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Student: HUONG HUYNH LAN

ID: 238176

PROJECT EXERCISE 6
WELL BORE FLOW

1. Use the pressure solution above and show that the well head pressure

T y T y
2Ngp /( T /Tbh ) 2 2(Ngp /( T /Tbh )) 1
T y N fp
p pbh 1 1 1 1
Tbh L 2(Ngp (T / Tbh )) Tbh L Tbh L

At wellhead, y = L

T
2Ngp /( T /Tbh )
N fp T
2
T 2(Ngp /( T /Tbh ))1
pwh pbh 1 1 1 1
Tbh 2(Ngp (T / Tbh )) Tbh Tbh

pwh pbh L1E 1 L2 L1E 2 1

T
L1 1
Tbh
E1 2N / (T / T )
gp bh
2
N fp T
L2 2(N (T / T )) 1 T
bh bh
gp

E 2 2(Ngp / (T / Tbh )) 1

2. Estimate an average z-factor and define the error Z, based on the function Z = Z(p) given
in the data file NGASDATA.DAT.

The average z-factor is defined by


1 1 P2 1

Z P2 P1 P1 Z
dP Z 0.9339

3. Calculate the relative uncertainty in the well head pressure, p/pwh as function of the
relative uncertainty in the z-factor, Z/Z.

b
P ae b / Z dP / d Z a 2
eb/ Z
Z
ba P ba b / Z Z P ba b / Z Z
P 2 e b / Z Z 2 e 2 e b/ Z
(because P ae b / Z )
Z P Z P P Z ae
P b Z P Z N b
Ngp (because P ae b / Z and also P ae gp Ngp )
P Z Z P Z Z
MggL cos( ) 0.027 9.8 3000 cos0
We have, Ngp 0.26
ZRT 0.9339 8.314 392
4. Define the uncertainty in the well head pressure (in bars) as function of the uncertainty in
the z-factor.

Z 0.0307
The relative uncertainty in the z-factor: Z 0.0307 0.0329
Z 0.9339
The relative uncertainty in the well head pressure:
P Z
Ngp 0.26 0.0329 0.008569 0.8%
P Z
The relative uncertainty in estimating the wellhead pressure is about 0.8%

5. Use the data given in the NGASDATA.DAT as a Base Case simulation model and plot the
three pressures as mentioned above (in the same plot).

Pressure Profile
500
450 Average Pressure
400 Bottom hole Pressure
350 Wellhead Pressure
Pressure (Bar)

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Time (days)

Explain why the well head pressure is declining more towards the end of the well production time.
Due to the pressure difference between well head pressure and bottom hole pressure, also at
the beginning, the well head pressure is lower than the bottom hole pressure, Pwh dropped faster
than Pbh.

Comment on the pressure difference between the well head pressure and the bottom hole pressure,
as function of time.

At the early times, the wellhead pressure is particularly lower than the bottom hole pressure.
As the time passes, the pressure difference is smaller because more gas is produced, the gas becomes
lighter, heavy component condensed and dropped out in the reservoir which reduces the potential
pressure difference. On the other hand, the well head pressure is affected by the atmospheric
pressure. Pwh is squeezed between Pa and the decreasing Pbh, therefore pressure difference is
smaller.

6. Run a sensitivity on the Base Case model where the average reservoir permeability is
reduced by 80%. Plot the three pressure proles and explain the consequences of reduced
permeability.
Pressure Profile
500
450
Average Pressure
400
Bottom hole Pressure
350
Pressure (Bar)

300 Wellhead Pressure


250
200
150
100
50
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Time (days)
When the reservoir permeability reduced by 80% (20 mD), the average pressure and bottom
hole pressure are more distinguish than in the previous case (base case) since in low permeability
reservoir, we have higher drawdown pressure. Hence, the abandonment pressure was reached at
earlier period (~200 days shorter).
In terms of well head pressure, it falls faster due to the difference in pressure between the
well head and bottom hole.

Why is the well head pressure affected by the reservoir permeability?

The changes in reservoir permeability affects the drawdown pressure (Pwh and P average), in
which the Pwh is reduced significantly when the permeability is reduced. The relationship between
well head and bottom hole is not affected by the permeability. However, since the Pwh is changed
(dropped more when permeability is reduced), the wellhead pressure is consequently being adjusted
(reduced and reached the abandonment pressure faster).

7. Plot the well head pressure as function of a dip angle equal to 45o and compare with the
Base Case model. Use the same well length.

Pressure Profile
400
350 Wellhead Pressure (45 deg.)
300 Wellhead Pressure (0 deg.)
Pressure (Bar)

250
200
150
100
50
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Time (days)
The well depth of inclined well is shorter than the vertical well, hence the gravitational effect
on pressure drop is less (particularly half). Since the frictional effect is the same for same well length
(3000 m), the pressure drop of inclined well is smaller than the vertical well leads to the higher well
head pressure in inclined well.
Also, as the bottom hole pressure approaches the terminal pressure, so must the well head
pressures which for two cases the pressure profiles are nearly the same at the end of production time.

