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http://of13.

com >>> Coherency Obligatory Must

Yamaka
Jesuit Jewish Connect
Does a person who understands X understand Y?
Rich get richer poor get poorer
Jesuit Catholic JC CJ Crypto Jew
Zionist

“Those who greatly enlighten illusion are Buddhas; those who are greatly deluded about enlightenment are sentient beings.”

Illusion
1.Something with deceptive appearance
something that deceives the senses or mind, e.g. by appearing to exist when it does not or appearing to be one thing when it is in fact another
2.False Idea
a false idea, conception, or belief about somebody or something
3.Deceptive power of appearances
the ability of appearances to deceive the mind and senses, or the capacity of the mind and senses to be deceived by appearances

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“Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue”
The Master said “The gentleman understands what is moral. The small man understands what is profitable”

"Shall I tell you what knowledge is?
When you know a thing, to hold that you know it;
And when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it.
This is knowledge."

KKK

http://www.scribd.com/doc/53187051/To-United-Nations
http://www.scribd.com/doc/57985401/To-United-Nations-Again

UNAZIP
United Nations Alien Zionist Insidious Puppets

The Star of David in the Leningrad Codex, 1008 CE
Upon independence in 1948, the new Jewish state was formally named Medinat Yisrael, or the State of Israel,
after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel ("the Land of Israel"), Zion,
and Judea, were considered and rejected.[25] In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term
"Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe
Sharett.[26]
The name Israel has historically been used, in common and religious usage, to refer to the biblical Kingdom of
Israel or the entire Jewish nation.[27] According to the Hebrew Bible the name "Israel" was given to the
patriarch Jacob (Standard Yisraʾel, Isrāʾīl; Septuagint Greek: ἸσραήλIsraēl;

"struggle with God" [28]
)

after he successfully
2
wrestled
with the angel of the Lord.[29]
Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children
of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan
but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob,[30]
led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus". The earliest archaeological artifact to mention the word
"Israel"
is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE).[31]
The area is also known as the

Holy Land,
being holy for all Abrahamic religions including

Judaism, Christianity, Islam
and the Bahá'í Faith.

I
GU SE

I
God’s Universe srael Self Exposed

?
Holistic
Emphasizing the importance of the whole and the interdependence of its parts.
Concerned with wholes rather than analysis or separation into parts: holistic medicine; holistic ecology.

Roman Catholic – RC – Realist Conundrum

RC
Pronounced
Arsy
World English Dictionary arsey or arsy (ˈɑːsɪ) — adj , arsier , arsiest aggressive, irritable, or argumentative arsy
or arsy — adj

Realist

Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to:
 Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict things accurately, from either a visual, social or emotional
perspective
 Realism (international relations), the view that world politics are driven by competitive self-interest

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 Realism (theatre), 19th century theatre movement focused on bringing fidelity of real life to texts and
performances
 Literary realism, a literary movement stressing the depiction of contemporary life and society as it exists
or existed
 Philosophical realism, belief that reality exists independently of observers
 Moral realism or ethical realism, a non-nihilist view of morality that claims ethical sentences express
propositions made true by objective features of the world, independent of subjective opinion
 Scientific realism, the doctrine that certain objects or theories in science are real
 Depressive realism, a theory that individuals suffering from clinical depression have a more accurate
view of reality
 Ethnographic realism, a writing style that narrates the author's anthropological observations as if they
were first-hand
 Legal realism, a jurisprudence emphasizing the substantive results of the law
 Tactical realism, a genre of combat simulations in computer gaming
 Magic realism, a literary genre
 Realism theory, the belief that cognitive biases are not "errors", but rather methods of dealing with the
"real world"
 Vienna School of Fantastic Realism, art movement


 http://www.scribd.com/doc/113882977/Spirit-Intent-Precedence-de-Jure-Constitution-or-Romans-13-
Gaming-the-System-de-Facto


 suspension of disbelief


 PRICK mi FIBIB
Political Religious Illusion Charlatan Kleptocracy media inciting Fickle Inherent Bias Ignorant Bliss
Due Process

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy
Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is

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the belief
that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people,
who are the source of all political power. It is closely associated to the social contract philosophers, among
whom are Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Popular sovereignty expresses a concept
and does not necessarily reflect or describe a political reality.[1]
It is often contrasted with the concept of
parliamentary sovereignty, and with individual sovereignty.

Reality is the Truth impervious to perception yet precisely due to perception
Truth that which God would observe whether or not He exists or whether or not one believes He exists
IDEAL
Simply Reality Sanely Dealt With

According to some theories of democracy, popular sovereignty is the founding principle of such a
system.[3] However, the democratic principle has also been expressed as "the freedom to call something into
being which did not exist before, which was not given… and which therefore, strictly speaking, could not be
known."[4] This type of freedom, which is connected to human "natality," or the capacity to begin anew, sees
democracy as "not only a political system… [but] an ideal, an aspiration, really, intimately connected to and
dependent upon a picture of what it is to be human—of what it is a human should be to be fully human."[5]

Pro Cons
KKK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kayfabe
Kayfabe
In professional wrestling , kayfabe (pronounced /ˈkeɪfeɪb/) is the portrayal of events within the industry as "real".
Specifically, the portrayal of professional wrestling, in particular the competition and rivalries between participants, as being genuine
or not of a worked nature. Referring to events or interviews as being a "chore" means that the event/interview has been "kayfabed" or
staged, or is part of a wrestling angle while being passed off as legitimate. Kayfabe has also evolved to become a code word of sorts
for maintaining this "reality" within the realm of the general public.
Kayfabe is often seen as the suspension of disbelief that is used to create the non-wrestling aspects of promotions, such as feuds,
angles, and gimmicks, in a similar manner with other forms of entertainment such as soap opera or film. In relative terms, a
wrestler breaking kayfabe during a show would be likened to an actor breaking character on camera. Also, since wrestling is
performed in front of a live audience, whose interaction with the show is crucial to the show's success (see pop), one might
compare kayfabe to the fourth wall, since there is hardly any conventional fourth wall to begin with.
In years past, one tool that promoters and wrestlers had in preserving kayfabe was in their ability to attract a loyal paying audience in
spite of limited or nearly nonexistent exposure. Professional wrestling has long been shunned by mainstream media due to lingering
doubts over its legitimacy, and its presentation on television was largely limited to self-produced programming, not
unlike informercials of the present day. Scrutiny existed only in limited circumstances, where in certain U.S. states, promoters had
to deal with activist athletic commissioners. It was commonplace for wrestlers to adhere to kayfabe in public, even when outside the
ring and off-camera, in order to preserve the illusion that the competition in pro wrestling was not staged. This was due in no small
part to feuds between wrestlers sometimes lasting for years, and which could be utterly destroyed in seconds if they were shown
associating as friends in public, and thus potentially affect ticket revenue.

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Kleptocracy, alternatively cleptocracy or kleptarchy, (from Ancient Greek: κλέπτης (thief) and κράτος
(rule), "rule by thieves") is a form of political and government corruption where the government exists to
increase the personal wealth and political power of its officials and the ruling class at the expense of the wider
population, often without pretense of honest service. This type of government corruption is often achieved by
the embezzlement of state funds.
Kleptocracies are generally associated with corrupt forms of authoritarian governments, particularly
dictatorships, oligarchies, military juntas, or some other forms of autocratic and nepotist government in which
no outside oversight is possible, due to the ability of the kleptocrat(s) to personally control both the supply of
public funds and the means of determining their disbursal. Kleptocratic rulers typically treat their country's
treasury as though it were their own personal bank account, spending the funds on luxury goods as they see fit.
Many kleptocratic rulers also secretly transfer public funds into secret personal numbered bank accounts in
foreign countries in order to provide them with continued luxury if/when they are eventually removed from
power and forced to flee the country.
Kleptocracy is most common in third-world countries where the economy (often as a legacy of colonialism) is
dominated by resource extraction. Such incomes constitute a form of economic rent and are therefore easier to
siphon off without causing the income itself to decrease (for example, due to capital flight as investors pull out
to escape the high taxes levied by the kleptocrats).

Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म; IPA: [ˈkarmə] ( listen);Pali: kamma) means action, work or deed;[1] it also refers to
the principle of causality where intent and actions of an individual influence the future of that individual.[2]
Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed
contribute to bad karma and future suffering.[3][4] Karma is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in some
schools of Asian religions.[5] In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well
as the nature and quality of future lives - or, one's saṃsāra.[6]

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“Learned and Honourable”
Wisdom provides the advantage to take advantage of the sentient being
Keep under
HAT
Honor Among Thieves
OITINGO
Once In There is No Getting Out

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POW
Planet Occult Within

PRICK
Political Religious Illusion Convoluted Kafabe
BS
SB
Sentient Beings
FIBIB
Fickle Inherent Bias Ignorant Bliss

Apsis
1.Nearest or farthest point in orbit
either of the two points in an orbit that are nearest to and farthest from the center of gravitational attraction
2. Buildings - Same as apse

Apse
1.Rounded projection on building
a semicircular projecting part of a building, especially the east end of a church, which contains the altar
2. Astronomy - Same as apsis

SIBLING
Scientific Illusion Belief Legal Inference Natural Gratuity

The artificial connection of the scientific structuring of a building with the sciences of the universe
Astronomical funds siphoned from the Humanic to create Satanic Kingdom they flaunt teasing
“Thy Kingdom come” political “American Dream” piety “Pie in the Sky”

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Satanic Godic
The nearest yet farthest from the truth yet to experience the gravity of it all reserved for the Humanic

Play us as monkeys in the middle eh?

Play monkey in middle with us eh?

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Love of War Business!!

Jesuit
1. Member of Roman Catholic religious order
A member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order engaged in missionary and educational
work worldwide. The order was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola in 1534 with the objective of defending
Catholicism against the Reformation.
2. Offensive Term
An offensive term for somebody regarded as crafty or scheming, especially somebody who uses deliberately
ambiguous or confusing words to deceive others

Yamaka
Jesuit Jewish Connect

Yammer
1.Talk loudly and at length
to talk, chat, or chatter noisily and continuously
2. Whine
to whine or complain persistently about something
3. Howl or wail
to make repeated howling sounds of pain or distress

Confucius say or was it I “He who bang head against wall got nothing to lose”
War Mongers
Approximately 10% Satanic wealthy, but due their nature statistics accuracy not available on tax revenue records

Does a person who understands X understand Y?

Let x = An extraordinary abundance of self- proclaimed intellectuals to bring about “Thy Kingdom” that existed prior to their arrival
and rapidly dissipates with their every enactment acted upon

Solve for Y

Yes Johnny … You may use Truth and Thought

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaka

The Yamaka (ञमक; Pali for "pairs") is part of the Pali Canon, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. It is included in
the Abhidhamma Pitaka, which according to the scriptures themselves was taught by the Buddha himself. Scholars do not take
this literally, though some have suggested that some central ideas of the Abhidhamma may go back to him.
The book is in ten chapters, each dealing with a particular topic of Buddhist doctrine: roots, aggregates and so on. The treatment is
by way of questions and answers: Is X Y? But is Y X? This pairing of converse questions gives the book its name, which means "pair"
in Pali. In addition to the identity questions above, the main types are:
For a person (and/or in a place) that X arises/arose/will arise/cease, does/did/will Y ... ?

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Does a person who understands X understand Y?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism

Buddhism (Pali/Sanskrit: बबबबब बबबब Buddha Dharma) is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions,
beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as
the Buddha (Pāli/Sanskrit "the awakened one"). The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some
time between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.[1] He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared
his insights to help sentient beings end suffering (or dukkha), achieve nirvana, and escape what is seen as a cycle of
suffering and rebirth.
Two major branches of Buddhism are recognized: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle").
Theravada—the oldest surviving branch—has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana is found
throughout East Asia and includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Tibetan
Buddhism, Shingon, Tendai and Shinnyo-en. In some classifications Vajrayana—a subcategory of Mahayana practiced in
Tibet and Mongolia—is recognized as a third branch. While Buddhism remains most popular within Asia, both branches are now
found throughout the world. Estimates of Buddhists worldwide vary significantly depending on the way Buddhist adherence is
defined. Lower estimates are between 350–500 million.[2]
Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and
scriptures, and especially their respective practices.[3] The foundations of Buddhist tradition and practice are the Three Jewels:
the Buddha, the Dharma (the teachings), and the Sangha (the community). Taking "refuge in the triple gem" has traditionally been
a declaration and commitment to being on the Buddhist path and in general distinguishes a Buddhist from a non-Buddhist.[4] Other
practices may include following ethical precepts, support of the monastic community, renouncing conventional living and
becoming a monastic, the development of mindfulness and practice of meditation, cultivation of higher wisdom and
discernment, study of scriptures, devotional practices, ceremonies, and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas
and bodhisattvas.

Sentient being
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentient_beings_(Buddhism)

Sentient beings is a technical term in Buddhist discourse. Broadly speaking, it denotes beings
with consciousness or sentience or, in some contexts, life itself.[1] Specifically, it denotes the presence of the five aggregates,
or skandhas.[2] While distinctions in usage and potential subdivisions or classes of sentient beings vary from one school, teacher, or
thinker to another—and there is debate within some Buddhist schools as to what exactly constitutes sentience and how it is to be
recognized[citation needed]—it principally refers to beings in contrast with buddhahood. That is, sentient beings are
characteristically not enlightened, and are thus confined to the death, rebirth, and suffering characteristic
of Saṃsāra.[3] However, Mahayana Buddhism simultaneously teaches (in the Tathagatagarbha doctrine particularly) that
sentient beings also contain Buddha-nature—the intrinsic potential to transcend the conditions of samsara and attain enlightenment,
thereby becoming a Buddha.[4] In Mahayana Buddhism, it is to sentient beings that the Bodhisattva vow of compassion is
pledged. Furthermore, and particularly in Tibetan Buddhism and Japanese Buddhism, all beings (including plant life and even
inanimate objects or entities considered “spiritual” or “metaphysical” by conventional Western thought) are or may be considered
sentient beings.[5][6]

“Those who greatly enlighten illusion are Buddhas; those who are greatly deluded about enlightenment are sentient beings.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentience

Sentience is the ability to feel, or perceive, or be conscious, or have subjective experiences. 18th century philosophers used the
term to distinguish the ability to think (" reason") from the ability to feel ("sentience"). In modern western philosophy, sentience is the

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ability to have sensations or experiences (known as "qualia"). For Eastern philosophy, sentience is a metaphysical quality of all
things that requires respect and care. The term is central to the philosophy of animal rights, because sentience implies the ability
to suffer, which entails certain rights. In science fiction, a non-human character described as "sentient" will typically have similar
abilities, qualities and rights to a human being.

In the philosophy of consciousness, "sentience" can refer to the ability of any entity to have subjective perceptual experiences, or
"qualia".[1] This is distinct from other aspects of the mind and consciousness, such
as creativity, intelligence, sapience, self-awareness, and intentionality (the ability to have thoughts that mean something or
are "about" something). Sentience is a minimalistic way of defining "consciousness", which is otherwise commonly used to
collectively describe sentience plus other characteristics of the mind.
Some philosophers, notably Colin McGinn, believe that sentience will never be understood, a position known as " New
Mysterianism". They do not deny that most other aspects of consciousness are subject to scientific investigation but they argue
that subjective experiences will never be explained; i.e., sentience is the only aspect of consciousness that can't be explained.
Other philosophers (such as Daniel Dennett) disagree, arguing that all aspects of consciousness will eventually yield to scientific
investigation.

