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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES

CALAMBA CAMPUS

K12 GRADING SYSTEM

Prepared by:

JOMAR M. BUHIA

Prepared for:

ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES

January 14, 2017

Proposal Number v0.1

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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
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Document History

DATE DESCRIPTION

November 14, 2016 Initial Draft

November 16, 2016 Review and add hardware and software


requirements

November 18, 2016 Add Flowchart

November 21, 2016 Add Feasibility Study and Methodology

November 23, 2016 Add Table of Contents and minor editing

November 25, 2016 Review and edit, add additional in future


enhancement

December 2, 2016 Revise Feasibility study

December 4, 2016 Revise and add Additional DFD

December 7, 2016 Add UML and Revise Table of Contents

January 14, 2017 Modify Table of Content, DFD and UML

Table of Contents

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Title 1
Document History 2
Table of Contents 3
Abstract 5
CHAPTER 1: SYSTEM PROPOSAL
Introduction 6
Motivation 6
Objective 6
Purpose of the System 7
Existing System 7
Problems in the existing System 7
Risk Involved in Existing System 8
Proposed System 8
Literary Survey 9
Features 10
Input 10
Output 11
Teacher 11
Student 12
Login 12
CHAPTER 2: FEASIBILITY STUDY
Technical Feasibility 14
Organizational Feasibility 15
Economic Feasibility 16
Cost vs Benefits 19
CHAPTER 3: PROJECT METHODOLOGY 20
CHAPTER 4: PERSPECTIVE DESIGN MODEL 21
Login 21
Enrollment and Updating Grades 22

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Updating Student Attendance 22


CHAPTER 5: DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
EXISTING Context Diagram 24
MODULE 1:Enrollment 25
MODULE 2 :Encoding and Distribution 25
MODULE 3: Scheduling 26
MODULE 4: Encoding and submission of attendance 27
MODULE 5: Encoding and submission of grades 28
MODULE 6: Weekly absenteeism report 29
MODULE 7: Submission of students class card 30
PROPOSED Context Diagram 31
MODULE 1:Login 32
MODULE 2 :User Registration 33
MODULE 3: Enrollment and Enrollment report 34
MODULE 4: Updating sections and subjects 35
MODULE 5: Assigning advisory and subject loads 36
MODULE 6: Updating attendance 37
MODULE 7: Updating Grades 38
MODULE 8: Submitting students grades 39
MODULE 9: Editing account information 40
CHAPTER 8: UNFIED MODELING LANGUAGE
Actor 41
User Registration 42
Updating Registration 43
Assign/Adding Subject loads 44
Preparation and submission of grades 45
System Requirements 46

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ABSTRACT

K12 GRADING SYSTEM (K12GS) deals with the maintenance of university, college, faculty,
student information within the university. K12GS is an automation system, which is used to store
the college, faculty, student, courses and information of a college.

Starting from registration of a new student in the college, it maintains all the details regarding the
attendance and marks of the students. The project deals with retrieval of information through an
INTERNET based campus wide portal. It collects related information from all the departments of
an organization and maintains files, which are used to generate reports in various forms to
measure individual and overall performance of the students.

Development process of the system starts with System analysis. System analysis involves
creating a formal model of the problem to be solved by understanding requirements

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CHAPTER 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Grades are standardized measurements of varying levels of comprehension within a subject area.
Grades can be assigned in letters (for example, A, B, C, D, E, or F), as a range (for example 4.0
1.0), as descriptors (excellent, great, satisfactory, needs improvement), in percentages, or, as is
common in some post-secondary institutions in some countries, as a Grade Point Average (GPA).
GPA is calculated by taking the number of grade points a student earned in a given period of time
divided by the total number of credits taken. The GPA can be used by potential employers or
further post-secondary institutions to assess and compare applicants. A Cumulative Grade Point
Average is a calculation of the average of all of a student's grades for all semesters and courses
completed up to a given academic term, whereas the GPA may only refer to one term.

1.1 Background of Study

On June 2016, AICS was started to accept enrollees for grade 11 and 12 as part of
Philippine government K12 program under DepEd where AICS received excel files which
contain standard official formatted form to be used by all schools where there are grade 11 and
12 students. Meanwhile, this multiple excel file only to serve temporal materials because of its
huge data to be consolidate manually, administrator and teachers wanting easier system to have
less time doing it instead focus more their time for teaching and preparing lesson. Although
AICS seems have something to improve the excel system but still is not enough, as instructor
which directly participate the operation it is good to see when done with custom computerized
system where every data should be place in single storage and could be access by all authorized
persons.

