You are on page 1of 5


Chapter 5
Explain how the Great War for Empire changed Britains relationship with
its colonies.
The Great War for Empire changed Britains relationship with the colonies because it effectively
ended Salutory Neglect as the British could no longer let the colonies rule with minimal
oversight. This was due to the fact that its interests and responsibilities now all across the
colonies economically. Because of the increased control over the colonies, dissent stirred within
the British Colonies towards the British Government which led to the eventual revolution of
many of Britains colonies

Analyze the intellectual, political, and economic rationales colonists

offered for their dis satisfaction with British rule between 1763 and 1776.
Colonists offered multiple reasons for dissatisfaction with British rule. First, colonists believed
that intellectually, all people deserved 3 basic rights, Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness,
that was first theorized by John Locke, and that tightening British control was a denial of their
basic unalienable rights. Politically, the colonists believed that the over-centralization of the
colonies under the British empire would lead to eventual tightening of administrative command
which would remove control of the colonies from the colonists. Economically, colonists
disagreed with

Evaluate how tension and disagreement between colonists and British

officials became outright resistance and rebellion by 1776.
Tensions between the Colonists and the British drastically increased after the ending of
Salutory Neglect by the British. After the putting of direct taxes such as the Stamp Act
and the Townshend Acts, the colonists became increasingly concerned about the
exertment of control by the British Govenrment over colonial autonomy. After the
Townshend Acts, Patriots began to openly dissent with the Boston Tea Party which lead
to the Coercive Acts on Boston and open resistance followed at Lexington and Concord.

Chapter 6
Understand how and why the Americans won the War for Independence.
Americans won the War for Independence for multiple Military, Diplomatic, and Political
Reasons. Due to superior military tactical thinking and adaption by American Generals and later
numerical superiority due to French and Spanish support, the Americans were able to gain
control in the Southern Battlegrounds and effectively end the War at Yorktown. Diplomatically,
American diplomats such as Benjamin Franklin were able to convince the French and Spanish
after the victory at Saratoga to provide support such as supplies and troops to the Colonial cause
and tipped the scales in favor of the Americans by dividing British Troops and providing
numerical superiority. Another key reason for the American victory was political reasons such as
the converging and growing Republican ideological beliefs in the Americas that allowed the
uniting of the Colonies across all social classes against the British.
Evaluate the limitations and successes of the Articles of Confederation
during the Critical Period.
The Articles of Confederation had many limitations. First, it gave a large amount of power to the
staets which left the enforcement of the governments rulings down to the state level and gave a
low level credibility. Second, it only had one branch of government, one body of Congress,
without a judicial branch to protect rights and an executive branch to enforce laws which
hindered the power of the government under the articles of confederation. Third, it left taxation
up to the states instead of the federal level which lead to little to no funding for the government.
However, the Articles had a few benefits. First, it lead to the creations of treaties with major
powers such as France. The Articles of Confederation also lead ot the Northwest Ordinance,
which created 5 new territories that became the lasting legacy of the Articles

Understand the debate over the ratification of the Constitution in 1787, the
role of the Federalist Papers, and the viewpoints of Federalist and Antifederalists.
The debate over ratification of the constitution was centered around the centralization and role of
Government. While the Federalists argued that a stronger centralized state through the
Constitution was crucial to promote and strengthen unity in order to avoid the downfalls of the
Articles of Confederation. In opposition to the Constitution, the Anti-Federalists, led by Patrick
Henry argued that the Constitution provided too much power to the State and that states should
have the power and rights to determine their own laws. The Federalist papers were written by
John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams in order to sway the votes for
ratification in crucial states such as Virginia, and argued against the Anti-Federalists claim
against over-centralization and argued that the Constitution was sufficient to protect rights.
Understand why Shayss Rebellion took place, what it was, and what its
effect was.
Shays Rebellion was a farmer uprising led by Daniel Shay that began in 1786 over the lower
classes resentment over-taxation in Massachusetts. The effects of the Rebellion were that it lead
to the upper class feeling the need to adopt and ratify the constitution for a more powerful and
centralized government due to the fear that state governments dominated by poor people who
would implement policies such as debt forgiveness which would benefit the poor at the expense
of the rich

Chapter 7
1. Understand the federalist agenda during the Washington and Adams administrations.
The Federalist Agenda during Washington and Adams administration were mainly financial ones
which were implemented by Washingtons Secretary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, and
involved the creation of the National Bank which centralized the financial system in order to
support assistant financers and merchants. Hamilton also implemented reforms such as adopting
the war debts of the states into a large national one to increase credit. However, Federalist
agendas were also implemented more broadly that increased the centralization of the Federal
Process by increasing and consolidating the states power
2. Understand the differences between Hamiltons and Jeffersons visions of the operation
and the role of government.
Hamiltons vision of the role of government was one of a very strong and centralized
government that exerted a great deal of power in order to maintain order. Hamilton also believed
in a factory manufacturing economy society for the United States. However, Jefferson preferred
an agrarian society and role of society, doubting the power of factory manufacturing and
believing in a society of independent yeomen farm families as a vision of American society.
Jefferson also preferred a less powerful government in favor of his independent agriculture based

3. Recognize the effects the French Revolution had on American policy and decision
The French Revolution influenced the ideology that came about after the end of the American
Revolution. While many initially cheered the abolishment of feudalism within France, the
violence of Jacobins made it clear to many the danger of an extremely decentralized state with
little to no order from a federal government. Due to this, many wealthy Americans condemned
Maximillian Robespierres Jacobins violent action against the upper class and against churches,
while many lower class farmers embraced the ideology of the French Revolution which
culminated in the Whiskey Rebellion.