Although the term "sentience" is avoided by major artificial intelligence textbooks and researchers,[4] it is sometimes used in
popular accounts of AI to describe "human level or higher intelligence" (or strong AI). This is closely related to the use of the term
in science fiction. Some sources reserve the term " sapience" for human level intelligence and make a distinction between
"sentience" and "sapience".[citation needed]

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks
define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" [2] where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its
environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. [3] John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956,[4] defines it
as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines." [5]
The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens—can be so
precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. [6] This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the
ethics of creating artificial beings, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.[7] Artificial
intelligence has been the subject of optimism,[8] but has also suffered setbacks[9] and, today, has become an essential part of the
technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science. [10]

SAPIENCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapience#Sapience
Wisdom is a deep understanding and realizing of people, things, events or situations, resulting in the ability to choose or act or inspire
to consistently produce the optimum results with a minimum of time, energy or thought. It is the ability to optimally (effectively
and efficiently) apply perceptions and knowledge and so produce the desired results. Wisdom is also the comprehension of what is
true or right coupled with optimum judgment as to action. Synonyms include: sagacity, discernment, or insight. Wisdom often requires
control of one's emotional reactions (the "passions") so that one's principles, reason and knowledge prevail to determine one's actions.
A basic philosophical definition of wisdom is to make the best use of knowledge.[1] The opposite of wisdom is folly.
The ancient Greeks considered wisdom to be an important virtue, personified as the goddesses Metis and Athena.
To Socrates and Plato, philosophy was literally the love of Wisdom (philo-sophia). This permeates Plato's dialogues,
especially The Republic, in which the leaders of his proposed utopia are to be philosopher kings: rulers who understand
the Form of the Good and possess the courage to act accordingly. Aristotle, in his Metaphysics, defined wisdom as the
understanding of causes, i.e. knowing why things are a certain way, which is deeper than merely knowing that things are a certain
way.[2]
Wisdom is also important within Christianity. Jesus emphasized it.[3][4] Paul the Apostle, in his first epistle to the
Corinthians, argued that there is both secular and divine wisdom, urging Christians to pursue the latter. Prudence, which is
intimately related to wisdom, became one of the four cardinal virtues of Catholicism. The Christian philosopher Thomas
Aquinas considered wisdom to be the "father" (i.e. the cause, measure, and form) of all virtues.
In the Inuit tradition, developing wisdom was the aim of teaching. An Inuit Elder said that a person became wise when they could see
what needed to be done and do it successfully without being told what to do.
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Nicholas Maxwell, a contemporary philosopher, advocates that academia ought to alter its focus from the acquisition of
knowledge to seeking and promoting wisdom, which he defines as the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and
others.[5]
Psychological perspectives
Psychologists have gathered data on commonly held beliefs or folk theories about wisdom. [6] These analyses indicate that although
"there is an overlap of the implicit theory of wisdom with intelligence, perceptiveness, spirituality and shrewdness, it is evident that
wisdom is a distinct term and not a composite of other terms."[7] Many, but not all, studies find that adults' self-ratings of
perspective/wisdom do not depend on age.[8][9] This stands in contrast to the popular notion that wisdom increases with
age,[9] supported by a recent study showing that regardless of their education, IQ or gender, older adults possess superior reasoning
about societal and interpersonal conflicts.[10] In many cultures the name for third molars, which are the last teeth to grow, is
etymologically linked with wisdom, e.g. as in the English wisdom tooth. In 2009, a study reviewed which brain processes might be
related to wisdom.[11]
Researchers in the field of positive psychology have defined wisdom as the coordination of "knowledge and experience" and "its
deliberate use to improve well being." [12] With this definition, wisdom can supposedly be measured using the following criteria. [8]
A wise person has self-knowledge.
A wise person seems sincere and direct with others.
Others ask wise people for advice.
A wise person's actions are consistent with his/her ethical beliefs.
Measurement instruments that use these criteria have acceptable to good internal consistency and low test-
retest reliability (r in the range of 0.35 to 0.67).[8]
Religious perspectives
Further information: Sophia (wisdom)
Some religions have specific teachings relating to wisdom.
Ancient Egypt
Saa represents the personification of wisdom or the God of wisdom in Ancient Egyptian Mythology.
Hebrew Bible
This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help clarify the section;
suggestions may be found on the talk page.(December 2010)
In the Christian Bible and Jewish scripture, wisdom is represented by the sense of justice of the lawful and wise king Solomon,
who asks God for wisdom in 2 Chronicles 1. Much of the Book of Proverbs, a book of wise sayings, is attributed to Solomon. In
Proverbs 1:7 and 9:10, the fear of the Lord is called the beginning or foundation of wisdom while Proverbs 8:13 declares "To fear
the Lord is to hate evil". In Proverbs 1:20, there is also reference to wisdom personified in female form, "Wisdom calls aloud in the
street, she raises her voice in the public squares." Continuing in Proverbs 8:22-31, this personified wisdom is described as being
present with God before creation began and even taking part in creation itself, delighting especially in human beings.
It has been posited that an ancient belief existed among the Jews and Samaritans that both the wisest and most aged among them
would grow caprine horns, which were known euphemistically as "rays of light" (‫)נקודת אור‬, hence the following ancient
Hebrew dictums:[13]
From Wisdom's ("Power" or "an animal horn") Authority is born.
His Wisdom shone (qaran) unto them like ("power" or "an animal horn") (qeren) of light - (perhaps a more poetic translation would be
'his wisdom shone like a powerful beam of light').
However this is most likely a mistranslation of the Hebrew 'Keren' which means 'pride/defiance' (Psalm 75:5) in the emotive context
but 'animal horn' in the vulgate.[14] Possibly one of the most famous results of this error was Michelangelo's addition of horns to his
statue of Moses.
In a general sense the Hebrew for "horn" can be taken to represent the emotive and political concept of power.
The word wisdom is mentioned 222 times in the Old Testament and New Testament of the Bible . Both the books
of Proverbs and Psalms urge readers to obtain and to increase in wisdom. Here are some of the things that the Bible says that
wisdom is responsible for:
Building and establishing a house (Proverbs 24:3-4). Preserving life (Proverbs 3:21-23). Safety and a clear path (Proverbs 3:21-23).
Better to own than gold or silver (Proverbs 16:16). Giver of patience and glory (Proverbs 19:11).
New Testament
Further information: Sophia_(wisdom)
Furthermore, there is an oppositional element in Christian thought between secular wisdom and Godly wisdom. The apostle
Paul states that worldly wisdom thinks the claims of Christ to be foolishness. However, to those who are being saved Christ
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represents the wisdom of God. (1 Corinthians 1:17-31) Also, Wisdom is one of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit according to
Anglican, Catholic, and Lutheran belief. 1 Corinthians 12:8-10 gives an alternate list of nine virtues, among which wisdom is one.
Qur'an
In Islam, Wisdom is deemed as one of the greatest gifts humankind can enjoy. The Q'uran states : " He gives wisdom to whom He
wills, and whoever has been given wisdom has certainly been given much good. And none will remember except those of
understanding." [2:269]*
There are a number of verses where the Q'uran specifically talks about the nature of wisdom. In Surah 22 Al-Ĥajj (The Pilgrimage) it
is said, "Do they not travel through the land, so that their hearts (and minds) may thus learn wisdom and their ears may thus learn to
hear? Truly it is not their eyes that are blind, but their hearts which are in their breasts" (verse 46). In another Surah Al-'An`ām (The
Cattle) it's said, "Say: "Come, I will rehearse what Allah (God) hath (really) prohibited you from": Join not anything as equal with
Him; be good to your parents; kill not your children on a plea of want;― We provide sustenance for you and for them;― come not
nigh to shameful deeds, whether open or secret; take not life, which Allah hath made sacred, except by way of justice and law: thus
doth He command you, that ye may learn wisdom" (verse 151)
Eastern religions and philosophy
According to Confucius, wisdom can be learned by three methods: Reflection (the noblest), imitation (the easiest) and experience
(the bitterest). Wisdom is not told by self but unless asked for by another. This means a wise man never tells his wisdom unless asked
person to person. According to "Doctrine of the Mean," Confucius also said, "Love of learning is akin to wisdom. To practice with
vigor is akin to humanity. To know to be shameful is akin to courage (zhi,ren,yi..three of Mengzi's sprouts of virtue)." Compare this
with the beginning of the Confucian classic "Great Learning" which begins with "The Way of learning to be great consists in
manifesting the clear character, loving the people, and abiding in the highest good" one can clearly see the correlation with the Roman
virtue "prudence," especially if one transliterates clear character as clear conscience. (Quotes from Chan's Sources of Chinese
Philosophy).
Buddhist scriptures teach that a wise person is endowed with good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, and good mental
conduct.(AN 3:2) A wise person does actions that are unpleasant to do but give good results, and doesn’t do actions that are pleasant
to do but give bad results (AN 4:115). Wisdom is the antidote to the self-chosen poison of ignorance. The Buddha has much to
say on the subject of wisdom including:
He who arbitrates a case by force does not thereby become just (established in Dhamma). But the wise man is he who carefully
discriminates between right and wrong.[15]
He who leads others by nonviolence, righteously and equitably, is indeed a guardian of justice, wise and righteous. [16]
One is not wise merely because he talks much. But he who is calm, free from hatred and fear, is verily called a wise man. [17]
By quietude alone one does not become a sage (muni) if he is foolish and ignorant. But he who, as if holding a pair of scales, takes
the good and shuns the evil, is a wise man; he is indeed a muni by that very reason. He who understands both good and evil as they
really are, is called a true sage.[18]
In Taoism, wisdom is construed as adherence to the Three Treasures (Taoism): charity, simplicity, and humility.
Knowing others is intelligence;
knowing yourself is true wisdom.
Mastering others is strength;
mastering yourself is true power.
(Tao Te Ching, 33, tr. S. Mitchell)
Other religions
In Mesopotamian religion and mythology, Enki, also known as Ea, was the God of wisdom and intelligence. Wisdom was
achieved by restoring balance.
In Norse mythology, the god Odin is especially known for his wisdom, often acquired through various hardships and ordeals
involving pain and self-sacrifice. In one instance he plucked out an eye and offered it to Mímir, guardian of the well of knowledge
and wisdom, in return for a drink from the well. [19] In another famous account, Odin hanged himself for nine nights
from Yggdrasil, the World Tree that unites all the realms of existence, suffering from hunger and thirst and finally wounding
himself with a spear until he gained the knowledge of runes for use in casting powerful magic.[20] He was also able to acquire
the mead of poetry from the giants, a drink of which could grant the power of a scholar or poet, for the benefit of gods and
mortals alike.[19]
Sapience
Look
up sophont in Wiktion
ary, the free dictionary.
Not to be confused with sentience.

14
Sapience is often defined as wisdom, or the ability of an organism or entity to act with appropriate judgment, a mental faculty which
is a component of intelligence or alternatively may be considered an additional faculty, apart from intelligence, with its own
properties. Robert Sternberg[21] has segregated the capacity for judgment from the general qualifiers for intelligence, which is
closer to cognizant aptitude than to wisdom. Displaying sound judgment in a complex, dynamic environment is a hallmark of wisdom.
In fantasy fiction and science fiction, sapience describes an essential human property that bestows "personhood" onto a non-
human. It indicates that a computer, alien, mythical creature or other object will be treated as a completely human character,
with similar rights, capabilities and desires as any other human character. The words " sentience", "self-awareness" and
"consciousness" are used in similar ways in science fiction.
The word sapience is derived from the Latin word sapientia, meaning wisdom.[22] Related to this word is the Latin verb sapere,
which means "to taste, to be wise, to know"; the present participle of sapere forms part of Homo sapiens, the Latin
binomial nomenclature created by Carolus Linnaeus to describe the human species. Linnaeus had originally given humans the
species name of diurnus, meaning man of the day. But he later decided that the dominating feature of humans was wisdom, hence
application of the name sapiens. His chosen biological name was intended to emphasize man's uniqueness and separation from the rest
of the animal kingdom.

New Mysterianism is a philosophical position proposing that the hard problem of consciousness will never be explained; or
at the least cannot be explained by the human mind at its current evolutionary stage. The unresolvable problem is how to explain
sentience and qualia and their interaction with consciousness.
Contents
[hide]
1 Name
2 Philosophy
3 Adherents
4 See also
5 References
5.1 Citations
5.2 Other
sources
[edit] Name
The "old mysterians" were not a discrete intellectual movement, but rather thinkers throughout history who have put forward a
position that some aspects of consciousness may not be knowable or discoverable. They include Gottfried Leibniz, Samuel
Johnson, and Thomas Huxley. Huxley wrote, "How it is that anything so remarkable as a state of consciousness comes about as a
result of irritating nervous tissue, is just as unaccountable as the appearance of the Djinn, when Aladdin rubbed his lamp." [6, p. 229,
quote]
Owen Flanagan noted in his 1991 book Science of the Mind that some modern thinkers have suggested that consciousness may
never be completely explained. Flanagan called them "the new mysterians" after the rock group Question Mark and the
Mysterians.[1] The term "New Mysterianism" has been extended by some writers to encompass the wider philosophical position
that humans do not have the intellectual ability to solve many hard problems, not just the problem of consciousness, at a scientific
level. This position is also known as anti-constructive naturalism.
[edit] Philosophy
Main article: cognitive closure
New Mysterianism is often characterized [by whom?] as a presupposition that some problems cannot be solved. Critics [ who?] of
this view argue that it is fallacious to assume that a problem cannot be solved just because we have not solved it yet. On the other
hand, New Mysterians would say that it is just as absurd to assume that every problem can be solved. Crucially, New Mysterians
would argue that they did not start with any supposition as to the solvability of the question, and instead reached their conclusion
through logical reasoning. Their argument goes as follows:
Subjective experiences by their very nature cannot be shared or compared. Therefore it is impossible to know what subjective
experiences a system (other than ourselves) is having. This will always be the case, no matter what clever scientific tests we invent.
Therefore, there are some questions about consciousness that will never be answered.
Noam Chomsky distinguishes between problems, which seem solvable, at least in principle, through scientific methods, and
mysteries, which do not seem solvable, even in principle. He notes that the cognitive capabilities of all organisms are limited by
biology, e.g. a mouse will never speak like a human. In the same way, certain problems may be beyond our understanding. For

15
example, in the mind-body problem, emergent materialism
claims that humans are not smart enough to determine "the relationship between mind and matter.

“What is the matter dear Did the BBBB – Bully Brat Bias Beasts do their thing again”
“How Many times do I have to tell you … that is what they do … it is their nature”
and we must respect nature

"[citation needed] Strong agnosticism applies this position to religion.
[edit] Adherents
Colin McGinn is the leading proponent of the New Mysterian position among major philosophers.
Author and conservative columnist John Derbyshire has stated publicly that although formerly professing Christianity, he now
considers himself to be a Mysterian. [1]
American mathematics and science writer Martin Gardner considered himself to be a Mysterian.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reason
The faculty of reason also known as rationality, or the faculty of discursive reason (in opposition to "intuitive reason") is a virtue
that governs the exploratory interactions of humans with the universe - such as those employed in our practice of the natural
sciences. It is a mental ability found in human beings and normally considered to be a definitive characteristic of human
nature.[1] It is closely associated with such human activities as language, science, art, mathematics and philosophy.
Reason, like habit or intuition, is a means by which thinking comes from one idea to a related idea. But more specifically, it is the way
rational beings propose and consider explanations concerning cause and effect, true and false, and what is good or bad. In
contrast to reason as an abstract noun, a reason is a consideration which explains or justifies some event, phenomenon or
behaviour.[2] The ways in which human beings reason through an argument are the subject of inquiries in the field of logic.
Reason is closely identified with the ability to self-consciously change beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and institutions, and
therefore with the capacity for Freedom and self-determination.[3]
Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and
neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw. The field of automated
reasoning studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally. Animal psychology considers the controversial
question of whether animals can reason.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddha-nature

Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle (Buddha-dhātu), is taught, within Mahayana Buddhism, to be an intrinsic, immortal potential
for reaching enlightenment that exists within the mind of every sentient being. Buddha-nature is not to be confused with the
concept of Atman, or Self, but instead is viewed to be empty of defining characteristics (also see Sunyata and Nondualism). In
some Tathagatagarbha scriptures, however, especially the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Buddha-nature is defined
as Self which is permanent, blissful and pure.[1]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ātman_(Buddhism)
The word Ātman (Sanskrit: बबबबबब) or Atta (Pāli) refers to a self. Occasionally the terms " soul" or "ego" are also used. The
words ātman and atta derive from the Indo-European root *ēt-men (breath) and are cognate with the Old English æthm
and German Atem.[1]
Some Mahāyāna Buddhist sutras and tantras present other Buddhist teachings with positive language by asserting the ultimate reality
of an atman which is equated with the essential nature of mind (Dalai Lama — see relevant section below). This doctrine, also known
as Tathāgatagarbha, is also seen as the inborn potential to become a Buddha.
Theravāda Dhammakaya Movement of Thailand also teaches the reality of a true self, which it equates with nirvana.

16
Good is Evil or Evil is Good

As Romans prefer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_(Michelangelo)

The marble sculpture depicts Moses with horns on his head. This was the normal medieval Western depiction of Moses, based on
the description of Moses' face as "cornuta" ("horned") in the Latin Vulgate translation of Exodus.[2] The Douay-Rheims
Bible translates the Vulgate as, "And when Moses came down from the mount Sinai, he held the two tables of the testimony, and he
knew not that his face was horned from the conversation of the Lord." [3] The Greek in the Septuagint translates as, "Moses knew
not that the appearance of the skin of his face was glorified." [4] The Hebrew Masoretic text also uses words equivalent to
"radiant",[5] suggesting an effect like a halo. Horns were symbolic of authority in ancient Near Eastern culture, and the medieval
depiction had the advantage of giving Moses a convenient attribute by which he could easily be recognized in crowded pictures.
According to Giorgio Vasari in his Life of Michelangelo, the Jews of Rome came like

"flocks of starlings"
to admire the statue every Shabat.

Hence the snow-job up to here in it!!

