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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Engineering in general, and Mechanical engineering in particular, deals
with a wide spectrum of products, ranging from large and complex systems
comprising of numerous elements down to a single component. Apart from
being a physical object, a product can also be a service that requires the
application of engineering knowledge, skills and devices to be useful to society.
A service falls under the category of a system in that it is carried out with the
help of personnel, facilities and procedures. The service offered by an
automobile maintenance and repair garage would be a typical example from
mechanical engineering. Even computer software could be treated as an
engineering product. It is also created using engineering knowledge and skills.
In the following, the term product when used alone denotes the object to be
designed and made with the help of engineering knowledge and skills,
irrespective of whether it is a large system, a simple machine, a component or a
service. Specific reference to design of computer software is not attempted in
the following although many of the generalities apply to it also.
A general understanding of the nature of product is a prerequisite for
designing it. A complex product can be sub divided into sub assemblies or sub
system, component etc. Frequently the planning, layout and design of a complex
multi element product is an interdisciplinary effort, requiring the expertise and
skills not only of several engineering specialization but even non engineering
ones.
It is always preferable that our work should be easy and fast. But easy
and fast working requires some technical skills to work efficiency and properly.
In our daily life we face many problems where we need a lot of effort and time

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to do that specific work. A little but important work we do often is opening a
tyre of a vehicle. It is a fact that a huge effort is required to open a single nut of
a car wheel and it will become a tedious task to open the wheel in extreme
atmospheric conditions. It also creates problem when we are in hurry.
Here we get the solution of the problem mentioned above Multi nut
remover is a special tool designed by us which will open a tyre easily. It is so
designed that it can open all the four nuts of a car wheel in one time. And the
most desired achievement we get is that total effort and time needed in the
process is very less. It can open and also refit the tyre with the same tool easily.
Tool is simple in design, easy to use and easily portable along with the vehicle.
Overall of instrument is in the reach of average citizen. Great efforts are made
to satisfy each and every technical aspects of the design.

1.2 List of Parts

SR. NO. PART NAME NUMBER


1 GEARS(spur) 4
2 PINION(spur) 1
3 19mm SPANNER BOX 4
4 SHAFTS 4
5 Base plate or Base Rod 2
6 KEY 4
7. L Shaped anchore bolts 5
8. Cotter 4

Table No.1.1 List of Parts

1.3 Application
Application domain of unified Wheel Opener is in automobile industries.
According to our preplanned project we describe the following places where it
can be used successfully:

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It can be used as standard equipment provided with a new vehicle for the
purpose of opening and refit a punctured wheel in the midway.
It can be used in workshops to open a wheel in place of using pneumatic
guns which are restricted to the availability of light and compressed air; it
can be easily operated with hands.
It can be used in assembly line of automobiles where more time is
consumed in tightening all the four nuts one by one. As it takes less time to
fit a new tyre, it will lead to increase productivity.

1.4 Objective
A simple mechanism if used properly can lead to a great success. U.W.O. is a
tool which is made for automobile field. Aim of our project is to save time and
human effort. We have tried our best to adopt the design having minimum input
torque and required output torque which is not possible without using U.W.O.

1.5 Organization at Work


Completion of any work requires proper planning and management from the
initial stage. From case study to fabrication different steps are involved. First of
all we decide the aim of our project. Application of our design, benefits and
other aspects are discussed in the first chapter.

In the second lap of our work we finalize about the material required for the
fabrication of different parts. A lot of engineering materials are studied before
the selection of material.

After the selection of material the big work is to design each and every part of
the project. Design of gears, shafts, axles, sprockets, pinion and other parts are
described in next pages.

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CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction

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A lot of research activities has been carried out on gears mechanisms
since very first gear was manufactured. A gear transmits the power from one
shaft to another in various relative position. Many engineers and designers put
their efforts in this field and succeeded also. They put all of their knowledge and
the studies about gears on papers, with the use of these papers anyone can know
about advancement of the research carried out by them.

With these research papers, we come to know various aspects about gear. These
papers explore how a mechanism can be driven at uniform speed and non
uniform speed. Also this paper tells about selection of material for a gear
depending upon requirement. There are a number of different gears which have
different application areas. The research papers helps in choosing the
appropriate type of gear.

