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Chapter 13: Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What is the long-term recovery outcome for schizophrenic patients?


a. Recovery is possible only if the person stays on medication.
b. Recovery is possible only if the patient receives psychotherapy.
c. About 50 percent of persons diagnosed with the disorder eventually recover.
d. Complete recovery from schizophrenia is rare.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 477
OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

2. According to statistics in your text, what is the prevalence of schizophrenia?


a. approximately 1 out of every 100 people
b. approximately 1 out of every 200 people
c. approximately 1 out of every 400 people
d. approximately 1 out of every 800 people
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 477
OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

3. Toward the end of the 19th century, the German psychiatrist Emil Kraeplin used a term to refer to an
onset of symptoms that often occurs before adulthood, and what we now call schizophrenia. What was
that term?
a. folie deux
b. dementia praecox
c. adolescent insanity
d. hebephrenia
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 477
OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

4. Modern conceptualizations of schizophrenia have been largely shaped by each of the following
persons EXCEPT which one?
a. Kraepelin
b. Lehmann
c. Bleuler
d. Schneider
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 477
OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

5. Who first used the term "dementia praecox"?


a. Bleuler
b. Schneider
c. Lehmann
d. Kraepelin
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 477
OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


6. The term dementia praecox was renamed "schizophrenia" by which of the following?
a. Lehmann
b. Bleuler
c. Schneider
d. Kraepelin
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 477
OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

7. In 1908, Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler introduced the term schizophrenia, which comes from the
combination of the Greek words for split and mind. What does the term refer to?
a. an associative splitting of the basic functions of personality
b. a malfunction of the left and right hemispheres of the brain
c. a splitting of one personality into several distinct personalities
d. a dualistic view of the mind, as consisting of both body and soul
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 477
OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Higher Order

8. Who introduced the term schizophrenia in 1908?


a. Emil Kraepelin
b. Heinz Lehmann
c. Phillipe Pinel
d. Eugen Bleuler
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 477
OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

9. Eugen Bleulers concept of schizophrenia as an associative splitting of the basic functions of


personality led to the incorrect use of the term to mean which of the following?
a. manic-depressive disorder
b. multiple personality
c. a fugue state
d. folie deux
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 478
OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

10. Psychotic defined in the strictest sense, is which of the following?


a. disorder of thought
b. disorganized speech and disorganized behaviour
c. paranoia
d. hallucinations and delusions
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


11. Veronica is hospitalized after a suicide attempt. In the hospital, she spends all of her time drawing
sketches of monsters that she calls "hells keepers." She claims that these "hells keepers" talk to her
and ordered her to plan her suicide. She talks to invisible people in her room. What is Veronicas most
likely suffering from?
a. dissociative identity disorder
b. paranoid personality disorder
c. schizophrenia
d. schizoid personality disorder
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

12. Which of the following best characterizes an individual who is diagnosed as psychotic?
a. The person has delusions.
b. The person has hallucinations and delusions.
c. The person has hallucinations.
d. The person has hallucinations and delusions but in a less serious form than in the
diagnosis of schizophrenia.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

13. Janet has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. What is the likelihood Janet will have delusions and
hallucinations?
a. between 5 percent and 20 percent
b. between 30 percent and 40 percent
c. between 50 percent and 70 percent
d. between 80 percent and 90 percent
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Remember

14. In working with schizophrenic patients, mental health professionals typically distinguish between two
types of symptomsan excess or distortion of normal behaviour and deficits in normal behaviour.
What are these symptoms called, respectively?
a. dysmorphic and dysfunctional symptoms
b. acute and passive symptoms
c. manic and depressive symptoms
d. positive and negative symptoms
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

15. Which of the following is an example of a persecutory delusion?


a. the belief that people are out to get you
b. the belief that a body part has changed in some impossible way
c. the belief that a familiar person is actually a double
d. the belief that you are a famous or important person
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


16. Wayne believes that people are spying on him. He claims that the RCMP has put a microphone in his
dog's stomach so that they can listen to his private conversations. What kind of delusions do Waynes
beliefs illustrate?
a. delusions of being controlled
b. delusions of reference
c. delusions of persecution
d. delusions of grandeur
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

17. Leo believes he is Jesus Christ. He is convinced he has returned to pass judgment on the world and
offer salvation to true Christians. Despite a complete lack of evidence to support his beliefs, he
remains convinced that he is Christ and that he is all-powerful. What kind of delusions do Leos
beliefs illustrate?
a. delusions of being controlled
b. delusions of reference
c. delusions of grandeur
d. delusions of persecution
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