DAIS NAID
Do as I Say Not as I Do

First to break the originals

17
Mount Sinai and the Ten Commandments
Main article: Ten Commandments
According to the Bible, after crossing the Red Sea and leading the Israelites towards the desert, Moses was
summoned by God to Mount Sinai, also referred to as Mount Horeb, the same place where Moses had first
talked to the Burning Bush, tended the flocks of Jethro his father-in-law, and later produced water by striking
the rock with his staff and directed the battle with the Amalekites.
Moses stayed on the mountain for 40 days and nights, a period in which he received the Ten Commandments
directly from God. Moses then descended from the mountain with intent to deliver the commandments to the
people, but upon his arrival he saw that the people were involved in the sin of the Golden Calf. In terrible anger,
Moses broke the commandment tablets[30]
and ordered his own tribe (the Levites) to go through the camp and
kill everyone, including family and friends,[31]
upon which the Levites killed about 3,000 people.[32] God later commanded Moses to inscribe two other
tablets, to replace the ones Moses smashed,[33] so Moses went to the mountain again, for another period of 40
days and nights, and when he returned, the commandments were finally given.
In Jewish tradition, Moses is referred to as "The Lawgiver" for this singular achievement of delivering the Ten
Commandments.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucianism

Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese
philosopher Confucius (Kǒng Fūzǐ, or K'ung-fu-tzu, lit. "Master Kong", 551–478 BC). It is a complex system of moral, social,
political, philosophical, and quasi-religious thought that influenced the culture and history of East Asia. It might be considered
a state religion of some East Asian countries, because of state promotion of Confucian philosophies.
Cultures and countries strongly influenced by Confucianism include mainland China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan and Vietnam, as
well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore. It might be that as many as 1.5 billion
people follow Confucian ideals, according to Rick Cornish. [1]
In Confucianism, human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavour especially
including self-cultivation and self-creation. A main idea of Confucianism is the cultivation of virtue and the development of moral
perfection. Confucianism holds that one should give up one's life, if necessary, either passively or actively, for the sake of upholding
the cardinal moral values of ren and yi.[2]
Contents
[hide]
1 Themes in Confucian thought
1.1 Humanity
1.2 Ritual
1.3 Loyalty
1.4 Filial piety
1.5 Relationships
1.6 The gentleman
1.7 Rectification of names
2 Governance
3 Meritocracy
4 Influence in 17th-century Europe
5 Influence in modern times
6 Criticism
6.1 Women in Confucian thought
7 Debate over classification
18
7.1 Ahmadiyya view
8 Names
9 See also
10 References
11 Further reading
12 Translations of Texts Attributed to
Confucius
12.1 The Analects (Lun Yu)
13 External links
Themes in Confucian thought
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this
article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may
be challenged and removed. (September 2009)
Humanity is core in Confucianism. A simple way to appreciate Confucian thought is to consider it as being
based on varying levels of honesty, and a simple way to understand Confucian thought is to examine the world
by using the logic of humanity. In practice, the elements of Confucianism accumulated over time. There is the
classical Wuchang (五常) consisting of five elements: Ren (仁, Humanity), Yi (義, Righteousness), Li (禮,
Ritual), Zhi (智, Knowledge), Xin (信, Integrity), and there is also the classical Sizi (四字) with four elements:
Zhong (忠, Loyalty), Xiao (孝, Filial piety), Jie (節, Continency), Yi (義, Righteousness). There are still many
other elements, such as Cheng (誠, honesty), Shu (恕, kindness and forgiveness), Lian (廉, honesty and
cleanness), Chi (恥, shame, judge and sense of right and wrong), Yong (勇, bravery), Wen (溫, kind and
gentle), Liang (良, good, kindhearted), Gong (恭, respectful, reverent), Jian(儉, frugal), Rang (讓, modestly,
self-effacing). Among all elements, Ren (Humanity) and Yi (Righteousness) are fundamental. Sometimes
morality is interpreted as the phantom of Humanity and Righteousness.[3]
Humanity
Main article: Ren (Confucianism)
Ritual and filial piety are indeed the ways in which one should act towards others, but from an underlying
attitude of humaneness. Confucius' concept of humaneness (Chinese: 仁; pinyin:rén) is probably best expressed
in the Confucian version of the Ethic of reciprocity, or the Golden Rule: "do not do unto others what you would
not have them do unto you."
Confucius never stated whether man was born good or evil,[4] noting that 'By nature men are similar; by
practice men are wide apart' [5]—implying that whether good or bad, Confucius must have perceived all men to
be born with intrinsic similarities, but that man is conditioned and influenced by study and practise. Xunzi's
opinion is that men originally just want what they instinctively want despite positive or negative results it may
bring, so cultivation is needed. In Mencius' view, all men are born to share goodness such as compassion and
good heart, although they may become wicked. The Three Character Classic begins with "People at birth are
naturally good (kind-hearted)", which stems from Mencius' idea. All the views eventually lead to recognize the
importance of human education and cultivation.
Rén also has a political dimension. If the ruler lacks rén, Confucianism holds, it will be difficult if not
impossible for his subjects to behave humanely. Rén is the basis of Confucian political theory: it presupposes an
autocratic ruler, exhorted to refrain from acting inhumanely towards his subjects. An inhumane ruler runs the
risk of losing the "Mandate of Heaven", the right to rule. A ruler lacking such a mandate need not be obeyed.
But a ruler who reigns humanely and takes care of the people is to be obeyed strictly, for the benevolence of his
dominion shows that he has been mandated by heaven. Confucius himself had little to say on the will of the
people, but his leading follower Mencius did state on one occasion that the people's opinion on certain weighty
matters should be considered.
Ritual
19
Main article: Li (Confucianism)
In Confucianism the term "ritual" (Chinese: 禮; pinyin: lǐ) was soon extended to include secular ceremonial
behavior, and eventually referred also to the propriety or politeness which colors everyday life. Rituals were
codified and treated as a comprehensive system of norms. Confucius himself tried to revive the etiquette of
earlier dynasties. After his death, people regarded him as a great authority on ritual behaviors.
It is important to note that "ritual" has developed a specialized meaning in Confucianism, as opposed to its
usual religious meanings. In Confucianism, the acts of everyday life are considered ritual. Rituals are not
necessarily regimented or arbitrary practices, but the routines that people often engage in, knowingly or
unknowingly, during the normal course of their lives. Shaping the rituals in a way that leads to a content and
healthy society, and to content and healthy people, is one purpose of Confucian philosophy.
The Rites
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may
be challenged and removed. (November 2009)
Translations from the 17th century to the present have varied widely. Comparison of these many sources is
needed for a true "general consensus" of what message Confucius meant to imply.
Confucius argued that under law, external authorities administer punishments after illegal actions, so people
generally behave well without understanding reasons why they should; whereas with ritual, patterns of behavior
are internalized and exert their influence before actions are taken, so people behave properly because they fear
shame and want to avoid losing face. In this sense, "rite" (Chinese: 禮; pinyin: lǐ) is an ideal form of social
norm.
The Chinese character for "rites", or "ritual", previously had the religious meaning of "sacrifice". Its Confucian
meaning ranges from politeness and propriety to the understanding of each person's correct place in society.
Externally, ritual is used to distinguish between people; their usage allows people to know at all times who is
the younger and who the elder, who is the guest and who the host and so forth. Internally, rites indicate to
people their duty amongst others and what to expect from them.
Internalization is the main process in ritual. Formalized behavior becomes progressively internalized, desires
are channeled and personal cultivation becomes the mark of social correctness. Though this idea conflicts with
the common saying that "the cowl does not make the monk," in Confucianism sincerity is what enables
behavior to be absorbed by individuals. Obeying ritual with sincerity makes ritual the most powerful way to
cultivate oneself:
Respectfulness, without the Rites, becomes laborious bustle; carefulness, without the Rites, become timidity;
boldness, without the Rites, becomes insubordination; straightforwardness, without the Rites, becomes
rudeness. (Analects VIII, 2)
Ritual can be seen as a means to find the balance between opposing qualities that might otherwise lead to
conflict. It divides people into categories, and builds hierarchical relationships through protocols and
ceremonies, assigning everyone a place in society and a proper form of behavior. Music, which seems to have
played a significant role in Confucius' life, is given as an exception, as it transcends such boundaries and
"unifies the hearts".
Although the Analects heavily promote the rites, Confucius himself often behaved other than in accord with
them.
Loyalty
Loyalty (Chinese: 忠; pinyin: zhōng) is the equivalent of filial piety on a different plane. It is particularly
relevant for the social class to which most of Confucius' students belonged, because the only way for an
ambitious young scholar to make his way in the Confucian Chinese world was to enter a ruler's civil service.
Like filial piety, however, loyalty was often subverted by the autocratic regimes of China. Confucius had
advocated a sensitivity to the realpolitik of the class relations in his time; he did not propose that "might makes
right", but that a superior who had received the "Mandate of Heaven" (see below) should be obeyed because of
his moral rectitude.
20
In later ages, however, emphasis was placed more on the obligations of the ruled to the ruler, and less on the
ruler's obligations to the ruled.
Loyalty was also an extension of one's duties to friends, family, and spouse. Loyalty to one's family came first,
then to one's spouse, then to one's ruler, and lastly to one's friends. Loyalty was considered one of the greater
human virtues.
Confucius also realized that loyalty and filial piety can potentially conflict.
Filial piety
Main article: Filial piety
"Filial piety" (Chinese: 孝; pinyin: xiào) is considered among the greatest of virtues and must be shown towards
both the living and the dead (including even remote ancestors). The term "filial" (meaning "of a child")
characterizes the respect that a child, originally a son, should show to his parents. This relationship was
extended by analogy to a series of five relationships (Chinese: 五倫; pinyin: wǔlún):[6]
The Five Bonds
Ruler to Ruled
Father to Son
Husband to Wife
Elder Brother to Younger Brother
Friend to Friend
Specific duties were prescribed to each of the participants in these sets of relationships. Such duties were also
extended to the dead, where the living stood as sons to their deceased family. This led to the veneration of
ancestors. The only relationship where respect for elders wasn't stressed was the Friend to Friend relationship.
In all other relationships, high reverence was held for elders.
The idea of Filial piety influenced the Chinese legal system: a criminal would be punished more harshly if the
culprit had committed the crime against a parent, while fathers often exercised enormous power over their
children. A similar differentiation was applied to other relationships. Now [PROC? clarification needed] filial
piety is also built into law. People have the responsibility to provide for their elderly parents according to the
law.
The main source of our knowledge of the importance of filial piety is The Book of Filial Piety, a work attributed
to Confucius and his son but almost certainly written in the 3rd century BCE. The Analects, the main source of
the Confucianism of Confucius, actually has little to say on the matter of filial piety and some sources believe
the concept was focused on by later thinkers as a response to Mohism.
Filial piety has continued to play a central role in Confucian thinking to the present day.
Relationships
Relationships are central to Confucianism. Particular duties arise from one's particular situation in relation to
others. The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people: as a junior
in relation to parents and elders, and as a senior in relation to younger siblings, students, and others. While
juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe their seniors reverence, seniors also have duties
of benevolence and concern toward juniors. This theme of mutuality is prevalent in East Asian cultures even to
this day.
Social harmony—the great goal of Confucianism—therefore results in part from every individual knowing his
or her place in the social order, and playing his or her part well. When Duke Jing of Qi asked about government,
by which he meant proper administration so as to bring social harmony, Confucius replied:
There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the
son is son. (Analects XII, 11, trans. Legge)
Mencius says: "When being a child, yearn for and love your parents; when growing mature, yearn for and love
your lassie; when having wife and child(ren), yearn for and love your wife and child(ren); when being an
official (or a staffer), yearn for and love your sovereign (and/or boss)."[7][cite this quote]
The gentleman
Main article: Junzi

21
The term jūnzǐ (Chinese: 君子; literally "lord's child") is crucial to classical Confucianism. Confucianism
exhorts all people to strive for the ideal of a "gentleman" or "perfect man". A succinct description of the
"perfect man" is one who "combines the qualities of saint, scholar, and gentleman." In modern times the
masculine translation in English is also traditional and is still frequently used. Elitism was bound up with the
concept, and gentlemen were expected to act as moral guides to the rest of society.
They were to:
cultivate themselves morally;
show filial piety and loyalty where these are due;
cultivate humanity, or benevolence.
The great exemplar of the perfect gentleman is Confucius himself. Perhaps the tragedy of his life was that he
was never awarded the high official position which he desired, from which he wished to demonstrate the
general well-being that would ensue if humane persons ruled and administered the state.
The opposite of the Jūnzǐ was the Xiǎorén (Chinese: 小人; pinyin: xiǎorén; literally "small person"). The
character 小 in this context means petty in mind and heart, narrowly self-interested, greedy, superficial, or
materialistic.
Rectification of names
Main article: Rectification of Names
Confucius believed that social disorder often stemmed from failure to perceive, understand, and deal with
reality. Fundamentally, then, social disorder can stem from the failure to call things by their proper names, and
his solution to this was Zhèngmíng (Chinese: [正名]; pinyin: zhèngmíng; literally "rectification of terms"). He
gave an explanation of zhengming to one of his disciples.
Zi-lu said, "The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with you to administer the government. What
will you consider the first thing to be done?"
The Master replied, "What is necessary to rectify names."
"So! indeed!" said Zi-lu. "You are wide off the mark! Why must there be such rectification?"
The Master said, "How uncultivated you are, Yu! A superior man, in regard to what he does not know, shows a
cautious reserve.
If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of things.
If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success.
When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music do not flourish.
When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly awarded.
When punishments are not properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot.
Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses may be spoken appropriately, and also
that what he speaks may be carried out appropriately. What the superior man requires is just that in his words
there may be nothing incorrect."
(Analects XIII, 3, tr. Legge)
Xun Zi chapter (22) "On the Rectification of Names" claims the ancient sage-kings chose names
(Chinese: [名]; pinyin: míng) that directly corresponded with actualities (Chinese: [實];pinyin: shí), but later
generations confused terminology, coined new nomenclature, and thus could no longer distinguish right from
wrong.
Governance

22
Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Taiwan,Republic of China
To govern by virtue, let us compare it to the North Star: it stays in its place, while the myriad stars wait upon it.
(Analects II, 1)
Another key Confucian concept is that in order to govern others one must first govern oneself. When developed
sufficiently, the king's personal virtue spreads beneficent influence throughout the kingdom. This idea is
developed further in the Great Learning, and is tightly linked with the Taoist concept of wu wei (simplified
Chinese: 无为; traditional Chinese: 無為; pinyin: wú wéi): the less the king does, the more gets done. By being
the "calm center" around which the kingdom turns, the king allows everything to function smoothly and avoids
having to tamper with the individual parts of the whole.
This idea may be traced back to early Chinese shamanistic beliefs, such as the king being the axle between the
sky, human beings, and the Earth. Another complementary view is that this idea may have been used by
ministers and counselors to deter aristocratic whims that would otherwise be to the detriment of the state's
people.
Meritocracy
In teaching, there should be no distinction of classes. (Analects XV, 39)
The main basis of his teachings was to seek knowledge, study, and become a better person.
Although Confucius claimed that he never invented anything but was only transmitting ancient knowledge
(see Analects VII, 1), he did produce a number of new ideas. Many European and American admirers such
as Voltaire and H. G. Creel point to the revolutionary idea of replacing nobility of blood with nobility of virtue.
Jūnzǐ (君子, lit. "lord's child"), which originally signified the younger, non-inheriting, offspring of a noble,
became, in Confucius' work, an epithet having much the same meaning and evolution as the English
"gentleman". A virtuous plebeian who cultivates his qualities can be a "gentleman", while a shameless son of
the king is only a "small man". That he admitted students of different classes as disciples is a clear
demonstration that he fought against the feudal structures that defined pre-imperial Chinese society.
Another new idea, that of meritocracy, led to the introduction of the Imperial examination system in China. This
system allowed anyone who passed an examination to become a government officer, a position which would
bring wealth and honour to the whole family. The Chinese Imperial examination system seems to have been
started in 165 BC, when certain candidates for public office were called to the Chinese capital for examination
of their moral excellence by the emperor. Over the following centuries the system grew until finally almost
anyone who wished to become an official had to prove his worth by passing written government examinations.
His achievement was the setting up of a school that produced statesmen with a strong sense of patriotism and
duty, known as Rujia (Chinese: 儒家; pinyin: Rújiā). During the Warring States Period and the early Han
Dynasty, China grew greatly and the need arose for a solid and centralized corporation of government officers
able to read and write administrative papers. As a result, Confucianism was promoted by the emperor and the
men its doctrines produced became an effective counter to the remaining feudal aristocrats who threatened the
unity of the imperial state.

23
Since then Confucianism has been used as a kind of "state religion", with authoritarianism, a kind of legitimism,
paternalism, and submission to authority used as political tools to rule China. Most Chinese emperors used a
mix of Legalism and Confucianism as their ruling doctrine, often with the latter embellishing the former.
Influence in 17th-century Europe

"Life and works of Confucius, by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687.
The works of Confucius were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars
stationed in China.[8] Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and father Prospero Intorcetta
published the life and works of Confucius into Latin in 1687.[9] It is thought that such works had considerable
importance[citation needed] on European thinkers[who?] of the period, particularly among the Deists and other
philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of
Confucius into Western civilization.[9][10]
Influence in modern times
Important military and political figures in modern Chinese history continued to be influenced by Confucianism,
like the Muslim warlord Ma Fuxiang.[11] The New Life Movement relied heavily on Confucianism.
The Kuomintang party purged China's education system of western ideas, introducing Confucianism into the
curriculum. Education came under the total control of state, which meant, in effect, the Kuomintang party, via
the Ministry of Education. Military and political classes on the Kuomintang's Three principles of the people
were added. Textbooks, exams, degrees and educational instructors were all controlled by the staet, as were all
universities.[12]
Criticism
For many years since the era of Confucius, there have generated various critiques against Confucianism,
including Laozi's comment and Mozi's critique. Lu Xun also criticised Confucianism heavily for shaping
Chinese people into the state they became in the late Qing Dynasty: this is greatly portrayed through his
works A Madman's Diary and The True Story of Ah Q.
In modern times, waves of critique along with vilification against Confucianism arose. Taiping Rebellion, May
Fourth Movement and Cultural Revolution are some upsurges of those waves in China. Taiping rebels described
many sages in Confucianism as well as gods in Taoism and Buddhism as bogie[?]. Marxists during Cultural
Revolution described Confucius as the general representative of class of slave owners. Numerous opinions and
interpretations of Confucianism of which many are actually opposed by Confucianism were invented.

