % of Cl in ASR was used for the
gasification process. By the Standard Methods for the Measurements of Air Pollution in Korea, the concentration
of HCl in the syngas was calculated as 316 ppm and these HCl through the outlet of refinery system was
6 ppm. Therefore these refinery system can remove almost the HCl about 98.1 %.

Acknowledgment
This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology
Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy(No.
20123010100010)

370
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-011

STUDY ON CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLID PRODUCT GENERATED


FROM TORREFACTION OF EFB (EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH)
1 1 1 2 2 2
Yeong Su Park , Sung Bang Nam , Jae Hoi Gu , Jae-ou Chae , Sang Ick Nam and Ji Ho Choi

1
Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Creative Engineering Service, Incheon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jaehoi@iae.re.kr

Almost of all the coal-fired power plant are not designed to co-firing large amount of biomass with coal.
In practice, the biomass co-firing rate is commonly 5 -10% of total heat input. Torrefaction is a thermochemical
treatment process of biomass at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300. During this process, 70% of
the mass is retained as a solid product, and retain 90% of the initial energy content. The physical and chemical
properties of torrefied biomass are similar to those of coal. Therefore co-firing torrefied biomass could increase
the co-firing percentages much further to even 40%.
The experimental results show that the increase of the torrefaction temperature led to a decrease of the yield
of the char. And the heating value of char increased with the increase of the reaction temperature, because
the carbon content increased and hydrogen and oxygen content decreased. With increase in reaction temperature,
the decrease in oxygen and hydrogen with increase in carbon in solid product compared to initial EFB signifies
its approach towards C-H-O ratio coal.

Acknowledgment
This work was supported by the International Cooperation of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology
Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy
(No. 2011T100100333)

371
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-012

CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER GENERATED FROM


GASIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
1 1 1 1 1 1
Yeong Su Park , Soo Nam Park , Na Rang Kim , Young Sik Yoon , Yong Taek Lim , Ho Jin Sung ,
1 2 2
Jae Hoi Gu , Ji Hong Min and Ki Hyun Kim

1
Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea
2
Waste Facility Inspection Team, Korea Environment Corporation, Incheon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jaehoi@iae.re.kr

The gasification takes place in a low oxygen environment that limits the formation of dioxins, SOx and
NOx. However the power generation from the gasification of MSW requires the water to clean the producer
gas for use in engines. The syngas contains a variety of contaminants produced from impurities present in the
feed material gasified. The wastewater generated from cleaning system of syngas contaminated with organic
and inorganic compound. In this study, a pilot-scale fixed-bed gasification system was operated to characterize
of wastewater generated from the gasification of MSW. Wet scrubbing and wet-EP (Electrostatic Precipitator)
was chosen to remove impurities present in gas like organic components and particulate matters. The waste
water from syngas cleaning system contained suspended solids, phenolic and cyanic materials. The range of
suspended solids concentration of the wastewater was 220 G3,742 mg/l. The disposal of gasification wastewater
needs adequate pretreatment before its discharge into natural stream.

Acknowledgement
This research was financially supported by the Center for Waste Eco-Energy and Non-CO2 Gases (CWEG)
as Eco-STAR Project by Ministry of Environment, Korea. (No. 10-02-011)

372
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-013

REFINING OF SYNGAS BY WESP IN THE GASIFICATION FROM


SRF MANUFACTURING RESIDUE
1 1 1 2 2
Young Sik YOON *, Su Nam PARK , Jae Hoi GU and Young Taek LIM, Sang Ok Choi and In Su LEE

1
Department of Environment Energy, Institute of Advanced Engineering, Youngin, Korea
2
Department of Experiment & Research, Samsung-BP Chemicals, Ulsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: stephano02@iae.re.kr

We have experimented refining test of syngas by use electrostatic precipitator of wet type (WESP). Syngas
was produced by gasification of residue from Manufacturing of SRF (Solid Refuse Fuels). It was particle
materials including mist that we have refined target from syngas by WESP. It was analyzed at the input and
output gas that concentration was ranged from about 160 ~ 3,000 mg/Nm3. In the almost of test, Dust have
removed in efficiency more than 99.0 %. In the syngas of WESP outlet, Analyzed dust concentration was ranged
from about 0 ~ 15 mg/Nm3. As result, If the WESP was added on the refining system comprised wet type
unit, we could foresee that clean gas can be used by manufacturing system such as methanol or dimethylether.

Acknowledgment
This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology
Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy(No.
20123010100010)

P-WU-014

EFFECT OF VARIOUS HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIME ON


AMOUNT OF BIOGAS, METHANE AND H2S PRODUCTION IN
GROUND-FOOD-WASTE LIQUID UNDER ANAEROBIC
DIGESTION
Tae Han Yoon1*, Deok Man Han1 and Kyung Young Jin1

1
Department of Dodram Environment Research Center CO., LTD., Icheon, Korea

* Corresponding author: yth0331@hanmail.net

The main objective of this work has been to analyze the effect of four different hydraulic retention time
(HRT, 110, 90, 70, and 50 days) on the amount of biogas, methane and H2S production from the
ground-food-waste liquid(GFWL) which was under anaerobic digestion coming from a laboratory-scale
mechanicalbiological-treatment (MBT) plant. Amount of biogas production was increased as HRT decreased
however, irrespective of HRT, the methane ratio of biogas was steady as about 61%. Methane production of
GFWL was increased as HRT decreased however, irrespective of HRT, the Methane production per 1kg of
CODCr-Removed was steady as about 0.5m3/ kg-CODCr-Removed.day. The H2S concentration of biogas was increased
as HRT increased, however H2S production per 1m3 of GFWL was decreased.

373
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-WU-015

APPLICATION OF MILD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY TO A


SOLID REFUSE FUEL INCINERATOR
1 1 2
Sung Hoon SHIM , Sang Hyun JEONG and Sang-Sup LEE *

1
Environmental and Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea

* Corresponding author: slee@chungbuk.ac.kr

Our previous studies showed that moderate and intense low oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion is very
effective in reducing NOx emissions from the combustion of coal and dried sludge. The MILD combustion
technology was applied in this study to a solid refuse fuel (SRF) incinerator. The incinerator burned 12 metric
tons of SRF per day with an air ratio of 1.9. The high-temperature flue gas was re-injected into the combustion
furnace to reduce NOx emissions by smoothing the temperature field within the furnace. By applying the MILD
combustion technology, the NOx concentration normalized to 12% O2 in the exhaust gas was decreased to 71.5
ppm, whereas the CO concentration was lower than 86 ppm.

P-WU-016

NONLINEAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF A HIGH-TEMPERATURE


ROTOR-BEARING-SEAL SYSTEM IN GAS TURBINE
1,2
Zhu Rui *, Jianxing Ren1*, Hongguang LI2 and Meng Guang 2

1
College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, 200090 China
2
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240
China

* Corresponding author: zhuruish@163.com, ren608@163.com

Most significant faults in gas turbines often originate from the rotor shaft. Some of these faults could lead
to catastrophe including misalignment, imbalance, crack, rub-impact and eccentricity. In this paper, the nonlinear
factors such as rotor-curve, rub-impact, lube-film surge and thermal-stress are analyzed. Seal and bearing
characteristic is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor system. The nonlinear dynamic
characteristics of a high-temperature rotorbearingseal coupled system are investigated. Dynamic trajectories,
Poincar maps, largest Lyapunov exponents, frequency spectra, and bifurcation diagrams which are applied to
analyze the features of the rotorbearingseal system in various parameters. Various non-linear phenomena in
the high-temperature rotorbearingseal system, such as periodic motion, double-periodic motion, multi-periodic,
and quasi-periodic motion are investigated. By these curves and the program, the dynamic characteristics of
gas turbine rotors could be easily calculated with satisfying accuracy. To validate this method, the critical speed
of a real rotor of a certain gas turbine was calculated with the program and curves, and the results agree well
with the measured data. The results of this study may contribute to a further understanding of the non-linear
dynamics of the high-temperature rotorbearingseal coupled system.