18. Martin believes that he was sent to earth to save humankind. He says that he regularly hears the voice
of God describing his mission. His appearance is dishevelled and he often speaks incoherently. He has
experienced these symptoms for the past seven months. Based on this information, what disorder does
Martin most likely have?
a. delusional disorder
b. schizophrenia
c. brief psychotic disorder
d. schizophreniform disorder
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

19. Abby has schizophrenia and announces that the Pope has given her secret instructions and she plans to
end world poverty and homelessness. What kind of delusions does Abbys thinking illustrate?
a. delusions of grandeur
b. delusions of reference
c. delusions of thought insertion
d. delusions of persecution
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 479
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

20. What is Cotards syndrome?


a. the belief that people are out to get you
b. the belief that a body part has changed in some impossible way
c. the belief that you are a famous or important person
d. the belief that a familiar person is actually a double
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 480
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


21. Which of the following is one possible explanation why schizophrenic delusions persist in the face of
contradictory information?
a. The individual cannot recognize the difference between the voices in his or her head and
voices of other people who are providing the information.
b. New information is not being properly integrated.
c. The ventricles are enlarged.
d. One of the symptoms of schizophrenia is perseverative thinking.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 480
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

22. Which of the following is one reason why schizophrenic delusions persist in the face of contradictory
information?
a. One of the symptoms of schizophrenia is perseverative thinking.
b. The ventricles are enlarged.
c. The delusions may provide him or her with a sense of purpose and meaning in life.
d. The individual cannot recognize the difference between the voices in his or her head and
voices of other people who are providing the information.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 481
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

23. Roberts (1991) studied 17 people who had elaborate delusions about themselves and the world, and
compared them with a matched group of people who previously had delusions but were now
improving. Compared to those who previously suffered delusions, what did Roberts discover about
people with current delusions?
a. Those with current delusions expressed a lack of purpose and meaning in life and greater
depression.
b. Those with current delusions were more motivated to undergo therapy.
c. Those with current delusions expressed a stronger sense of purpose and meaning in life
and less depression.
d. Those with current delusions were functioning at a higher level in their everyday life.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 481
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Remember

24. What is the most common type of hallucination experienced by psychotic individuals?
a. tactile hallucinations
b. olfactory hallucinations
c. auditory hallucinations
d. visual hallucinations
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 482
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Remember

25. James has schizophrenia. His parents can always tell when he is hallucinating. Consistent with
research, James sits there and smiles as if he is listening to someone next to him. What he is usually
doing while hallucinating?
a. talking
b. just waking up in the morning
c. nothing
d. watching television
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 482
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


26. A woman with schizophrenia has a vision of St. Paul hovering in midair at the foot of her bed. What is
this vision is an example of?
a. an apparition
b. a hallucination
c. an avolition
d. a delusion
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 482
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

27. What is the negative symptom of schizophrenia known as avolition?


a. an inability to initiate and persist in activities
b. a lack of speech content and/or slowed speech response
c. a lack of emotional response and a blank facial expression
d. an inability to experience pleasure
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 482
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Remember

28. What is the negative symptom of schizophrenia known as alogia?


a. an inability to experience pleasure
b. an inability to initiate and persist in activities
c. a lack of speech content and/or slowed speech response
d. a lack of emotional response and a blank facial expression
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 483
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Remember

29. What is the negative symptom of schizophrenia known as anhedonia?


a. a lack of emotional response and a blank facial expression
b. a lack of speech content and/or slowed speech response
c. an inability to initiate and persist in activities
d. an inability to experience pleasure
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 483
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Remember

30. What is the negative symptom of schizophrenia known as flat affect?


a. an inability to initiate and persist in activities
b. a lack of emotional response and a blank facial expression
c. an inability to experience pleasure
d. a lack of speech content and/or slowed speech response
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 483
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


31. What does a schizophrenic who has flat affect experience?
a. Research suggests that flat affect represents both a lack of normal feelings and difficulty in
expressing them.
b. Research suggests that flat affect represents difficulty in expressing emotion, not a lack of
feelings.
c. Research has produced mixed results; more research is needed to answer this question.
d. Research suggests that flat affect represents a lack of normal feelings.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 483-484
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Remember

32. Consider the following statement: The time is 9:30. Ten is my favourite number. I also like to listen
to music and paint pictures. What kind of disorganized speech does the statement illustrate?
a. catatonic slippage
b. tangentiality
c. word salad
d. derailment
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 484
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