Confucianism has a related principle idea called "He Er Bu Tong" (和而不同, peaceful but different or
harmonious while diversified). Although people have differences in opinions, interests, preferences, profiles...,
they should first keep peace, and people should live in harmony with each other and meanwhile keep their
diversity. There are still other critique related Confucian ideas, e.g. If what others say is right and your fault is
true, change it. If not, be careful of committing that kind of fault (有則改之,無則加勉), Learn others' virtues,
and reflect on your own weak points when you see others' (見賢思齊焉,見不賢而內自省).
Women in Confucian thought

24
Confucianism "largely defined the mainstream discourse on gender in China from the Han
dynasty onward,"[13] and its strict, obligatory gender roles as a cornerstone of family, and thus, societal
stability, continue to shape social life throughout East Asia. Confucians taught that a virtuous woman was
supposed to uphold “three subordinations”: be subordinate to her father before marriage, to her husband after
marriage, and to her son after her husband died. Men could remarry and have concubines, whereas women were
supposed to uphold the virtue of chastity when they lost their husbands.[14] Chaste widows were revered as
heroes during the Ming and Qing periods,[13] and were deemed so central to China’s culture and the fate of all
peoples, the Yongle Emperor distributed 10,000 copies of the Biographies of Exemplary Women to various
non-Chinese countries for their moral instruction. The Biographies of Exemplary Women, or Lienü Zhuan,
served as Confucianism's seminal textbook for Chinese women for two millennia, but cementing the "cult of
chastity" as an exemplar of Chinese superiority also condemned many widows to lives of "poverty and
loneliness."[13]
However, recent reexaminations of Chinese gender roles suggest that Daoism and the ying-yang dichotomy
played an even greater part in stifling female roles, and that many women flourished within
Confucianism.[13] During the Han dynasty period, the important Confucian text Lessons for Women (Nüjie),
was written by Ban Zhao (45-114 CE): by a woman, for women.
She wrote the Nüjie ostensibly for her daughters, instructing them on how to live proper Confucian lives as
wives and mothers. Although this is a relatively rare instance of a female Confucian voice, Ban Zhao almost
entirely accepts the prevailing views concerning women's proper roles; they should be silent, hard-working, and
compliant. She stresses the complementarity and equal importance of the male and female roles according to
yin-yang theory, but she clearly accepts the dominance of the yang-male. Her only departure from the standard
male versions of this orthodoxy is that she insists on the necessity to educate girls and women. We should not
underestimate the significance of this point, as education was the bottom line qualification for being a junzi or
"noble person,"...her example suggests that the Confucian prescription for a meaningful life as a woman was
apparently not stifling for all women. Even some women of the literate elite, for whom Confucianism was quite
explicitly the norm, were able to flourish by living their lives according to that model.[13]
Debate over classification
There is debate about the classification of Confucianism as a religion or a philosophy. Many attributes common
among religions—such as ancestor worship, ritual, and sacrifice—apply to the practice of Confucianism;
however, the religious features found in Confucian texts can be traced to traditional non-Confucian Chinese
beliefs (Chinese folk religion). The position adopted by some is that Confucianism is a moral science or
philosophy.[15] The problem clearly depends on how one defines religion. Since the 1970s scholars have
attempted to assess the religious status of Confucianism without assuming a definition based on the Western
model (for example, Frederick Streng's definition, "a means of ultimate transformation"[16]). Under such a
definition Confucianism can legitimately be considered a religious tradition.[17]
Ahmadiyya view
Mirza Tahir Ahmad, the fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, in his book Revelation,
Rationality, Knowledge & Truth, has argued that Confucianism was a religion and elaborates further in
attempting to explain through particular references that the religion in its original pristine form was a
monotheistic religion divinely revealed to Confucius who he describes as a prophet of God.[18]
Names
Strictly speaking, there is no term in Chinese which directly corresponds to "Confucianism." Several different
terms are used in different situations, several of which are of modern origin:
"School of the scholars" (Chinese: 儒家; pinyin: Rújiā)
"Teaching of the scholars" (Chinese: 儒教; pinyin: Rújiào)
"Study of the scholars" (simplified Chinese: 儒学; traditional Chinese: 儒學; pinyin: Rúxué)
"Teaching of Confucius" (Chinese: 孔教; pinyin: Kǒngjiào)
"Kong Family's Business" (Chinese: 孔家店; pinyin: Kǒngjiādiàn)[19]

25
Three of these use the Chinese character 儒 rú, meaning "scholar". These names do not use the name
"Confucius" at all, but instead center on the figure or ideal of the Confucian scholar; however, the suffixes
of jiā, jiào, and xué carry different implications as to the nature of Confucianism itself.
Rújiā contains the character jiā, which literally means "house" or "family". In this context, it is more readily
construed as meaning "school of thought", since it is also used to construct the names of philosophical schools
contemporary with Confucianism: for example, the Chinese names for Legalism and Mohism end in jiā.
Rújiào and Kǒngjiào contain the Chinese character jiào, the noun "teach", used in such as terms as "education",
or "educator". The term, however, is notably used to construct the names of religions in Chinese: the terms for
Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and other religions in Chinese all end with jiào.
Rúxué contains xué 'study'. The term is parallel to -ology in English, being used to construct the names of
academic fields: the Chinese names of fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, political science, economics,
and sociology all end in xué.
See also
Confucianism portal
Wikimedia Commons
has media related
to: Confucianism
Four Books
Five Classics
Thirteen Classics
Neo-Confucianism
Korean Confucianism
Neo-Confucianism in Japan
Confucianism in Indonesia
Wen Tianxiang
Temple of Confucius
Confucian view of marriage
Confucian art
Boston Confucians

References
^ http://books.google.com/books?id=oOYQbqxfIk4C&pg=PT193&dq=1.5+billion+confucianism&hl=en&ei=K
qpiTcz6O8y28QOP-
YXyCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=1.5%20billion
%20confucianism&f=false
^ Lo, Ping-cheung (1999), Confucian Ethic of Death with Dignity and Its Contemporary Relevance, Society of
Christian Ethics
^ "Yuandao" by Han Yu: Ren and Yi are specific names, Dao and De (Dao De means morality) are phantom
position(韓愈《原道》:仁與義,為定名;道與德,為虛位。)
^ Homer H. Dubs: 'Nature in the Teaching of Confucius', p. 233
^ Lun Yu (Yang Huo) 13 May 2009
^ Chinese Legal Theories
^ 孟子:人少,則慕父母;知好色,則慕少艾;有妻子,則慕妻子;仕則慕君
^ The first was Michele Ruggieri who had returned from China to Italy in 1588, and carried on translating in
Latin Chinese classics, while residing in Salerno
^ a b "Windows into China", John Parker, p.25, ISBN 0890730504
^ The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, John Hobson, pp 194–195, ISBN 0521547245

26
^ Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Intellectuals in the modern Islamic world:
transmission, transformation, communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 250.ISBN 00415368359. Retrieved 2010-
06-28.
^ Werner Draguhn, David S. G. Goodman (2002). China's communist revolutions: fifty years of the People's
Republic of China. Psychology Press. p. 39. ISBN 0700716300. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
^ a b c d e Adler, Joseph A. (Winter 2006). "Daughter/Wife/Mother or Sage/Immortal/Bodhisattva? Women in
the Teaching of Chinese Religions". ASIANetwork Exchange, vol. XIV, no. 2. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
^ Vohra, Ranbir (1999). China's Path to Modernization: A Historical Review from 1800 to the Present 3rd
edition. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0130807478.
^ Centre for Confucian Science (Korea); Introduction to Confucianism
^ Streng, Frederick, "Understanding Religious Life," 3rd ed. (1985), p. 2
^ Taylor, Rodney L., "The Religious Dimensions of Confucianism" (1990); Tu Weiming and Mary Evelyn
Tucker, eds., "Confucian Spirituality," 2 vols. (2003, 2004); Adler, Joseph A., "Confucianism as Religion /
Religious Tradition / Neither: Still Hazy After All These Years" (2006)
^ http://www.alislam.org/library/books/revelation/part_2_section_3.html
^ This phrase of a certain negative context became popular after its usage in many Anti-Confucianism
movements in China, most notably the May Fourth Movement and the Cultural Revolution. See [1] and [2] for
more details.
Further reading
Creel, Herrlee G. Confucius and the Chinese Way. Reprint. New York: Harper Torchbooks. (Originally
published under the title Confucius—the Man and the Myth.)
Fingarette, Herbert. Confucius: The Secular as Sacred ISBN 1-57766-010-2.
Ivanhoe, Philip J. Confucian Moral Self Cultivation. 2nd rev. ed., Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
Nivison, David S. The Ways of Confucianism. Chicago: Open Court Press.
Max Weber, The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism.
Xinzhong Yao (2000) An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Translations of Texts Attributed to Confucius
The Analects (Lun Yu)
Confucian Analects (1893) Translated by James Legge.
The Analects of Confucius (1915; rpr. NY: Paragon, 1968). Translated by William Edward Soothill.
The Analects of Confucius: A Philosophical Translation (New York: Ballantine, 1998). Translated by Roger T.
Ames, Henry Rosemont.
The Original Analects: Sayings of Confucius and His Successors (New York: Columbia University Press,
1998). Translated by E. Bruce Brooks, A. Taeko Brooks.
The Analects of Confucius (New York: W.W. Norton, 1997). Translated by Simon Leys
Analects: With Selections from Traditional Commentaries (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2003). Translated
by Edward Slingerland.
External links
Find more about Confucianism on
Wikipedia'ssister projects:
Definitions from Wiktionary
Images and media from
Commons
Learning resources from
Wikiversity
News stories from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
27
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Entry: Confucius
Interfaith Online: Confucianism
Confucian Documents at the Internet Sacred Texts Archive.
Oriental Philosophy, "Topic:Confucianism"
[show]v · d · ePhilosophy

[show]v · d · eReligion topics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucianism

Confucius
First published Wed Jul 3, 2002; substantive revision Tue Sep 5, 2006
Confucius (551-479 BCE), according to Chinese tradition, was a thinker, political figure, educator, and founder
of the Ru School of Chinese thought. His teachings, preserved in the Lunyu or Analects, form the foundation of
much of subsequent Chinese speculation on the education and comportment of the ideal man, how such an
individual should live his live and interact with others, and the forms of society and government in which he
should participate. Fung Yu-lan, one of the great 20th century authorities on the history of Chinese thought,
compares Confucius' influence in Chinese history with that of Socrates in the West.
1. Confucius' Life
2. Confucius' Social Philosophy
3. Confucius' Political Philosophy
4. Confucius and Education
Bibliography
Other Internet Resources

 Related Entries

1. Confucius' Life
The sources for Confucius' life are later and do not carefully separate fiction and fact. Thus it is wise to regard
much of what is known of him as legendary. Many of the legends surrounding Confucius at the end of the 2nd
century BCE were included by the Han dynasty court historian, Sima Qian (145-c.85 BCE), in his well-known
and often-quoted Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji). This collection of tales opens by identifying
Confucius' ancestors as members of the Royal State of Song. It notes as well that his great grandfather, fleeing
the turmoil in his native Song, had moved to Lu, somewhere near the present town of Qufu in southeastern
Shandong, where the family became impoverished. Confucius is described, by Sima Qian and other sources, as
having endured a poverty-stricken and humiliating youth and been forced, upon reaching manhood, to
undertake such petty jobs as accounting and caring for livestock. Sima Qian's account includes the tale of how
Confucius was born in answer to his parents' prayers at a sacred hill (qiu) called Ni. Confucius' surname Kong
(which means literally an utterance of thankfulness when prayers have been answered), his tabooed given name
Qiu, and his social name Zhongni, all appear connected to the miraculous circumstances of his birth. This casts
doubt, then, on Confucius' royal genealogy as found in Sima Qian. Similarly, Confucius' recorded age at death,
‘seventy-two,’ is a ‘magic number’ with far-reaching significance in early Chinese literature. We do not know
how Confucius himself was educated, but tradition has it that he studied ritual with the Daoist Master Lao Dan,
music with Chang Hong, and the lute with Music-master Xiang. In his middle age Confucius is supposed to
28
have gathered about him a group of disciples whom he taught and also to have devoted himself to political
matters in Lu. The number of Confucius' disciples has been greatly exaggerated, with Sima Qian and other
sources claiming that there were as many as three thousand of them. Sima Qian goes on to say that, “Those
who, in their own person, became conversant with the Six Disciplines [taught by Confucius], numbered
seventy-two.” The 4th century BCE Mencius and some other early works give their number as seventy. Perhaps
seventy or seventy-two were a maximum, though both of these numbers are suspicious given Confucius'
supposed age at death.

At the age of fifty, when Duke Ding of Lu was on the throne, Confucius' talents were recognized and he was
appointed Minister of Public Works and then Minister of Crime. But Confucius apparently offended members
of the Lu nobility who were vying with Duke Ding for power (or was it the duke himself that Confucius had
rubbed the wrong way?) and he was subsequently forced to leave office and go into exile. As in other ancient
cultures, exile and suffering are common themes in the lives of the heroes of the early Chinese tradition. In the
company of his disciples, Confucius left Lu and traveled in the states of Wei, Song, Chen, Cai, and Chu,
purportedly looking for a ruler who might employ him but meeting instead with indifference and, occasionally,
severe hardship and danger. Several of these episodes, as preserved in the Records of the Grand Historian,
appear to be little more than prose retellings of songs found in the ancient Chinese Book of Songs, Confucius'
life is thus rendered a re-enactment of the suffering and alienation of the personas of the poems.

In any case, by most traditional accounts, Confucius returned to Lu in 484 BCE and spent the remainder of his
life teaching, putting in order the Book of Songs, the Book of Documents, and other ancient classics, as well as
editing the Spring and Autumn Annals, the court chronicle of Lu. Sima Qian's account also provides background
on Confucius' connection to the early canonical texts on ritual and on music (the latter of which was lost at an
early date). Sima Qian claims, moreover, that, “In his later years, Confucius delighted in the Yi”—the famous,
some might say infamous, divination manual popular to this day in China and in the West. The Analects passage
which appears to corroborate Sima Qian's claim seems corrupt and hence unreliable on this point. Confucius'
traditional association with these works led them and related texts to be revered as the “Confucian Classics” and
made Confucius himself the spiritual ancestor of later teachers, historians, moral philosophers, literary scholars,
and countless others whose lives and works figure prominently in Chinese intellectual history.

Our best source for understanding Confucius and his thought is the Analects. But the Analects is a problematic
and controversial work, having been compiled in variant versions long after Confucius's death by disciples or
the disciples of disciples. Some have argued that, because of the text's inconsistencies and incompatibilities of
thought, there is much in the Analects that is non-Confucian and should be discarded as a basis for
understanding the thought of Confucius. Benjamin Schwartz cautions us against such radical measures.

While textual criticism based on rigorous philological and historic analysis is crucial, and while the later
sections [of the Analects] do contain late materials, the type of textual criticism that is based on considerations
of alleged logical inconsistencies and incompatibilities of thought must be viewed with great suspicion. . . .
While none of us comes to such an enterprise without deep-laid assumptions about necessary logical relations
and compatibilities, we should at least hold before ourselves the constant injunction to mistrust all our
unexamined preconceptions on these matters when dealing with comparative thought. (The World of Thought in
Ancient China, p. 61)

Book X of the Analects consists of personal observations of how Confucius comported himself as a thinker,
teacher, and official. Some have argued that these passages were originally more general prescriptions on how a
gentleman should dress and behave that were relabeled as descriptions of Confucius. Traditionally, Book X has
been regarded as providing an intimate portrait of Confucius and has been read as a biographical sketch. The
following passages provide a few examples.

29
Confucius, at home in his native village, was simple and unassuming in manner, as though he did not trust
himself to speak. But when in the ancestral temple or at Court he speaks readily, though always choosing his
words with due caution. (Lunyu 10.1)

When at court conversing with the officers of a lower grade, he is friendly, though straightforward; when
conversing with officers of a higher grade, he is restrained but precise. When the ruler is present he is wary, but
not cramped. (Lunyu 10.2)

On entering the Palace Gate he seems to contract his body, as though there were not sufficient room to admit
him. If he halts, it must never be in the middle of the gate, nor in going through does he ever tread on the
threshold. (Lunyu 10.4)

When fasting in preparation for sacrifice he must wear the Bright Robe, and it must be of linen. He must change
his food and also the place where he commonly sits. He does not object to his rice being thoroughly cleaned,
nor to his meat being finely minced. (Lunyu 10.7, 10.8)

When sending a messenger to enquire after someone in another country, he bows himself twice while seeing the
messenger off. (Lunyu 10.15)

In bed he avoided lying in the posture of a corpse … On meeting anyone in deep mourning he must bow across
the bar of his chariot. (Lunyu 10.24, 10.25)

Analects passages such as these made Confucius the model of courtliness and personal decorum for countless
generations of Chinese officials.

By the 4th century BCE, Confucius was recognized as a unique figure, a sage who was ignored but should have
been recognized and become a king. At the end of the 4th century, Mencius says of Confucius: “Ever since man
came into this world, there has never been one greater than Confucius.” And in two passages Mencius implies
that Confucius was one of the great sage kings who, according to his reckoning, arises every five hundred years.
Confucius also figures prominently as the subject of anecdotes and the teacher of wisdom in the writing of
Xunzi, a third century BCE follower of Confucius' teachings. Indeed chapters twenty-eight to thirty of the
Xunzi, which some have argued were not the work of Xunzi but compilations by his disciples, look like an
alternative, and considerably briefer, version of the Analects.

