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WHERE EXCELLENCE GUIDES THE SUCCESS
EDITOR Mahendra Jain
It is with a sense of great pleasure that we are presenting to you the February issue of your favourite magazine ‘Pratiyogita Darpan’. As you are stepping into new year, it is time for you to assess your performance of the past year before planning your future programme. Knowing all this, you restart with a solemn determination not to repeat previous mistakes. As always, we exhort you to follow the golden rule of risin g above other competitor s. It is to think only of th e best, work only for the best and, in return, expect only the best. Sooner or later you will get the best. It is rightly said that if you believe in yourself, you can achieve unbelievable results. According to the needs and demands of our readers, we have given some core articles in this issue such as : CHOGM Needs Revival, Sino-Indian Relations, Menace of Naxalism etc. The most important section of the magazine contains a number of question papers selected from various competitive examinations. These are fully solved with relevant hints and explanations. We make all efforts to maintain the unique speciality of the magazine for giving error-free solutions. This makes it unparalleled in its field. We assure you that an intelligent study and practice of these papers will be highly useful in solving objective questions in any future examination. Our column ‘Compendium’ is another trusted tool for such help. Pratiyogita Darpan meets all your requirements and in this respect it is regarded as secon d to none. It covers all competitive examinations for which it is meant. All the toppers and other readers are of the opinion, without a single exception, that hardwork under proper guidance has no alternative for success. P.D. gives you all that is necessary for this purpose. Read Pratiyogita Darpan regularly and intelligently. It gives you the power to master your career and shape your destiny. We take this opportunity to send our warmest new year greetings to you. May it be a peaceful, prosperous and very successful year for you.
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With best wishes for your success and bright future. Sincerely yours, MAHENDRA JAIN (Editor)
All rights reserved. No part of this Magazine may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, Electronic, Mechanical, Photocopying, Recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy of the information published in this edition, neither publisher nor any of its employees accept any responsibility for any error or omission. Articles that cannot be used are returned to the authors if accompanied by a self addressed and sufficiently stamped envelope. But no responsibility is taken for any loss or delay in returning the material. Pratiyogita Darpan assumes no responsibility for statements and opinions advanced by the authors nor for any claims made in the advertisements published in the Magazine.
Year 4 Issue 44 February 2010
1412 The Menace of Naxalism
1330 To Our Readers 1333 Editorial
State : At a Glance
1417 Union Territory : Lakshadweep
News & Events
1335 Nation this Month 1345 World this Month 1355 Regional News 1361 National and International Updates
Annual Report : 2008-09
1419 Achievements and New Initiatives in Agricultural Research and Education : At a Glance
Profile : International Organisation
1422 International Olympic Committee (IOC) 1424 Current Questionnaire 1426 Trade and Industry
1371 Sports World 1376 Science and Technology 1377 Memorable Points 1379 Economic Scenario
Question Papers Optional Papers
1427 Civil Services (Pre.) Exam., 2009 : Philosophy 1437 Madhya Pradesh P.S.C. State Service (Pre.) Exam., 2008 : Sociology
1387 Employment and Career News 1389 Forthcoming Competitive Examinations
1391 (i) Sri Lanka : War and Peace 1393 (ii) CHOGM Needs Revival 1396 (iii) Libya : 40 Years of Gaddafi Era 1396 (iv) Honduras : No End of Political Crisis
1443 West Bengal P.C.S. (Pre.) Exam., 2008 : General Studies 1456 Reserve Bank of India Grade ‘B’ Officers Exam., 2009 : General Awareness 1462 Haryana Gurgaon Gramin Bank Officers Exam., 2009 : General Awareness 1466 Andhra Bank Probationary Officers Exam., 2009 : Reasoning 1474 Bank of Maharashtra Agriculture Officers Exam., 2009 : Quantitative Aptitude
1398 Positive Thinking
Inspiring Youth : Interview
1399 Jitendra Asati Topper : Indian Economic Service, 2008 (2nd rank)
Articles International Relations Article
1401 Sino-Indian Relations : On a Bumpy Ground 1403 India-Myanmar Relations : Concerns and Prospects
1479 Essay Contest 1481 Debate Contest 1483 Concentric Quiz 1487 Test Your Knowledge 1489 Clues for Crossword 10 1490 Results 1491 Semi-Annual Current Affairs Special
1405 The Governor : Powers and Role
Public Administration Article
1408 Citizens’ Charter
YOU ARE DESTINED TO SUCCEED
Failures are stepping stones to success. Initial failures should not discourage a person from pursuing his goal. Every failure teaches us something. It pinpoints the lacunae in our effort. Taking lessons from failures we should strive again and again, till success comes our way. Greatmen of all times faced failures galore before they were blessed with success. The harder the effort, the better and sweeter is the fruit that comes to us after our strivings. A man of grit, firm determination, and strong will is bound to succeed surely and certainly.