33. What is the disorganized symptom of schizophrenia known as tangentiality?


a. incomprehensible speech
b. abruptly changing the topic of conversation to unrelated or only peripherally related areas
c. drawing illogical conclusions in ones speech
d. answering a question indirectly (only in a peripheral sense)
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 484
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

34. Frank has schizophrenia. He frequently giggles childishly to himself on the subway and cries when he
watches cartoons on television. What is this symptom called?
a. catatonic affect
b. cognitive slippage
c. anhedonia
d. inappropriate affect
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 484
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

35. Mark was diagnosed with schizophrenia. Recently, he has been standing for hours in unusual postures.
What is this symptom called?
a. cognitive slippage
b. inappropriate affect
c. hebephrenia
d. catatonic immobility
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 484
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


36. Diagnosed with schizophrenia, Marta shows an unusual form of catatonia. If someone moves one of
her arms or legs into a different position, it just stays that way. What is this symptom called?
a. waxy flexibility
b. catatonic cooperation
c. schizophrenic movement disorder
d. postural dysfunction
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 484
OBJ: 1-3 BLM: Higher Order

37. Which of the following terms refers to a tendency to repeat or mimic the words of others?
a. cognitive slippage
b. echolalia
c. echopraxia
d. perseveration
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 486
OBJ: 3 BLM: Remember

38. Which of the following is most likely to occur in the paranoid type of schizophrenia?
a. hallucinations and thematic or systematized delusions
b. Inappropriate affect and rapid speech
c. limited cognitive skills and flat affect
d. disorganized speech and tremors
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 485
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

39. All of the following apply to the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia EXCEPT which one?
a. thematic delusions and hallucinations
b. relatively intact cognitive skills and affect
c. marked display of disorganized speech
d. a better prognosis than other forms of schizophrenia
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 485
OBJ: 3 BLM: Remember

40. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for the disorganized type of schizophrenia include all of the following
EXCEPT which one?
a. flat or inappropriate affect
b. disorganized speech
c. disorganized behaviour
d. delusions
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 484
OBJ: 3 BLM: Remember

41. Which of the following individuals would most likely be diagnosed with residual schizophrenia?
a. Mrs. Rutgers has never had an episode of schizophrenia but acts in a very bizarre manner.
b. Mr. Schultz has been actively hallucinating and has had delusions of persecution for
several years now.
c. Miss Leung has had an episode of schizophrenia but has no active symptoms at this time.
d. Mr. Riyaz is at risk for developing schizophrenia because of his family history.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 486
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


42. Martina has been sitting in a hunched-over position on her bed for several hours. When you speak to
her, her position remains unchanged, and she doesn't answer. When you lift her arm, she remains
sitting motionless, with her arm in a raised position. What type of schizophrenia is Martina most likely
suffering?
a. paranoid schizophrenia
b. catatonic schizophrenia
c. undifferentiated schizophrenia
d. disorganized schizophrenia
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 486
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

43. Callie has been diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. This means that, in addition to schizophrenic
symptoms, what will she also have?
a. an anxiety disorder
b. a split personality
c. obsessive-compulsive disorder
d. a mood disorder
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 487
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

44. Jack was recently arrested, for the fifth time, for stalking a local media celebrity who he believes is in
love with him. This is a persistent and strongly held belief of Jacks, but it is his only symptom. Which
of the following DSM-IV-TR disorders does Jack likely most likely have?
a. brief psychotic disorder
b. delusional disorder
c. erotic schizophrenia
d. disorganized paranoid disorder
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 487
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

45. Why do the delusions in delusional disorder differ from the more bizarre types often found in people
with schizophrenia?
a. In delusional disorder, the imagined events are so bizarre that they could never have
happened and never will happen.
b. In paranoid schizophrenia, the imagined events have actually happened or are now
happening.
c. In delusional disorder, the imagined events could really be happening but there is no
evidence that they are happening.
d. In paranoid schizophrenia, the imagined events have not happened but they think they will
occur.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 487
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


46. How is schizophrenia and delusional disorder different?
a. In schizophrenic delusions, the imagined events could be happening but theyre not; in
delusional disorder, the imagined events arent possible.
b. Delusional disorder usually lasts only a few days; schizophrenia is long lasting and
chronic.
c. Delusional disorder is often triggered by stressful events; schizophrenia is never
precipitated by stressful events.
d. Schizophrenia usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood, whereas delusional
disorder often has an age of onset in the 40s.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 487
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