1.Wen-Hsiang Hsie in his paper An experimental study on cam-


controlled planetary gear trains describes that a mechanism is driven by a
motor at uniform speed. However, more and more researches indicate that there
are many advantages if a mechanism can be driven at non-uniform speed, and
this kind of mechanism is called a variable input mechanism. The purpose of
this work is to propose a novel approach for driving a variable speed
mechanism by using a cam-controlled planetary gear train, and to investigate its
feasibility by conducting prototype experiments. First, the geometrical design is
performed. Then, the kinematic equations and the cam profile equations are
derived based on the geometry of the mechanism.

2.Kuen-BaoSheu in his paper Analysis and evaluation of hybrid


scooter transmission systems describes a new design concept of
transmissions for the hybrid scooters. These transmissions consist of a one-
degree-of-freedom planetary gear train and a two-degree-of-freedom planetary

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gear train to from a split power system and to combine the power of two power
sources, a gasoline engine and an electric motor. In order to maximize the
performance and reduce emissions, the transmissions can provide a hybrid
scooter to run five operating modes: electric motor mode; engine mode;
engine/charging mode; power mode, and regenerative braking mode. The main
advantages of the transmissions proposed in this paper include the use of only
one electric motor/generator, need not use clutch/brake for the shift of the
operating modes, and high efficiency.

3.Ligang Yao Jian S. Dai Guowu Wei and YingjieCai in their paper
states that investigates meshing characteristics of the toroidal drive with
different roller shapes, examines the effect on the characteristics from roller
shapes and produces a comprehensive comparative study. Based on the
coordinate transformation, the paper introduces the generic models of meshing
characteristics and characterizes the meshing to introduce both undercutting and
meshing limit curves. The paper further develops meshing functions and their
derivatives with respect to each drive type with a different roller shape. This
leads to a comprehensive examination of each meshing characteristics against
each drive type of a roller shape. The comparative study focuses on the effect of
contact curves, tooth profile, undercutting, meshing limit curves and the
induced normal curvature.
4.Gordon R. Pennock and Jeremiah J. Alwerdt in their paper Duality
between the kinematics of gear trains and the statics of beam systems
describes about the geometric insight into the duality between the first-order
kinematics of gear trains and the statics of beam systems. The two devices have
inherent geometrical relationships that will allow the angular velocities of the
gears in a gear train to be investigated from a knowledge of the forces acting on
the beams of the dual beam system, and vice versa. The primary contribution of
the paper is the application of this duality to obtain the dual beam system for a
given compound planetary gear train, and vice versa. The paper develops a
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systematic procedure to transform between the first-order kinematics of a gear
train and the statics of the dual beam system. This procedure provides a simple
and intuitive approach to study the speed ratios of a planetary gear train and the
force ratios of the dual beam system.

5.StefanStaicu in his paper, Inverse dynamics of a planetary gear


train for robotics states that recursive matrix relations concerning the
geometric analysis, kinematics and dynamics of a Bendix wrist planetary bevel-
gear train for robotics are established in the paper. The prototype of this
mechanism is a 3-DOF system with seven links and four bevel gear pairs
controlled by electric motors. Supposing that the rotational motion of the
platform is known, an inverse dynamic problem is developed using the principle
of virtual powers. Some relations and graphs for torques and powers of three
actuators are determined.

6.Amemiya, T. (1984), in his paper says that the question of the location
of exporters of manufactured goods within a country is investigated. Based on
insights from new trade theory, the new economic geography (NEG) and
gravity-equation modeling, an empirical model is specified with agglomeration
and increasing returns (the home market effect) and transport costs (proxied by
distance) as major determinants of the location decision of exporters. Data from
354 magisterial districts in South Africa are used with a variety of estimators
(OLS, Tobit, RE-Tobit) and allowances for data shortcomings (bootstrapped
standard errors and analytical weights) to identify the determinants of regional
manufactured exports. It is found that the home-market effect (measured by the
size of local GDP) and distance (measured as the distance in km to the nearest
port) are significant determinants of regional manufactured exports. This paper
contributes to the literature.
7.Tadashi TAKEUCHI and Kazuhide TOGAI describesin their paper
about Meshing transmission error (TE) is well known as a contributing factor of

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gear whine, but system- level prediction of transmission error and quantitative
analysis of dynamic meshing vibromotive force have not been analyzed
adequately until now. This paper describes the use of a computer- aided-
engineering (CAE) model for the analysis of the dynamic gear meshing
behavior and for the prediction of dynamic transmission error from the input
torque of the system. This paper also describes the analysis of a dynamic
vibromotive force at a bearing location where vibration is transmitted to the
vehicle body. The gear whine critical frequency can be predicted with the
proposed method at an early stage of passenger-car development when no
prototype is available.