MOTIVATION

System metric and student show that result and mark All-to-often grades are used inappropriately
as a manipulative tool to get students to class. DepEd issue a bunch of excel file, a template for

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different form with different grading for different subject category making teacher go-slow on
the process.

OBJECTIVE

This is a web-based database application for a AICS SHS gradings, where Principal, Teacher,
and Students will be able to use the system to perform their related operations like checking and
assigning of grades respectively. It is a role based access system where every user login is
authenticated by means of a user name and password with which he/she will be able to login to
his/her respective pages and use the system as required.

EXISTING SYSTEM

The system starts with registration of new students. When the subjects are to be allocated to the
faculty, the Teachers should enter everything in the individual Excel sheets. Then the Teacher
enters corresponding subjects attendance and marks of a student then those must also be submit
to principal before the register to enter it to SRS program and validations are to be done by the
user itself. So there will be a lot of work to be done and must be more conscious during the
entrance of details. So, more risk is involved. Guidance office tasked to monitor the student
attendance weekly, teacher have absenteeism weekly report by sending excel file to guidance.

PURPOSE OF THE SYSTEM

K12 GRADING SYSTEM (K12GS) deals with the maintenance of university, college, faculties,
students information within the university. This project of K12GS involved the automation of
student information that can be implemented in different college managements.

The project deals with retrieval of information through an INTERNET based portal. It collects
related information from all the departments of an organization and maintains files, which are
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used to generate reports in various forms to measure individual and overall performance of the
students.

PROBLEMS IN THE EXISTING SYSTEM:

Storing and accessing the data in the form of Excel sheets and account books is a tedious work. It
requires a lot of laborious work. It may often yield undesired results. Maintaining these records
as piles may turn out to be a costlier task than any other of the colleges and institutions

RISKS INVOLVED IN EXISTING SYSTEM:

Present System is time-consuming and also results in lack of getting inefficient


results.P a g e | 8
Some of the risks involved in the present system are During the entrance of marks and
attendance, if any mistake is done at a point, then this becomes cumulative and leads to
adverse consequences
If there is any need to retrieve results it may seem to be difficult to search.

PROPOSED SYSTEM

K12 GRADING SYSTEM (K12GS) makes management to get the most updated information
always by avoiding manual accounting process. This system has the following functional
divisions.

University Administrator
College Administrator
User (Students / Faculties).
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College Administrator has the rights of creating department, allocating courses to departments,
creating faculties, students and allocating subjects to faculties and modifications in the data
entered by the user can also be done by the college administrator.

User of this may be faculty or students. Faculty has the facility of entering the marks and
attendance of the students. Students can check their marks and attendance but there is no chance
of modifications.

Reports must be generated for the existing data i.e. for attendance and marks of the students,
which are used to assess the performance of the students. These reports should be viewed by the
in charge and user.

LITERARY SURVEY

Most colleges and universities and some private schools offer a pass/fail grading system for at
least some of their courses. In some institutions, pass/fail is the only option for some or all of
their courses.

Student grading system is different from the traditional five-interval grading system that gives
students A, B, C, D or F grades to give them an idea of their academic standing and progress
This system of a clear boundary between making the grade or falling short has benefits for
students individually as well as collectively.

TYPES OF GRADING

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Mastery Grading
Grading Scale
Letter Grades

PERSONAL BENEFITS

Students work hard to attain their grades without worrying about competition. In the case of
younger students, this also builds self-esteem and confidence, as the grade does not compare
with other students --- it is simply a statement of their own merit and skill. In the tiered system of
grades, there is competition, and students might suffer from inferiority complexes if their grades
are lower than those of their peers. In the case of older students in professional courses, it helps
in the same way: the focus turns to achieving your own personal best.

FEATURES

Central database: Collect and report all of your school's student and Teacher information.

School customizable: Customize the program to meet your school's data collection and
reporting needs.

User customizable: Each user can customize the program for their specific job responsibilities.

Search and analyze: Search and report based on any information in the database. Break down
the student body by race, gender, age, etc.

Use Authentication: System security appropriate for different user.

Paperless: System operate without expending too much on papers.

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Automated: Everything necessary to compute automatically, such as grades.

User Friendly Design: It is design cautiously for every user.

Mobile Ready Design: Responsive design that may suit to any mobile device.

INPUT AND OUTPUTS:

The major inputs and outputs and major functions of the system are follows:

INPUTS:

School Administrator enter his user id and password for login to authenticate in this
system
School Administrator creates the section.
While registration can able to provide their information like
Student id
Student name
Student Address
Password for the individual students
Administrator can create the various school details.
Teachers need to submit their log in information for change their password.
For searching section details student need to choose their track or search their name to
see their sections.
For entering their details a teachers must login to their profile and see the section assign
to them.
For display they have to view the reports.