374
)ZESPHFO'VFM$FMM
1PTUFS4FTTJPO

AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


P-HF-001

DEVELOPMENT OF 1KW DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL


STACKS WITH CARBON OR METALLIC BIPOLAR PLATES
1 2 2 1 1
Dong-Hyun Peck *, Jin-Woo Lee , Young-Rae Cho , Doohwan Jung and Sang-Kyung Kim

1
Fuel Cell Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon, Republic of Korea
2
LIGnex1, Gumi, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: dhpeck@kier.re.kr

The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is considered to be a promising power source for portable devices,
leisure facilities, laptop computers, and light-duty vehicles because of its easy transportation and storage of
liquid methanol fuel, simple system components(BOP), and high energy density of methanol.
In this study, 1kW class DMFC stacks with carbon or metallic bipolar plates for power-pack system was
fabricated. In order to prepare a catalyst slurry, the catalyst (60% PtRu/C, 60% Pt/C), deionized water and
Nafion solution were mixed with isopropyl alcohol. The catalyst slurry was coated on the gas diffusion layers
using semi-automatic bar coating machine. The catalyst loading was 1.8 and 2mg/cm2 for the anode and cathode.
The performance of the stack was investigated in a test station. The DMFC stack was tested for supplying
of the power and charging of the battery. A solution of 0.6M methanol was fed to the anode and air was
introduced to the cathode under ambient pressure. Dynamic response of DMFC stack was examined using a
stepwise increasing current mode. The DMFC system has stable operating characteristics and provides an output
power of 1 kW.

P-HF-002

PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN-RICH SYNGAS FROM METHANE


REFORMING IN A STEAM MICROWAVE PLASMA
Dae Hyun Choi, Se Min Chun, Suk Hwal Ma and Yong Cheol Hong*

Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: ychong@nfri.re.kr

Steam-methane reforming (SMR) investigations have been carried out at the temperature ranges of 700 ~
1000C in a catalyst reactor. The catalyst during the reforming reaction is agglomerated in the temperatures,
showing the degradation of catalytic performance with a carbon deposition on the surface of catalyst. To
overcome the problems, in this context, we report the methane reforming in a steam plasma generated by
microwaves at atmospheric pressure. The plasma reforming system is mainly composed of a 2.45 GHz
microwave plasma torch and a plasma nozzle. Methane gas is introduced into the steam microwave plasma
stabilized by a swirl flow. The steam microwave plasma can provide highly active species and high-temperature
plasma flame, enhancing the chemical reaction rate and eliminating the need for catalysts. Here, we investigate
the dependence of hydrogen concentrations in terms of ratios of steam to carbon at a given plasma power,
showing high H2 concentration more than 70-vol. % in a specially designed plasma nozzle.

377
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-003

WGS REACTION FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING AN


ATMOSPHERIC STEAM PLASMA TORCH SYSTEM AND ITS
CORRELATION OF REACTION TEMPERATURE
Suk-Hwal Ma1,2, Dae-Hyun Choi1, Se-Min Chun1 and Yong-Cheol Hong1*

1
Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan, Korea
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ychong@nfri.re.kr

Water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) is one of the well-known processes among steam reforming technologies
for producing hydrogen as a clean energy source. We investigated the hydrogen production using a pure steam
plasma and CO gas as a reactant. The steam plasma contains highly active species, enhancing the chemical
reaction rate and eliminating the need for catalysts. The microwave radiation which is source of plasma generated
from magnetron is guided through the tapered waveguide and it enters the discharge tube which consists of
fused quartz. For improving the efficiency of hydrogen productivity, we observed the correlation of reaction
temperature with syngas concentration by changing the input point of CO gas in different temperature zones.
We assume that the hydrogen productivity is relatively affected by reaction temperature. Thus, this study would
be helpful to produce hydrogen efficiently and overcome the disadvantages of existing water-gas shift reaction
(WGSR).

P-HF-004

ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF A LONG ENDURANCE HYBRID


UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE BASED ON A REGENERATIVE
FUEL CELL SYSTEM IN THE STRATOSPHERE
Moon-Yong Cha1,2, Minjin Kim1,2*, Young-Jun Sohn1,2 and Tae-Hyun Yang1

1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Advanced Energy Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: minjin@kier.re.kr

A water electrolysis device within a regenerative fuel cell system makes hydrogen and oxygen using the
water produced by a fuel cell. This allows an effective fuel usage and useful applying to transport applications.
So a hybrid power system using a regenerative fuel cell is able to run for a long time. An unmanned aerial
vehicle (UAV) with fuel cell have been developed over the last decade but the UAV with a regenerative fuel
cell system havent come out yet. The regenerative fuel cell system could be considered of a power plant for
the UAV which have long endurance of flight time due to an advantage of fuel usage. In this paper we studied
the properties and energy management of the regenerative fuel cell based UAV for the stratosphere. Because
the required power distribution of the UAV is different between the stratosphere and the troposphere the strategy
of energy management should be varied for a long endurance. We found that a mixed flight path is suited
for the stratosphere and identified possibility of the flight for a long time with a regenerative fuel cell system.

378
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-005

PATTERN SIMULATIONS FOR THE HIGH-ALTITUDE


LONG-ENDURANCE HYBRID UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE
USING REGENERATIVE FUEL CELL SYSTEM
Seong Hyun CHO1,2, Minjin KIM1,2*, Young-Jun SOHN1,2 and Tae-Hyun Yang1

1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Advanced Energy Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: minjin@kier.re.kr

Recently, high altitude long endurance(HALE) unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) have been developed to
perform not only military missions like surveillance and reconnaissance of a very wide range but also
commercial missions like meteorological observation, aerial photograph, communication relay, internet network
build and disaster observation. Power sources of HALE-targeted UAV need to be higher performance and lighter
weight for flight efficiency and safety. Power system has been applied to hybrid system which is better than
single power system for long endurance of UAV. A regenerative fuel cell(RFC) system which supplies fuel
continuously to fuel cell by using polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis(PEL) devices needs to be
applied. But, a model based simulation concerning stable operation of the very complicated hybrid system should
be performed before a real flight. In this paper, safety of hybrid power system is estimated through the pattern
simulation of HALE hybrid UAV. Additionally, to achieve the target weight of RFC system, some conditions
of fuel tanks which have an effect on RFC system weight are compared and then optimized.

P-HF-006

DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE OPERATING METHODS FOR


A HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE
FUEL CELL STACK
Ji-Hun KIM1,2, Taegon KANG1, Minjin KIM1* and Young-Jun SOHN1

1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research , Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Nam University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: minjin@kier.re.kr

Research works about polybenzimidazol(PBI)-based high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell
(HT-PEMFC) have been progressed. HT-PEMFCs can be operated without humidification under high
temperature between 120Gand 180Gcondition and minimize CO adsorption under the over 160Gcondition.
Overall PEMFC performance is improved because electrochemical reaction kinetics is enhanced at such a high
temperature operation. However, the high temperature condition accelerates the degradation rate of HT-PEMFCs.
In this paper, effective operating methods for HT-PEMFCs such as minimizing OCV exposure while operating,
controlling the proper operation temperature and N2 purging the water inside of the HT-PEMFC stack were
developed to avoid a fast degradation of HT-PEMFCs. Based on the proposed methods, the experiments were
carried out by using 10-cell and 80-cell stacks to define proper start and stop process.

379
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-007

CHARACTERISTICS OF A TUBULAR CARBON-FUELED


FUEL CELL (CFC) FED BY GASIFIED CARBON FUEL WITH
K2CO3 CATALYST
Sun Kyung Kim1,2, Usman Mushtaq1, Jong Won Lee1, Seung Bok Lee1, Seok Joo Park1,
1 2 1
Rak Hyun Song , Joong Hee Lee and Tak Hyoung Lim *

1
Fuel Cell Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon, S.Korea
2
Department of Energy Conversion & Storage Engineering, Chonbuk National Univ., S.Korea

* Corresponding author: ddak@kier.re.kr

In this study, a carbon-based fuel cell (CFC) comprised of a tubular anode supported cell was fabricated
and characterized. Gasified carbon was fed to the CFC via dry gasification of carbon fuel mixture containing
activated Carbon (BET area 1800 m2 /g) and 5wt. % K2CO3 catalyst. The carbon fuel chamber was agitated
with CO2 to promote reverse Boudouard reaction: C+CO2 2CO. The CFC was then operated on mixture
of CO2 and CO gas as fuel, while air was supplied to the cathode as oxidant gas. A 10cm2 active electrode
area CFC was tested initially for the performance degradation over 33 thermal cycles between 500-750oC and
another similar cell was operated on a galvanostatic mode at 10mA/cm2 for 500hours. The thermal cycles
resulted in an average degradation rate of 1.14mV/cycle while a constant current operation caused 183V/h
at 750oC. Furthermore, i-V polarizations tests obtained from a bigger active area of 60cm2 cells resulted in
a maximum power density of 100, 155 and 200mW/cm2 at 750, 800, and 850oC.