The greatest lesson to be learnt is that we should never lose heart and give up the fight. If defeat comes, it should be met as a step for future victory and not with funereal looks. Then, one learns what sportsman spirit is “Defeat on the field, must not be defeat in the mind.” One whose mind is overwhelmed by defeat or who develops a defeat complex, will find it very difficult to taste the fruits of victory. We enter a fight or take part in a competition to succeed. Then why not always think of success. If unsuccessful, another effort ought to be made. Try again and again until you succeed—this lesson we learnt in our lower classes from the story— ‘Spider and the King’. This lesson we can learn from the lives of those who have been successful in life. They never gave up the fight and sat dejected cursing their destiny. The hard fact of life is—if success is to come, it will come only through effort. But without making an effort, there are no chances of achieving success. The person, who believes in doing his duty and is making efforts, never feels dejected or defeated. Mahatma Gandhi said it more than once that a person on the path of truth is never defeated, because he gets purified through his trials. Great thinkers have been telling that failure must come as an opportunity to make amends and a new effort in a new way. We have been born to make progress and bring about evolution. Then why worry, if the road is zigzag and strewn with thorny hedges. It has got to be crossed. T. H. Huxley has written somewhere that the failures at the primary stage come to teach us ways of practical life. If failures were not there, most of us would continue to live in ivory tower or fools’ paradises. He emphasises more than once that defeat or failure is but a way for betterment, to which there is no end. Our young readers, on going through the pages of history you will find hardly any example of success in the first effort. ‘Higher the aim, the harder and longer the period of trials’, is the rule of the road to success. For the freedom of our country, the freedom fighters had to fight for over ninety years. Nelson Mandela of South Africa had to remain behind the prison-bars for about 26 years to achieve his goal. It would be a cheap bargain, if one is able to get a nice job after a couple of trials. Can’t we draw inspiration from a little candle which continues to burn in darkness till the dawn of light ? A successful person is he who loves his work and gets pleasure in doing it. To be in the line of the successful persons, one has to be more careful about the quality of one’s performance, rather than care for the award. The fruit of success does not hang on a tree from where it may be plucked, nor can it be produced with the waving wand of a magician. It is a fruit born by a sapling after being watered patiently for a certain period of time. Nothing can be had in life without paying the price for it. Failure proves only one thing that the determination to succeed was not strong enough. A wise man learns lessons from his failures, while a fool weeps over them. Remember by heart these words of wisdom uttered by Swami Vivekanand—“To get success make efforts hundred times. In case you meet failure, make one more effort.” But why does he say so ? He knows you are destined to succeed. History provides several examples of persons of steely determination, persons who would not be discouraged by occasional failures, but would fight incessantly till success came to them. Alexander, the Great, was one of them. Napolean Bonaparte, the emperor of France was another illustrious person-age who transformed failures into successes by virtue of his sheer determination to fight on till victory came to him. Beginning from a lowly position in the army, he rose to be the emperor of France and fought several glorious battles blessed with victory. Abraham Lincoln failed several times in several vocations before he became the President of America. Vladimir Lenin, the first Prime Minister of Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution had to face much hardship in life before he reached that enviable position;. In his younger days, he was a mere shephered. He determinedly fought the adverse circumstances of life and his incessant struggle paid-off. Russian people will never forget this man who was very instrumental in bringing about the Russian Revolution which transformed the poor, backward Russia into a vibrant and a strong nation. Subhash Chandra Bose continued his struggle to make India free, though at every turn he was faced with a very powerful adversary, the British empire. The crux of what we have said above is that we should not give up our efforts after initial failures, but should continue striving till success comes. And success will certainly P.Darpan come, rest assured.
“Opportunity may knock only once, but temptation leans on the doorbell.”