47. Arthur, who is described in your textbook, suddenly experienced the delusion that he could save all the
starving children in the world with a secret plan. Because his symptoms lasted only a few days, what
was he diagnosed with?
a. schizotypal personality disorder
b. cocaine abuse
c. brief psychotic disorder
d. folie deux (shared psychotic disorder)
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 487
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

48. You read a story about a couple who were arrested because they abducted their children from their
previous marriages. They shared the theory that government agencies and others were plotting to sell
children to childless parents. Which disorders best describe what these two people had?
a. brief psychotic disorder
b. folie deux
c. dual schizophrenia
d. schizophreniform disorder
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 487
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

49. Which of the following is NOT an accurate statistical fact regarding schizophrenia?
a. The lifetime prevalence rate is 15 percent.
b. Women are more likely to develop schizophrenia than men are.
c. Life expectancy is less than average due to suicides and accidents.
d. The onset is highest in early adulthood for females and late adulthood for males.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 488
OBJ: 3 BLM: Remember

50. Which of the following would be considered a delusion?


a. clearly seeing a vision of an object that is not physically present
b. having to wash one's hands thoroughly every time one touches something
c. feeling pain in one's back even though there is no physical sign of injury
d. being convinced that one's neighbours are aliens from another planet
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 487
OBJ: 3 BLM: Higher Order

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


51. Which of the following statements describes how the schizophrenics symptoms change in later life?
a. Hallucinations tend to decrease with age.
b. Negative symptoms involving speech tend to decrease with age.
c. Delusions tend to increase with age.
d. Negative symptoms involving cognitive difficulties tend to decrease with age.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 489
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

52. According to your textbook, what happens to most people with schizophrenia?
a. They experience one full-blown episode, then occasional, but nondebilitating symptoms
thereafter.
b. They experience severe impairment continuously throughout their lives.
c. They fluctuate between severe and moderate impairment throughout their lives.
d. They experience mild to moderate impairment continuously throughout their lives.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 489
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

53. What do cross-cultural studies of schizophrenia suggest?


a. Schizophrenia is universal in its prevalence, course, and outcome.
b. Schizophrenia is more prevalent in developing countries.
c. Schizophrenia is largely a Western phenomenon.
d. Schizophrenia is universal, but may vary in its course and outcome across cultures.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 489-490
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

54. How is the genetic basis of schizophrenia best understood?


a. Schizophrenia is primarily genetically caused.
b. Researchers have discovered the gene responsible for causing schizophrenia.
c. Genes are responsible for making some individuals vulnerable to schizophrenia.
d. Some forms of schizophrenia are influenced by genes; others are not.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 490
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

55. Research studies on the genetic basis of schizophrenia have focused on high-risk individuals including
all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. adopted children of schizophrenic biological parents
b. children adopted by schizophrenic mothers
c. healthy twins of schizophrenic patients
d. relatives of schizophrenics
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 490
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


56. What does the research indicate regarding the genetic factors of schizophrenia?
a. If one person in a family has a particular subtype of schizophrenia, for example, paranoid,
the other family members inherit a predisposition for that subtype only.
b. In family studies of schizophrenia, the genetic influence can be separated from the
environmental impact.
c. An individual with a schizophrenic identical twin has the highest risk factor (almost 50
percent) of developing schizophrenia.
d. The more severe a parents schizophrenic disorder, the less likely the children are to
develop it.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 490-491
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

57. Which of the following concepts supports the outcome of the Genain sisters; the identical quadruplets
all diagnosed with schizophrenia?
a. an unshared environment
b. a unique perceptive interpretation
c. an environmental phenomenon
d. a variable home structure
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 491
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Higher Order

58. In which of the following situations would the risk of developing schizophrenia be the lowest for a
child?
a. A childs schizophrenic parent has a nonschizophrenic fraternal twin.
b. A childs nonschizophrenic parent has a schizophrenic fraternal twin.
c. A childs nonschizophrenic parent has a schizophrenic identical twin.
d. A childs schizophrenic parent has a nonschizophrenic identical twin.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 491
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Higher Order

59. Which of the following describes what is known regarding the offspring twins and schizophrenia?
a. The child of a nonschizophrenic fraternal twin has about an 8 percent risk of having the
disorder.
b. The child of a schizophrenic identical twin has the greater risk (34 percent) of having the
disorder compared to the child of the nonschizophrenic identical twin.
c. A mentally healthy individual with a schizophrenic parent cannot pass on a genetic
predisposition for the disorder to his or her offspring.
d. An individual can be free from schizophrenia but still be a carrier.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 492
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