CHAPTER-3

METHODOLOGY
3.1 METHODOLOGY:

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This Chapter consists of the overall methodology of the project, which is
specified in the pictorial form. Which consist of sequence of process to be done
to achieve the required output as shown in below figure 3.1

FABRICATION WORK MATERIAL

IMPACT
WRENCH MULTI NUT
WORK REMOVER
WORK

RESULTS

CONCLUSION

Fig 3.1 Methodology

CHAPTER-4

MATERIAL SELECTION

4.1 Introduction To Engineering Materials:

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The selection of a material for a particular application is governed by the
working condition to which it will be subjected, ease of Manufacturing and the
cost considerations, pure metals find few applications in pure condition and
secondly they generally have poor strength in pure form. Various desired and
special properties can be achieved by addition of different material to form
alloys. Alloy comprises of a base metal and one or more alloying elements. The
typical properties associated with working condition are tenacity elasticity
toughness and hardness, toughness and typical properties associated with
manufacturing process is ductility, malleability and plasticity. The various
properties can be determined by testing techniques e.g. tensile test resistance to
abrasion by hardness test toughness by impact test and other special properties
like fatigue and creep test.
4.2 Engineering Material For Product Design:
All physical objects are made out of some material substance or other.
Mother Nature has her own set of building material for the objects of her
creation, living or non-living. Over the millennia, man has observed and
adapted many of these for making objects of his invention and design. For
engineering purposes, we now use a very wide spectrum of materials. These
generally fall under the following categories:-

Materials as found in nature used after only very minor preparation such as
cutting to size, sun-drying, mixing with water. Some examples are coal,
wood and stones.
Natural materials that are modified/ refined before use through some
physical, chemical or thermal processes that improve their utilization.
Synthesized materials that are rarely found freely in nature. These are
derived from one or more natural raw materials through major
transformation processes. Most of the materials used in modern mechanical
engineering belong to this category.
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4.3 Selection Criteria:
The designer selects the materials of construction for his product based
on several criteria such as its cost, the desirable properties that it should possess,
its availability, the preferred manufacturing processes that are to be employed,
etc. The overall economy is influenced by all these factors. In special cases,
essentiality and /or urgency of the need for the product can supersede the
economic considerations. The main criteria for material selection are discussed
below:
4.3.1 Cost Of The Material
The amount of raw materials, their composition, quality, any special heat-
treatment that is required, etc. influence the unit cost of materials. The unit cost
generally depends also on the quantity of raw material that is purchased in a
single lot. Special steel materials, for example, cost much more in the market
when purchased in small quantities from a retailer than in bulk directly from the
steel mill/stockyard.
4.3.2 Availability
The material should be readily available in adequate quantities. Material
availability is closely linked with the variety and level of technology obtained in
a given geographic location. Procuring materials from far and wide can be
expensive, due to the additional cost for transport, for transporter taxes and
duties etc.

4.3.3 Manufacturing Process


Facilities for shaping and treating the selected material into the finished
product or component must be available for economic production. Otherwise,
the production cost goes up. For example, the selection of forged alloy steel for
a connecting rod design necessarily assumes that a suitable forging facility is

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available along with the necessary dies and other accessories. If the alloy is of a
rare quality, then facilities for its heat treatment might not be available.
4.3.4 Properties Of The Material
The desired function and performance of any product depends to a great
extent on the use of materials with the right physical and chemical properties. In
general mechanical engineering these properties can be classified into different
categories depending on how a particular property affects the function and life
of a component. The main property groups are:-
Chemical Composition, specifying the contents of all the different
elements contained.
Properties of state, such as solid, liquid or gas, density, porosity,
temperature.
Strength related properties, such as ultimate strengths in tension,
compression and shear, yield strength/ 0.2% strength, fatigue strength,
notch sensitive, hardness, impact strength, effect of high/low
temperatures on strength, etc.
Strain related properties, such as elongation at fracture, elastic moduli,
ductility, malleability etc. these help to ensure the desired rigidity/
elasticity, formability etc.
Wear related properties, that determine the erosion, abrasion, friction
etc.., Between components in contact/ relative motion.