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Water Resources Panel Report Tabled in Parliament
[Suggests to incorporate measures to mitigate climate change impact.] The Standing Committee on Water Resources has advised the Union Ministry to review the National Water Policy, 2002 in view of the looming threat of climate change and the need of adaptation of strategies in consultation with the State governments. In its first report tabled in Parliament in December 2009, the Parliamentary Committee observed that with draft National Water Mission document as part of the Prime Minister’s National Action Plan on Climate Change, the Ministry outlined some measures that need to be adopted to mitigate the impact of climate change. The draft document focuses on conservation of water, minimising wastage and equal distribution of water as well as enhancing efficiency of water use. The Committee headed by Beni Prasad Verma, recommended that the Ministry take into account the suggestions given by various stakeholders including State governments and experts on the issue of climate change. The panel wanted to be informed about the various assessments done by experts on the impact of climate change. It urged the Ministry to chalk out an innovative and dynamic strategy to enable states to adopt the Model Ground Water Bill for efficient use of ground water, considering the fast receding underground water table. So far the Model Bill has been adopted by only 11 states.
Constitution, allegations against a sitting judge can only be probed if an impeachment motion is moved.
The Case Against
● Possessing wealth disproportionate to
known sources of income.
● Unlawfully securing five Housing Board
plots for his wife and two daughters.
● Encroaching on government and public
property to deprive Dalits and the poor of their right to livelihood. ● Misuse of official position to unlawfully secure property and to facilitate other illegal acts for personal gain.
Justice P. D Dinakaran
The Motion is Admitted
Rajya Sabha Chairman Hamid Ansari on December 18, 2009 admitted the motion seeking the removal of P. D. Dinakaran as Chief Justice of the Karnataka High Court for alleged acts of “misbehaviour including corruption, land grabbing and abuse of judicial office”. The allegations are probed by a committed appointed by Just Released the Rajya Sabha Chairman. The committee consists of a sitting judge of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice of a High Court and an eminent jurist under sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Judges (Inquiry) Act, 1968 to go into the (Multiple Choice Questions on charges. Computer Fundamental, Chief Justice of Application and Advance Topics) India, K. G. Balakrishnan on DecemUseful ber 18, 2009 made it clear that Mr. Dinafor karan will continue Various as Chief Justice of Competitive Karnataka High Exams. Court and that the Supreme Court had By : Dr. Alok Kumar requested the Union Code No. 1664 Price : Rs. 80/Government to keep his elevation to the UPKAR PRAKASHAN, AGRA-2 Supreme Court in ● E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org abeyance pending ● Website : www.upkar.in inquiry.
Impeachment of a High Court Judge on Cards
[Justice P. D. Dinakaran, Chief Justice of Karnataka High Court faces impeachment, a highly crucial constitutional process.] Cutting across party lines 76 opposition MPs served a notice to initiate impeachment proceedings against Justice P. D. Dinakaran in the Rajya Sabha on December 14, 2009. If the motion is carried by two-thirds majority in both Houses, Dinakaran will be sacked. The 60-page impeachment motion poses a threat to the career of the Karnataka High Court Chief Justice who is facing allegations of corruption and land-grabbing. The MPs, from 11 political parties, levelled 12 allegations against Dinakaran, including possession of disproportionate assets, illegal encroachments and misuse of position. Led by leader of the opposition Arun Jaitley, CPI (M) leader Sitaram Yechury and Samajwadi General Secretary Amar Singh, a delegation of MPs handed the motion to Rajya Sabha Chairman Hamid Ansari. According to the
“Let him who would enjoy a good future waste none of his present.”
The charges against Mr. Dinakaran are (i) Possessing wealth disproportionate to the known sources of his income, (ii) Unlawfully securing five Housing Board plots in favour of his wife and two daughters; (iii) entering into transactions prohibited and punishable under the Benami Transaction (Prohibition) Act, 1988; (iv) acquiring and possessing agricultural holdings beyond the ceiling limit under the Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Act, 1961; (v) illegal encroachment on government and public property to deprive Dalits and the poor of their right to livelihood; (vi) violation of the human rights of Dalits and the poor; (vii) destruction of evidence
during official inquiry; (viii) obstructing public servant on duty; (ix) repeated undervaluation of properties at the time of registration of sale to evade stamp duty; (x) carrying out illegal construction in breach of the Town Planning Law and Planning permit; (xi) misuse of official position to unlawfully secure property and to facilitate other illegal acts for personal gain. The notice also charges Justice Dinakaran with passing “dishonest judicial orders to favour a few individuals or for his own unjust enrichment at the cost of the exchequer.” He has also been accused of “taking irregular and dishonest administrative actions to facilitate dishonest judicial decision and to make arbitrary and illegal appointment and transfers.” The last such an inquiry was conducted in March 2009 for removal of Justice Soumitra Sen of the Calcutta High Court.