60. Of the various genetic linkage and association studies, which one seems to be a possible marker for
schizophrenia?
a. unusual facial features
b. eye-tracking
c. scores on various cognitive tests
d. blood type
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 493
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


61. Several studies have shown a link between eye-tracking deficits and which of the following symptoms
of schizophrenia?
a. negative
b. both positive and negative
c. both positive and negative, but mostly positive
d. positive
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 493
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

62. Which of the following explains gradations of severity in people with schizophrenia (from mild to
severe) and explains that the risk of having schizophrenia increases with the number of affected
relatives in the family?
a. the neurological damage theory of schizophrenia
b. the quantitative trait loci model of schizophrenia
c. the hypofrontality theory of schizophrenia
d. the dopamine theory of schizophrenia
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 493
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Higher Order

63. When looking for abnormalities in the brain as clues to the influences of schizophrenia, it is important
to keep certain questions in mind when doing correlational research. For example, if a schizophrenic
person were found to have an excess of dopamine, a researcher would need to ask all of the following
questions EXCEPT which one?
a. Why is the dopamine system active in the schizophrenic brain?
b. Is there some factor that causes both schizophrenia and an excess of dopamine?
c. Does too much dopamine cause schizophrenia?
d. Does having schizophrenia cause an excess of dopamine?
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 493
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Higher Order

64. Which of the following statements reflects circumstantial evidence for the dopamine theory of
schizophrenia?
a. Amphetamines, which activate dopamine, can lessen psychotic symptoms in persons with
schizophrenia.
b. The drug L-dopa, a dopamine agonist, is used to treat schizophrenic symptoms in patients
with Parkinsons disease.
c. Antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics) can produce side effects similar to those of Parkinsons
disease (a disorder due to insufficient dopamine).
d. Antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics) act as dopamine agonists, increasing the amount of
dopamine in the brain.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 494
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Higher Order

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


65. Which of the following has been proven regarding neurotransmitters and schizophrenia?
a. The drug L-dopa has been very effective in stabilizing dopamine in the schizophrenic
brain.
b. Two dopamine sites are of particular interest in the schizophrenic brainD5 and D6.
c. The neurotransmitter dopamine is too active in a person with schizophrenia.
d. The neurotransmitter dopamine is underactive in a person with schizophrenia.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 493-494
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Higher Order

66. When drugs are administered to schizophrenic patients what effect do they have?
a. Drugs that destroy dopamine cause an increase schizophrenic behaviour.
b. Drugs that increase dopamine cause an increase in schizophrenic behaviour.
c. Drugs that decrease dopamine cause an increase in schizophrenic behaviour.
d. Drugs that increase dopamine decrease schizophrenic behaviour.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 493-494
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

67. As early as what year did researchers observe that the ventricles of the brain of people with
schizophrenia where enlarged?
a. 1907
b. 1927
c. 1947
d. 1967
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 495
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

68. Current research suggests that at least three specific neurochemical abnormalities are involved in the
development of schizophrenic symptoms. They are identified by which of the following?
a. overactive striatal D2 receptors; underactive prefrontal D1 receptors; alterations in
glutamate transmission
b. underactive striatal D2 receptors; underactive prefrontal glutamate receptors; alterations in
serotonin transmission
c. underactive striatal D2 receptors; overactive prefrontal D1 receptors; underactive
glutamate transmission
d. overactive striatal D2 receptors; underactive prefrontal serotonin receptors; underactive
glutamate transmission
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 495
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

69. Which of the following describes the evidence for structural damage in the brains of schizophrenic
patients?
a. In some schizophrenic patients, there is an excess amount of gray matter in the cerebral
cortex.
b. Schizophrenic patients have smaller ventricles in their brains.
c. The majority of schizophrenic patients have enlarged ventricles in their brains.
d. Many schizophrenic patients have increased activity in the frontal lobes of the brain.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 495
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


70. Using brain-imaging techniques, Staal and colleagues (2000) found that both people with
schizophrenia and their otherwise-unaffected siblings had enlargement of the third ventricle as
compared with healthy volunteers. What does this finding suggest?
a. Schizophrenia causes enlargement of the third ventricle.
b. Enlargement of the third ventricle causes schizophrenia in only 50 percent of first-degree
relatives.
c. An enlarged third ventricle causes schizophrenia.
d. An enlarged third ventricle may be related to susceptibility to schizophrenia.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 496
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