4.4 Selection Of Material


Carbon steel is an alloy of iron and carbon with varying quantities of
phosphorus and sulphur. To this alloy is added a deoxidizer to remove or
minimize the last traces of oxygen. Manganese is added to such an alloy to
neutralize sulphur, either alone are in combination with silicone or other
deoxidizers.

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In carbon steel the maximum content of the following elements does not
exceeding the limits given against each:
Manganese .. 1.65%
Silicone .. 0.60%
Copper .. 0.60%

The elements which are specified and are added into the carbon steel are carbon,
manganese, phosphorus, sulphur and silicon. The effect of these elements in
carbon steel is given below:
CARBON contents are very important in determining the properties of steel.
The tensile strength of steel increases with increase in carbon contents up to
0.83% and beyond this it drops quickly. Hardness increases as the carbon
contents increases. Ductility and weld ability decreases with increase in
carbon contents.
Manganese: Tensile strength and hardness increases with increase in
manganese content weld ability decreases by increase in manganese.
Manganese content in steel varies from 0.2 to 0.8%.
Phosphorus: Tensile strength and hardness increases with increase in
phosphorus content. The phosphorus content in steel varies from 0.005 to
0.12% and maximum content permitted is 0.4%. In low phosphorus steel,
phosphorus steel, phosphorus is dissolved in matrix and in others it appears
as phosphate precipitate.
Sulphur: Sulphur in steel lowers the toughness and transverse ductility,
Sulphur imparts brittleness to chips removed in machining operations. The
maximum permitted contents of sulphur in steel is 0.055%.
Silicon: It is the principal deoxidizer used in the carbon steel Presence of
silicon in steel promotes increase of grain size and deep hardening

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properties. Its addition is very useful in making steel adaptable for case
carburizing. Presence of the silicon varies from 0.1 to 0.35%.
Copper: Though it is not an essential constituent of carbon steel yet it is
added up to 0.25% to increase the resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
The most important composition for carbon used as engineering material having
carbon % 0.02 to 0.30. Their merchantability is quite good. Such steel are used
in making small forging, crank pin, Gear, Valve, Crank shaft, railway axles,
cross head, connecting rods, rims for turbine gears, armature shafts and fish
plates.
4.4.1 Mild Steel
Plain carbon steel in which carbon contents ranges from 0.08 to below 0.3
are known as mild steel. Those mild steel in carbon contents is less than 0.15%
are known as dead mild steel. Mild steel are not such effected by heat treatment
processes, especially hardening process. A decrease in carbon content improves
the ductility of mild steel. These steels possess good machinability and
weldability. These are mainly used for making wires, rivets, nut, bolt, screw,
sheets, plates, tube, roads, shafts, structural steel section and for general
workshop purposes etc.

CHAPTER-5

DESIGN PROCEDURE

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5.1 Design and Product Cycle
All engineering activities necessarily begin with some ideas with high or
low innovative content, translated into definite plans for their realization in the
form of products. This is the essence of design engineering. The ultimate
success depends on a thorough consideration of how the product will be made
and used as well as on the attention to detail paid by the design engineering.
This is applicable equally for a minor redesign of a existing product or for a
most innovative one. A good understanding of how the various phases of the
product cycle can influence the design is therefore Essential. The Product Cycle
can be better understood by fig. 5.1.

5.2 The Challenges Of Design Engineering


The present day industry bases economy is founded on the consumption of
as many different products as possible by as much number of users as possible.
It serves as an engine driving technology. The numbers put manufacturing under
pressure; the numbers as well as the variety put greater pressure on design
engineering. This is manifested by
Short time available for design, development and testing of the product
before it reaches the user.
Demands from the users for affordable cost combined with high quality of
performance and appearance.
Increasing number of competition who can supply a product of equivalent

value. On one side, the scientific cooperation and exchange of information


have become international. On the other side, industrial activities and
communications network have become globalized. Given the present day
ease of access to technology, major break through in product innovation and
design are not really essential for industries to produce and prosper.