380
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-008

SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS FOR


OPTIMIZATION OF PEM FUEL CELL DEAD-END OPERATION
1 1,2 1,2
Bong Gu Lee , Minjin Kim and Young-Jun Sohn *

1
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Department, University of Science and Technology, 217,
Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea
2
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Department, Korean Institute of Energy Research, 152,
Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: yjsohn@kier.re.kr

Interest in the development and application of renewable energy sources due to oil depletion and environmental
pollution of the current is increasing. PEMFC(Proton exchange membrane fuel cell) technology development
for the energy supply has attracted great interest by lowering the oil dependence and by reducing noise and
pollutants. Operation mode of the PEMFC can be divided into flow-through (recirculation) mode or dead-end
mode. The dead-end mode is widely applied in the field of miniature fuel cells because the fuel utilization
is high and the power consumption of the additional devices is small. However, the accumulation of water
inside the channel of the fuel cell prohibits a uniform supply of fuel to the reaction surface and oxygen and
water are removed together during the purge process for water removal. Optimization is essential to purge
interval, for water flooding in a gas channel of the PEMFC is an important issue in water management of
the dead-end system. In this study, we analyzed the effect of water flooding on the performance of the fuel
cell by the analysis program for predicting the change in performance of the PEMFC in accordance with the
purge interval. In addition, we used the unit cells including a transparent window to visualize the water flooding
inside of fuel cell channels. Visualization in the channel was performed in terms of a variety of purge interval
and the current density. We compared the numerical modeling and experimental results and analyzed the
correlation between the purge interval and water flooding.

381
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-009

DESIGN AND OPERATING TEST OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE


POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL PORTABLE SYSTEM
1,3 2,3 3 3 2,3*
Sung-Kwan Ryu , Bong-Gu Lee , Seung-Gon Kim , Min-Jin Kim and Young-jun Sohn

1
Department of Chemical & Biomole. Engineering, Yonsei University, 134,
Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea
2
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Department, University of Science and Technology, 217,
Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea
3
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Department, Korean Institute of Energy Research, 152,
Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: muse78@kier.re.kr

Recently, many researcher focused on high-temperature proton electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEFC) due to its
advantages such as kinetics, CO tolerance, simplified system and high efficiency. In order to commercialize
high temperature PEFC potable system, it needs to optimize operation temperature, gas flow rate, thermal
balances of BOPs and start-up/shut-down processes. In this study, we demonstrated 20 W portable power pack
which consists of 24 cells stack, methanol reformer with catalytic combustor. We operated the portable system
successfully. We also characterized portable system performance and electrochemical properties from 140 G
to 180 Gtemperature. Furthermore, we suggest several experiences from this experimental data for the advanced
system.

P-HF-010

A NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF COOLANT


CHANNEL ON PERFORMANCE OF PEMFC WITH STRAIGHT
GAS CHANNELS
Hyo-Yup KIM and Kyoungyoun KIM*

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: kkim@hanbat.ac.kr

In the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems, proper cooling strategy is an essential
requirement for their performance because the cell temperature distribution directly affects the electrochemical
reaction rate in the catalyst layers as well as the ionomic conductivity in the membrane. Further, low temperature
owing to an excessive cooling gives rise to water condensation in the PEMFC, which can cause water flooding
and thus a significant concentration loss. In order to obtain ideas for PEMFC cooling, a self-consistent numerical
simulation has been performed in the present study. A complete three-dimensional, two-phase model was
employed for single straight channel geometry including cooling channels. The effects of various parameters
(coolant flow rate, direction, the number of channels) have been investigated. An optimal cooling strategy has
been discussed in terms of water and heat management in the PEMFC based on the present numerical results.

382
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-011

A THIN FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL WITH THE


COST-EFFECTIVE ANODE MATERIAL
1 1 1 1 1 1
Joonho PARK , Yeageun LEE , Yoon Ho LEE , Gu Young CHO , Taehyun PARK and Suk Won CHA *

1
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: swcha@snu.ac.kr

Recently, extensive researches have been conducted to lower the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel
cells. To compensate the low ionic conductivity of the ceramic electrolyte materials at lower temperatures, the
thin film architectures have been developed to moderate the ohmic resistance of the solid oxide fuel cells by
shortening the ionic conduction path. In regard of most researches about the thin film solid oxide fuel cells,
noble metals such as platinum were used as the anode materials because of their high reactivity at the lower
operating temperatures. In this study, we successfully demonstrated the thin film solid oxide fuel cell with a
nickel anode which is far more inexpensive than platinum. The thin film fuel cell was fabricated by sequential
sputtering of the nickel anode, the YSZ electrolyte and the porous platinum cathode on the nano-porous anodic
aluminum oxide template. The electrochemical performance of the fuel cell was examined by the current-voltage
measurement and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at 500C.

P-HF-012

EFFECT OF CONTACTING BETWEEN THE FUEL AND THE


ANODE IN BIOMASS-DRIVEN FUEL CELL SYSTEM
Jong-Pil KIM*, Soon-Ho LEE and Chung-Hwan JEON

School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (PNU), Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author: kjfeel@pusan.ac.kr

Biomass was proposed as the fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell. A single cell was operated at high temperatures
with continuous fuel feeding equipment. Argon as a carrier gas was introduced to deliver the pulverized biomass
to the anode. In this study the effect of contacting between the fuel and the anode was investigated and the
two type which were direct-contact type and gasification-driven type was compared to the characteristics and
performance. Biomass made physically contact with the anode in the direct-contact type and was converted
product gas as the fuel from an external gasifier in the gasification-driven type. A thermal gravimetric analyzer
(TGA) was used to analyze the thermal characteristics of the fuel samples. The ash content of the biomass
was approx. 3.8 wt.% and it might affect the cell performance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations
was carried out for thermal behavior of the fuel. The cell voltage and power density were measured by an
I-V measurement equipment.

383
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-013

EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE CROSSOVER ON HYBRID SULFUR


CELL PERFORMANCE
Seong Uk Jeong, Won Chul Cho, Ki Kwang Bae, Chu Sik Park, Chang Hee Kim and Kyoung Soo Kang*

Hydrogen laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research

* Corresponding author: kskang@kier.re.kr

The hydrogen has received wide attention as an alternative clean energy to reduce the greenhouse gases
for the future. Especially, the hydrogen production from sulfur dioxide which comes from industrial off-gas
is attractive method because it can make hydrogen and sulfuric acid simultaneously. In this work, the effect
of SO2 conversion on cell voltage was studied. From 4.3% to 43.5% conversion, there was no effect on cell
voltage. The effect of sulfur dioxide concentration was studied with nitrogen which mixed with sulfur dioxide
from 20% to 100%. The overpotential was increased as the concentration of sulfur dioxide was decreased
because the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide was decreased. The crossover of sulfur dioxide from anode to
cathode was investigated. The crossover flux was increased with sulfur dioxide concentration because the
solubility of sulfur dioxide in water is proportional to partial pressure of sulfur dioxide. The limiting current
density was decreased as SO2 concentration was decreased because mass transport of SO2 was increased. The
water flux from cathode to anode was not increased with current density and sulfuric acid production was
increased up to 90% of current efficiency at least.

P-HF-014

Ni-M/MgAl2O4 (M=Ca, K, La, Ce) CATALYST IN COMBINED


H2O AND CO2 REFORMING OF COKE OVEN GAS FOR SYNGAS
PRODUCTION
Jin Hyang Lee1,2, Kee Young Koo1, Ji Eun Park1,3, Un Ho Jung1, Sung Hyun Kim2 and Wang Lai Yoon1*
1
Hydrogen Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER)
2
Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Korea University
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University

* Corresponding author: wlyoon@kier.re.kr

Syngas with H2/CO has been produced by combined H2O and CO2 reforming (CSCR) of coke oven gas(COG)
over Ni-M/MgAl2O4 (M=Ca, K, La, Ce) catalysts. COG composed of H2(48-55%), CH4(28-30%), N2(1-3%),
CO(5-7%) and CO2(2-3%) is a by-product in the coke-making process. When the produced syngas is utilized
as a reducing agent of direct reduced iron(DRI), it is expected that CO2 emission can be decreased by minimizing
the coke in DRI. In general reforming process, commercial Ni-based catalysts are easily deactivated by the
carbon deposition and the Ni sintering at high reaction temperatures. Hence, we have investigated the effect
of Ca, K, La and Ce addition on the catalytic performance of 10wt%Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst in CSCRM of COG.
10wt%Ni-M/MgAl2O4 catalysts were prepared by co-impregnation method. The promoter content was varied
from 0 to 5wt%. The prepared catalysts were characterized by BET, H2-chemisorption, XRD and TPR. The
catalytic test was carried out at 700oC~900oC under 5 atm with the feed ratio of CH4:H2O:CO2: N2=1:1.2:0.4:1
at GHSV=4,680,000ml/h-gcat. The coke formation and Ni size of used catalysts were observed by SEM, TGA
and TEM analysis. Among the tested catalysts, 10Ni-5Ca/MgAl2O4 showed the best activity and stability due
to the improved metal dispersion and SMSI.