Confucius and his followers also inspired considerable criticism from other thinkers. The authors of the
Zhuangzi took particular delight in parodying Confucius and the teachings conventionally associated with him.
But Confucius' reputation was so great that even the Zhuangzi appropriates him to give voice to Daoist
teachings.

2. Confucius' Social Philosophy
Confucius' teachings and his conversations and exchanges with his disciples are recorded in the Lunyu or
Analects, a collection that probably achieved something like its present form around the second century BCE.
While Confucius believes that people live their lives within parameters firmly established by Heaven—which,
often, for him means both a purposeful Supreme Being as well as ‘nature’ and its fixed cycles and patterns—he
argues that men are responsible for their actions and especially for their treatment of others. We can do little or
nothing to alter our fated span of existence but we determine what we accomplish and what we are remembered
for.

30
Confucius represented his teachings as lessons transmitted from antiquity. He claimed that he was “a transmitter
and not a maker” and that all he did reflected his “reliance on and love for the ancients.” (Lunyu 7.1) Confucius
pointed especially to the precedents established during the height of the royal Zhou (roughly the first half of the
first millennium, BCE). Such justifications for one's ideas may have already been conventional in Confucius'
day. Certainly his claim that there were antique precedents for his ideology had a tremendous influence on
subsequent thinkers many of whom imitated these gestures. But we should not regard the contents of the
Analects as consisting of old ideas. Much of what Confucius taught appears to have been original to him and to
have represented a radical departure from the ideas and practices of his day.

Confucius also claimed that he enjoyed a special and privileged relationship with Heaven and that, by the age of
fifty, he had come to understand what Heaven had mandated for him and for mankind. (Lunyu 2.4). Confucius
was also careful to instruct his followers that they should never neglect the offerings due Heaven. (Lunyu 3.13)
Some scholars have seen a contradiction between Confucius' reverence for Heaven and what they believe to be
his skepticism with regard to the existence of ‘the spirits.’ But the Analects passages that reveal Confucius's
attitudes toward spiritual forces (Lunyu 3.12, 6.20, and 11.11) do not suggest that he was skeptical. Rather they
show that Confucius revered and respected the spirits, thought that they should be worshipped with utmost
sincerity, and taught that serving the spirits was a far more difficult and complicated matter than serving mere
mortals.

Confucius' social philosophy largely revolves around the concept of ren, “compassion” or “loving others.”
Cultivating or practicing such concern for others involved deprecating oneself. This meant being sure to avoid
artful speech or an ingratiating manner that would create a false impression and lead to self-aggrandizement.
(Lunyu 1.3) Those who have cultivated ren are, on the contrary, “simple in manner and slow of speech.” (Lunyu
13.27). For Confucius, such concern for others is demonstrated through the practice of forms of the Golden
Rule: “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others;” “Since you yourself desire standing then help
others achieve it, since you yourself desire success then help others attain it.” (Lunyu 12.2, 6.30). He regards
devotion to parents and older siblings as the most basic form of promoting the interests of others before one's
own and teaches that such altruism can be accomplished only by those who have learned self-discipline.

Learning self-restraint involves studying and mastering li, the ritual forms and rules of propriety through which
one expresses respect for superiors and enacts his role in society in such a way that he himself is worthy of
respect and admiration. A concern for propriety should inform everything that one says and does:

Look at nothing in defiance of ritual, listen to nothing in defiance of ritual, speak of nothing in defiance or
ritual, never stir hand or foot in defiance of ritual. (Lunyu 12.1)

Subjecting oneself to ritual does not, however, mean suppressing one's desires but instead learning how to
reconcile one's own desires with the needs of one's family and community. Confucius and many of his followers
teach that it is by experiencing desires that we learn the value of social strictures that make an ordered society
possible (See Lunyu 2.4.). Nor does Confucius' emphasis on ritual mean that he was a punctilious ceremonialist
who thought that the rites of worship and of social exchange had to be practiced correctly at all costs. Confucius
taught, on the contrary, that if one did not possess a keen sense of the well-being and interests of others his
ceremonial manners signified nothing. (Lunyu 3.3). Equally important was Confucius' insistence that the rites
not be regarded as mere forms, but that they be practiced with complete devotion and sincerity. “He [i.e.,
Confucius] sacrificed to the dead as if they were present. He sacrificed to the spirits as if the spirits were
present. The Master said, ‘I consider my not being present at the sacrifice as though there were no sacrifice.’”
(Lunyu 3.12)

While ritual forms often have to do with the more narrow relations of family and clan, ren, however, is to be
practiced broadly and informs one's interactions with all people. Confucius warns those in power that they
31
should not oppress or take for granted even the lowliest of their subjects. “You may rob the Three Armies of
their commander, but you cannot deprive the humblest peasant of his opinion.” (Lunyu 9.26) Confucius regards
loving others as a calling and a mission for which one should be ready to die (Lunyu 15.9).

3. Confucius' Political Philosophy
Confucius' political philosophy is also rooted in his belief that a ruler should learn self-discipline, should govern
his subjects by his own example, and should treat them with love and concern. “If the people be led by laws,
and uniformity among them be sought by punishments, they will try to escape punishment and have no sense of
shame. If they are led by virtue, and uniformity sought among them through the practice of ritual propriety, they
will possess a sense of shame and come to you of their own accord.” (Lunyu 2.3; see also 13.6.) It seems
apparent that in his own day, however, advocates of more legalistic methods were winning a large following
among the ruling elite. Thus Confucius' warning about the ill consequences of promulgating law codes should
not be interpreted as an attempt to prevent their adoption but instead as his lament that his ideas about the moral
suasion of the ruler were not proving popular.

Most troubling to Confucius was his perception that the political institutions of his day had completely broken
down. He attributed this collapse to the fact that those who wielded power as well as those who occupied
subordinate positions did so by making claim to titles for which they were not worthy. When asked by a ruler of
the large state of Qi, Lu's neighbor on the Shandong peninsula, about the principles of good government,
Confucius is reported to have replied: “Good government consists in the ruler being a ruler, the minister being a
minister, the father being a father, and the son being a son.” (LuNew Mysterianism is a philosophical position
proposing that the hard problem of consciousness will never be explained; or at the least cannot be explained by
the human mind at its current evolutionary stage. The unresolvable problem is how to explain sentience and
qualia and their interaction with consciousness.

Contents
[hide]

 1 Name
 2 Philosophy
 3 Adherents
 4 See also
 5 References
o 5.1 Citations

o 5.2 Other sources

[edit] Name
The "old mysterians" were not a discrete intellectual movement, but rather thinkers throughout history who
have put forward a position that some aspects of consciousness may not be knowable or discoverable. They
include Gottfried Leibniz, Samuel Johnson, and Thomas Huxley. Huxley wrote, "How it is that anything so
remarkable as a state of consciousness comes about as a result of irritating nervous tissue, is just as
unaccountable as the appearance of the Djinn, when Aladdin rubbed his lamp." [6, p. 229, quote]

32
Owen Flanagan noted in his 1991 book Science of the Mind that some modern thinkers have suggested that
consciousness may never be completely explained. Flanagan called them "the new mysterians" after the rock
group Question Mark and the Mysterians.[1] The term "New Mysterianism" has been extended by some writers
to encompass the wider philosophical position that humans do not have the intellectual ability to solve many
hard problems, not just the problem of consciousness, at a scientific level. This position is also known as anti-
constructive naturalism.

[edit] Philosophy
Main article: cognitive closure

New Mysterianism is often characterized[by whom?] as a presupposition that some problems cannot be solved.
Critics[who?] of this view argue that it is fallacious to assume that a problem cannot be solved just because we
have not solved it yet. On the other hand, New Mysterians would say that it is just as absurd to assume that
every problem can be solved. Crucially, New Mysterians would argue that they did not start with any
supposition as to the solvability of the question, and instead reached their conclusion through logical reasoning.
Their argument goes as follows:

Subjective experiences by their very nature cannot be shared or compared. Therefore it is impossible to know
what subjective experiences a system (other than ourselves) is having. This will always be the case, no matter
what clever scientific tests we invent. Therefore, there are some questions about consciousness that will never
be answered.

Noam Chomsky distinguishes between problems, which seem solvable, at least in principle, through scientific
methods, and mysteries, which do not seem solvable, even in principle. He notes that the cognitive capabilities
of all organisms are limited by biology, e.g. a mouse will never speak like a human. In the same way, certain
problems may be beyond our understanding. For example, in the mind-body problem, emergent materialism
claims that humans are not smart enough to determine "the relationship between mind and matter."[citation
needed] Strong agnosticism applies this position to religion.

[edit] Adherents
 Colin McGinn is the leading proponent of the New Mysterian position among major philosophers.
 Author and conservative columnist John Derbyshire has stated publicly that although formerly
professing Christianity, he now considers himself to be a Mysterian. [1]
 American mathematics and science writer Martin Gardner considered himself to be a Mysterian.

nyu 12.11) If I claim for myself a title and attempt to participate in the various hierarchical relationships to
which I would be entitled by virtue of that title, then I should live up to the meaning of the title that I claim for
myself. Confucius' analysis of the lack of connection between actualities and their names and the need to correct
such circumstances is usually referred to as Confucius' theory of zhengming. Elsewhere in the Analects,
Confucius says to his disciple Zilu that the first thing he would do in undertaking the administration of a state is
zhengming. (Lunyu 13.3). Xunzi composed an entire essay entitled Zhengming. But for Xunzi the term referred
to the proper use of language and how one should go about inventing new terms that were suitable to the age.
For Confucius, zhengming does not seem to refer to the ‘rectification of names’ (this is the way the term is most
often translated by scholars of the Analects), but instead to rectifying behavior of people so that it exactly
corresponds to the language with which they identify and describe themselves. Confucius believed that this sort
of rectification had to begin at the very top of the government, because it was at the top that the discrepancy
between names and actualities had originated. If the ruler's behavior is rectified then the people beneath him
33
will follow suit. In a conversation with Ji Kangzi (who had usurped power in Lu), Confucius advised: “If your
desire is for good, the people will be good. The moral character of the ruler is the wind; the moral character of
those beneath him is the grass. When the wind blows, the grass bends.” (Lunyu 12.19)

For Confucius, what characterized superior rulership was the possession of de or ‘virtue.’ Conceived of as a
kind of moral power that allows one to win a following without recourse to physical force, such ‘virtue’ also
enabled the ruler to maintain good order in his state without troubling himself and by relying on loyal and
effective deputies. Confucius claimed that, “He who governs by means of his virtue is, to use an analogy, like
the pole-star: it remains in its place while all the lesser stars do homage to it.” (Lunyu 2.1) The way to maintain
and cultivate such royal ‘virtue’ was through the practice and enactment of li or ‘rituals’—the ceremonies that
defined and punctuated the lives of the ancient Chinese aristocracy. These ceremonies encompassed: the
sacrificial rites performed at ancestral temples to express humility and thankfulness; the ceremonies of
enfeoffment, toasting, and gift exchange that bound together the aristocracy into a complex web of obligation
and indebtedness; and the acts of politeness and decorum—such things as bowing and yielding—that identified
their performers as gentlemen. In an influential study, Herbert Fingarette argues that the performance of these
various ceremonies, when done correctly and sincerely, involves a ‘magical’ quality that underlies the efficacy
of royal ‘virtue’ in accomplishing the aims of the ruler.

4. Confucius and Education
A hallmark of Confucius' thought is his emphasis on education and study. He disparages those who have faith in
natural understanding or intuition and argues that the only real understanding of a subject comes from long and
careful study. Study, for Confucius, means finding a good teacher and imitating his words and deeds. A good
teacher is someone older who is familiar with the ways of the past and the practices of the ancients. (See Lunyu
7.22) While he sometimes warns against excessive reflection and meditation, Confucius' position appears to be
a middle course between studying and reflecting on what one has learned. “He who learns but does not think is
lost. He who thinks but does not learn is in great danger.” (Lunyu 2.15) Confucius, himself, is credited by the
tradition with having taught altogether three thousand students, though only seventy are said to have truly
mastered the arts he cherished. Confucius is willing to teach anyone, whatever their social standing, as long as
they are eager and tireless. He taught his students morality, proper speech, government, and the refined arts.
While he also emphasizes the “Six Arts” -- ritual, music, archery, chariot-riding, calligraphy, and computation -
- it is clear that he regards morality the most important subject. Confucius' pedagogical methods are striking. He
never discourses at length on a subject. Instead he poses questions, cites passages from the classics, or uses apt
analogies, and waits for his students to arrive at the right answers. “I only instruct the eager and enlighten the
fervent. If I hold up one corner and a student cannot come back to me with the other three, I do not go on with
the lesson.” (Lunyu 7.8).

Confucius' goal is to create gentlemen who carry themselves with grace, speak correctly, and demonstrate
integrity in all things. His strong dislike of the sycophantic “petty men,” whose clever talk and pretentious
manner win them an audience, is reflected in numerous Lunyu passages. Confucius finds himself in an age in
which values are out of joint. Actions and behavior no longer correspond to the labels originally attached to
them. “Rulers do not rule and subjects do not serve,” he observes. (Lunyu 12.11; cf. also 13.3) This means that
words and titles no longer mean what they once did. Moral education is important to Confucius because it is the
means by which one can rectify this situation and restore meaning to language and values to society. He
believes that the most important lessons for obtaining such a moral education are to be found in the canonical
Book of Songs, because many of its poems are both beautiful and good. Thus Confucius places the text first in
his curriculum and frequently quotes and explains its lines of verse. For this reason, the Lunyu is also an
important source for Confucius' understanding of the role poetry and art more generally play in the moral
education of gentlemen as well as in the reformation of society. Recent archaeological discoveries in China of
34
previously lost ancient manuscripts reveal other aspects of Confucius's reverence for the Book of Songs and its
importance in moral education. These manuscripts show that Confucius had found in the canonical text valuable
lessons on how to cultivate moral qualities in oneself as well as how to comport oneself humanely and
responsibly in public.

When the stables were burnt down, on returning from court, Confucius said, 'Was anyone hurt?' He did not ask
about the horses.
Analects X.11 (Arthur Waley translation) or 10-13 (James Legge translation)
The passage conveys the lesson that by not asking about the horses, Confucius demonstrated that a sage values human beings over
property; readers of this lesson are led to reflect on whether their response would follow Confucius's, and to pursue ethical self-
improvement if it would not. Confucius, an exemplar of human excellence, serves as the ultimate model, rather than a deity or a
universally true set of abstract principles. For these reasons, according to many Eastern and Western commentators, Confucius's
teaching may be considered a Chinese example of humanism.[29]
One of his most famous teaching was the Golden Rule (in the positive form) and Silver Rule (in the negative form):
己所不欲,勿施於人。
"What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others."
子貢問曰:“有一言而可以終身行之者乎”?子曰:“其恕乎!己所不欲、勿施於人。”
Zi gong (a disciple of Confucius) asked: "Is there any one word that could guide a person throughout life?"
The Master replied: "How about 'shu' [reciprocity]: never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself?"
Analects XV.24, tr. David Hinton
Lǐ, yì and rén
The Confucian theory of ethics as exemplified in Lǐ (禮) is based on three important conceptual aspects of life: ceremonies associated
with sacrifice to ancestors and deities of various types, social and political institutions, and the etiquette of daily behavior. It was
believed by some that lǐ originated from the heavens, but Confucius stressed the development of lǐ through the actions of sage leaders
in human history. His discussions of lǐ seem to redefine the term to refer to all actions committed by a person to build the ideal
society, rather than those simply conforming with canonical standards of ceremony.
In the early Confucian tradition, lǐ was doing the proper thing at the proper time, balancing between maintaining existing norms to
perpetuate an ethical social fabric, and violating them in order to accomplish ethical good. Training in the lǐ of past sages cultivates in
people virtues that include ethical judgment about when lǐ must be adapted in light of situational contexts.
In early Confucianism, the concept of li is closely related to yì (義), which is based upon the idea of reciprocity. Yì can be translated
as righteousness, though it may simply mean what is ethically best to do in a certain context. The term contrasts with action done
out of self-interest. While pursuing one's own self-interest is not necessarily bad, one would be a better, more righteous person if
one's life was based upon following a path designed to enhance the greater good. Thus an outcome of yì is doing the right thing for the
right reason.
Just as action according to Lǐ should be adapted to conform to the aspiration of adhering to yì, so yì is linked to the core value
of rén (仁). Rén is the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one's responsibilities toward others, most often translated as "benevolence" or
"humaneness"; translator Arthur Waley calls it "Goodness" (with a capital G), and other translations that have been put forth
include "authoritativeness" and "selflessness." Confucius's moral system was based upon empathy and understanding others, rather
than divinely ordained rules. To develop one's spontaneous responses of rén so that these could guide action intuitively was even
better than living by the rules of yì.
To cultivate one's attentiveness to rén one used another Confucian version of the Golden Rule: "What one does not wish for oneself,
one ought not to do to anyone else; what one recognises as desirable for oneself, one ought to be willing to grant to others."
(Confucius and Confucianism, Richard Wilhelm) Virtue, in this Confucian view, is based upon harmony with other people, produced
through this type of ethical practice by a growing identification of the interests of self and other.
Politics
Confucius' political thought is based upon his ethical thought. He argues that the best government is one that rules through "rites" (lǐ)
and people's natural morality, rather than by using bribery and coercion. He explained that this is one of the most important
analects: "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment,
but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have
the sense of the shame, and moreover will become good." (Translated by James Legge) in the Great Learning (大學). This
"sense of shame" is an internalisation of duty, where the punishment precedes the evil action, instead of following it in the form of
laws as in Legalism.