71. Historic records and ancient literature contain descriptions of symptoms in people who today would be
diagnosed with all of the following disorders EXCEPT which one?
a. mood disorders (depression and mania)
b. schizophrenia
c. intellectual disability
d. senile dementia
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 496
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

72. The fact that nothing that resembles our current image of schizophrenia exists in historic records or
ancient literature has given rise to which of the following hypotheses?
a. Schizophrenia is a recent phenomenon and, like AIDS, may involve some newly
introduced virus.
b. Schizophrenia is a social and cultural construct.
c. There may have been effective treatments for the symptoms of schizophrenia in some
ancient societies.
d. Schizophrenia was frequently confused with bipolar illness.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 496
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

73. There is some evidence to suggest that fingerprint ridges may be a marker for schizophrenia that has
been triggered by which of the following?
a. hypofrontality
b. enlarged ventricles
c. prenatal brain damage
d. underactive dopamine receptors
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 496
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


74. In contrast to retrospective research, which is based on after-the-fact reports, what is the purpose of
prospective research studies and schizophrenic patients?
a. They look at brain-imaging diagnostic tests to determine if schizophrenic patients have
structural neurological defects.
b. They examine factors that predict the occurrence or recurrence of schizophrenic symptoms
in the future.
c. They assess recovery rates in schizophrenic patients who have taken different medications.
d. They compare genetic, biological, and social etiological factors to try to determine
inheritance patterns in offspring of schizophrenic parents.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 497
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Higher Order

75. With regard to the family interactions of schizophrenic patients, for a certain time period the word
schizophrenogenic was used to describe which of the following?
a. a mother whose cold, dominant, and rejecting nature was thought to cause schizophrenia
in her children
b. a family in which relatives on both sides were psychotic
c. a highly dysfunctional family environment, associated with divorce or extreme marital
discord, which was thought to foster psychotic symptoms in children
d. a physically and emotionally abusive and alcoholic father whose children became
schizophrenic
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 498
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

76. Brown and colleagues (1962) followed a sample of people who had been discharged from the hospital
after an episode of schizophrenic symptoms. What did the researchers find?
a. Those who had limited contact with their relatives did worse than patients who spent
longer periods with their families.
b. If the mothers of the patients had schizophrenia, the patients did better.
c. If the mothers of the patients did not have schizophrenia, the patients did better.
d. Those who had limited contact with their relatives did better than patients who spent
longer periods with their families.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 498
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

77. The familial communication style called expressed emotion, which sometimes is used to predict
relapse rates in schizophrenic patients, includes all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. overinvolvement
b. criticism
c. emotional distance
d. hostility
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 498
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


78. If expressed emotion is a cause of schizophrenia, we would expect to see a positive correlation
between the rates of schizophrenia and the rates of expressed emotions across cultural groups. What
does the research on this subject show?
a. There is no correlation; levels of expressed emotion do not vary by cultural group but rates
of schizophrenia do.
b. There is a positive correlation; most cultural groups with higher levels of expressed
emotion show higher rates of schizophrenia.
c. There is no correlation; levels of expressed emotion vary by cultural group but rates of
schizophrenia do not.
d. There is a negative correlation; most cultural groups with higher levels of expressed
emotion show lower rates of schizophrenia.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 498
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

79. Which psychosurgery technique was performed on people with schizophrenia as recently as the 1950s?
a. electroconvulsive therapy
b. prefrontal lobotomy
c. cingulotomy
d. insulin coma therapy
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 498
OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

80. Which of the following treatments was first used in the 1930s to treat schizophrenia but is now used
primarily to treat severe depression?
a. insulin coma therapy
b. prefrontal lobotomy
c. psychosurgery
d. electroconvulsive therapy
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 499
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

81. The neuroleptic drugs, which were introduced in the 1950s, primarily treat the positive symptoms of
schizophrenia, including all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. social deficits
b. delusions
c. agitation
d. hallucinations
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 499
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

82. During the 1990s, a new type of antipsychotic medication became available to treat schizophrenic
patients who were not helped by conventional antipsychotic medications or who had developed
unpleasant side effects. These new antipsychotic medications include all of the following EXCEPT
which one?
a. Thorazine (chlorpromazine)
b. Risperdal (risperidone)
c. Clozaril (clozapine)
d. Zyprexa (olanzapine)
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 500
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


83. All of the following are typical, minor side effects of antipsychotic medications EXCEPT which one?
a. blurred vision
b. grogginess
c. headaches
d. dryness of the mouth
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 500
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