384
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-015

FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF A 150W CLASS TUBULAR


SOFC STACK WITH POX REFORMER
1 1 1 1 1
Wan Je Kim , Seung Bok Lee *, Rak Hyun Song , Seok Joo Park , Tak Hyoung Lim ,
1 1,2
Jong Won Lee and Seong Woo Park

1
Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: sblee@kier.re.kr

In present work, anode support for micro-tubular SOFC was fabricated with outer diameter of 10 mm and
characterized with microstructure, performance. The unit cell was manufactured through the manufacturing
process of the optimum. 150W stack was fabricated by mixing the produced unit cells in series and parallel
through the manufacturing process is optimized. The experiments with the glass sealant with a previously used
conventional ceramic bonds in order to improve the gas seal, which is one of the important factors in making
a stack. As a result, optimizes the gas seal under optimal conditions using a combination of a glass sealant
and the ceramic sealant. Following this, a 150W anode-supported micro-tubular SOFC stack was constructed
by stacking 6 bundles of the single cells in a series of electrical connections. Additionally, we produced 2wt%
Pt/Ce0.2Zr0.8O2/Al2O3 POx catalyst by co-impregnation and incipient wetness impregnation method. Using the
prepared catalyst, we designed and fabricated a POx reformer. While supplying a fuel of the flow rate is
optimized performance was measured at 700, 750, 800. The developed system showed maximum power
of 96W, 128W and 148W at 700, 750, and 800oC, respectively, using propane as fuel.

P-HF-016

A NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE


DESIGN AND THE OPERATION CONDITION OPTIMIZATION
OF PLASMA REFORMER
Hyoung Woon SONG1*, Hee Suk JUNG, Seong Kuk HAN and Chang Sik CHOI2

1
Clean Energy Team, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Gyeonggi-do

* Corresponding author: hsong@iae.re.kr

Plasma reforming has the merit of good reaction control and conversion rate, but has the demerit of high
power consumption. The plasma reforming technology is not complex and presents a high flexibility allowing
to work in a high range of flow rates and to treat a large amount of chemical species. The main advantage
of this device is that we can easily vary the power in the discharge, by acting on the device of the electrode,
and on the voltage level. Parametric screening studies were conducted, in which there are the variations of
electrode length, preheating temperature of reactant gas, flowrate of reactant. This study has developed the
numerical model for optimization design of plasma reformer, and applied for the investigation of flow field
and electric characteristics in reformer. Based on the results of the numerical analysis, we were studied reforming
characteristics and optimal operating condition for the synthesis gas production by plasma reformer.

385
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-017

EXPERIMENTAL ANALAYS OF 5KW SOFC SYSTEM WITH


EXTERNAL STEAM REFORMER
1 2
Jinwon Yun and Sangseok Yu *

1
Graduate school, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: sangseok@cnu.ac.kr

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising candidate for distributed power sources in the next generation
due to its high efficiency and high-temperature waste heat utilization. The SOFC hybrid system is suitable to
enhance the overall system efficiency via the maximizing the utilization of waste heat of fuel cell. In this study,
a 5kW SOFC stack emulator is developed to study the characteristics of exhausted thermal energy from the
stack. The SOFC stack emulator was composed of three components: stack emulator body, thermal management
system, and SOFC simulator. The stack emulator body is to burn out amount of gases for electrochemical
reaction that is requested by SOFC simulator. The SOFC simulator is a commercial package based simulation
program that delivered fuel consumption rate, air flow rate, stack operating temperature and exhausted gas
composition and temperature from fuel cell anode. The thermal management system is used to maintain the
temperature of stack emulator as well as exhaust gas temperature. The thermal management system is equipped
with control system which is connected to SOFC simulator. The stack emulator is successfully demonstrated
the SOFC operation environment. The basic control strategy shows the system is operated reliably under load
follow-up schedule.

P-HF-018

WATER CONTENT OF POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE


FUEL CELL PASSIVE CONTROL BASED ON
AIR FLOW REGULATION
Kai Ou1, Ya-Xiong Wang1 and Young-Bae Kim1*

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: ybkim@chonnam.ac.kr

Water content of membrane is one of the most crucial factors which significantly affect polymer electrolyte
membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance. Keeping membrane water content in proper condition can improve
the conductivity in membrane and prevent the membrane from degradation, whereas large amount water may
obstruct the gases pass through the membrane causing PEMFC output voltage drops. This paper mainly focuses
on PEMFC performance influenced by water content in membrane, and its control passively implemented by
air flow regulation. First, PEMFC dynamics model with different relative humidity (RH) is developed for
performance comparison. According to the simulation model, the relation between water content and air flow
rate is investigated. Finally, to condition water content under stack current disturbance change, air flow regulation
is consequently carried out; thereby, PEMFC performance can be optimized.

386
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-019

A STUDY ON ME/MESOPOROUS Co3O4 (Me = Ni, Cu, Fe, Mn)


CATALYSTS FOR THE LOW TEMPERATURE WATER-GAS SHIFT
REACTION
Dae-Woon JEONG1, Won-Jun JANG1, Hyun-Seog ROH1* and Jong Wook BAE2*

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea
2
Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hsroh@yonsei.ac.kr (H.-S. Roh), finejw@skku.edu (J.W. Bae)

A comparative study on mesoporous Co3O4 supported transition metals in the low temperature water-gas shift
reaction has been carried out. The mesoporous Co3O4 support was prepared by a template-replicating method
using the templating material of KIT-6 and transition metals were loaded on the mesoporous Co3O4 support
by an incipient wetness impregnation method. Ni, Cu, Fe, and Mn were employed as active metals for the
target reaction in this study. Ni/mesoporous Co3O4 catalyst exhibited the highest CO conversion even at a very
high gas hourly space velocity of 36,027 h-1. Ni loading was optimized to obtain highly active Ni/mesoporous
Co3O4 catalysts for the low temperature water-gas shift reaction. In addition, the Cu loading was systematically
varied to optimize Ni/mesoporous Co3O4 catalyst.

P-HF-020

LOW TEMPERATURE WATER-GAS SHIFT REACTION OVER


MESOPOROUS CO3O4 SUPPORTED BIMETALLIC NI-CU
CATALYSTS
1 1 1 2
Dae-Woon JEONG , Hyun-Suk NA , Hyun-Seog ROH * and Jong Wook BAE *

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea
2
Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hsroh@yonsei.ac.kr (H.-S. Roh), finejw@skku.edu (J.W. Bae)

The low temperature water-gas shift (LT-WGS) reaction has been carried out at high gas hourly space velocity
of 36,027 h-1 over bimetallic Ni-Cu catalyst supported on the mesoporous Co3O4. The preparation method was
changed to get a highly active and selective bimetallic Ni-Cu catalyst for the LT-WGS reaction. The Ni-Cu
bimetallic catalysts supported on the mesoporous Co3O4 were prepared by co-impregnation (Ni-Cu/mesoporous
Co3O4) and sequential impregnation (Cu/Ni/mesoporous Co3O4 and Ni/Cu/mesoporous Co3O4) methods. The
effect of preparation method on catalytic performance has been interpreted through characterization of BET,
XRD, TPR, and related to activity results in the LT-WGS reaction.

387
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-021

AN ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC CODES FOR SAFETY


MANAGEMENT OF LOW-PRESSURE HYDROGEN FACILITIES
Duk-Gwon Lee*, Jung-Woon Lee, Geun-Jun Lyu and Ho-Seok Lim

Institute of Gas Safety R&D, Korea Gas Safety Corporation

* Corresponding author: safetyplus@kgs.or.kr

Currently, the guideline of ministry of trade, industry and energy, A guideline for the safety management
of hydrogen town demonstration project, is applied to the hydrogen Town in Korea. The above guideline for
hydrogen town is based on KGS Codes developed by Korea Gas Safety Corporation, such as KGS FS551
- Facility/Technical/Inspection/Safety Diagnosis Code for Pipes Outside of Producing and Supplying Places of
Urban Gas Business, KGS FU551 - Facility/Technical/Inspection Code for Urban Gas Using Facilities and
KGS FS552 - Facility/Technical/Inspection Code for Governors for General urban Gas Business. And, it is
used for safety management of hydrogen facilities such as a gas governing equipment, an underground pipeline,
a gas facility and others. However, the above codes are not enough to manage low-pressure hydrogen facilities.
Because, they are developed for urban gas facilities.
In this study, domestic codes for safety management of low-pressure hydrogen facilities are analyzed to find
a way for the revision of guideline [1][2][3][4].