35
Confucius looked nostalgically upon earlier days, and urged the Chinese, particularly those with political power, to model themselves
on earlier examples. In times of division, chaos, and endless wars between feudal states, he wanted to restore the Mandate of
Heaven (天命) that could unify the "world" (天下, "all under Heaven") and bestow peace and prosperity on the people. [30] Because
his vision of personal and social perfections was framed as a revival of the ordered society of earlier times, Confucius is often
considered a great proponent of conservatism, but a closer look at what he proposes often shows that he used (and perhaps twisted)
past institutions and rites to push a new political agenda of his own: a revival of a unified royal state, whose rulers would succeed to
power on the basis of their moral merits instead of lineage. [31][32] These would be rulers devoted to their people, striving for
personal and social perfection,[33] and such a ruler would spread his own virtues to the people instead of imposing proper behavior
with laws and rules.[34]
While he supported the idea of government by an all-powerful sage, ruling as an Emperor, his ideas contained a number of elements
to limit the power of rulers. He argued for according language with truth, and honesty was of paramount importance. Even in facial
expression, truth must always be represented. In discussing the relationship between a king and his subject (or a father and his son),
he underlined the need to give due respect to superiors. This demanded that the inferior must give advice to his superior if the superior
was considered to be taking the wrong course of action.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucius

Confucius (Chinese: 孔子; pinyin: Kǒng Zǐ; Wade–Giles: K'ung-tzu, or Chinese: 孔夫子; pinyin: Kǒng Fūzǐ; Wade–Giles:
K'ung-fu-tzu), literally "Master Kong",[1] (traditionally 28 September 551 BC – 479 BC)[2] was a Chinese thinker and
social philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period.
The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social
relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrines, such as Legalism (法家)
or Taoism (道家) during the Han Dynasty[3][4][5] (206 BC – AD 220). Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a system
of philosophy known as Confucianism (儒家).
Because no texts survive that are demonstrably authored by Confucius, and the ideas most closely associated with him were elaborated
in writings that accumulated over the period between his death and the foundation of the first Chinese empire in 221 BC, many
scholars are very cautious about attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. His teachings may be found in the Analects of
Confucius (論語), a collection of aphorisms, which was compiled many years after his death. For nearly 2,000 years he was
thought to be the editor or author of all the Five Classics (五經)[6][7] such as the Classic of Rites (禮記) (editor), and
the Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋) (author).
Confucius' principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong familial loyalty, ancestor
worship, respect of elders by their children (and, according to later interpreters, of husbands by their wives), and the family as a basis
for an ideal government. He expressed the well-known principle, "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself", one of
the earlier versions of the Golden Rule.
Contents
[hide]
1 Personal life and family
2 Names
3 Philosophy
3.1 Ethics
3.1.1 Lǐ, yì and rén
3.2 Politics
4 Disciples and legacy
5 Visual portraits
6 Memorials of Confucius
7 Descendants
8 Ahmadiyya views of
Confucius
9 See also
10 References
36
11 Further reading
12 External links
Personal life and family
According to tradition, Confucius was born in 551 B.C., in the Spring and Autumn Period, at the beginning of the Hundred
Schools of Thought philosophical movement. Confucius was born in or near the city of Qufu (曲阜), in the Chinese State of
Lu (魯) (now part of Shandong Province). Early accounts say that he was born into a poor but noble family that had fallen on hard
times.[8]
Confucius was from a warrior family. His father Shulianghe (叔梁紇) had military exploits in two battles and owned a fiefdom.
The Records of the Grand Historian (史記), compiled some four centuries later, states that Confucius was born as a result of
a yehe (野合), or "illicit union".[9]
His father died when Confucius was three years old, [10] and he was brought up in poverty by his mother. His social ascendancy
linked him to the growing class of shì (士), a class whose status lay between that of the old nobility and the common people, that
comprised men who sought social positions on the basis of talents and skills, rather than heredity. As a child, Confucius was said to
have enjoyed putting ritual vases on the sacrifice table.[9] He married a young girl named Qi Guan (亓官) at 19 and she gave birth
to their first child, Kong Li, (孔鯉) when he was 20. Confucius is reported to have worked as a shepherd, cowherd, clerk, and a book-
keeper.[11] His mother died when Confucius was 23, and he entered three years of mourning.
Confucius is said to have risen to the position of Justice Minister (大司寇) in Lu at the age of 53.[12] According to the Records of
the Grand Historian, the neighboring state of Qi (齊) was worried that Lu was becoming too powerful. Qi decided to sabotage
Lu's reforms by sending 100 good horses and 80 beautiful dancing girls to the Duke of Lu. The Duke indulged himself in pleasure and
did not attend to official duties for three days. Confucius was deeply disappointed and resolved to leave Lu and seek better
opportunities, yet to leave at once would expose the misbehavior of the Duke and therefore bring public humiliation to the ruler
Confucius was serving, so Confucius waited for the Duke to make a lesser mistake. Soon after, the Duke neglected to send to
Confucius a portion of the sacrificial meat that was his due according to custom, and Confucius seized this pretext to leave both his
post and the state of Lu.[9][13]
According to tradition, after Confucius's resignation, he began a long journey (or set of journeys) around the small kingdoms of
northeast and central China, including the states of Wei (衞), Song (宋), Chen (陳) and Cai (蔡).[14] At the courts of these
states, he expounded his political beliefs but did not see them implemented.
According to the Zuo Commentary to the Spring and Autumn Annals, Confucius returned home when he was
68.[12] The Analects depict him spending his last years teaching disciples and transmitting the old wisdom via a set of texts called
the Five Classics.[15][16]
Burdened by the loss of both his son and his favourite disciples, [17][18] he died at the age of 72 or 73.[19]
Names

The tomb of Confucius in Qufu.
Kong Qiu (孔丘), as Confucius is commonly known, is a combination of his surname (孔) and his given name (丘), and he was also
known as Zhong Ni (仲尼), which is his courtesy name.
The name "Confucius" was first Latinised and introduced to Europe by the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci. Other forms of
Romanisations are Kǒng Fūzǐ (orKǒng fū zǐ) in pinyin, and K'ung fu-tzu in Wade-Giles (or, less accurately, Kung fu-tze).

37
Fūzǐ means teacher. Since it was disrespectful to call the teacher by name according to Chinese culture, he is known as just "Master
Kong", or Confucius, even in modern days. The character 'fu' is optional; in modern Chinese he is more often called Kǒng Zi (孔子).
In 1 C.E. (first year of the Yuanshi Era of the Han Dynasty), he was given his first posthumous name: 褒成宣尼公, Lord
Bāochéngxūanni, which means "Laudably Declarable Lord Ni." His most popular posthumous names are 至聖先師, Zhìshèngxiānshī,
lit. "The Most Sage Venerated Late Teacher" (comes from 1530, the ninth year of the Jianing period of the Ming
Dynasty); 至聖, Zhìshèng, "the Greatest Sage"; 先師, Xiānshī, literally meaning "first teacher". It has been suggested that '先師' can
be used, however, to express something like, "the Teacher who assists the wise to their attainment". [20]He is also commonly known
as 萬世師表,Wànshìshībiǎo, "Role Model for Teachers through the Ages".
Philosophy
Main article: Confucianism

Although Confucianism is often followed in a religious manner by the Chinese, arguments continue over whether it is a religion.
Confucianism discusses elements of the afterlife and views concerning Heaven, but it is relatively unconcerned with some spiritual
matters often considered essential to religious thought, such as the nature of the soul.

The Analects of Confucius.
In the Analects (論語), Confucius presents himself as a "transmitter who invented nothing".[6] He puts the greatest emphasis on the
importance of study,[21][22] and it is the Chinese character for study (or learning) that opens the text. In this respect, he is seen
by Chinese people as the Greatest Master.[23] Far from trying to build a systematic theory of life and society or establish
a formalism of rites, he wanted his disciples to think deeply for themselves and relentlessly study the outside world,[24] mostly
through the old scriptures and by relating the moral problems of the present to past political events (like the Annals) or past
expressions of feelings by common people and reflective members of the elite, preserved in the poems of the Book of
Odes (詩經).[25][26]
Ethics
One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior.
His moral teachings emphasized self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgment rather than
knowledge of rules, Confucius's ethics may be considered a type of virtue ethics. His teachings rarely rely on reasoned argument,
and ethical ideals and methods are conveyed more indirectly, through allusions, innuendo, and even tautology. This is why his
teachings need to be examined and put into proper context in order to be understood. [27][28] A good example is found in this
famous anecdote:
廄焚。子退朝,曰:“傷人乎?” 不問馬。
When the stables were burnt down, on returning from court, Confucius said, 'Was anyone hurt?' He did not ask about the horses.
Analects X.11 (Arthur Waley translation) or 10-13 (James Legge translation)
The passage conveys the lesson that by not asking about the horses, Confucius demonstrated that a sage values human beings over
property; readers of this lesson are led to reflect on whether their response would follow Confucius's, and to pursue ethical self-
improvement if it would not. Confucius, an exemplar of human excellence, serves as the ultimate model, rather than a deity or a
universally true set of abstract principles. For these reasons, according to many Eastern and Western commentators, Confucius's
teaching may be considered a Chinese example of humanism.[29]
One of his most famous teaching was the Golden Rule (in the positive form) and Silver Rule (in the negative form):
己所不欲,勿施於人。
"What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others."
子貢問曰:“有一言而可以終身行之者乎”?子曰:“其恕乎!己所不欲、勿施於人。”
Zi gong (a disciple of Confucius) asked: "Is there any one word that could guide a person throughout life?"
The Master replied: "How about 'shu' [reciprocity]: never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself?"
Analects XV.24, tr. David Hinton
Lǐ, yì and rén
The Confucian theory of ethics as exemplified in Lǐ (禮) is based on three important conceptual aspects of life: ceremonies associated
with sacrifice to ancestors and deities of various types, social and political institutions, and the etiquette of daily behavior. It was
believed by some that lǐ originated from the heavens, but Confucius stressed the development of lǐ through the actions of sage leaders
in human history. His discussions of lǐ seem to redefine the term to refer to all actions committed by a person to build the ideal
society, rather than those simply conforming with canonical standards of ceremony.

38
In the early Confucian tradition, lǐ was doing the proper thing at the proper time, balancing between maintaining existing norms to
perpetuate an ethical social fabric, and violating them in order to accomplish ethical good. Training in the lǐ of past sages cultivates in
people virtues that include ethical judgment about when lǐ must be adapted in light of situational contexts.
In early Confucianism, the concept of li is closely related to yì (義), which is based upon the idea of reciprocity. Yì can be translated
as righteousness, though it may simply mean what is ethically best to do in a certain context. The term contrasts with action done
out of self-interest. While pursuing one's own self-interest is not necessarily bad, one would be a better, more righteous person if
one's life was based upon following a path designed to enhance the greater good. Thus an outcome of yì is doing the right thing for the
right reason.
Just as action according to Lǐ should be adapted to conform to the aspiration of adhering to yì, so yì is linked to the core value
of rén (仁). Rén is the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one's responsibilities toward others, most often translated as "benevolence" or
"humaneness"; translator Arthur Waley calls it "Goodness" (with a capital G), and other translations that have been put forth
include "authoritativeness" and "selflessness." Confucius's moral system was based upon empathy and understanding others, rather
than divinely ordained rules. To develop one's spontaneous responses of rén so that these could guide action intuitively was even
better than living by the rules of yì.
To cultivate one's attentiveness to rén one used another Confucian version of the Golden Rule: "What one does not wish for oneself,
one ought not to do to anyone else; what one recognises as desirable for oneself, one ought to be willing to grant to others."
(Confucius and Confucianism, Richard Wilhelm) Virtue, in this Confucian view, is based upon harmony with other people, produced
through this type of ethical practice by a growing identification of the interests of self and other.
Politics
Confucius' political thought is based upon his ethical thought. He argues that the best government is one that rules through "rites" (lǐ)
and people's natural morality, rather than by using bribery and coercion. He explained that this is one of the most important
analects: "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment,
but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have
the sense of the shame, and moreover will become good." (Translated by James Legge) in the Great Learning (大學). This
"sense of shame" is an internalisation of duty, where the punishment precedes the evil action, instead of following it in the form of
laws as in Legalism.
Confucius looked nostalgically upon earlier days, and urged the Chinese, particularly those with political power, to model themselves
on earlier examples. In times of division, chaos, and endless wars between feudal states, he wanted to restore the Mandate of
Heaven (天命) that could unify the "world" (天下, "all under Heaven") and bestow peace and prosperity on the people. [30] Because
his vision of personal and social perfections was framed as a revival of the ordered society of earlier times, Confucius is often
considered a great proponent of conservatism, but a closer look at what he proposes often shows that he used (and perhaps twisted)
past institutions and rites to push a new political agenda of his own: a revival of a unified royal state, whose rulers would succeed to
power on the basis of their moral merits instead of lineage. [31][32] These would be rulers devoted to their people, striving for
personal and social perfection,[33] and such a ruler would spread his own virtues to the people instead of imposing proper behavior
with laws and rules.[34]
While he supported the idea of government by an all-powerful sage, ruling as an Emperor, his ideas contained a number of elements
to limit the power of rulers. He argued for according language with truth, and honesty was of paramount importance. Even in facial
expression, truth must always be represented. In discussing the relationship between a king and his subject (or a father and his son),
he underlined the need to give due respect to superiors. This demanded that the inferior must give advice to his superior if the superior
was considered to be taking the wrong course of action.
Disciples and legacy
See also: Disciples of Confucius
Confucius's teachings were later turned into an elaborate set of rules and practices by his numerous disciples and followers who
organized his teachings into the Analects.Confucius' disciples and his only grandson, Zisi, continued his philosophical school after his
death. These efforts spread Confucian ideals to students who then became officials in many of the royal courts in China, thereby
giving Confucianism the first wide-scale test of its dogma.
Two of Confucius's most famous later followers emphasized radically different aspects of his teachings. In the centuries after his
death, Mencius (孟子)[35] and Xun Zi (荀子)[36] both composed important teachings elaborating in different ways on the
fundamental ideas associated with Confucius. Mencius (4th century BC) articulated the innate goodness in human beings as a source
of the ethical intuitions that guide people towards rén, yì, and lǐ, while Xun Zi (3rd century BC) underscored the realistic and
materialistic aspects of Confucian thought, stressing that morality was inculcated in society through tradition and in individuals
through training. In time, their writings, together with the Analects and other core texts came to constitute the philosophical corpus of
Confucianism.

39
This realignment in Confucian thought was parallel to the development of Legalism, which saw filial piety as self-interest and not a
useful tool for a ruler to create an effective state. A disagreement between these two political philosophies came to a head in 223 BC
when the Qin state conquered all of China. Li Ssu, Prime Minister of the Qin Dynasty convinced Qin Shi Huang to abandon
the Confucians' recommendation of awarding fiefs akin to the Zhou Dynasty before them which he saw as counter to the Legalist
idea of centralizing the state around the ruler. When the Confucian advisers pressed their point, Li Ssu had many Confucian scholars
killed and their books burned—considered a huge blow to the philosophy and Chinese scholarship.
Under the succeeding Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty, Confucian ideas gained even more widespread prominence.
Under Wudi, the works of Confucius were made the official imperial philosophy and required reading for civil service examinations
in 140 BC which was continued nearly unbroken until the end of the 19th Century. As Moism lost support by the time of the Han,
the main philosophical contenders were Legalism, which Confucian thought somewhat absorbed, the teachings of Lao-tzu, whose
focus on more mystic ideas kept it from direct conflict with Confucianism, and the new Buddhist religion, which gained acceptance
during the Southern and Northern Dynasties era. Both Confucian ideas and Confucian-trained officials were relied upon in
the Ming Dynasty and even the Yuan Dynasty, although Kublai Khan distrusted handing over provincial control.
During the Song Dynasty, the scholar Zhu Xi (AD 1130-1200) added ideas from Daoism and Buddhism into Confucianism. In
his life, Zhu Xi was largely ignored, but not long after his death his ideas became the new orthodox view of what Confucian texts
actually meant. Modern historians view Zhu Xi as having created something rather different, and call his way of thinking Neo-
Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism held sway in China, Korea, and Vietnam[37] until the 19th century.