OUTPUTS:

Administrator can have his own home page. Teachers and student have their own home
page after completion of the authentication process.
Admin gets all Teachers, students and course details.
The registered users data can be stored in centralized database through the system user
interface.

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Various types of information can be displayed to the users like Students, courses and
course subjects etc
After successful submission of log-in information Teacher can got their new password.
Profile can be update by the users individually.

TEACHER

Enter student attendance

Enter student grade for every subjects

Update student grade

Submit Student grade

Search for student record (based on student ID or student name)

Run reports to calculate class performance

Run reports to enquire grades for any student in the class

STUDENT

View all the courses taken for that particular period

Check grade in every subjects

Get transcript (entire grade history)

LOGIN:-

There is a quality login window because this is more secure than other login forms as in a
normal login window there are multiple logins available so that more than one person can access
to test with there individual login. But in this project there is only one login id i.e. administrator
id and password by which a person enter the site. Hence it is more secure and reliable than
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previously used on-line test simulators.

Login Management: The initial login screen for Online Grading System

User Management: Create/Edit a user account

Report: Allows either a student or the administrator to run reports.

PROCESS MODEL USED WITH JUSTIFICATION

ACCESS CONTROL FOR DATA WHICH REQUIRE USER AUTHENTICAION

The following commands specify access control identifiers and they are typically used to
authorize and authenticate the user (command codes are shown in parentheses)

USER NAME (USER)

The user identification is that which is required by the server for access to its file system. This
command will normally be the first command transmitted by the user after the control
connections are made (some servers may require this).

PASSWORD (PASS)

This command must be immediately preceded by the user name command, and, for some sites,
completes the user's identification for access control. Since password information is quite
sensitive, it is desirable in general to "mask" it or suppress type out..

This application must be able to produce output at different modules for different inputs.

K12GS (K12 GRADING SYSTEM) makes management to get the most updated information
always by avoiding manual accounting process.

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School Administrator
User (Students / Faculties)
Reports
Authentication

CHAPTER 2

FEASIBILITY STUDY

We conducted feasibility analysis in three major areas of which the project primarily
involves: Technical, Organizational, and Economical to analyze the problems and determine if it
can be solve, the result whether the solution found is worthy to implement and it should be
implement. In many occasion the substance of this feasibility study may be revisit before or
during the process of project development, and will be subject for further revision.

Technical Feasibility
Our technical analysis mainly comprise of three key points: Resources, Project Size,
Management and End-Users.
Risk 1: Compliance of needed resource for implementation of the project considered high risk.
A. AICS current network infrastructure was poorly established.
B. although internet is ready available but web space (Server, DNS, network
infrastructure) not available yet and there is no plan yet of availing it.
C. Purchasing of domain name.
Risk 2: The timeframe for project development consider risky versus project size.
A. The developer consist only one person.
B. Time frame is critical, since it is needed to submit on or before February 2017.
C. Management and End-Users involvement are at their optional decision.
D. The size of overall system is yet to discover depend of what will discover during
development process it may overlap from the previous expectation.
Risk 3: Risk of Management and End-Users of familiarity for adaptability of newly design
custom program.
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A. Administration is familiar with senior high school grading system, however, it


was not performed in web application.
B. There is no available technical staff to assist the project is considered high.
C. End-Users: Principal, Registrar, Some Teachers, and Students are not yet familiar
with Web Base application
D. End-Users may resist to use new system upon implementation due to unfamiliar
environment.

The result from assessment in technical feasibility, the decision is to implement of what
was readily available, and reduce the size as possible and reserve excluded feature for future
improvement.
1. Use free hosting with database and sub-domain to establish the project online this
is until the system is tested and proven helpful.
2. Exclude some sub-systems and focuses on major part: Grading System,
Attendance System, and Information Management System
3. Allocate times to trained End-Users after or before deployment of newly design
online system.

Organizational Feasibility
This section describe the importance of the business organization to recognize the project
before the development and after project deployment. By gathering Users ideas and perspective
about the propose project in actual interview, it shown that all of them favored the idea of this
project, and most of them often shared similar views.

Users Roles Contact

Administrator - Knowledge about the Mr. Victor Milar


current system.
- Request this project.
- Promote the
implementation of the
project.