The Law on Impeachment of Judges
What is Impeachment ?
A member of the higher judiciary, which means the Judges and Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of India and the State High Courts, can be removed from office only through the process of impeachment under Article 124 (4) of the Constitution on grounds of proven misbehaviour or incapacity. In India there is no other process by which a Judge can be removed from office before his term comes to an end.
Who decides that a judge should be impeached ?
As per the Judges Inquiry Act, 1968, a complaint against a judge has to be made through a resolution either by 100 members of the Lok Sabha or 50 members of the Rajya Sabha. After the MPs submit a duly signed motion to this effect to their respective presiding officers—Speaker of the Lok Sabha or Chairman of the Rajya Sabha—the presiding officer constitutes a three-member committee comprising two Judges —one from the Supreme Court and one Chief Justice of a High Court if the complaint is against a HC Judge; and two Supreme Court Judges if the complaint is against a sitting Judge of the apex court—and a jurist to probe the complaint and determine if it is a case fit for initiating the process of impeachment. Thereafter if the committee concludes that impeachment proceedings be launched, the matter is debated in both Houses of Parliament. The Judge who is facing impeachment is also given an opportunity to rebut the charges, or through his representative. The entire process needs to be completed within a single session of the House failing which the motion is deemed dropped and can only be taken up if the entire process is repeated afresh in any subsequent session. What is the majority needed to pass the impeachment motion ? After the debate ends and the Judge has been heard, if the House decides to put the motion to vote, the resolution has to be passed by two-thirds majority in both Houses in the same session. The resolution is then sent to the President, who orders removal of the Judge. Till date no judge has ever been impeached since Independence. The only time Parliament came close to impeaching a Judge was in the case of former Punjab and Haryana High Court Chief Justice V. Ramaswami for corruption in 1991. However, the move failed owing to the Congress members staying away and the Judge could not be impeached. In 2008, 58 MPs of the Rajya Sabha moved a motion for impeachment of Calcutta High Court Judge Soumitra Sen for his involvement in financial misappropriation before he was appointed as a Judge. The matter is pending before a threemember committee constituted by the Rajya Sabha Chairman.
Parliamentary Panel’s Report Recommending 33% Reservation to Women in Legislatures Tabled in Parliament
The much talked about issue of reservation of 33% seats to women in Indian legislatures was finally on the centrestage when on December 17, 2009 a Parliamentary Panel appointed to make recommendations tabled its report in Parliament. Holding that the said reservation was a ‘necessary strategy’ to enhance the participation of women in the decision mak(Right to left) NCP MP Supriya Sule, ing process the panel Shiromani Akali Dal MP Harsimrat on the reservation Kaur Badal and DMK MP Kanimozhi Bill tabled its report at Parliament House in New Delhi on in both Houses of December 17. Parliament on December 17, amid vociferous protests by several parties. The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice hoped that the measure would be passed into law and “put into action without delay.” It said in its report : “It was of unanimous opinion that reservation of seats for women is a valid and necessary strategy to enhance women’s participation in the decision /policy making process.” “It feels that representation of women in the policy making process is critical to the nation building process”, the committee said, adding that a Bill effecting the reservations would be a “crucial affirmative step in the right direction of enhancing the participation of women in the state legislatures and Parliament and increasing the role of women in the democratisation of the country.”
“I believe in getting into hot water; it keeps you clean.”
There were protests by Samajwadi Party, Janata Dal (United) and Rashtriya Janata Dal members as committee member Shahnawaz Hussain (Bhartiya Janata Party) tabled the report in the Lok Sabha. In a dissenting note, two SP members said that they were not opposed to women’s reservation perse but that this should be begged at 20 per cent.