Is it right to use the same well length when comparing vertical well flow to the case of inclined well
flow?
When using the same well length, the frictional pressure drop is kept constant but the gravitational
(potential) pressure drop is different (the acceleration affect was ignored). So it depends the point of
studying the effect of which parameter of the pressure profile of the well.
8. Assume the same reservoir depth as in the Base Case model and a location of the platform
some 1500 m north of the position in the Base Case. Plot the well-head pressures and
compare it to the Base Case model. Explain the difference observed between the two well-
head pressures.

Pressure Profile
400
350
2nd case
300
Pressure (Bar)

250 base case


200
150
100
50
0
0 400 800 1200 1600
Time (days)
There is no difference between this case (new scenario: new well has 3354m length and
inclination of 26.6 degree). As having the same depth, the gravitational pressure drop is the same for
two cases. A slightly different in well length and inclination did not affect much in the pressure profile
of the 2nd case. The well head pressure difference is approximately 1 bar.

9. Run a sensitivity on the Base Case model where the gas flow rate is reduced to 70%.
Compare the two cases and relate the observation to the change in pressure in the well.

At the beginning, the two pressures are equal. However, the smaller pressure difference in
lower rate case leads to the slower dropping rate of the well head pressure. It can be explained that
when the flow rate is reduced, less gas is produced per time and consequently the production time
increases to produce the same amount of gas in place (as compared with the base case)
Pressure Profile
400
350 3.5x10^5 Sm3/d
300 5x10^5 Sm3/d
Pressure (Bar)

250
200
150
100
50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Time (days)

Is the total energy consumption larger or smaller in the case of reduced well rate?

The total energy consumption is smaller in the case of reduced well rate.
10. Run a sensitivity on the Base Case model where the well bore diameter is reduced to half its
value and plot the well-head pressure. Compare the two pressures.

Pressure Profile
400
350
D=0.1m D=0.2m
300
Pressure (Bar)

250
200
150
100
50
0
0 400 800 1200 1600
Time (days)

Give a short explanation for the observed pressure difference. What about energy consumption in
this case?
The pressure drop in the wellbore increases when the tubing diameter is reduced. With the
same gas rate, the frictional effect is higher in the cased of reduced diameter, in consequence the
pressure drop is higher and the wellhead pressure is lower than the base case. Also, as the pressure
drop of narrow well bore is increased through time, significantly near the end of production, the
minimum well head pressure is reached sooner. In terms of energy consumption, since the drawdown
is higher, more energy is consumed in this narrow well bore.

11. Use the data contained in the log-file from the Base Case model and plot the minimum
unloading rate, the KINETIC VS. FRICTION parameter and the Reynold's number verifying
constant friction factor f.
Reynold's number Minimum unloading rate
4.00E+06 2.00E+05

3.00E+06 1.50E+05

Sm3/day
2.00E+06 1.00E+05

1.00E+06 5.00E+04

0.00E+00 0.00E+00
0 500 1000 1500 0 500 1000 1500
Time (days) Time (days)

Kinetic vs Friction parameter


0.006
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
0
0 500 1000 1500
Time (days)

Are the condition under which the pressure equation was derived, satisfied?
Because the kinetic vs friction parameter is far less than 1, means that the kinetic term is far
less than the frictional term, hence the assumed condition in which the kinetic term was ignored is
satisfied.

12. Run two sensitivities relative the Base Case where the water production is set to 0.1% and
0.2% of gas flow rate. Plot the well head pressure in the three cases (including the Base
Case).

Water produced together with the gas will increase the pressure drop in the well, since the
gravitational term is increased (due to the increasing in fluid density). Also because more energy is
needed to lift the water from the reservoir to the surface.
Higher pressure drop in the well means lower well-head pressure. The water production
dramatically reduces the well-head pressure. Increased associated water production will therefore
eventually kill the well sooner by bringing the well-head pressure below the minimum well head
pressure much faster than others.
Pressure Profile
400
Wp=0
350
Wp=0.001
300
Wp=0.002
Pressure (Bar)

250
200
150
100
50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Time (days)

Observe the minimum unloading rate in the three cases and present them in the same plot.

Minimum unloading rate


2.10E+05
Wp=0
1.90E+05
Wp=0.001
1.70E+05
Wp=0.002
1.50E+05
Sm3/day

1.30E+05
1.10E+05
9.00E+04
7.00E+04
5.00E+04
0 400 800 1200 1600
Time (days)
The minimum unloading rate in the three cases are having the same declining rate. However,
as more water is produced, the minimum loading rate is smaller, means that it is harder to produce
gas when water is also being produced.
13. Run the 0.2% water production case with 0.2% water injection and compare this case with
the Base Case. Does water influx have any relevance to the minimum unloading rate in this
case?

The trend of well head pressure in this studying case is the same with previous case. Since
water influxes and is produced, the pressure drop is higher than base case hence, the well head
pressure is lower and reaching the minimum faster, means that the production period is shorter.
The minimum rate is therefore higher than base case, makes it harder for gas production even
if there is pressure support from water influx.
Pressure Profile
400
350
Wp=0
300
Pressure (Bar) Water influxed and produced
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 400 800 1200 1600
Time (days)

Minimum unloading rate


2.10E+05

1.90E+05

1.70E+05
Sm3/day

1.50E+05

1.30E+05

1.10E+05
base case
9.00E+04
Water influxed and produced
7.00E+04

5.00E+04
0 400 800 1200 1600
Time (days)