Market/Needs Potential & Aims of


Tasks Organization

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Product-Planning/
Definition of Task

Development/Design

Manufacture/Assembl
y/Testing

Marketing/Application
Engineering, Sales

Use/Consumption/
Maintenance

Waste Products/
Obsolete Products

Fig. 5.1 Life Cycle of a Product

5.3 Qualities Of A Good Design


A good product design should satisfy the expectations of the customer/user.
These can be summarized in the following conditions. The product must

Carry out the desired functions reliably.


Appeal both technologically and psychologically.

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Be economical to acquire and to use.
Be easy and safe to use.
Be easy to maintain in working order.
In order to ensure the conditions, not only must the design concept be novel and
sound but the design must be well engineered. This engineering part of design
consists of
Drawing up the main parameters for function and performance.
Deciding the material, shape and dimensions of the components.
Ensuring that the component dimensions satisfy the functional and strength
requirement.
Ensuring the feasibility to manufacture or otherwise procure all the
necessary components, assemble them together and test them.
Preparing the component and assembly drawing for guiding manufacture and
inspection.
5.4 Introduction To Design
Spanners are used to open the wheel. Spanners in the use are of various
types. The different kinds of spanners in use are shown in figure One thing is
very common for all these spanners: only a single nut is opened in a single time.
This causes wastage of precious time and since to open all the nuts spanner is to
engaged and disengaged again and again till the last nut is unscrewed or
screwed. Thus in this work a large amount of power is required to perform the
requisite operation belowFig.5.2

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Four way wheel Spanner Telescopic spanner

Angular Spanner Box Spanner


Fig.5.2 Types of Spanner

Fig.5.3Multi nut remover

These disadvantages are removed in multi nut remover. The idea is to


reduce time when release the wheel or put it on. By using this device, wheel
nuts can be opened simultaneously at one time. The supposed design of the

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unified wheel opener is shown below. On pictures, we can see handle,
casing/gears housing, and wheel nut connectors. Wheel nut connectors are
connected to wheel nut, and the number of connector depends on the number of
studs. So it will be different according to wheel type and size. Inside the Casing,
there are simple gears mechanisms, causing one rotation of The Handle to make
two rotations of the wheel nuts.

5.5 Designing
Abbreviations Used:
m Module
M bending moment
DP Pitch circle diameter of pinion
DG Pitch circle diameter of gear
Dg Diameter of gear shaft
WT Tangential load
WR Resultant load
YP Lewis form factor
Allowable stress
T Twisting moment
Te Equivalent twisting moment
Tp Number of teeth on pinion
Tg Number of teeth on gear
Table no 5.1. Designing
5.6 Design Procedure For Gear & Pinion:
Torque required for one nut = 70N.m
Total torque required = 470N.m
= 280N.m
Let input torque =30N.m

Maximum Tangential force on pinion (WT) =2Ti/DP


=2301000/18
=1333.3N
For 200 stub teeth system,

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Lewis Factor for pinion,
Yp = 0.175-(0.841m/18) = 0.175-(0.047m)

For EN8 Mild Steel = 750MPa


We know that, Assume
Module, (m) =2.7mm
Now, as we know
Number of teeth on pinion (Tp) = Dp/m
Also, Number of teeth on gear (Tg) =Dg/m
Therefore,
Tp = 50/2.7 = 18
Tg = 60/2.7 = 22

Other dimensions for pinion &gear are as:


Addendum =0.943m=2.546
Dedendum =1.257m=3.393
Minimum total depth = 2.200m = 5.94
Minimum clearance =0.314m=0.848
Backlash = 0.157m = 0.424
Thickness of tooth = 1.493m =4.031
Outside diameter of pinion = (Tp+2 )m =54
Outside diameter of gear = (Tg+2) m = 64.8

5.7 Design For Pinion Shaft


Normal load acting on pinions tooth, (Wn) = WT/ Cos = 1333.3/cos200
=1418.86N
Weight of pinion (Wp) = 0.00118Tpbm2 = 2.55N
Therefore, resultant load on pinion (WR) =
20
= (Wn2+Wp2+2WnWpCos)0.5
= 1421.19N
Assuming pinion is overhung on shaft at 600 mm
Bending moment on shaft due to WR is M
M = WR60 = 1421.19N 60
= 85271.8N.mm
And twisting moment on shaft due to WT is T
T = WTDp/2 =66665N.mm
Equivalent twisting moment is Te = (M2+T2)0.5 = 108237.9N.mm
Let dp be the diameter of pinion shaft
dp = Dp3 =3.7410^-550^3
=14.7or 15mm (say)