84. Extrapyramidal symptoms, which are serious side effects of antipsychotic medications, occur in some
schizophrenic patients. These are similar to the symptoms of which of the following?
a. Alzheimers disease
b. cerebral palsy
c. Parkinsons disease
d. multiple sclerosis
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 500
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

85. Tardive dyskinesia, a severe side effect of antipsychotic medications, includes all of the following
involuntary movements EXCEPT which one?
a. involuntary chewing
b. tongue protrusion
c. puffing of the cheeks
d. tooth grinding
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 500
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

86. Schizophrenic patients who take antipsychotic medications sometimes develop severe side effects such
as akinesia, a Parkinsonian-like condition. This condition produces all of the following symptoms
EXCEPT which one?
a. monotonous speech
b. expressionless face
c. slowed movements
d. hand tremors
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 500
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

87. Use of antipsychotic medications can cause tardive dyskinesia. When they have been used long-term,
what is the possible outcome on these symptoms?
a. The symptoms are often irreversible.
b. When the drugs are discontinued the symptoms will take months disappear.
c. If the dosages of these medications are reduced, the symptoms can disappear within
months.
d. The symptoms can disappear within weeks when these drugs are discontinued.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 500
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


88. All of the following are factors related to patients noncompliance with a medication regimen for
treatment of schizophrenia EXCEPT which one?
a. poor social support
b. social stigma associated with taking antipsychotic medications
c. negative doctorpatient relationships
d. cost of the medication
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 500
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

89. What kind of treatment did researchers hope would improve patient compliance in taking antipsychotic
medication?
a. skin patches worn for several months
b. pills taken once a week instead of daily
c. liquids instead of pills
d. injections every few weeks
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 500
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

90. An experimental technique called transcranial magnetic stimulation has been used in some
schizophrenic patients. What is the purpose of this treatment?
a. to reduce symptoms of thought disorder
b. to reduce the negative side effects of antipsychotic medications
c. to block auditory hallucinations
d. to modulate negative symptoms such as social withdrawal
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 502
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

91. Today most mental health professionals (MHPs) take what position regarding the treatment
approaches available for schizophrenia?
a. Most MHPs do not believe that psychological factors cause people to have schizophrenia
or that traditional psychotherapeutic approaches will cure them.
b. Most MHPs do not believe that psychological factors cause people to have schizophrenia
but do believe that traditional psychotherapeutic approaches may help to cure them.
c. Most MHPs believe that psychological factors cause some people to have schizophrenia
and traditional psychotherapeutic approaches may help to cure them.
d. Most MHPs believe that psychological factors cause some people to have schizophrenia
but do not believe that traditional psychotherapeutic approaches will cure them.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 502
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

92. In the 1970s, researchers set up a treatment system called a token economy in a mental health centre.
What is the focus of this type of treatment for schizophrenic patients?
a. language and speech
b. routines for self-control
c. socialization and self-care skills
d. the self-monitoring of hallucinations
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 503
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


93. What is a token economy?
a. a system in which hospitalized schizophrenic patients save up or bank privileges for
tasks performed on the hospital ward
b. a system in which hospitalized schizophrenic patients are praised for appropriate
behaviour and given time-outs for disruptive behaviour
c. a system in which hospitalized schizophrenic patients learn appropriate behaviours
through social modelling by staff
d. a system in which hospitalized schizophrenic patients earn tokens for appropriate
behaviour and lose tokens for disruptive behaviour
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 503
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

94. In the 1970s, Paul and Lentz applied behavioural principles in the form of a token economy to a
traditional inpatient environment. What was the result?
a. Fewer patients recovered from severe schizophrenic symptoms.
b. Fewer patients were able to be discharged.
c. More patients were able to be discharged.
d. More patients recovered from severe schizophrenic symptoms.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 503
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

95. In the latter half of the 20th century, why was the routine institutionalization of schizophrenic patients
significantly reduced?
a. because of patient advocacy groups
b. because of court rulings
c. because of cutbacks in health care funding
d. because of the increase use of antipsychotic medications
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 503
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

96. Since the latter half of the 20th century, what has been the outcome of the deinstitutionalization
policy?
a. a worsening of symptoms in many patients
b. former patients becoming more independent and productive members of the community
c. greater patient compliance regarding medication
d. many former patients becoming homeless
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 503
OBJ: 4 BLM: Higher Order

97. Some schizophrenic patients are helped to function better in the community by independent living
skills programs that teach all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. to identify signs that warn of a relapse
b. social skills
c. money management
d. medication management
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 503
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