[1] Korea Gas Safety Corporation, KGS FS551 Code for Facility/Technical/Inspection/Safety Diagnosis Code
for Pipes Outside of Producing and Supplying Places of Urban Gas Business, 2103.
[2] Korea Gas Safety Corporation, KGS FU551 Code for Facility/Technical/Inspection Code for Urban Gas
Using Facilities, 2103.
[3] Korea Gas Safety Corporation, KGS FS552 Code for Facility/Technical/Inspection Code for Governors for
General urban Gas Business, 2103.
[4] A guideline for the safety management of demonstration project of hydrogen town, Ministry of Trade,
Industry and Energy Republic of Korea, 2013.

388
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-HF-022

A DESIGN OF TEST BED FOR LOW PRESSURE HYDROGEN


FACILITIES
Jung-Woon Lee*, Duk-Gwon Lee, Geun-Jun Lyu and Ho-Seok Lim

Institute of Gas Safety R&D, Korea Gas Safety Corporation

* Corresponding author: wooni@kgs.or.kr

The hydrogen transmission at hydrogen town, which is a demonstration project using byproduct hydrogen
gas, in ULSAN is composed of high pressure pipelines and low pressure pipelines. High pressure area is a
front section from the chemical complex to the governor. And, Low pressure section is a rear section from
the governor to hydrogen facilities such as buildings. High pressure facilities on the front section are managed
by High-Pressure Gas Safety Control Act. But, the rear section does not have any acts to control. To
compensate the defect, a guideline for safety management of hydrogen town is developed using KGS codes
based on Urban Gas Business Act. But, it has some problems caused by the difference of fuel.
In this study, the test bed for low-pressure hydrogen facilities is designed to develop safety management
technologies. The test bed is composed of governors equipment, underground pipeline, hydrogen facilities and
others. And, test items are deducted from analysis of KGS codes. It is suggested that an improvement of design
direction of hydrogen town is needed through the demonstration test[1][2][3].

[1] A guideline for the safety management of demonstration project of hydrogen town, Ministry of Trade,
Industry and Energy Republic of Korea, 2013.
[2] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA2 for Hydrogen Technologies Code, 2011.
[3] Compressed Gas Association, CGA G-5.6 for Hydrogen Pipeline Systems, 2005.

389
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


P-LC-001

CO2 GASIFICATION BEHAVIOR OF BIOMASS AND MIXED FUEL


Jin Woo Kook, Ji Hoon Shin, In Seop Gwak, Yea Rah Kim1, Chung Ho Lee2 and See Hoon Lee1*

1
Department of Mineral Resources and Energy Engineering, Chonbuk National University,
Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 570-752, Korea
2
KOSPO, Korea

* Corresponding author: donald@jbnu.ac.kr

Gasification processes can convert various hydrocarbon resources such as biomass, coal and petroleum coke
into useful syngas[CO+H2] with near zero pollute emissions. In gasification processes, there are many reactions
including combustion, partial oxidation, steam gasification and water gas shift reaction. Also, CO2 gasification
reaction might help the production of CO. But there are not enough studies about CO2 gasification reaction.
In this study, CO2 gasification reaction kinetics of various biomass and mixed fuels with coal have been
investigated and compared. The kinetic study of CO2 gasification has been performed by using TGA at various
temperatures[1100-1400] which is generally applied to entrained flow gasifiers. The heating rate were fixed
at 15/min and the carbon dioxide flow rate were fixed at 30cc/min under all experimental conditions. The
weight changes of the samples were measured at intervals of 2.6 seconds by a computerized digital scale and
were stored to be analyzed. Activation energy and reaction equation were calculated in accordance with carbon
conversion.

P-LC-002

CO2 REFORMING OF Ch4 BY A HYBRID SYSTEM COMBINED


WITH MICROWAVE PLASMA TORCH AND A CATALYST
Se Min CHUN, Dae Hyun CHOI, Suk Hwal MA and Yong Cheol HONG*

Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan, Korea

* Corresponding author: ychong@nfri.re.kr

Carbon dioxide (CO2) reforming of methane (CH4) has been studied to produce synthesis gas as an environmental
friendly energy source of the future. A synthesis gas can be produced from various CO2 and CH4 reforming
process, such as catalyst, plasma, and combination of plasma with catalyst. In this regard, to reduce the high
energy consumption of plasma process and intractable problem of catalyst process, we proposed a hybrid system
combined with CO2 microwave plasma torch and a catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The hybrid system contains
mainly a microwave generator system, a microwave plasma torch, a catalysts reforming system, and a synthesis
gas analysis system. CH4 as a synthesis gas source is introduced into center position of the microwave plasma
stabilized by CO2 swirl gas. The Nickel-based catalyst bed is placed at arbitrary position from the CO2
microwave plasma torch for an efficient reforming. Here, we report experimental results concerning properties
of CO2 microwave plasma torch, spectroscopic diagnostics, and the influence of the ratio of CO2 to CH4.

393
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-LC-003

PROCESS ANALYSIS ON A HIGH EFFICIENCY COAL-FIRED


POWER PLANT USING A SUPERCRITICAL CO2 RECOMPRESSION
BRAYTON CYCLE
Dong-Ryul RHIM*, Sung Ho PARK, Su Hyun KIM, Jin Ho KIM and Choongsub YEOM

Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea

* Corresponding author: drrhim@iae.re.kr

Numerical analysis on a high thermal efficiency coal-fired power plant was conducted under realistic process
conditions using a supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle. A coal-fired power plant with a circulating
fluidized bed combustion(CFBC) boiler and low rank coal using a conventional steam Rankine cycle with both
superheated steam and supercritical steam conditions was chosen as a reference plant for the current study.
The coal-fired power plant was modeled with the ASPEN-Plus code to assess its overall thermal efficiency.
Main parameter examined to investigate the effect on the efficiency was flow fraction to auxiliary CO2
compressor for the supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle. For the reference cases, the net power plant
efficiency with a supercritical steam condition is a bit higher than for a superheated steam condition as usual.
The power plant using a supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle around 0.4 of flow fraction to auxiliary
CO2 compressor at the inlet maximum pressure of 20 MPa for a supercritical CO2 turbine shows much higher
net plant efficiency than for the reference cases using a conventional steam Rankine cycle.

P-LC-004

INTRINSIC REACTION BEHAVIORS OF FISCHER-TROPSCH


SYNTHESIS REACTION IN A FIXED-BED REACTOR
Tae Wan KIM, Ji Chan PARK, Heon JUNG and Jung-Il YANG*

Clean Fuel Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: yangji@kier.re.kr

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) reaction was carried out using a novel system consisting of a metallic
structured catalyst and heat-exchanger type reactor. The metallic structured catalyst was developed with a view
to achieving all of the ideal characteristics for FTS reaction. Also, the heat-exchanger type reactor was designed
to take two of the characteristics of the ideal reactor, fixed-bed catalyst and isothermal, into consideration. The
superficial velocity of synthesis gas in the reactor was very important for obtaining a high liquid oil productivity
in the FTS reaction and a maximum value of the C5+ liquid oil productivity of 98.1 ml/kgcath was obtained
at a synthesis gas flow rate of 300 ml/min. The reaction system consisting of the metallic structured catalyst
and heat-exchanger type reactor effectively prevented the formation of CH4 at high temperature and reduced
the diffusional restrictions of the hydrocarbons produced in the catalyst pores with increasing temperature,
resulting in a high C5+ productivity of 141.5 ml/kgcath even at the high reaction temperature of 231 oC. The
goal of this study was to concretize the ideal reactor concept and to develop a novel reactor system without
heat and mass transfer limitations in FTS reaction.

