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Amin, Mohamed, and Zaid Tariq. Securing the Car: How Intrusive Manufacturer-Supplier

Approaches Can Reduce Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities. Technology Innovation

Management Review, Jan. 2015.

In this journal by Mohamed Amin and Zaid Tariq, the two researchers stated where any

vulnerabilities may lie within a cars different technological and communication systems.

They discussed where the vulnerabilities originate, which according to them is at the

point where the varying modules and the car connect, which they called the glue code.

The two researchers also referenced other research that I was informed about by Miller

and Vasalek, and used them as one of the reasons for conducting their research. Possible

solutions to solve the cyber-security issues within cars were also mentioned within the

journal. By citing other researchers while also conducting their own, Amin and Tariq

established a strong level of credibility with reviewers of their research, as well as anyone

else who may read their journal. This advances my research because for one, it reaffirms

the urgency of the problem by mentioning researchers I am familiar with. Another reason

it advances my research is because it provides me more information about how the car

and its systems connect, and how all the systems are manufactured.

Fagnant, Daniel J., and Kara Kockelman. Preparing a Nation for Autonomous Vehicles:

Opportunities, Barriers and Policy Recommendations. Transportation Research Part A:

Policy and Practice, vol. 77, July 2013, pp. 1415.

David Fagnant and his partner Kara Kockelman discussed the bigger issues involving
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connected vehicles. They brought to light how malicious hackers, or even terrorist

organizations, can plan and execute a hack on not only one autonomous or connected

vehicle, but possibly a fleet of vehicles. The differences between sabotage and espionage

were also mentioned in this journal. Fagnant and Kockelman stated that any hacks into a

cars computer or mission-critical systems in the near future would most likely be to

gather and steal information, rather than to cause harm to an individual or group of

people. This academic journal is consistent with the two articles I cited as my exigency

because it provides a strong background of knowledge about how hacking has the

possibility to be malicious and how it presents dangers to drivers. This journal contributes

a strong base of information for the rest of my research, because it explains in detail how

connected and autonomous vehicles would function individually and together, and the

threats that their connectivity poses to their drivers and those around them.

Greenberg, Andy. Hackers Remotely Kill a Jeep on the Highway-With Me in It. Wired, Conde

Nast, 21 July 2015,

This article discusses how researchers have completed tests of controlled hacking of

modern automobiles. Two researchers, Miller and Valasek, conducted a remote hack of a

Jeep Cherokee, and were able to control basic functions such as the ventilation and radio,

as well as more mission-critical operations such as braking and throttle response while

the driver was on an interstate. The researchers then published their research in order to

inform the consumer market, as well as to educate car manufacturers of the possible

flaws within their systems. While this article was found on a blog, it discusses multiple

instances in which these two researchers have conducted research about the hacking of

connected vehicles, which provided reassurance to the reader that the information being
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disclosed was credible. This article by Andy Greenberg contributes nicely to my research

because it, along with the article by Danielle Muoio, provide a reasonable urgency to

discuss the problem of hacking connected vehicles.

Koscher, Karl, et al. Experimental Security Analysis of a Modern Automobile. 2010 IEEE

Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2010.

Koscher and his research team stated in their journal that a malicious hacker has the

ability to not only take control of a cars systems in that moment, but they also have the

ability to embed malicious codes that have the potential to erase that car from the

information grid after a car accident. Koscher and his team provided more credible

information that they learned through research into the different functionality aspects of a

generic vehicles computer systems, as well as the possibility of malicious modifications

to programming that could be made by hackers. By using this article, more credible

information was gained about the functionality and weaknesses that lie within a cars

electronic control unit.

Mahmassani, Hani S. "50th Anniversary Invited Articleautonomous Vehicles and Connected

Vehicle Systems: Flow and Operations Considerations." Transportation Science, vol. 50,

no. 4, 2016, pp. 1140-1162,

Mahmassani introduces his readers to the basic information about autonomous and

connected vehicles, as well as the benefits they offer. A major point discussed in his

journal was the different levels of autonomy, which range from 0 - which is a car

controlled completely by a driver - to 4 which is a fully autonomous vehicle. The other

major point of the article was vehicle-to-vehicle communication as well as vehicle-to-

infrastructure communication. These two different types of communication have the

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potential to improve a cities infrastructure by improving safety, enhancing mobility, and

increasing efficiency. This is a peer-reviewed journal article, which makes the authors

and the information within the journal credible. This journal contributes the strongest

background knowledge about connected and autonomous vehicles, which in turn has

made it easier to understand and interpret more complex details about my topic.

Muoio, Danielle. Self-Driving cars are prone to hacks - and automakers are barely talking about

it. Business Insider, 15 Dec. 2016.

This article brings to the foreground how easy it can be to diminish a modern cars ability

to function properly by explaining an experiment done by Johnathan Petit. Petit stumped

an autonomous vehicles camera and sensor systems by using a cheap laser pointer and a

set of LED lights. In another experiment, Petit also exploited vehicles communications

with one another, known as V2V communication, and was able to track the location of

these vehicles. By providing this article, credible information that was derived from a

researchers experimentation of autonomous vehicles has been contributed to provide one

example of exigency to fix the issue at hand. Through Petits research, consumers now

have the ability to educate themselves about the possible dangers of connected vehicles.

Muoios article contributes to my thesis because it, as well as the article by Andy

Greenberg, offers a reason to continue with my research.

Petit, Jonathan, and Steven E. Shladover. Potential Cyberattacks on Automated Vehicles. IEEE

Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Sept. 2014, pp. 111.

In this journal by Petit and Shladover, the two researchers discuss the different types of

attackers in detail. The types ranged from intentional hacks and unintentional hacks to
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malicious attacks and rational hacks. The researchers also mentioned data they collected

which was reported in a news article, as reported by Danielle Muoio (see above). Petit

and Shladover established credibility in this journal by citing credible data from previous

research. The news reports which I have read about Petits research also reaffirmed that

fact that the data contained within the journal was correct and credible. This advances my

research because it provides information about the many different types of cybersecurity

threats that may arise in a connected or autonomous vehicle. This journal also discusses

Petits research discussed by Danielle Muoio of Business Insider in greater detail.

Studnia, Ivan, et al. Survey on Security Threats and Protection Mechanisms in Embedded

Automotive Networks. 2013 43rd Annual IEEE/IFIP Conference on Dependable

Systems and Networks Workshop (DSN-W), 2013.

In this journal by Ivan Studnia and his team of researchers, the different types of

automotive networks are discussed in detail. These types of network range from multi-

media oriented networks, to basic networks such as Ethernet. The researchers also

discussed the different types of electrical connections within a car, such as OBD ports

and Bluetooth connectivity and how they can be compromised by attackers. This journal

was credible because they cited other research that was included within their published

journal. This advances my research because it gives me a greater understanding of the

different networks within automobiles and how they are able to be compromised.