4. Evaluate how and why public policy and economic incentives inspired settlers and
speculators to migrate westward and what the consequences of this migration were for
Native Americans.
Public Policy and incentives provided the right opportunity for land hungry American settlers to
expand westward on land gained through sham treaties due to the desire for cheaper land and the
push for expansionism. This migration and settlement displaced thousands of Native Americans
to reservations, and those that werent were attempted to be assimilated into white society and
religion. However, these assimilation efforts mostly failed and only served to increase tensions
between settlers and native Americans which would later culminate into open violent warfare

5. Analyze Jeffersons vision for the future of American government and society and how he
implemented his beliefs during his presidency (in other words what did Jefferson do
during his presidency)
Jeffersons vision for American Government society was one of decentralized Agriculture Based
yeomen society that rejected factory manufacturing. During his presidency, Jefferson managed to
implement parts of his overarching vision but many of his actions were in other fields. Jefferson
combatted the Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean by bombing Tripoli, and helped found
Judicial Review through Madison vs Marbury, as well as buying and exploring the Louisiana
Purchase to push the US westward, and reversed numerous federalist policis such as the Alien
and Sedition acts.

6. Understand why the election of 1800 can be described as the Revolution of 1800.
The election of Thomas Jefferson in 1800 was known as the Revolution of 1800 because it
signaled as shift from the Federalists of George Washington and John Adams to the Democrat-
Republican party of Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson referred to his election as a Revoultion
because it represented a return to what he considered the American Revolution by restoring the
republican experiment and checking the growth of government power.

7. Understand the policies of the Democratic-Republican presidents between 1801 and

1820, and evaluate how they contrasted with the Federalist programs of the 1790s.
Democratic Republican presidents such as Thomas Jefferson in 1801 started to reverse Federalist
Policies under Adams and Washington. While the Federalists supported a strong centralized
government under institutions such as the National Bank, the Democratic-Republicans went
about decentralizing the government by reversing policies such as the Alien and Sedition Actions
8. Assess the reasons and outcomes for the War of 1812, including domestic politics.
The War of 1812 was started by British seizure of American merchant commercial rights as a
neutral nation which angered Americans as a perceived threat to their sovereignty. However, War
Hawks in Congress voted in favor of war with Britain due to the will to expand into the British
supported Indian groups in the West and the desire to expand into British Canada. The outcomes
of the War of 1812 were minimal as the Treaty of Ghent returned all territory gained to prewar
boundaries. However, the War of 1812 also elevated Andrew Jackson to a status of a cult hero
and played a key role in undercutting the Hartford Conventions demand for consitutitutional

Chapter 8
1. Understand the origins and operations of the emerging market economy in America.
The maket economy in America was first started by the Democrat Republican president Thomas
Jefferson. Due to the unregulated feature of the market economy and dubious banking features,
the Panic of 1819 came about and lead to the rapid fall of European demand for American goods
which spike prices of hundreds of commodities. In the Market Economy, rural parents and
children worked longer and harder due to the dependence on market sales for to purchase goods
normally made by themselves

2. Evaluate how Americans pursuit of republican ideals after the Revolution transformed
the nation into a more egalitarian (democratic) society.
Republicanisms underlying ideals emphasized individual rights and equality for all groups and
not just white males. Due to the revival of those attitudes after the revolution, more people were
overcome with the republican ideals and pushed for more rights for equality for groups such as
women. After succeeding, Women were opened to more jobs outside the family and gained a
new role as Republican mothers.

3. Analyze why and how the role of women changed in republican society
The role of women drastically changed in a Republican society. Due to the republicanisms
emphasis on equality for all groups, Women were given more equality and treated with more
respect due to their duty of raising the leaders of the future and to train their children in
Republican ideals. The rise of Religious fervor in the 2nd great awakening also allowed increased
opportunities for womens roles in religion giving them roles to create new sects. Increased
religious fervor in republican society also led to new services having both men and women
which demonstrated the new changing view of women in society.
4. Explain how Anglo-Americans shaped the institution of slavery during the Revolution
and early Republican eras.
Slavery was already a major part of American Society before the revolution, but during the early
Republican Eras, Anglo-Americans supported and reinforced slave insitutions through
documents such as the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. Policies such as the
Missouri Compromise further divided the regional differences over slavery and its moral values.

5. Understand the ways that the Missouri Compromise impacted the United States.
The Missouri Compromise had a major impacting effect on American Politics by increasing the
tensions between the Northern States and the Southern States and effectively setting the tone of
the Civil War. Because of the conflicted view of Slaves as either property or people and the
Compromise only bringing up issues and not actually fixing the continued debate over slavery
and lead to a solution that further divided the South and the North that neither side liked.

6. Understand how Protestant Christianity acted as a force for social change in the early republic
because of the Second Great Awakening.
Protestant Christianity acted as a force of Social Change through the 2nd Great Awakening by
allowing the increase of Republicanist Ideals for equality through religious outputs. For example,
women drastically gained more rights and equality through the 2nd Great Awakeing by being
allowed to attend the same church services as males and increasing the role of women as sect
leaders of Christian denomination. The idelolgies also spread through other outlets due to the fact
that Prostantism was founded as a means to avoid persecution and led to increased charity by
many people such as paying taxes.