Consensus is Round the Corner
With the Parliamentary panel having made then recommendation with a desired force of language and intent, the way is now clear for the emergence of a consensus on the issue, which has been eluding us for quite some time. 33 percent reservation to women in legislatures was what the BJP government headed by Atal Behari Vajpayee suggested and tried to move a Bill in Parliament but opposition to the Bill in several quarters particularly by some political parties stalled its introduction itself in Parliament. The UPA government however, succeeded in introducing the Bill in the Rajya Sabha in its first tenure. To make things easier the issue was referred to a Parliamentary panel. Now, that the panel’s report has been tabled in the Parliament, next move for getting it passed by Parliament is anxiously awaited by democracy loving people of India. When 33% seats have already been reserved for women in Panchayati Raj institutions and a Bill to increase this reservation to 50 per cent has already been introduced in Parliament, it is a natural step to allow at least 33% reservation to women in Parliament and state legislatures. From what transpired in the debate in Parliament it is safe to say that a consensus in favour of reservation is systematically building up and the dissenting notes are not that sharp.
Gorshkov Price is Finally Settled with Russia at $ 2·3 billion
The price of aircraft carrier Gorshkov has been finally settled with Russia at $ 2·3 billion. Not withstanding some bitterness, the Indian side finally agreed to pay this price after being told by the Prime Minister’s office that the high level of friendship with Russia had to be maintained and an agreement had been worked out. That was indeed The original agreement with the done on December 4, Russians signed in 2004 was for $ 974 2009 Navy Day, with million for the carrier’s refurbishment and upgrade, Gorshkov itself being a visiting Russian offered free of cost. delegation, according to the India Strategic defence magazine. The Indian side had asked for some additional on board equipment at least as part of the increased price, but within that price, which the Russians agreed to. The original agreement with the Russians signed in 2004 was for $ 974 million for the carrier’s refurbishment and upgrade, Gorshkov itself being offered free of cost. The delivery was then set for 2008.
In 2007, Rosoboron export, the sole Russian agency responsible for exporting weapon systems, indicated a delay in the delivery of the carrier. In 2008, it demanded an additional $ 2 billion in writing, saying it had made mistakes in calculations and that it had to do many more miles of wiring for instance than it had originally thought. With the price having been finally settled, the delivery of the Gorshkov to the Indian Navy in due course is a natural corollary. Yet the manner in which much higgling and haggling has gone on for a pretty long time over the price of the aircraft carrier leaves a question mark about the Indo-Russian relations. It may be noted that India’s relations with Russia were characterised by utmost warmth and cordiality right since Jawahar Lal Nehru became the Prime Minister of India. That spirit of deep relationship never diminished till Atal Behari Vajpayee’s time. But some snags appeared during the UPA government’s regime. We have the same feelings for Russia as before but by a quirk of circumstance we appeared to be showing a tilt towards the U.S.A. over Russia. It was not a fact, but the Russians perhaps thought so. During past few months our diplomats have endeavoured hard to mend the fences but at much cost. It is imperative on our diplomats to maintain the traditional warmth and cordiality with Russia, for it has always stood by us in times of need and difficulties. With the arrival of the Gorshkov, which has already been named INS Vikramaditya, the Indian Navy will be possessing two aircraft carriers—INS Viraat which is already in commission and INS Vikramaditya (Gorshkov). Our Naval power will certainly be enhanced, but much still needs to be done in the backdrop of the fast increasing Naval power of our neighbour China. We have to build our own aircraft carriers as expeditiously as possible if we wish to give the desired teeth to our defence capability.
Centre to Incentivise Wind Power Generation
The Central Government on December 17, 2009 said that it would give incentives worth Rs. 380 crore to promote wind power generation. The government has launched a special programme to generate more wind power and attract investments domestically as well as globally, to give boost to cleaner and renewable energy sector, Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy Farooq Boosting Energy : Farooq Abdullah Abdullah said in New (left), Union Minister for New and Delhi. Renewable Energy, with Deepak “We are imple- Gupta, Secretary, at a seminar in menting the generation New Delhi on December 17. based incentive (GBI) scheme for grid-interactive wind power producers and help cut carbon emission”, he said. The Minister said that the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) would be the nodal agency
“I prefer the wicked rather than the foolish. The wicked sometimes rest.”
for the GBI scheme that provided subsidy of 50 paise per unit of wind power, with a ceiling of Rs. 62 lakh per MW for 4–10 years. A total of Rs. 380 crore has been earmarked for the scheme. The scheme would be scaled up after a review of its performance in the remaining period of the XI Plan (2007–12). The government aims at attracting big power companies, particularly foreign firms, to the wind power sector.