5.8 Design For Compound Shaft


Normal load acting on pinion tooth, (Wn) = WT/Cos =1333.3/Cos200
=1418.86N
Weight of pinion WP=0.00118Tgbm2 = 6.96N
Therefore, resultant load on pinion,
WR = (Wn2+Wp2+2WnWpCos)0.5
WR = 1425.4N
Assuming pinion is overhung on shaft at 30mm
Therefore bending moment on shaft due to WR is
(M)=WR30=1425.430
= 42762.06N.mm
And twisting moment on shaft due to Wt is T
T = WTDg/2 = 1333.360/2
=40000N.mm
Equivalent twisting moment is Te

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Te = (M2+T2)0.5
= 58554.2N.mm
Let dg = Diameter of gear shaft.
As, Te = dg3/16
58554.2 = 110dg3/16
So, dg =13.9mm or 14mm (say)

5.9 Design For Output Shaft


Max. Tangential force on output gear,
WT = (WTDg/Dp)
= 1600.05N
Normal load acting on tooth,
Wn = WT/Cos
=1600.05/Cos200
=1702.73N
Weight of gear,
WP =0.00118Tgbm2
=0.001182213.52.72
=2.6N
Therefore resultant load on gear,
WR = (Wn2+Wp2+2WnWpCos )0.5
= 1705.17N
Assuming gear is overhung on shaft at 5mm
Therefore bending moment on shaft due to WR is M
M = WR5 = 1705.175
= 8525.86N.mm
And twisting moment on shaft due to WT is T
T = WTDG/2 = 1600.0560/2
= 48001.5N.mm

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And equivalent twisting moment is Te,
Te = (M2+T2)1/2
= 48752.8N.mm
Let dG = Diameter of gear shaft,
Let Te = (/16)dG3
48752.8 = (/16)230dG3
So, dG = 36.5 mm or 37 mm(say)
All the component are designed to serve their functions properly and
taking into account the various consideration such as material, labour,
availability of technology, economic, safety, usage, reliability, maintainability,
functionality etc. These components will be manufactured according to their
design specifications.

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CHAPTER-6

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

6.1. FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTATION:


Assembly as shown in fig. it consists of four gear and central pinion for
input. Pinion is a driving member. These gears are mounted on base plate by
using nut and bolt arrangement. The tool is made of medium carbon steel. A
spanner holder is directly attached with the driven gears. Grease is used to
reduce wear, tear and heat of friction from mating gears. Once the tool is
assembled, a layer of paint is applied to finish the surface and protect from
corrosion.

6.1 Component of assembly


6.1.1. Gears:
In fig.6.1.shows the EN8 Mild steel sun and planetary gear.

Fig.6.1 Gears

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6.1.2. Base plate or rod:
In fig 6.2 shows the mild steel Base plate or rod

Fig.6.2. Base plate or rod


6.1.3 Spanner Box:
In fig 6.3 shows the Spanner Box of 19mm Hexagonal Box.

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Fig.6.3. Spanner Box

6.1.4 Central shaft with Spanner Box:


In fig.6.4 shows the Central shaft with spanner box .

Fig.6.4. Central shaft with spanner box

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CHAPTER-7
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
7.1 Gears
The commonly used generating processes used for the generation of gear teeth
are:-
1. Gear Shaper Process
2. Rack Planning Process
3. Hobbing Process.

7.1.1 Gear Shaper Process


In this process a pinion shaped cutter is used which carries clearance on
the tooth face and sides. It carries a hole in the center for mounting on the stub
arbor or spindle of the machine. The cutter is mounted with the axis vertical and
is reciprocated up and down by sliding the spindle head along the vertical ways
on the machine. In addition to the reciprocating motion, the cutter and the gear