Registrar - Testing and evaluation Miss Iloisa

Guidance - Testing and evaluation Miss Rachel

Faculty - Testing and decision SHS Teachers


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Students - Perform evaluation Senior High School

Economic Feasibility
In this section is to analyze the two major key point: cost and benefits involving the
project by measuring accurate percentage of every sides. Later, the result of this analysis will
provide hints whether this project of for benefits of organization otherwise, make considerable
change of the project.
In order to evaluate the tangible benefits appropriately I asked the administration and those staff
involved for how much or many they get consumed office materials such as papers, inks, and
printer maintenance.
Paper consumption:
Bond Paper Short = 3 Ream/Semester = 167*3 = 500
Bonk Paper Long = 2 Ream/ Semester = 167*2 = 336
Continuous paper = 2 box/ Semester = 825*2 = 1650
Printer Ink:
Colored (cyan, magenta, and yellow) = 1 each / Semester = 250* 3 = 750
Black = 4/Semester = 120*4 = 480
Ribbon = 5/Semester = 115*5 = 375
Printer Maintenance:
Repair: 6,000/Semester

The actual total cost of the paper consumption per semester is equal 2,486
The actual total cost of combine ink and ribbon is equal 1,605
And the maintenance allocate at least minimum of 6,000 for repair per semester.

When this proposed system is in operational all consumption of office materials will be reduce:
Bond Paper Short = 1 Ream/Semester

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Bonk Paper Long = 1 Ream/ Semester


Continuous paper = 1 box/ Semester
Colored Ink = None
Black ink = 1/ Semester
Ribbon = 2/Semester
Repair = 2000/Semester
The enrollment might likely to increase predictably to 20 enrollees per semester, because the
system work for them better than before where parents are now able to view grades online which
currently cannot, it sound convenient too.

Tangible Benefits:
Year 2016 2017 2018 - Onward
Reduce in paper consumption 0 1,327 3,981
Reduce Printer maintenance 0 2,620 7,860
Total Tangible Benefits 0 3,947 11,841

Figure: 1

Since, other benefits such Intangible may not be able to measure by means of collective sampling
but predictably measurable and may also accurate as well.

Intangible Benefits:
Year 2016 2017 2018 - Onward
Increase of productivity of staff 0 10% 10%
Increase quality of teaching 0 10% 10%
Increase of academic information 0 25% 30%
mobility
Reduce processing time for grades 0 20% 20%
submission
Increase in efficiency on grade 0 10% 12%
recording
Decrease in confusion and 0 10% 15%
conflicts by providing access to
academic records and study plan
for students.
Total Intangible Benefits 0 85% 98%

Figure: 2
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In the other hand, little costs to none during development of the system may neglected however,
this is requirement for the best comparison versus benefits. It is more costly for the system
during development time but the company can enjoy the full benefits of it when it is complete
and running.

Papers = 1 Ream
Inks = 1 Bottle (Black)
Staff = Maximize their duty to participate the system development add 10% for their
regular salary 491/Day.
Ten percent of 491 = 49.1/Staff = 196.4/ Four Staff
Energy:
1 Desktop = 65w
1 Laptop = 60w
3 Fluorescent = 34w

Working Hour = 4h
Kilowatt per Hour = 11

Formula:
((Watts * Hours Used) / 1000) * Cost per Kilowatt-Hour

Computed
1 Desktop = 2.86/4hrs = 443.3/Semester
1 Laptop = 2.64/4hrs = 409.2/Semester
3 Fluorescent = 1.496/4hrs = 231.88/Semester

All of the others beside the above mention is given freely from project developer which this
project was aim comply before the directive of our MSCS professor. Since, the Internet already
inbuilt to the company, it may cost additional bandwidth but it is too little.
Development resources cost:
Year 2016 2017 2018 2019 - Onward
Papers 167 167 0 0
Inks 120 120 0 0
Staff 0 196.4 0 0
Analysis and design 0 0 0 0
Implementation 0 196.4 0 0
Consultant fees 0 0 0 0
Development Training 0 196.4 0 0
Office space and equipment 0 0 0 0
Hardwares 0 0 0 0
Softwares 0 0 0 0
Internet 0 0 0 0
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Energy 0 1,084,38 0 0
Total development resource cost 287 1,960.58 0 0
Figure: 3
User training can will temporary halt temporarily their regular duty just to attend the training
where all the hour consumed for the training can be considered losses. The maximum attendees
estimated are eight (8) so, time 2 compare to development cost which we consumed the hour of
four staff to participate the development.