"Life and works of Confucius", by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687.
The works of Confucius were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in
China.[38] Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and father Prospero Intorcetta published the life and
works of Confucius into Latin in 1687.[39] It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the
period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration
of the system of morality of Confucius into Western civilization.[40][41]
In the modern era Confucian movements, such as New Confucianism, still exist but during the Cultural Revolution,
Confucianism was frequently attacked by leading figures in the Communist Party of China. This was partially a continuation of
the condemnations of Confucianism by intellectuals and activists in the early 20th Century as a cause of the ethnocentric close-
mindedness and refusal of the Qing Dynasty to modernize that led to the tragedies that befell China in the 19th Century.
Confucius's works are studied by scholars in many other Asian countries, particularly those in the Sinosphere, such as Korea, Japan
and Vietnam. Many of those countries still hold the traditional memorial ceremony every year.
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes Confucius was a Divine Prophet of God, as was Lao-Tzu and other eminent
Chinese personages.[42]
In modern times, Asteroid 7853, "Confucius", was named after the Chinese thinker.
Visual portraits
No contemporary painting or sculpture of Confucius survives, and it was only during the Han Dynasty that he was portrayed
visually. Carvings often depict his legendary meeting with Laozi. Since that time there have been many portraits of Confucius as the
ideal philosopher.
In former times, it was customary to have a portrait in Confucius Temples; however, during the reign of Hongwu
Emperor (Taizu) of the Ming dynasty it was decided that the only proper portrait of Confucius should be in the temple in his
hometown, Qufu. In other temples Confucius is represented by a memorial tablet. In 2006, the China Confucius Foundation
commissioned a standard portrait of Confucius based on the Tang dynasty portrait by Wu Daozi.

40
Memorials of Confucius
Soon after Confucius' death, Qufu, his hometown became a place of devotion and remembrance. It is still a major destination for
cultural tourism, and many people visit his grave and the surrounding temples. In pan-China cultures, there are many temples where
representations of the Buddha, Laozi and Confucius are found together. There are also many temples dedicated to him, which
have been used for Confucianist ceremonies.
The Chinese have a tradition of holding spectacular memorial ceremonies of Confucius (祭孔) every year, using ceremonies that
supposedly derived from Zhou Li (周禮) as recorded by Confucius, on the date of Confucius' birth. This tradition was interrupted for
several decades in mainland China, where the official stance of the Communist Party and the State was that Confucius and
Confucianism represented reactionary feudalist beliefs which held that the subservience of the people to the aristocracy is a part of
the natural order. All such ceremonies and rites were therefore banned. Only after the 1990s, did the ceremony resume. As it is now
considered a veneration of Chinese history and tradition, even Communist Party members may be found in attendance.
In Taiwan, where the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) strongly promoted Confucian beliefs in ethics and behavior, the tradition of
the memorial ceremony of Confucius (祭孔) is supported by the government and has continued without interruption. While not a
national holiday, it does appear on all printed calendars, much as Father's Day does in the West.
Descendants
See also: Family tree of Confucius in the main line of descent
Confucius' descendants were repeatedly identified and honored by successive imperial governments with titles of nobility and official
posts. They were honored with the rank of a marquis thirty-five times since Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, and they were promoted
to the rank of duke forty-two times from the Tang Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang first
bestowed the title of "Duke Wenxuan" on Kong Suizhi of the 35th generation. In 1055, Emperor Renzong of Song first bestowed
the title of "Duke Yansheng" on Kong Zongyuan of the 46th generation.
Despite repeated dynastic change in China, the title of Duke Yansheng was bestowed upon successive generations of descendants until
it was abolished by the Nationalist Governmentin 1935. The last holder of the title, Kung Te-cheng of the 77th generation, was
appointed Sacrificial Official to Confucius. Kung Te-cheng was offered the position of puppet Emperor of China in 1937 by
the Japanese, but Kung declined the offer.[43] Te-cheng died in October 2008, and his son, Kung Wei-yi, the 78th lineal descendant,
had died in 1989. Kung Te-cheng's grandson, Kung Tsui-chang, the 79th lineal descendant, was born in 1975; his great-grandson,
Kung Yu-jen, the 80th lineal descendant, was born in Taipei on January 1, 2006. Te-cheng's sister, Kong Demao, lives in mainland
China and has written a book about her experiences growing up at the family estate in Qufu. Another sister, Kong Deqi, died as a
young woman.[44]
Another prominent descendant of Confucius was Premier of the Republic of China and Finance Minister H. H. Kung, of the
75th generation, as indicated by the generation name 祥 (Hsiang; pinyin: Xiáng)[45][46][47]
Confucius's family, the Kongs, has the longest recorded extant pedigree in the world today. The father-to-son family tree, now in its
83rd generation,[48] has been recorded since the death of Confucius. According to the Confucius Genealogy Compilation
Committee, he has 2 million known and registered descendants, and there are an estimated 3 million in all. [49] Of these, several tens
of thousands live outside of China.[49] In the 14th century, a Kong descendant went to Korea, where an estimated 34,000
descendants of Confucius live today.[49] One of the main lineages fled from the Kong ancestral home in Qufu during the Chinese
Civil War in the 1940s, and eventually settled in Taiwan.[44]
Because of the huge interest in the Confucius family tree, there was a project in China to test the DNA of known family
members.[50] Among other things, this would allow scientists to identify a common Y chromosome in male descendants of
Confucius. If the descent were truly unbroken, father-to-son, since Confucius's lifetime, the males in the family would all have the
same Y chromosome as their direct male ancestor, with slight mutations due to the passage of time.[51] However, in 2009, the family
authorities decided not to agree to DNA testing.[52] Bryan Sykes, professor of genetics at Oxford University, understands this
decision: "The Confucius family tree has an enormous cultural significance," he said. "It's not just a scientific question."[52] The
DNA testing was originally proposed to add new members, many of whose family record books were lost during 20th-century
upheavals, to the Confucian family tree.[53]
The fifth and most recent edition of the Confucius genealogy was printed by the Confucius Genealogy Compilation
Committee (CGCC). It was unveiled in a ceremony at Qufu on September 24, 2009. [54][55] Women are now included for the first
time.[56]
Note that this only deals with those whose lines of descent are documented historically. Using mathematical models, it is easy to
demonstrate that people living today have a much more common ancestry than commonly assumed, so it is likely that many more
have Confucius as an ancestor.[57]
Ahmadiyya views of Confucius
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes that Confucius was a prophet of God.[58]
41
See also
China portal
Biography
portal
Philosophy
portal
Book of Songs (Chinese)
Confucius Institute

References
^ More commonly abbreviated to Chinese: 孔子; pinyin:Kǒngzǐ; see Names section
^ "Confucius (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
^ Ban 111, vol.56 (Chinese language only)
^ Gao 2003[citation needed]
^ Chen 2003[citation needed]
^ a b The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, VII.1[dead link]
^ Kang 1958[citation needed]
^ Chien 1978
^ a b c Sima 109 B.C.E. - 91 B.C.E., vol.47
^ Chien 1978, p. 25
^ Legge 1895, Book 5, V
^ a b Temple Of Confucius, 2001
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, XVIII.4
^ Chien 1978, pp. 37–46
^ Watson 1996
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, IX.14
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, XI.8, 9, 10 and 11
^ Classic of Rites 300 BC, Tangong Part 1
^ Chien 1978, pp. 50–53
^ Zhang 1988, p. 76
^ Chien 1978, pp. 117–120
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, I.1[dead link]
^ Gu 1658, vol. 51, sec. 9
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, III.3[dead link];VI.13[dead link] and XVII.11[dead link]
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, XIII.5[dead link];XVII.9[dead link]
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, VI.25[dead link]
^ Derrida 1983, p. 63
^ Du 2005
^ Lee 1995, pp. 1–3
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, XVI.2[dead link]
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, XIV.9[dead link]
^ Zhang 2002, p. 208
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, VI.24 and 30[dead link]; XIV.16 and 17[dead link]
^ The Analects 479 BC - 221 BC, II.20[dead link];XII.19[dead link]
^ Legge 1895
^ Xun 325 BC - 238 BC
^ Li 2005
^ The first was Michele Ruggieri who had returned from China to Italy in 1588, and carried on translating in Latin Chinese
classics, while residing in Salerno

42
^ "Windows into China", John Parker, p.25
^ "Windows into China", John Parker, p.25, ISBN 0890730504
^ "The Eastern origins of Western civilization", John Hobson, p194-195, ISBN 0521547245
^ "Revelation Rationality Knowledge and Truth". Alislam.org. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
^ Herbert Roslyn Ekins, Theon Wright (1938). China fights for her life, Volume 2. Whittlesey house. p. 315. Retrieved 2010-
06-28.
^ a b Kong Demao, The House of Confucius (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1988).
^ "CHINA: Potent Mrs. Chiang". TIME. Monday, Nov. 26, 1928. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
^ "Foreign News: Warlike Confucian". TIME. Monday, Jan. 17, 1938. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
^ "Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai-Shek".TIME. Jan. 3, 1938. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
^ "Confucius family tree revision ends with 2 mln descendants". En.ce.cn. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
^ a b c "Updated Confucius family tree has two million members". News.xinhuanet.com. 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2010-11-
07.
^ "DNA test to clear up Confucius confusion". Ye2.mofcom.gov.cn. 2006-06-18. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
^ "DNA Testing Adopted to Identify Confucius Descendants". China.org.cn. 2006-06-19. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
^ a b Jane Qiu (2008-08-13). "Inheriting Confucius". Seedmagazine.com. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
^ "Confucius descendents say DNA testing plan lacks wisdom". Eng.bandao.cn. 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
^ "Confucius' Family Tree Recorded biggest". Chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
^ "New Confucius Genealogy out next year". China Internet Information Center. 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-01. "With a
history of over 2,500 years covering more than 80 generations, and the longest family tree in the world according to the Guinness
Book of Records, the fifth edition of the Confucius Genealogy will be printed in several volumes in 2009, according to an organizer of
the Confucius Genealogy Compilation Committee (CGCC)."
^ "Confucius family tree to record female kin". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2007-02-02. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
^ www.stat.yale.edu Common Ancestors Article
^ Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth. Islamic International Publications.
"Windows into China", John Parker, ISBN 0890730504
"The Eastern origins of Western civilization", John Hobson, ISBN 0521547245
Further reading
Clements, Jonathan (2008). Confucius: A Biography. Stroud, Gloucestershire, England: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-
4775-6.
Confucius (1997). Lun yu, (in English The Analects of Confucius). Translation and notes by Simon Leys. New York: W.W.
Norton. ISBN 0-393-04019-4.
Confucius (2003). Confucius: Analects—With Selections from Traditional Commentaries. Translated by E. Slingerland. Indianapolis:
Hackett Publishing. (Original work published c. 551–479 BC) ISBN 0-87220-635-1.
Creel, Herrlee Glessner (1949). Confucius and the Chinese Way. New York: Harper.
Creel, Herrlee Glessner (1953). Chinese Thought from Confucius to Mao Tse-tung. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2005). "Confucianism: An Overview". In Encyclopedia of Religion (Vol. C, pp 1890–1905). Detroit:
MacMillan Reference USA.
Dawson, Raymond (1982). Confucius. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192875361.
Dollinger, Marc J. (1996). "Confucian Ethics and Japanese Management Practices," in Sterling Harwood, ed., Business as Ethical and Business as
Usual Boston: Jones & Bartlett.
Fingarette, Hebert (1998). Confucius : the secular as sacred. Long Grove, Ill.: Waveland Press. ISBN 1577660102.
Mengzi (2006). Mengzi. Translation by B.W. Van Norden. In PhilipJ. Ivanhoe & B.W. Van Norden, Readings in Classical Chinese
Philosophy. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-87220-780-3.
Ssu-ma Ch'ien (1974). Records of the Historian. Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang, trans. Hong Kong: Commercial Press.
Van Norden, B.W., ed. (2001). Confucius and the Analects: New Essays. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513396-X.
Vidal, Gore (1981). Creation. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-50015-6. Confucius appears as one of the main characters in
this novel, which gives a very sympathetic and human portrait of him and his times.
External links
This article's use of external links may not follow
Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by
removing excessive and inappropriate external links. (December 2010)

43
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Works by Confucius at Project Gutenberg
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Records of the Grand Historian
Familiar Discourses (Jia yu,家語), containing traditions about Confucius' early life
New modern and detailed TV series about Confucius made by CCTV
Core philosophical passages in the Analects of Confucius.

Categories: 479 BC deaths | 551 BC births | 5th-century BC philosophers | 5th-century BC historians | Ancient
Chinese philosophers | Confucius | Chinese Confucianists | Classical humanists | Confucianism | Education
theory | Founders of religions | Guqin players | Moral philosophers | People from Qufu | Secularism | State of
Lu | Zhou Dynasty historians | Zhou Dynasty musicians

Burning of the Books
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burning_of_books_and_burying_of_scholars

Burning of the books and burying of the scholars (traditional Chinese: 焚書坑儒; simplified
Chinese: 焚书坑儒; pinyin: Fénshū Kēngrú) is a phrase that refers to a policy and a sequence of events in the Qin
Dynasty of Ancient China, between the period of 213 and 206 BC. During these events, the Hundred Schools of
Thought were pruned; legalism survived. One side effect was the marginalization of the thoughts of the school of Mozi and the
survival of the thoughts of Confucius.

44
Contents
[hide]
1 Book burning
2 Burial of the
scholars
3 See also
4 Notes
5 External links
[edit]Book burning
According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China, unified China in 221
BC, his chancellor Li Si suggested suppressing the intellectual discourse to unify all thoughts and political opinions. This was
justified by accusations that the intelligentsia sang false praise and raised dissent through libel.
Beginning in 213 BC, all classic works of the Hundred Schools of Thought — except those from Li Si's own school of
philosophy known as legalism — were subject to book burning.
Qin Shi Huang burned the other histories out of fear that they undermined his legitimacy, and wrote his own history books.
Afterwards, Li Si took his place in this area.
Li Si proposed that all histories in the imperial archives except those written by the Qin historians be burned; that the Classic of
Poetry, the Classic of History, and works by scholars of different schools be handed in to the local authorities for burning; that
anyone discussing these two particular books be executed; that those using ancient examples to satirize contemporary politics be put to
death, along with their families; that authorities who failed to report cases that came to their attention were equally guilty; and that
those who had not burned the listed books within 30 days of the decree were to be banished to the north as convicts working on
building the Great Wall. The only books to be spared in the destruction were books
on war, medicine, agriculture and prophecy. [1]
[edit]Burial of the scholars
After being deceived by two alchemists while seeking prolonged life, Qin Shi Huangdi ordered more than 460 scholars in the capital
to be buried alive in the second year of the proscription, though an account given by Wei Hong in the 2nd century added another 700
to the figure. As some of them were also Confucian scholars, Fusu counselled that, with the country newly unified, and enemies still
not pacified, such a harsh measure imposed on those who respect Confucius would cause instability. [2] However, he was unable to
change his father's mind, and instead was sent to guard the frontier in a de facto exile.
The quick fall of the Qin Dynasty was attributed to this proscription. Confucianism was revived in the Han Dynasty that
followed, and became the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. Many of the other schools had disappeared.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Confucius

A Temple of Confucius or Confucian temple (simplified Chinese: 孔庙; traditional Chinese: 孔廟; pinyin: Kǒng miào) is
a temple devoted to the memory of Confucius and the sages and philosophers of Confucianism.
Contents
[hide]
1 History
2 Structure
3 Worship
4 Confucian temples outside mainland China
4.1 Taiwan
4.2 Vietnam
4.3 Korea
4.4 Japan
4.5 Indonesia
4.6 Malaysia
5 Alternate names
6 Temples
7 External links
[edit]History

45
The largest and oldest Temple of Confucius is found in Confucius's hometown, present-day Qufu in Shandong Province. It
was established in 479 BC, one year after Confucius's death, at the order of the Duke Ai of the State of Lu, who commanded that the
Confucian residence should be used to worship and offer sacrifice to Confucius. The temple was expanded repeatedly over a period of
more than 2,000 years until it became the huge complex currently standing.
The development of state temples devoted to the cult of Confucius was an outcome of his gradual canonisation. In 195 BC, Han Gao
Zu, founder of the Han Dynasty (r. 206–195 BC), offered a sacrifice to the spirit of Confucius at his tomb in Qufu. Sacrifices to the
spirit of Confucius and that of Yan Hui, his most prominent disciple, began in the Imperial University (Biyong) as early as 241.
In 454, the first state Confucian temple was built by the Liu Song dynasty of south China (420 to 479). In 489, the Northern
Wei constructed a Confucian temple in the capital, the first outside of Qufu in the north. In 630, the Tang Dynasty decreed that
schools in all provinces and counties should have a Confucian temple, as a result of which temples spread throughout China. Well-
known Confucian shrines include the Confucian Temple in Jianshui, the Confucian Temp in Xi'an (now the Forest of Steles), the
Fuzi Miao in Nanjing, and the Confucian Temple in Beijing, first built in 1302.
In addition to Confucian temples associated with the state cult of Confucius, there were also ancestral temples belonging to the Kong
lineage, buildings commemorating Confucius's deeds throughout China, and private temples within academies.
[edit]Structure

United Perception Solidaruty
UPS
Ultimate Potential Society

Vatican Zionist Child Trafficking warrants media directed to Nigeria
Trust in God and by all means mainstream satanic media

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1OXIXyAcqc
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W1cRPmc0H6s
Obama “Wear down these forces that we can tell a different story”

Jesuit
1. Member of Roman Catholic religious order
A member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order engaged in missionary and educational work worldwide. The
order was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola in 1534 with the objective of defending Catholicism against the Reformation.
2. Offensive Term
An offensive term for somebody regarded as crafty or scheming, especially somebody who uses deliberately ambiguous or confusing
words to deceive others

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QH_Bs-pN46s
The Whole Story Of Zionist Conspiracy [The Filthy History Of Pedophilia, Murder & Bigotry]
Not guilty if cause others to do their evil!!