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blank both are rotated slowly their own axis. The relative speed of rotation of
the two is the same as the gear to be cut will have with a pinion of the same
number of teeth as the cutter. It is accomplished by providing a gear train
between the cutter spindle and the work spindle. The cutter in its rotation
generates the tooth profile on the gear blank. All gears cut by the same cutter
will mesh correctly. This is a specific advantage of this process over the forming
process using rotary cutters. Also it is a much faster process than rotary cutting.
7.1.2 Gear Planning
In this process rack type cutters for generating of spur. Involutes rack has
straight edges and sharp corners and hence can be manufactured easily and
accurately. The cutters generate as they are cut and as the name implies, the
machine cuts the teeth by reciprocating planning action of the cutter. This is a
true generating process since it utilizes the principle that an involute curve can
be formed by a straight generator when a gear blank is made to roll without slip
relative to the generator.
7.1.3 Gear Hobbing
In this process, the gear blank is rolled with a rotating cutter called the
HOB. A majority of the involue gears are produced by this method. A gear hob
looks like a worm, but carries a number of straight flutes (gashes), cut all
around, parallel to its axis. This results in the production of separate cutting
teeth and cutting edges. In operation, the hob is rotated at as suitable speed and
fed into the gear blank. The blank also rotates simultaneously. The speeds of the
two are so synchronizes that the blank rotates through one pitch distance for
each complete revolution of the hob. There is no intermittent motion of the two
and the generating continues steadily. The hob teeth are just like screw threads,
i.e. having a definite helix angle. The hob is, therefore tilted to its own helix
angle while cutting the gear so that its teeth are square with the blank and
produces a true involute shape.
7.1.4 Gear Milling

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Milling is one of the metal removal process best known for making gear.
Here a firm cutter is passed through the gear blank to affect the tooth gap,
helical gear, worm & worm wheel and bevel gear can be manufactured by
milling.
Gear milling is less costly and less accurate process and it is employed for the
following:-
Coarse pitch gear
Racks of all pitches
Worms
Toothed parts as sprockets and ratchets.
The production capacity in this method is low since each space is machined
separately and the time is lost in retuning the job to its initial position and in
indexing for each tooth. In actual practice a series of cutters are selected for a
number of teeth to be milled.

Out of all above processes we select the Gear Shaping for the manufacturing of
all the gears. The various reasons for selection of this process are as following:-
1. This process of making gears is cheaper than hob cutter.
2. Gear shaping machines are easily available.
3. All gears can be made of same pitch by same cutter.
7.2 Axles
In the manufacturing of the axles following operations are used:-
Turning
Facing
Grinding
Grooving
Drilling
Parting Off

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Assembly
7.2.1 Turning
It may be defined as the machining the operation for generating external
surfaces of the revolution by the action of the cutting tool on a rotating work
piece. When the same action is applied to internal surfaces of the revolution, the
process is termed as boring.
7.2.2 Facing
Facing operation machines the ends of the work piece. It provides a
surface which is square with the axis of the work piece from which to start the
job. Facing is done by feeding the cross slide or compound in or out. In facing
the cutting tool moves from the center of the job towards its periphery and vice
versa. Facing is primarily used to smooth off a saw- cut end of a piece of bar
stock or to smooth the face of rough casting.
7.2.3 Grinding
It is carried out while the work is rotating on the lathe. Filling is often
restored to when
Only a very small amount of stock is to be removed from a diameter.
For removing sharp corner on the work piece.
Filling is a hand operation. A clean, sharp, single cut mill file of 200 or 250 mm
length is held in the hand and the file flat is placed on the work near the left end
of the part to be filled. The file is held at a slight angle and not at right angles to
the work piece. For carrying out of the filling operation, the file is pressed
lightly on to the work piece and moved forward so that the work piece rotates
by 2 or 3 revolutions during the forward or cutting stroke of the file. Pressure on
the file is relieved during its return strokes but its movement overlaps the cut
made by the file during the cutting stroke. Generally long strokes are taken and
the file is cleaned frequently with the file card.
7.2.4 Grooving