394
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-LC-005

THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF POWER-TO-GAS PLANT


BASED ON CO2 METHANATION USING H2 FROM DUMP
POWER IN KOREA
Su Hyun Kim1* and Young Don Yoo1

1
Plant Engineering Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering, Suwon, Korea

* Corresponding author: shkim0605@iae.re.kr

The energy storage concept of Power to Gas converts the excess or dump electrical power into hydrogen
or methane. Power to BioGas process on the basis of biological or catalytic methanation of hydrogen and carbon
dioxide is the one of main alternative processes to obtain biomethane. The possibilities of producing methane
from hydrogen and carbon dioxide were investigated in this study. There are two ways to produce methane
using carbon dioxide and hydrogen, one is based on catalytic methanation(thermo-chemical conversion) and
another is based on biological methanation. In thermo-chemical processes, metal catalysts are used to enable
the chemical reaction of CO2 and H2. The temperature range of the thermo-chemical conversion is about
340~500C and pressure conditions are in the range of 10 bars. In contrast to the catalytic process, biological
methanation occurs naturally using microorganisms. Biomethane plants are able to use excess or dump power
for producing methane and take a new role in the energy supply. The efficiency of the methanation system
of carbon dioxide and hydrogen to methane depends on the efficiency of producing hydrogen and the methanation
reactor.

P-LC-006

CHARACTERIZATION OF K2CO3-MgO BASED SOLID SORBENT


FOR CAPTURING CO2 FROM FLUE GAS
Tae Hyoung EOM1, Joong Beom LEE1, Kyeongsook KIM1,
2 1
Young Woo RHEE * and Chong Kul RYU *

1
Future Technology Research Laboratory, KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon, Korea
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ywrhee@cnu.ac.kr, ckryu@kepri.re.kr

We have been developing various dry alkali metal-based sorbents such as K2CO3 and Na2CO3 as active
material and multi binder matrices as well as technology of their mass production by spray dryer method. The
mass produced K2CO3-Al2O3 sorbents (KEP-CO2P, hereafter) were tested for their CO2 sorption capacity by
a 2,000 Nm3/h (0.5 MWe) CO2 capture pilot plant was built for Unit 3 of Hadong thermal power station in
2010. To improve the performances of KEP-CO2P, the newly several K2CO3-MgO sorbents were prepared.
Sorb-KM1 and Sorb-K2 were chosen for the mass production by attrition index, TGA CO2 sorption capacity
and other physical properties. Sorbs-KM2 selected from three K2CO3-MgO based sorbents as a candidate to
improve the performance of KEP-CO2P were tested with the batch bubbling reactor and the 2 Nm3/h reactor,
and were analyzed with PSA, FE-SEM, EPMA, and XPS to probe the causes of performance degradation.

395
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-LC-007

INTERNAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF OIL PALM-DERIVED


BIOMASS AND THEREBY REINFORCED COMPOSITES
1 2 1,2 1,2
Kazutoshi KUNIMOTO , Yoshito ANDO , Yoshihito SHIRAI and Haruo NISHIDA

1
Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan
2
Eco-Town Collaborative R&D Center for the Environment and Recycling, Kyushu Institute of Technology,
Kitakyushu Japan

* Corresponding author: nishida@lsse.kyutech.ac.jp

Mesocarp fiber (MF) of oil palm, generated after oil expression at palm oil mills, is extremely abundant,
renewable and readily available lignocellulosic material. To utilize MF as a component of green composites,
potentialities of MF were investigated. First, internal and surface structures of MF were analyzed in detail.
Morphologies of MF were observed with a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and silica
bodies (phytoliths) on the surface were characterized with a SEM-energy dispersion spectroscopy. As results,
specific fibrovascular bundle structure and channels connected to the phytolith array were found. Second.
Physical properties: tensile strength and modulus of MF were evaluated by using a universal testing machine,
resulting in about two and three times higher, respectively, than those of neat polypropylene (PP). Based on
the physical properties of MF, composites consisting of MF and PP were prepared with an extruder and their
mechanical properties were evaluated.

P-LC-008

PREDICTION OF INSIDE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION FOR A


REHEATING FURNACE USING NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
Cheon Hyun CHO, Su Hyun KIM, Sung Ho PARK and Dong-Ryul RHIM*

Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin, Korea

* Corresponding author: drrhim@iae.re.kr

Continuous reheating furnaces are used to reheat steels like billet, bloom and slab up to 1150 G for the
rolling or milling processes. Many burners are installed in a continuous reheating furnace to reheat the steel,
and the inside temperature distribution from combustion affects the reheated steel quality and furnace production
rate. This numerical analysis was executed to study the inside temperature of a reheating furnace walking beam
type. 3 dimensional model of the reheating furnace was built for the numerical analysis, and hybrid meshes
with tetra and structural types are used for the calculation. Inside pressure of the reheating furnace was
maintained over atmospheric pressure. Methane at 1 atm and 300 K was used as burner fuel, and preheated
air at 1 atm and 875 K was used as combustion oxidizer. Finite rate and eddy dissipation models were used
for the turbulent and chemistry simulation in the current study.

396
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-LC-009

THE EFFECT OF PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF


p-Nitrophenol BY SYNTHESISED ticl4 AND ETHYLENE GLYCOL
1 1 1 1 2
Eul Noh , Kang Seop Yun , Hee June Jeong , Na Hyun Jun , Woo Seung Kang ,
3 1
Sang Chul Jung and Sun Jae Kim *

1
Institute/Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engin., Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea
2
Dept. Of Metallurgical & Materials Engin., Inha Technical College, Incheon 402-752, Korea
3
Dept. Of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Jeonnam, 540-742, Korea

* Corresponding author: sjkim1@sejong.ac.kr

One of the most challenging aims in these days research of environmental catalysts is designing of
photo-catalytic system with high efficiency that works for the reducing of the global atmospheric and water
pollutions. Although by all advantages of TiO2 it could be attractive as photo-catalyst, the other materials also
can be used not only by the simple method but also by harvesting the time. Our research was experimented
by synthesizing TiCl4 and ethylene glycol in different temperatures and ratio for enhancement of photo-catalytic
degradation under UV-light. For comparing the results SEM, XRD, FT-IR, EDX and TGA-DTA were
investigated. Samples that were sythesized with TiCl4 and ethylene glycol had better results comparing to the
samples that had been tested with P25. Testing samples with changing the temperature conditions, it had shown
better photocatalytic degradation of p-nitrophenol with the condition of 725oC than heat-treated at 400oC, 500oC
and 600oC.

P-LC-010

STUDY ON THE ANALYSIS OF GASEOUS PRODUCTS FROM


LIGNITE STEAM GASIFICATION WITH MINERAL CATALYSTS
Roosse LEE1, Dong Hyun HEO1, Jong Ha HWANG1 and Jung Min SOHN1*

1
Department of Mineral Resources & Energy Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea

* Corresponding author: jmsohn@jbnu.ac.kr

The coal gasification is a representative technique using coal and it has been constantly being studied. In
this study, the steam gasification of lignite from Russia physically mixed with four kinds of mineral catalysts
(Dolomite, Silica sand, Olivine, Kaolin) was performed. The gaseous products were analyzed with gas
chromatography and a gas analyzer at the temperature range 700, 800 and 900C. Gas production profiles,
carbon conversion and kinetic parameter such as the rate constant and activation energy were calculated. The
gasification reaction rate and carbon conversion increased with increasing gasification temperature. The catalytic
activity was in the order Dolomite > Silica sand > Olivine > Non-catalyst > Kaolin. The largest amount of
syngas (H2+CO) was produced with Dolomite at 700, 800C. On the other hand, Kaolin was most effective
for hydrogen production at 900C.

397
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-LC-011

REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON CO2 ADSORPTION


IN COAL
Tanveer AHMAD and Sang-Sup LEE*

Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea

* Corresponding author: slee@chungbuk.ac.kr

To reduce the greenhouse gas emission the amount of CO2 sorption data on various natural coal increase
in recent years. This article reviews the experimental studies of gas sorption CO2 on coal. Different size fraction
of coal and pressure ranges was used to investigate the behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4 and
CO2+CH4). The adsorption of CO2 depends on water and coal properties like coal rank, maceral composition.
Most sorption isotherm is recorded for dry coal, which do not represents seam condition because water is present
and affects the CO2 storage potential. The determination of sorption isotherm, sorption capacities and rates are
now-a-days standard approach. In this study we discuss the manometric, volumetric and gravimetric methods
for recording sorption isotherm and also providing uncertainty analysis.