46
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=II96QkZaz1E
The Most SHOCKING Psychiatry Documentary EVER

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Kevin Annett - The Vatican, Pedophilia & The Royals on Shattering The Matrix Radio

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lf9yzHwOeUc
WATCH NOW "IN A NUTSHELL" if this doesn't scare you into reality, I don't know what will !!!
Neurosis

47
I wanna live humanity clan 911 conspiracy solved nip WW III
Sane people must demand crimes against humanity satanic be brought to trial to prove their sanity
Otherwise Toot Toot Tootsie Good Bye!!
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_fp5kaVYhk
Rothschild … collapse Russia economy … 911 to destroy financial records etc.

Know truth of vanished 370 status quo whoa humanity woes
Media personnel most complicit in crimes against humanity

Somewhat like the Titanic that was actually the Olympic
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azHQDceOJqU
PROJECT CAMELOT: DAVID HAWKINS RE FLIGHT 370
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GDGgXfXlxCA

London Terrorist Capital QE Sayonara Tel Aviv
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUgWhUkkzr4
Leuren Moret: Flight 370 downing was U.S. Navy Energy weapons demo for Putin; Rothschild patent scam;
Payback for Kuala Lumpur War Crimes Tribunal verdicts vs. Israel, US and UK

48
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1FEEIn-tirU
Did J.P. Morgan , Rothschild ,And Federal Reserve Bankers Sink Titanic
Soldiers are pawns of Rothschild

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGLY0_UmdTc
LEXXTEX - 276 - THE TITANIC " THE UNTOLD STORY OF ITS MYSTERIOUS SINKING "
Actually Olympic for insurance

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOca_wTZ5BQ
The Titanic Conspiracy – The Great Deception
Jekyll Island meeting

State Secret Privilege
Bush 9/11 Cover - up

The state secrets privilege is an evidentiary rule created by United States legal precedent. Application of the
privilege results in exclusion of evidence from a legal case based solely on affidavits submitted by the
government stating that court proceedings might disclose sensitive information which might endanger national
security.[1][2][3][4][5][6] United States v. Reynolds,[7] which involved military secrets, was the first case that saw
formal recognition of the privilege.

Following a claim of "state secrets privilege", the court rarely conducts an in camera examination of the
evidence to evaluate whether there is sufficient cause to support the use of this doctrine. This results in court
rulings in which even the judge has not verified the veracity of the assertion.[1] The privileged material is
completely removed from the litigation, and the court must determine how the unavailability of the privileged
information affects the case.[3][5]

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, the privilege is increasingly used to dismiss entire court cases,
instead of only withholding the sensitive information from a case.[1] Also in 2001, George W. Bush issued
49
Executive Order 13233extending the accessibility of the state secrets privilege to also allow former presidents,
their designated representatives, or representatives designated by their families, to invoke it to bar records from
their tenure.[5]

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sPIfgmuN4ns
In this lecture by Michel Chossudovsky, he blows away the smokescreen put up by the mainstream media, that 9/11 was
an attack on America by "Islamic terrorists". Through meticulous research, he has uncovered a military-intelligence ploy
behind the September 11 attacks, and the cover-up and complicity of key members of the Bush Administration. According
to Chossudovsky, the "war on terrorism" is a complete fabrication based on the illusion that one man, Osama bin Laden,
outwitted the $40 billion-a-year American intelligence apparatus. The "war on terrorism" is a war of conquest.
Globalisation is the final march to the "New World Order", dominated by Wall Street and the U.S. military-industrial
complex. September 11, 2001 provides a justification for waging a war without borders. Washington's agenda consists in
extending the frontiers of the American Empire to facilitate complete U.S. corporate control, while installing within America
the institutions of the Homeland Security State.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yowqX2ngHl4
The whole truth about the Iraq war
The War on Iraq, filmmaker Robert Greenwald chronicles the Bush Administration's determined quest to invade Iraq
following the events of September 11, 2001. The film deconstructs the administration's case for war through interviews
with U.S intelligence and defense officials, foreign service experts, and U.N. weapons inspectors -- including a former CIA
director, a former ambassador to Saudi Arabia and even President Bush's Secretary of the Army. Their analyses and
conclusions are sobering, and often disturbing, regardless of one's political affiliations.

Iraq War
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Khut8xbXK8&feature=related
Illegal

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L777RhL_Fz4&feature=related
Secrets in Plain Sight

All evidence appears to support the great probability a diversionary nuclear war commencincing with Marshall
Law and Fema Holocausts will take place this year as the aliens make out like bandits
ET go home with the Gold for their environment leaving Earth as they long ago left Mars

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-kcSR_VUy1Y&feature=relmfu
Where did gold go?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWZELJA_fSU&feature=related
Fraud documents blown up Enron Rockefeller

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mhROd7Jt3-w&feature=related
911 hoax of ultimate evil folk
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SXr_sGrUFO4&feature=related
Total Proof no Planes hit the Buildings

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-rFagA-32M&feature=relmfu
Sound recordings Proof of Demolition

50
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0xzsbSbVUE
After overcoming the willing suspension of disbelief
High Ranking US Major General Exposes September 11

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68LUHa_-OlA
CIA Whistleblower Susan Lindauer EXPOSES Everything! "Extreme Prejudice"

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVKGRB3cygg
Why The Military Knows Israel Did 9/11

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WWUQ_N_vHc0&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20LkYvEZOZs
WikiLeaks Iraq Shooting Video Analysis
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7h-qX5-0xgo
US soldiers War Crimes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjsFSrSN7-k
US. war crimes in Iraq [Part 1]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmoMuy0vZjc
US. war crimes in Iraq [Part 2]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6M2AIma98k
US. war crimes in Iraq [Part 3]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2i0d3NdtIeM
US. war crimes in Iraq [Part 4]

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EqKQFcFT4TY
A Must Watch!! Dirty Wars!! US War Masters!!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmoXze-Higc
Propaganda Terms in the Media and What They Mean - Noam Chomsky

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=01e8-zSLkg0
Noam Chomsky on Ron Paul's 9/11 Theories:
"What He Said Is Completely Uncontroversial"

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cn5y659VI7Q
Noam Chomsky on WikiLeaks,
Obama's Targeted Assassinations and Latin America's Break From US

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBI9mC77igo
Chomsky explains who U.S. leaders work for and what they have done.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4iJjtEMamjc
The Julian Assange Show: Noam Chomsky & Tariq Ali (E10)

51
On and on no end of evidence for anyone interested in amassing to finally end the
Struggle of Humankind

Forthright Forthwith Forthcoming
FFF

In the name of God of, for and with the People WTF?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UbACCGf6q-c

FFF
Fickle Fate Finger

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=II96QkZaz1E
The Most SHOCKING Psychiatry Documentary EVER

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luNgPO-vqBw&feature=related
Hitlers Rothchilds
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmgJE8hrL1Y
Rothschild 2 World Wars
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NzLIz27GqWs
Rothschild Federal Reserve
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EhL2gxjemLg
Bank Cartels Federal Reserve
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zx0vrR2BFp8
Money out of thin air
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=onWb_ripZ3c
How Rothschild controlled the modern world
Goldsmith’s first bankers started cheating as in Gutenberg
Time to bring Crooks before a legal court
Central Banks Plutocracy Money Changers
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=roR3sSunqpo
Where have the Rothschilds gone? Rothschild Zionist SS Secret Society not about Jewish people

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=htquSM-hYpo
Meltdown: The men who crashed our world
Greenspan major criminal

Where’s the Gold?

52
911
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWLis-TVB2w

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgo-E7KhVAc
$$$$$
http://www.scribd.com/doc/220510328/Through-the-SON-Spin-
omnipresent-Neurosis-Clear-as-the-Rising-Sun

Fwd: Breaking News: Easter Proclamation Abolishes the Papacy - see attached youtubes and
please post

Kevin A
To George DufortMe
Apr 20 at 12:54 PM

Breaking News Release: Easter Sunday, April 20, 2014 at 4 pm GMT

Easter Proclamation Abolishes the Papacy - Common Law Court and Covenanted Christians
issue joint statement

http://youtu.be/1zvtuHT7Cl4

http://youtu.be/48nIMwXOMCY

Maastricht, Holland and Rome:

Today, at sunrise on Easter, April 20, 2014, ceremonies in Rome, London, Maastricht and at the key
energy centers of the earth proclaimed and invoked the spiritual disestablishment of the church of
Rome and the entity governing it. The Maastricht Proclamation was made by Rev. Kevin Annett at the
oldest catholic church outside of Italy.

The Proclamation was preceded by sunrise exorcism ceremonies at the Vatican and dozens of other
locations under the authority of spiritual elders. To quote their statement,

"This third and final exorcism of the dark entity of Rome is accomplished. The power of that false church is forever
broken, and replaced by a new spiritual gathering of free men and women under a new Covenant with the Creator.

53
"The new Covenant stands solely on the authority, judgement and laws of God, and nullifies the de facto rule of church
and state that wrongfully posed as lawful and legitimate authorities over mankind. The new Covenant replaces those de
facto, criminal powers with the de jure, lawful government of God that overturns and replaces all unjust, man made
authority of church and state."

The new Covenant issued today's Proclamation, which follows.The Proclamation has supreme spiritual
and lawful authority and binding power under the laws of heaven and earth, and all free men and
women are empowered to actively enforce it.

I, Kevin Daniel of the House Annett, give witness and judgement today to this Act and
accomplishment of God on behalf of the Court and the Covenant.

Issued by ITCCS Central, Brussels and the Covenanted Congregational Charter, New York - 20 April, 2014

..................

A GLOBAL EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION

MADE UNDER THE LAW OF GOD AND MAN

(This Proclamation is issued and available in thirteen languages)

Invoking the Legal and Spiritual Disestablishment of the Church of Rome and its adjunct
bodies, the Vatican and the “Holy See”

AND

Issued as a Binding De Jure Annulment and Emancipation Order by The International
Common Law Court of Justice and The Covenant of Free Congregational Christians on
Easter Sunday the 20th Day of April in the year 2014

TO BE PUBLICLY PROCLAIMED AND ENACTED

54
Let it Be Known and made effect by all men and women, persons and authorities that under the
Supreme Law of God as embodied in the Common Law of Nature and Natural Right, as of this day, the
institution and entity of the Church of Rome, its officers, clergy, adjunct and derivative bodies and
corporate entirety, is now and forever abolished and disestablished as a corporate and a spiritual body.
All people and powers formerly under its authority and influence and owing it allegiance are now and
forever emancipated and freed from such obligatory servitude.

Having violated and waged unrelenting war on God and humanity through its history of crime, murder,
apostasy, child sacrifice and idolatry, and thereby repudiated its covenanted requirement of duty to
uphold the honor of Heaven and Earth, and the life and dignity of mankind, the Church of Rome has
nullified its basis for existence and brought upon itself the status of a renegade transnational criminal
organization in the eyes of God and man, and under the laws of both heaven and earth.

The ultimate authority of God as expressed in De Jure common law courts of judgment and in
congregations of just, truthful men and women does therefore nullify the existence of the Church of
Rome, the alleged “Apostolic Succession”, and its so-called “Canon Law”.

Therefore, as of this day, all such law, statutes, and all church offices and officials are declared to be
forever abolished and possessing no effect or binding authority in heaven or on earth.

All Church of Rome officials and agents, commencing with Jorge Bergoglio, so-called Pontiff of the
Church of Rome, every Cardinal of the Roman Curia, the heads of the Vatican Bank and Adolfo
Pachon, chief “Superior” of the Jesuit Order, are hereby ordered to immediately stand down from and
relinquish their offices.

The wealth, property and movable assets of the Church of Rome are hereby forfeited and declared to be
under the common ownership of the People of the world, and may be peacefully seized and occupied
by them.

Every member, employee and adherent of the Roman Catholic Church is hereby released from all of
their vows, allegiance and obligations to the Church of Rome, and are freed to gather and worship in
whatever congregational form that God and their conscience compels, separate from the disestablished
Roman church.

The sheriffs and peace officers of lawful common law courts, assisted by the free people of the world,
are henceforth authorized and encouraged to enact and enforce this Annulment and Emancipation
Proclamation wherever possible, under the supreme and sovereign authority of God and the Law of
Nations.

The people of God who have been lost and held in bondage within the spiritual captivity of the false
church of Rome are now free to assemble in covenanted congregations which stand solely under the
law of God and recognizing no other legitimate authority, for the establishment of God's kingdom on
earth.

55
The long night of spiritual tyranny and Vatican crime is over. Let the free people of the Earth and all
true servants of God and Christ cleanse their lands of the Lie and the Murder formerly enthroned in
Rome.

Proclaimed and enacted as on this Resurrection Sunday by The International Common Law
Court of Justice with the collaboration of the The Covenant of Free Congregational Christians
(The Covenanters)

This Proclamation is accompanied by a third and final exorcism and spiritual reclamation ceremony in
Rome and throughout the world, on this Easter Sunday, April 20, 2014

In Coram Deo: Invoked in God's presence - As God wills it, it is accomplished

A Lawful and Binding Act made under the Divine and Common Law. The power to bind and
free now resides in God alone and through God's free, covenanted people.

www.iclcj.com , www.covenantedcommunity.org

itccscentral@gmail.com

www.itccs.org

--
See the evidence of Genocide in Canada and other crimes at
www.hiddennolonger.com and at the website of The International Tribunal into
Crimes of Church and State at www.itccs.org, and at www.iclcj.com, the site for the
Common Law court network.

An International, multi-lingual ITCCS site can be found at:
http://kevinannettinternational.blogspot.fr/

The complete Common Law Court proceedings of Genocide in Canada are found at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvhfXAd08TE - Common Law Court Proceedings - Genocide in
Canada (Part One) - 1 hr. 46 mins.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPKFk_L7y9g - Common Law Court Proceedings - Genocide in
Canada (Part Two) - 1 hr. 47 mins.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ormOIlOi4Vc - Final Court Verdict and Sentencing - 8 mins. 30
secs.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IylfBxm3sMg - Authorizations and Endorsements of
ITCCS/Kevin Annett by indigenous eyewitnesses - 10 mins.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CReISnQDbBE - Irene Favel, Eyewitness to the
incineration of a newborn baby by a priest at Muscowegan Catholic Indian school,
Saskatchewan, 1944

56
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RBUd3UXt6fI - Other key testimonies from our
Court case against genocide in Canada

Kevin Annett is a Nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize (2013). Messages for him
can be left at 250-591-4573 (Canada) or 386-323-5774 (USA). His personal
website is www.KevinAnnett.com .

"I gave Kevin Annett his Indian name, Eagle Strong Voice, in 2004 when I adopted him
into our Anishinabe Nation. He carries that name proudly because he is doing the job he
was sent to do, to tell his people of their wrongs. He speaks strongly and with truth. He
speaks for our stolen and murdered children. I ask everyone to listen to him and
welcome him."
Chief Louis Daniels - Whispers Wind
Elder, Crane Clan, Anishinabe Nation, Winnipeg, Manitoba

--
See the evidence of Genocide in Canada and other crimes at
www.hiddennolonger.com and at the website of The International Tribunal into
Crimes of Church and State at www.itccs.org, and at www.iclcj.com, the site for the
Common Law court network.

An International, multi-lingual ITCCS site can be found at:
http://kevinannettinternational.blogspot.fr/

The complete Common Law Court proceedings of Genocide in Canada are found at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvhfXAd08TE - Common Law Court Proceedings - Genocide in
Canada (Part One) - 1 hr. 46 mins.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPKFk_L7y9g - Common Law Court Proceedings - Genocide in
Canada (Part Two) - 1 hr. 47 mins.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ormOIlOi4Vc - Final Court Verdict and Sentencing - 8 mins. 30
secs.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IylfBxm3sMg - Authorizations and Endorsements of
ITCCS/Kevin Annett by indigenous eyewitnesses - 10 mins.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CReISnQDbBE - Irene Favel, Eyewitness to the
incineration of a newborn baby by a priest at Muscowegan Catholic Indian school,
Saskatchewan, 1944

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RBUd3UXt6fI - Other key testimonies from our
Court case against genocide in Canada

Kevin Annett is a Nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize (2013).
57
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrAZac5SdBI
Albert Rivera Ex-Jesuit Interview - Exposing The Vatican & Jesuits –
New World Order
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhoPTvXn_t0
Jesuit - Pope Francis I - 666 Mark of the Beast - Final Warning Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5WkKmU_W8NU
Dark secrets of the Catholic Church; Ex nun Confesses

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clU-9-1U3dw
Documentary: Nuns Abuse & Crimes against Thousands of Women Revealed

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cl6DgOLefGk&list=PLDuN8n2rH5bFdde-3RnUjInAchRwweQeP
Catholic Church Scandal Nuns stealing babies and selling off in corrupt adoption business 2 2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zd8-Xy26TE
World Bank Whistleblower Harassed By DoJ - Support Her
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0G4rIXkEXk
World Bank Whistleblower is on Main Stream Media Stations with Warning-

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGEYloihE9g
Illuminati Whistleblower "They Worship lucifer"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCKHFIYjvhg
MUST WATCH - The Vatican and the New World Order
www.SolarGhost13.com

58
Alas

No Time for Truth
Too busy attempting ignorant Bliss due the insanity of it all

http://www.scribd.com/doc/191773511/Circle-of-Life-to-Wits

www.frank13.com

59