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FORCE AND PRESSURE

• FORCE
Definition
• It is defined as a push or a pull on a body, whenever two bodies come in contact with
each other.
• No force exists when two bodies are not in contact.

• Effects of force
• Change the state of motion and rest.
 If applied force acts on the direction of motion, the speed of the body will increase
 If the direction of force on the body is opposite to the direction of motion, the speed will
decrease.
 If the force acts at an angle to the direction of motion, it can change the speed as well as
direction of motion.
• Change the direction of motion of a moving object
• Change the shape and size of the object

• Law of Inertia

An object continues to be in motion with the same speed and in same direction unless acted upon by an
unbalanced force. This resistance to any change in the state is called INERTIA

• Factors on which the magnitude of force depends


• Mass of the body
• Speed of the moving body

FORCE BOTH HAS A MAGNITUDE (value) AND DIRECTION

⇒ UNIT OF FORCE = NEWTON


⇒ DEVICE FOR MEASURING THE FORCE ACTING ON THE BODY= SPRING BALANCE

RESULTANT FORCE

Sometimes the body may be acted simultaneously by number of forces, to produce some effect. All these
forces can be replaced by single force to produce the same effect called RESULTANT FORCE.

Resultant Force F = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4
RESULTANT FORCE F

NET OR THE RESULTANT FORCE BRINGS ABOUT CHANGE IN THE SPEED, DIRECTION AND
STATE OF THE BODY.
• BALANCED FORCES AND UNBALANCED FORCES

When two forces acting on an object are equal in size but act in opposite directions, we say that
they are balanced forces.
F1= F2

F1

F2

If the forces on an object are balanced (or if there are no NET FORCE = F1-F2= ZERO
forces acting on it) this is what happens:

• an object that is not moving stays still


• an object that is moving continues to move at the same speed and in the same direction .
• Cause a change in the shape or size of the object. Eg SAME FORCE APPLIED TO A BALLON FROM
BOTH THE SIDES, CHANGE THE SHAPE OF IT, BUT NET FORCE IS ZERO.

When two forces acting on an object are not equal in size, we say that they are unbalanced
forces.
a) If two forces act in the opposite direction then,
F1>F2 NET FORCE = F2 – F1
F2> F1 NET FORCE = F1- F2
b) If two forces acts in the same direction then ,
Net force = F1+ F2

NET FORCE = 100N – 60 N= 40 N


If the forces on an object are unbalanced this is what happens:

• an object that is not moving starts to move IN THE DIRECTION OF THE LARGER FORCE
• an object that is moving changes speed or direction .

TYPES OF FORCES
• CONTACT FORCES
• NON CONTACT FORCES

Forces which result when two interacting bodies are in direct contact with each other are called CONTACT
FORCES.

• Muscular Force
• Frictional force

Forces which result even when two interacting bodies are not in direct physical contact with each other
are called non contact forces.

• Graviational force
• Magnetic force
• Electrostatic force

Test yourself

Q Name one contact force and one action at a distance force


Q what is the standard unit of force
Q What effect of force is demonstrated when the balloon is pressed between two hands?
Q Which force acts from a distance and pulls an object of iron?
Q Differentiate between balanced and unbalanced force.

PRESSURE
PRESSURE IS DEFINED AS THE FORCE (F) ACTING PER UNIT AREA (A)

P=F/A

When the force acting on the surface is perpendicular, it is called THRUST

Therefore Pressure = thrust / Area

We therefore conclude,
• Smaller is the area , higher is the pressure acting on the body
• Larger is the area , lesser is the pressure
• Pressure increases, with increase in force.

Applications of pressure( Reasoning Questions)

• Tanks are fitted with caterpillar tracks rather than wheels.


Caterpillar tracks provide wide surface area, which reduces the pressure on the ground and the tanks can
easily cross the muddy roads, without sinking

• Rear wheels of a heavy truck are four tyred


The broad tyres reduce the pressure on the ground, (as area is inversely proportional to pressure), so that they
can easily move.

• School bags uses broad straps than the thin ones.


As area is inversely proportional to pressure, hence the broad straps reduces the pressure on the shoulders and
its easy to carry the load

Test yourself
Q High rise buildings and dams have wide foundations. Why?
Q It is easier to cut with sharp knife than with the blunt one. Why?
Q Nails and pins are made pointed. Why?
Q Camels can walk easily through sand. Why?
Since camels have broad feet, hence the pressure exerted by the body on the ground decreases , as area of
contact of feet with the ground is large. So it walks easily.

SI Unit of pressure - PASCAL or Newton/ (meter)2 1Pa = 1N/ m2


LIQUID PRESSURE

The pressure exerted by the stationary liquid kept in a container at any point inside in a liquid is called
hydrostatic or liquid pressure.

Characteristics (properties)of liquid pressure

• Pressure at a point in a liquid depends on its depth


• Pressure of a liquid is the same in all the directions at the same
depth.
• Pressure of a liquid does not depend upon the shape and size of the
container.
• Pascal Law : Pressure applied to a liquid is transmitted equally in all the directions.
• Does not depend on the area of the bottom of the surface in contact, acts perpendicular to the surface.
• Depends on the density of the liquid and height of the liquid column.
• Exerts equal pressure on all the walls of the container at the same height.

Try yourself
Q what is the unit of force?
Q why do sea divers need special swim suit?
Q where is the pressure due to water higher in a dam- near its base or near its top?
Q state Pascal’s law
Atmospheric pressure

• Definition
The pressure exerted by the air t any point on the earth is called atmospheric pressure.

• Factors on which atmospheric pressure depends;

• Altitude : atmospheric pressure decreases with increase in height


Eg Atmospheric pressure is low in nanital than in Delhi
• Temperature: Atmospheric pressure decreases with increase in temperature
.
Eg land breeze, sea breeze, storms, monsoon are cause due to change in atmospheric pressure.
Due to uneven heating of earth surface, warm air being lighter rises up creating a low pressure area
and cold air from high pressure regions rushes to takes it place, thus causing winds to blow.

• BAROMETER : instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure at a given place.

Applications of atmospheric pressure

• Drinking of liquid with a straw.


Due to sucking the air pressure inside the straw decreases, causing the outside pressure acting on the surface
to increase. This forces the liquid to rise.
• Use of syringe
Same reason as above.
• Rubber suckers used as hooks on walls.
A very fine this layer gets trapped between the sucker and the wall. Thus outside air pressure increases and
holds it firmly against the wall.
• Formation of sea breeze and land breeze.
• Bleeding of nose at high altitudes.
• Mountaineers carry oxygen cylinder at high altitude
• Aircrafts have pressurized cabins.
Try yourself
Q what is atmospheric pressure due to?
Q When you drink a soft drink with the help of the straw pipe, what forces the liquid up the straw.
Q A barometer will show a lower reading when taken to a mountain. Give reason.
Q why do mountaineers suffer from nose bleeding at higher altitudes?
Q When the force applied on an object is doubled, how does the pressure exerted on the object change?
Q how does the pressure due to a liquid held in a container vary with:
a) depth b) amount c) shape and size of the container

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MIND MAP FOR PRESSURE