398
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AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


P-ESS-001

A STUDY ON ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM FOR


RAILWAY SYSTEM
1
Han Min LEE

1
Urban Transportation Practical Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Seoul, Korea

* Corresponding author: hanmin@krri.re.kr

The energy saving is recognized with national focus subject. When currently the urban railway electric train
stops, the regenerative energy occurs from the urban railway electric train. Therefore, Storing and applying
the energy which occurs from the urban railway electric train are necessary. Therefore, the development of
the energy storage system having environment friendship and quick response characteristic is necessary. This
ESS(energy storage system, here after) could be applied efficiently in railroad and general industry. We will
be able to economize a national energy as reusing the energy by the energy storage system. Regenerated energy
is recycled amongst vehicles by mean of charge and discharge corresponding to powering and braking of electric
vehicle operations.
There are two types of ESS. One is the wayside ESS. The other is the on-board ESS. In Korea, we developed
and installed the wayside ESS on the track of Daejeon HRT in 2010. This paper presents how much energy
is saved by the wayside ESS through the field test. The tests are focused on energy saving rate. Currently,
we study the on-board ESS to save more energy. The simulation results of the on-board ESS on the same
track of Daejeon HRT are presented.

P-ESS-002

FACILE SYNTHESIS OF COPPER OXIDE/ACTIVATED CARBON


COMPOSITES USING LIQUID PHASE PLASMA METHOD FOR
SUPERCAPACITOR APPLICATION
Heon Lee1, Sung Hoon Park1, Sun-Jae Kim2, Byung-Joo Kim3, Kay-Hyeok An3 and Sang-Chul Jung1*

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Korea
2
Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea
3
Korea Institute of Carbon Convergence Technology, Jeonju, Korea

* Corresponding author: jsc@sunchon.ac.kr

Liquid phase plasma process was applied, for the first time, to synthesize copper oxide/carbon composite
by precipitating copper oxide on carbonaceous material, aimed at developing novel supercapacitor electrode.
Spherical copper oxide nanoparticles with the size of 5 ~ 15 nm were precipitated with uniform dispersion
on the surface of carbon powder (YP-50F). The amount of copper oxide nanoparticles precipitated on YP-50F
increased with increasing LPP process time, accompanied by reduced specific surface area, average pore size,
and total pore volume and by increased specific capacitance. The copper oxide/carbon composite electrode
synthesized in this study showed high stability, exhibiting ideal rectangular CV curve of EDLC and improved
charge-discharge rate. The electrode synthesized by repeating LPP process more than twice was shown to have
low interface resistance and high initial resistance slope.

401
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-ESS-003

ACTIVE CELL BALANCING SYSTEM OF FORWARD TOPOLOGY


TYPE BY MULTI EXCITER STRUCTURE
1 1 1 2
Jae-ha Ko , Suk-Ho Lee , Cheol-hyun Lim and Sung-jun Park *

1
Green Energy Institute, Mokpo, Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chonnam University, Kwangju, Korea

* Corresponding author: sjpark1@jnu.ac.kr

The cell voltages of battery unbalance that may occur due to the series connection in such a serial composition
is the main cause for the decline of the efficiency and performance of batteries. Various studies have been
conducted on the use of a passive or active topology to eliminate the unbalance from the series circuit of battery
modules. Most active topologies consist of a complex structure in which the Battery Management System (BMS)
and voltage sensors of each cell and electrical power converters for the battery balancing. This study proposes
a new magnetic flux sharing type DC/DC converter topology in order to remove voltage unbalance from
batteries. The proposed topology is characterized by a design in which all DC/DC convertor outputs the
connected to modules converge into a single transformer. In this structure, by taking a form in which all battery
balancing type converters share a magnetic flux through a transformer, all converter voltages automatically
converge to the same voltage. This study attempts to analyze the dynamic properties using a PSIM tool, which
is useful for power electronics analysis, while also attempting to demonstrate the validity of the proposed circuit
through an experiment.

P-ESS-004

SYNTHESIZED BY WET METHOD OF SiOx ANODE MATERIALS


FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES
Hee June Jeong1, Hyeon Woo Yang1, Kang Seop Yun1, Eul Noh1, Na Hyeon Jun1, Wooseung Kang2,
3 1
Sang Chul Jung and Sun Jae Kim *

1
Institute/Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engin., Sejong University, Seoul, Korea
2
Dept. Of Metallurgical & Materials Engin., Inha Technical College, Incheon, Korea
3
Dept. Of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Jeonnam,, Korea

* Corresponding author: sjkim1@sejong.ac.kr

Due to theoretical capacity (Li4.4Si G4200 mAh/g) and abundant resource, silicon is considered as one of
most attractive candidate anodes for lithium-ion batteries. However, silicon is difficult to be applied as an anode
material due to a large volume change of silicon 300% during insertion/extraction and low conductivity for
lithium ion. SiOx is synthesized by wet chemical process in the solution of SiCl4, Carbon and Ethylene Glycol
(Mono-, Di-, Tri-). SiOx particles were observed to be severely agglomerated in an irregular and porous shape,
and their sizes were in the 10s m range. XPS was used to investigate the composition of the SiOx and Si,
O, C peak observed. Results showed that the first charge-discharge capacities of Ethylene glycol (Mono-, Di-,
Tri-) were approximately 1609 and 726 mAh/g (Mono-), 1302 and 586 mAh/g (Di-), 1222 and 593 mAh/g
(Tri-), respectively, with roughly 45% of reversible efficiency. However showed a high charge-discharge cyclic
stability of about 95% during 2-50 cycling test. According to the results, good performance SiOx was synthesized
by wet chemical process in the solution of SiCl4, Carbon and Mono-Ethylene glycol.

402
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-ESS-005

NATURAL CELLULOSE DERIVED CARBON MATERIALS


Seong Ok HAN1*, I Na SIM1, Heeyeon KIM1, Doo Won SEO1, Seyoung KIM1, In Sub HAN1,
1 2
Young-Hoon SEONG and John FOORD

1
Energy Materials Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Department of Chemistry, Oxford University, Oxford, UK

* Corresponding author: sohan@kier.re.kr

Natural cellulose fibers offer a sustainable route for the production of new nano carbon materials for the
manufacture of a range of improved energy-related devices. Cellulose fibre offers exciting prospects in a wide
range of material areas, for example as a novel template to support nanodevices and nanocarbon electrodes,
in flexible electronics, and as a source of ultraporous nanocarbon materials. Devices such as supercapacitors
are expected to play a major role in future, sustainable energy economies. Improved performance levels rest
on the development of new nanocarbon forms, manufactured from sustainable, non-toxic feedstocks. The
research has been performed to realize these goals by developing the requisite technology based on the use
of natural cellulose materials. We are developing approaches for the processing of carbonized cellulose, and
have characterized carbonized materials. Also, we have examined their use in energy related applications such
as electrode material for super capacitance. Such applications are highly significant ones in the energy sector,
so if successful the research could have substantial economic as well as technical impact.

403
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-ESS-006

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH ENERGY DENSITY Li-s BATTERY


JI EUN KIM, Sun-Hwa Yeon*, Hana Yoon, Sang-Ho Lee and YEONG A LEE

Energy Storage Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Deajeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ys93@kier.re.kr

Lithium rechargeable battery with high power and energy density is critical research domains due to
development of portable electronics, electric vehicle(EV) and hybrid electric vehicle(HEV). However, a
conventional Li-ion battery(LIB) contains a limited energy density of 250 Wh kg-1. For the reason various
technological challenges have been extensively study. Among the various types of rechargeable batteries,
Lithium/sulfur(Li-S) rechargeable batteries offer a remarkably their high theoretical capacity of 1672 mAh g-1
and theoretical energy density of 2600Wh kg-1.[1,2] Also sulfur as cathode material has advantage of abundance
in nature, excellent safety, non-toxicity and low cost.[3,4] Despite, these attractive features, lithium/sulfur battery
is different from that commercial rechargeable lithium battery due to the inherent poor electrical conductivity
of sulfur(5*10-30S cm-1 at 25), the poor cycles life property originating from polysulfides dissolution. [5]
In this study, we investigated lithium/sulfur battery for the resistance cathode thickness and the number of
cathode. Also, we designed lithium/sulfur cells showed high energy density by minimizing the cell resistance
and reducing weight of current collects of cathode and anode.

[1] D.Marmorstein, T.H. Yu, K.A. Streibel, F.R. Mclarnon, J. Hou, E.J. Cairns, J. Power Sources 89 (2000)
219-226.
[2] M.Y. Chu, U.S. Patent 5,814,420 (1998).
[3] R.P Tischer, The sulfur Electrode, Academic press, 1983.
[4] H.S. Ryu, H.J. Ahn, K.W. Kim, J.H. Ahn, J.Y. Lee, J. Power Sources, 153 (2006), pp. 360-364.
[5] Dean, J. A. Langes Handbook of Chemistry, 3rd ed.; McGraw-Hill, Professional: New York, 1985.