Operational Cost:

Year 2016 2017 2018 - Onward


Webmaster 0 0 0
Network Administrator 0 0 0
Database Administrator 0 0 0
System Administrator 0 0 0
Software Upgrades 0 0 0
Hardware Upgrades 0 0 0
User Training 0 392.8 0
Staff 196.4 196.4 0
Additional ISP Charges 0 0 0
Energy 108.4 1,084.38 0
Total Operational Cost 304.4 1,673.58 0

COSTs vs BENEFITS

Total Development Cost = 2,247.58

Total Operation Cost = 1,977.98

Total Tangible Benefits from 2017-2018 = 15,788

The result of economic feasibility found positive conclusion, it clearly shows that the school will
gain return on investment (ROI) after the project is fully implemented even though the intangible
benefits is not yet included in the computation and cannot compute in literals, the tangible
benefits alone can outrun all expenses.

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CHAPTER 3

PROJECT METHODOLOGY

There are several type of approach in developing new system however, we carefully
select the criteria and decide which one is reliable methodology for the project.

Selecting Methodology Criteria:


Criteria CASE Prototyping JAD PD Agile RAD
Unclear user Poor Poor Good Good Good Good
requirements
Unfamiliar Poor Poor Good Good Good Good
technology
Complexity Poor Poor Poor Good Good Good
Reliability Excellent Good Good Good Good Good
Short time Poor Poor good good poor Excellent
schedule
Schedule Good Good poor poor Poor Excellent
visibility

Base on the above selected methodology it has been decided to use combination of both
predictive and reactive approach, at first predictive maybe good to foresee income blockade, it
should be address and documented then find reliable solution when it is relevant enough project
UI design and coding can be start immediately. In the middle of UI design and coding until
operation reactive approach will take over but will not override the previous document done by
predictive approach.

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CHAPTER 4

PERSPECTIVE DESIGN MODEL

Login:

USER LOGIN
Database

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Enrollment and Updating Grade

Registrar

Student Grade
Admin
Enrollmen Update
t

View Mark / delete view comp info &


EXAM offers

Teacher

Retrieve Mark Reports Retrieve


Mark info & Mark offers

Database

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Student Attendance:

Teacher

Student Guidance
Administrator
Attendan
ce

Database

CHAPTER 5
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DATA FLOW DIAGRAM

EXISTING SYSTEM

Context Diagram

MODULE 1 Enrollment

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MODULE 2 Encoding and Distribution

MODULE 3 Scheduling

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MODULE 4 Encoding and Submission of Attendance

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MODULE 5 Encoding and Submission of Grades

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MODULE 6 Weekly Absenteeism Report

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MODULE 7 Submission of Student Class cards

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PROPOSED SYSTEM

Context Diagram

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MODULE 1 Login

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MODULE 2 User Registration to the system

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MODULE 3 Enrollment and Enrollment Report

MODULE 4 Updating Section and Subjects


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MODULE 5 Assign Section and Subject load to teachers

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MODULE 6 Updating Attendance

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MODULE 7 Updating Students grades

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MODULE 8 Submitting Students Grades

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MODULE 9 Editing Account Information

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CHAPTER 8
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UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE

Actor:

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SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

MINIMUM HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

SYSTEM : Pentium III 700 MHz

HARDDISK : 40 GB

MONITOR : 15 VGA Colour

MOUSE : Logitech

RAM :128MB

KEYBOARD : 110 Keys enhanced

MINIMUM SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

Operating system : Windows XP Professional

Front End : PHP

Coding Language : PHP, HTML, JQuery

Back End : MYSQL

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FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

Add more input validations and error messages into the interface

Enhance student interface by providing him with more options to access like assigning
tasks, change his password etc

Enhance this application to include College other than SHS.

Add a pop up calendar interface

Post new announcements related to the school available to all the users

Include college students grading system

Include teachers evaluation

Post Assignments

Add bulletin board so the administration/principal are able to post events and other
updates

Add Lesson Plan/Curriculum

Go Mobile Apps

Chatting (Chat room between students and teachers)

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REFERENCES

Maxey, E.J., & Ormsby, V.J. (1971). The accuracy of self-report information collected on
the ACT Test Battery: High school grades and items of nonacademic achievement (ACT
Research Report No. 45). Iowa City: The American College Testing Program.

Sawyer, R., Laing, J., & Houston, M. (1988). Accuracy of self-reported high school
courses and grades of college-bound students (ACT Research Report 88-1). Iowa City:
The American College Testing Program.

Schiel, J. & Noble, J. (1991). Accuracy of self-reported coursework and grade


information of high school sophomores (ACT Research Report 91-6). Iowa City: The
American College Testing Program.

Woodruff, D.J., & Ziomek, R.L. (2004). High school grade inflation from 1991 to 2003
(ACT Research Report 04-4). Iowa City: The American College Testing Program.

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