30
Work pieces on which threads are to be cut close to a shoulder are usually
undercut or grooved to make threads cutting somewhat easier. Diameters which
are to be ground up to a shoulder are usually undercut so that the grinding wheel
will not leave a small radius in the corner. Grooving operation reduces the
diameter of the work piece at a narrow surface near the shoulder etc. The
grooving tool is fed into the revolving work piece at right angle to it using
cross-slide hand wheel.
7.2.5 Drilling
Drilling is the process of making holes in a work piece. Either the work
piece rotate or drill is stationary or vice-versa. When drilling on the lathe is
being done, generally the work piece rotates in the chuck and the drill held in
the tail stock is fed into the work piece by means of the hand wheel on the outer
end of the tail-stock assembly. It is possible to do drill by holding and rotating
the drill in the lathe spindle while keeping the work stationary, supported by a
special pad mounted in tail-stock quill. Since drill feed is by hand, care must be
taken, particularly in drilling small holes. Coolant should be withdrawn
occasionally to clear chips from the hole and to aid in getting coolant to cutting
edges of the drill.
7.2.6 Parting Off
Parting off operation separates the finished work piece from the bar from
which the work piece was machines. Partings off tools are ground to cut on the
end only as they are fed into the work piece. Since the tool is comparatively thin
and delicate and care must be taken when feeding it into the work otherwise it
may break. The finished work piece should be such that it is parted as close to
the head stock as possible.
7.3 ASSEMBLY
Bearing seats are assembled on base plates with the help of nuts. Bearings
are fitted in their respective seats. Bushes are also fitted at their respective
positions. Studs are tightened at their positions on lower base plate. Now output

31
shaft is fitted in bearing on lower base plate. Compound shaft is fitted in such a
way so that pinion of compound shaft correctly meshes with output shafts gear.
Adjustments are made with the help of shim and packing. Now input shaft is
fitted on upper pinion gear. Pinion is fitted on input by lock pin. Sprockets are
welded on their shafts. Now these shafts are assembled on lower base plate with
the help of circlips. Clearance is adjusted by the help of shim. Upper base plate
containing input shaft is fitted on the lower base plate. Center distance between
the two base plates is adjusted with the help of lock nuts at all the corners.
Sprocket is assembled on output shaft with the help of key. Roller chain is
mounted on all the four sprockets and chain is locked by chain lock.

7.4 MATERIAL PURCHASE


Rust of the part of Multi nut remover are purchased from market,which
constitutes the different material of different parts according to our requirement.
All these parts are purchased by suggesting with mechanic. Material purchased
are Base plate, key, sleeve, Anchor nuts, Handle.

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CHAPTER-8

FUTURE WORK

8.1 Future Work:


As the time period in a semester is limited therefore we have only studied
all the facts about the Multi nut remover such as material required, designing of
each component, selection of manufacturing process, cost consideration,
reliability etc. and in the next semester based on this critical data. The
fabrication of the Multi nut remover will be carried out. The different
component of Multi nut remover will be manufactured and checked for
suitability, and then this component will be assembled to make the tool Multi
nut remover. Then it will be installed and its working will be checked.

33
S.No. DESCRIPTION COST

1. SPANNER BOX 400

2. SHAFTS(Guide) 1000

3. SUN GEAR 500

4. PLANETARY GEAR 2000

5. BASE ROD 700

6. BOLTS AND SLEEVES 600

7. WELDING 200

TOTAL 5400
CHAPTER-9

COST ESTIMATION
9.1 COST ESTIMATION:

Table No. 9.1.Cost Estimation

34
CHAPTER-10

PHOTOGRAPHY

Fig.10.1.Front view

Fig.10.2.Bottom view

CHAPTER-11
35
CONCLUSION
In this research, the design and fabrication of multi nut remover is
proposed. The static load analysis is performed. The fabrication of multi nut
remover is completed by milling, welding and fitting processes. The multi nut
remover is successfully manufactured and fully functional either tested
manually using lever or by using impact wrench. From the results of analyses
and experiments, the tool is possible to be improved and prototyped for mass
production. For future development and improvement of the multi nut remover,
light and strong material is expected to be available and applied.

REFERENCES

36
Different tools, Source: http://www.williamtool.com.
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Gordon R. Pennock and Jeremiah J. Alwerdt, Duality between the
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Ligang Yao Jian S. Dai Guowu and Yingjie, Meshing characteristics of
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Nuts and bolts standard, Source: http://www.nutsandboltsstandings.com.
PSG design data book, Second edition-1999
Shigley.J.E and Mischke C.R. - Mechanical Engineering Design-2008
Stefan Staicu, Inverse dynamics of a planetary gear train for robotics,
Research gate journal, Volume 47, page 728-767
Tadashi takeuchi and Kazuhidetogai, Meshing transmission
error,Scribd, digital document library,Source:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/GearWhine-Prediction-With-CAE-for-AAM
V.B.B. Bhandari, Design of machine elements, Second edition-1994
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gear trains, Science direct journal, Volume 24, page 513-525.

37