404
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-ESS-007

CARBON ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR


ENERGYE STORAGE SYSTEMS
Sun-Hwa Yeon*, Ji-Eun Kim, Dong-Ha Kim and Sang-Ho Lee

Energy Storage Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Deajeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: ys93@kier.re.kr

Recently, there has been a considerable demand for the development of long-life lithium secondary batteries
for energy storage systems [1]. Carboneous materials have attracted great interest and are used as negative
electrodes for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitor due to advantageous cycle performance by easy mobility
of ion and safety. Carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) possess tunable pore structures and narrow pore size
distributions in the 0.5-2 nm range that can be formed through selective etching of crystalline metal carbides.
This chemical etching method generates microporosity which affords high specific surface areas, large pore
volumes, and large adsorption capacities. It also allows pore size matching to different molecules [2]. In this
study, we introduce carbide-derived carbon(CDC) with tunable pore size and uniform pore structure, as porous
carbon electrode for supercapacitor and negative electrodes for secondary rechargeable batteries.

[1] M. Winter, J.O. Besenhard, Electrochim. Acta. 1999, 45, 359.


[2] J. Chmiola, G. Yushin, R. Dash, Y. Gogotsi, J Power Sour. 2006, 158(1),765-72.

405
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P-SG-001

IMPLEMENTATION OF AN OPTIMIZATION BASED POWER


MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR SMALL-SACLE MICROGRIDS
1 2 1 1 1
Yoon Dong SUNG *, Wenbo Shi , Sea Shung OH , Su Yong CHAE , Il Oun LEE ,
3 1
Eun Kyu LEE and Yu Jin SONG

1
Energy Saving Lab., Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea
2
Smart Gird Energy Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
3
Symantec Research Laboratory, Culver City, CA, USA

* Corresponding author: syd9035@kier.re.kr

Microgrids, composed of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources (DER), is identified as a key
component of SmartGrids. In order to improve power reliability and energy efficiency, Power Management
System (PMS) plays very important role in Microgrids. The challenging issues of PMS technologies in
Microgrids are the implementation of interoperable middleware system and the development of a power
management strategy which considers various type of demand response (DR) programs. This paper proposes
and develops a new PMS to solve the challenges. First, we implement an interoperable middleware system
by using IEC61850 standardized design and web service technologies. Second, we propose optimization based
Energy Scheduling scheme using Real Time Price and Time of Use electricity price models. We perform Matlab
simulation study to verify its feasibility. Then we demonstrate performance of the proposed scheme in small-
scale microgrid testbed in KIER. In experiments, we use power hardware-in-the-loop PV/ESS simulation systems
for DERs and real-hardware slow/quick Electric Vehicle and LED systems for interconnected loads.
Results show that the proposed scheme performs highly cost-effective and more efficient in using energy
resources based on various DR. In addition, the PMS with this middleware provides plug-and-play capability
for standard-compliant DERs and loads.

P-SG-002

AN EFFICEINCT POWER CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR A DC-DC


CONVERTER IN DC DISTRIBUTION APPLICATIONS
Su Yong CHAE1*, Jin Ju PARK1, Sea Shung OH1 and Yu Jin SONG1

1
Energy Efficiency Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: sychae@kier.re.kr

This paper describes an efficient power control method for a dc-dc converter applied to a low voltage dc
distribution network. The dc distribution network is composed of low voltage dc loads and battery energy storage
systems to provide power continuously even in the case of the outage condition. A high bandwidth multi-phases
dc-dc converter control algorithm should be applied for the battery energy storage system to regulate the dc
output voltage tightly in the outage condition. To extend the operation time without the performance degradation,
an efficient power control algorithm for the multi-phase dc-dc converter is proposed. The proposed algorithm
calculates the optimal number of active modules using the load current and measured efficiency curve. The
power control algorithm increases the system efficiency by decreasing the accumulated conversion loss
maintaining the fast load transition performance. It is shown that 10% accumulated loss reduction could be
reached by the experimental verification with a 1kW-48V output multi-phase dc-dc converter.

409
AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea
P-SG-003

INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT ENERGY


STORAGE SYSTEM (ESS) IN DAEGU SMART GRID TEST SITE
1 2
Jonghoon Kim * and Jungpil Park

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea
2
Energy Solution (ES) Division, Samsung SDI, Cheonnan, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea

* Corresponding author: qwzxas@hanmail.net

These days, with the increased concerns on environmental and energy cost, more renewable energy sources
such as fuel cell, solar cell, wind are integrated into the smart grid in the form of distributed generation (DG).
Specifically, energy storage system (ESS) can be absolutely taken for granted as a key role in stabilizing the
smart grid and ensuring adequately supply of power. Unfortunately, variance in electrochemical characteristics
due to thermal effect results in inefficient use of the ESS. Therefore, this paper investigates a comparative
study for electrochemical analysis of the temperature-dependent 10kW ESS previously connected in series using
70 LiFePO4 cells that had a rated capacity of 14Ah made by Samsung SDI. This ESS was installed in Daegu
smart grid test site. In order to provide elaborate information on electrochemical characteristics varied by thermal
effect, statistical analyses of experimental voltages and temperatures of cell(1S1P)/tray(10S1P)/rack(70S1P) are
extensively performed. These analyses clearly enable us to show electrochemical differences of the temperature-
dependent ESS. Consequently, from these results, it can be well mentioned that this study describe an effort
to provide a fundamental solution for implementation of an optimal ESS irrespective of thermal effect.

P-SG-004

THE CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF AC DIRECT LED DRIVE


METHOD SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING OF LED LIGHTING SYSTEM
IN A BUILDING
Jin Woo JEONG1*, Su Yong CHAE1, Suk In PARK1 and Hak Guen JEONG1

1
Energy Efficiency Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: jinu1218@kier.re.kr

Lighting occupies big part of building load in a grid. Because of high power efficiency, LED lighting system
is applied for building lighting system instead of incandescent and fluorescent lamp. However, the conventional
LED drivers use single or two-stage converter to transform AC power to DC and regulating voltage. It causes
circuit complex and power conversion loss. To reduce power loss, AC power is directly used as source of
the LED system. The existing AC direct drive method of LED system has following problems: 1) cannot
maximize efficiency due to time varying voltage; 2) have current deviation caused by sequential LED control.
In this paper, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and current deviation will be decreased through the proposed
variation scheme of LED turn-on sequence.
As a result, available duration of whole system will be extended through equally retaining every LEDs
turn-on time.

410
$$5$$4
1PTUFS4FTTJPO

AFORE 2014, Nov. 17-20, Yeosu, Korea


P-CCT&CCS-001

PALLADIUM-BASED H2/CO2 SEPARATION MEMBRANE HAVING


A PROTECTION LAYER
Sung-Wook Lee, Kyung-Ran Hwang*, Duck-kyu Oh, Jin-Woo Park, Chun-Boo Lee,
Dong-Wook Lee and Jong-Soo Park*

Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Korea

* Corresponding author: hkran@kier.re.kr, deodor@kier.re.kr

The three approaches for the mitigation of CO2-emissions are (1) post-combustion capture and storage of
CO2 (CCS) (2) pre-combustion CCS and (3) oxy-fuel combustion. Among them, the pre-combustion CCS using
Pd-based membrane for separation of CO2 and H2 in the gases has gained worldwide attention due to connection
with integrated gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Unfortunately, a small amount of
H2S in the gases from the gasification process affects the performance of Pd-based membrane. In the present
work, we coated protection layer over the surface of the Pd-Au membrane as a new approach to protect the site
blocking of the surface of Pd by sulfur. The protection layer is Pt-ZrO2 which is one of catalyst having the
resistance to H2S. The Pt-ZrO2 was deposited on the prepared home-made Pd-Au membrane with co-sputter
method at the room temperature using DC/RF magnetron sputtering system (Korea Vacuum Tech., LTD, KVS-4004L).
The surface morphology and composition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, HITACHIS-4700)
equipped with energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) and X-ray power diffraction (XRD, D/MAX IIIC).
In case of Pd-Au membrane, the hydrogen flux rapidly decreased to 24% of original hydrogen flux upon exposure
of H2S. However, the Pt-ZrO2 modified Pd-Au membrane showed the resistibility to H2S. The hydrogen flux
decreased