Questions in Parliament
Starred questions—These questions are to be answered orally on the floor of the House. Answers to such questions may be followed by supplementary questions by members. Starred questions derive their name from the fact that they are always distinguished by an asterisk. Unstarred questions—An unstarred question is so named because it does not carry an asterisk mark. Answer to such a question, unlike a starred question is not given orally, but in a written form. Consequently, no supplementary question can be asked there on.
Dhanush Missile Test-fired Successfully
Dhanush, the ship-based anti-surface missile, was successfully launched from INS Subhadra, in the Bay of Bengal, off Orissa coast on December 13, 2009. It was fired by Navy personnel as part of a user training exercise. The nuclear-capable Dhanush, a naval version of Prithvi flew over 350 km and splashed down at the target point in the Bay with “pinpoint accuracy”, according to Dhanush missile, a naval version of official sources in the Prithvi, being launched from INS Defence Research and Subhadra off the Orissa coast on Development OrganiDecember 13, 2009. sation (DRDO). According to the Sources, the 350 km range missile met all the velocity, height and guidance parameters. The single-stage missile is powered by liquid propellants, it is 10 metres long and weighs six tonnes. It has one meter diameter and can carry a 500 kg war head. It can be used as an anti-ship weapon as well as for destroying land targets depending on the range.
The Rajya Sabha on December 15, 2009 unanimously adopted the recommendations of the committee on Rules to ensure that no starred question goes unanswered in the absence of the members who posed them. The current practice is to move on to the next question if the member who poses a query is not present unless another member requests the Chairman to direct that a reply be given. The House also decided to restrict one starred question a member a day to increase the possibility of more members asking questions. The limitation till now was three questions a member a day.
Deletion of Rule
Besides bringing two new provisions, Rules 54 and 43, the House also recommended deletion of Rule 55, which read. “When all the questions on the list for oral answers have been called, the Chairman may, if time permits, call again any question, which has not been asked by reason of the absence of the member in whose name it stands, and may also permit a member to ask a question standing in the name of another member, if so authorized by him”. Sub-section 3 of Rule 54 will now read : “If on a question being called it is not put or the member in whose name it stands is absent, the Chairman shall direct that the answer to it be given.” Earlier the rule stipulated that : “If on a question being asked it is not put or the member in whose name it stands is absent, the Chairman, at the request of any member, may direct that the answer to it be given.”
Firepower at Sea
● ● ● ● ● ●
An indigenous naval version of the Prithvi shortrange ballistic missile, Dhanush has a strike range up to 350 km. Can carry a 500 kg conventional or nuclear warhead. Can be used as an anti-ship weapon as well as for destroying land targets depending on the range. This was the sixth test of the missile. 350-km-range missile meets velocity, height and guidance parameters. Radar systems along the coast monitor the entire trajectory.
Parliamentary Approval for Free Air Travel to Netas’s Kins
From now on, Ministers will be able to take any number of companions or relatives along by air for free with Parliament giving approval to a Bill providing for such facilities to them . The Salaries and Allowances of Ministers (Amendment) Bill was approved by the Rajya Sabha on December 22, 2009. It had been passed by the Lok Sabha on December 18. The Bill entitles Ministers to take along any number of companions or relatives by air at the same rates at which travelling allowances were payable to them and their family. This brings Ministers on par with the facilities given to the MPs. The Bill said that it proposed to end the discrepancy between Minister’s and MPs and allows the spouse or legitimate children or step children, as also the minister’s companions or relatives, to travel on their own or with the minister.
It was the sixth test of the missile. “It has met all the mission objectives”, official sources said. The radar systems of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur along the coast monitored the entire trajectory of the vehicle, which flew for 520 seconds before zeroing in on the target.
Rajya Sabha Makes Amendments in Rules of Procedure
● ● No more unanswered queries in the Upper House. Decision to restrict one starred question a member a day.
“If pleasures are greatest in anticipation, just remember that this is also true of trouble.”
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