98. Which of the following best describes social-skills training programs for schizophrenic patients?
a. They have been successful only when the patient is on medication.
b. They have been somewhat successful while the program is in effect.
c. They have been not at all successful.
d. They have been very successful.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 503
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

99. How is behavioural family therapy used to treat schizophrenia?


a. It awards tokens for appropriate behaviour and takes away tokens for disruptive behaviour.
b. It provides education about schizophrenia and its treatment, and communication and
problem-solving skills.
c. It provides positive reinforcement of appropriate family interactions by therapists.
d. It establishes guidelines for identifying and reducing expressed emotion.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 504
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

100. All of the following are recommended as helpful additions to biological treatment for schizophrenia
EXCEPT which one?
a. family intervention
b. social skills training
c. psychoanalysis
d. programs in vocational rehabilitation
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: LOW REF: 504
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

101. According to your textbook, what is the general trend in the treatment of schizophrenia today?
a. The trend is toward the use of fewer biological therapies and more psychosocial
interventions.
b. The trend is toward early intervention.
c. The trend is toward new psychosurgery techniques.
d. The trend is toward the use of more biological therapies and fewer psychosocial
interventions.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 504
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

102. As a relatively new approach to schizophrenia, what has cognitive-behavioural therapy been used to
treat?
a. negative attitudes toward medications
b. primarily positive symptoms
c. both positive and negative symptoms
d. the low self-esteem that often accompanies chronic mental illness
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 504
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


103. Cognitive-behavioural therapy been associated with improvements in some symptoms of
schizophrenia. What symptoms have shown improvement from this therapy?
a. self-esteem
b. the frequency of visual and auditory hallucinations
c. the degree of conviction in delusional beliefs
d. social skills
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: MOD REF: 504
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

104. Psychosocial clubs or clubhouses for schizophrenic patients have been formed as a part of some
rehabilitation programs. Research indicates that participation in these clubs may help prevent relapses.
Why it is difficult to interpret the improvement in these patients?
a. Some patients are on medication and some arent.
b. Only the most psychotic patients participated.
c. Patients who participate may be significantly different from those who dont.
d. A significant number of patients dropped out before completing the program.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: HIGH REF: 506
OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

ESSAY

1. Define what is meant by schizophrenia. Using concepts from the history of schizophrenia, explain how
the common misconception that schizophrenia means split personality developed and why it is
incorrect.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 477-478 OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

2. Describe the nature and give illustrative examples of positive, negative, and disorganized
symptoms of schizophrenia. Explain how each symptom type relates to prognosis and outcome.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 479-485 OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

3. Compare the major subtypes of schizophrenia (paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated, and
residual) in terms of symptoms, treatment, and prognosis.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 485-486 OBJ: 2-3 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


4. Compare schizophrenia to the other psychotic disorders (schizophreniform, schizoaffective,
delusional, folie deux, and brief psychotic disorder) in terms of symptoms, duration, and outcome.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 486-488 OBJ: 3 BLM: Remember

5. Describe the three kinds of research studies (twin, adoptee, and family) that focus on the etiological
factors in schizophrenia. How do these studies help to separate genetic from environmental influences?
Explain what is meant by a marker for schizophrenia. Describe the evidence for one such marker.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 490-493 OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

6. Describe the current theories and evidence for the biological causative factors of schizophrenia,
including neurotransmitter imbalances, brain structure, and viral infection.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 493-496 OBJ: 2-4 BLM: Remember

7. Describe the evolution of treatment of schizophrenia from a historical perspective, including the use of
electroshock therapy and psychosurgery in the 1930s through to the development of antipsychotic
medications in the 1950s. Compare the new antipsychotics with conventional neuroleptics, in terms of
effectiveness and side effects.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 499-501 OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

8. Describe unpleasant side effects associated with both traditional and atypical antipsychotic
medications. Explain the issue of noncompliance with drug regimens, the problems caused by
noncompliance, and how this situation has been addressed in treatment settings.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 500-501 OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

9. Describe the various goals, methods, and effectiveness associated with psychosocial interventions for
schizophrenia, including token economy, behavioural family therapy, and independent skills training.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 501-505 OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.


10. Describe the goals, methods, and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for
schizophrenia. Explain how CBT may be integrated effectively with antipsychotic medications and
more traditional psychosocial interventions.

ANS:
Student responses will vary.

PTS: 1 REF: 504 OBJ: 4 BLM: Remember

Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd.