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For other uses, see Poster (disambiguation). 1 History

Placard redirects here: this should not be confused with
Plaque or Plack (disambiguation)
A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be at-

Moulin Rouge - La Goulue

Toulouse-Lautrec, 1891

Madam Ada Castello and her horse Jupiter, poster for Ringling
Brothers, ca. 1899.jpg
1.1 Introduction

tached to a wall or vertical surface.[1] Typically posters According to the French historian Max Gallo, for over
include both textual and graphic elements, although a two hundred years, posters have been displayed in pub-
poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. lic places all over the world. Visually striking, they have
Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and infor- been designed to attract the attention of passers-by, mak-
mative. Posters may be used for many purposes. They ing us aware of a political viewpoint, enticing us to attend
are a frequent tool of advertisers (particularly of events, specic events, or encouraging us to purchase a particular
musicians and lms), propagandists, protestors and other product or service.[3] The modern poster, as we know it,
groups trying to communicate a message. Posters are also however, dates back to the mid-nineteenth century, when
used for reproductions of artwork, particularly famous several separate but related changes took place. First, the
works, and are generally low-cost compared to original printing industry perfected colour lithography and made
artwork. The modern poster, as we know it, however, mass production of large and inexpensive images possi-
dates back to the 1840s and 1850s when the printing in- ble. Second, government censorship of public spaces in
dustry perfected colour lithography and made mass pro- countries like France was lifted. And nally, advertis-
duction possible. [2] ers began to market mass-produced consumer goods to a


Oce of War Information. Bureau of Special Services. 1943 )

centuries. However, the great revolution in posters was

the development of printing techniques that allowed for
cheap mass production and printing, including notably the
technique lithography which was invented in 1796 by the
German Alois Senefelder. The invention of lithography
was soon followed by chromolithography, which allowed
for mass editions of posters illustrated in vibrant colours
to be printed.

Poster for the Holzer Fashion Store

1.3 Developing art form

growing populace in urban areas.[4] By the 1890s, the technique had spread throughout Eu-
rope. A number of noted French artists created poster art
In little more than a hundred years, writes poster expert
in this period, foremost amongst them Henri de Toulouse-
John Barnicoat, it has come to be recognized as a vital
Lautrec, Jules Chret, Eugne Grasset, Adolphe Willette,
art form, attracting artists at every level, from painters
Pierre Bonnard, Louis Anguetin, Georges de Feure and
like Toulouse-Lautrec and Mucha to theatrical and com-
Henri-Gabriel Ibels.[6] Chret is considered to be the fa-
mercial designers.[5] They have ranged in styles from Art
ther of advertisement placards. He was a pencil artist
Nouveau, Symbolism, Cubism, and Art Deco to the more
and a scene decorator, who founded a small lithography
formal Bauhaus and the often incoherent hippie posters
oce in Paris in 1866. He used striking characters, con-
of the 1960s.
trast and bright colours, and created over 1000 advertise-
ments, primarily for exhibitions, theatres, and products.
1.2 Mass production The industry soon attracted the service of many aspiring
painters who needed a source of revenue to support them-
Posters, in the form of placards and posted bills, have selves.
been used since earliest times, primarily for advertis- Chret developed a new lithographic technique that suited
ing and announcements. Purely textual posters have a better the needs of advertisers: he added a lot more colour
long history: they advertised the plays of Shakespeare which, in conjunction with innovative typography, ren-
and made citizens aware of government proclamations for dered the poster much more expressive. Not surprisingly,

Chret is said to have introduced sex in advertising or, 2 Decline and resurgence
at least, to have exploited the feminine image as an ad-
vertising ploy. In contrast with those previously painted Challenged by newer modes of advertising, the poster as
by Toulouse-Lautrec, Chrets laughing and provocative a communicative form began to decline after the First
feminine gures, often called chrettes, meant a new World War. Civic groups had long assailed the poster,
conception of art as being of service to advertising. arguing that the form made public spaces ugly. But the
Posters soon transformed the thoroughfares of Paris, real threat to posters came from newer forms of advertis-
making the streets into what one contemporary called ing. Mass-market magazines, radio and later television,
the poor mans picture gallery.[7] Their commercial suc- and bill-boards all cut into advertisers marketing budgets.
cess was such that some ne artists took up poster de- While posters continued to be made and advertised prod-
sign in earnest. Some of these artists were, like Alphonse ucts, they were no longer considered a primary form of
Mucha, in great demand and theatre stars personally se- advertising. More and more, posters purpose shifted to-
lected their own favorite artist to do the poster for an up- ward political and decorative uses.
coming performance. The popularity of poster art was Indeed, by the mid 1960s, posters were reborn as part of
such that in 1884 a major exhibition was held in Paris. a broader counter-cultural shift. By 1968 the poster craze
was described as half way between a passing fashion and
a form of mass hysteria. [9] Sometimes called a second
golden age or postermania[10] however, this resurgence
of popularity saw posters used as decoration and self-
expression as much as public protest or advertising.[11]
1.4 Golden age of the poster
3 Commercial uses
By the 1890s, poster art had widespread usage in other
parts of Europe, advertising everything from bicycles to
By the 1890s, poster art had widespread usage in other
bullghts. By the end of the 19th century, during an era
parts of Europe, advertising everything from bicycles to
known as the Belle poque, the standing of the poster as
bullghts. Many posters have had great artistic merit.
a serious artform was raised even further. Between 1895
These include the posters advertising consumer products
and 1900, Jules Chret created the Matres de l'Ache
and entertainment, but also events like the Worlds Fairs
(Masters of the Poster) series that became not only a com-
and Colonial Exhibitions.
mercial success, but is now seen as an important historical
publication. Alphonse Mucha and Eugne Grasset were
also inuential poster designers of this generation, known
for their Art Nouveau style and stylized gures, particu-
3.1 Political uses
larly of women. Advertisement posters became a special
type of graphic art in the modern age. Poster artists such Other times of great turmoil also produced great posters.
The rst widespread use of illustrated posters for politi-
as Thophile Steinlen, Albert Guillaume, Leonetto Cap-
piello, Henri Thiriet and others became important gures cal ends occurred during the First World War. War bond
drives and recruitment posters soon replaced commercial
of their day, their art form transferred to magazines for
advertising as well as for social and political commen- advertisements. German graphic designers, who had pio-
neered the simple Sachplakat style in the years leading up
tary.. Indeed, as design historian Elizabeth Guey notes,
As large, colourful posters began to command the spaces to the war, applied their talents to the war eort. Artists
working for the Allied cause also made over their art in
of public streets, markets and squares, the format itself
took on a civic respectability never aorded to Victorian wartime, as well.
handbills.[8] The 1960s saw the rise of pop art and protest movements
In the United States, posters underwent a slightly dier- throughout the West; both made great use of posters and
ent evolution. By the 1850s, the advent of the travelling contributed to the posters revitalization at this time. Per-
circus brought colourful posters to tell citizens that a car- haps the most acclaimed posters were those produced by
nival was coming to town. While many of these posters French students during the so-called "vnements" of May
were beautifully printed, the earliest were mass-produced 1968. During the 1968 Paris student riots and for years to
woodcuts; that technique, as well as their subject mat- come, Jim Fitzpatricks stylized poster of Marxist revo-
ter, crowded style, and bright colors, was often derided lutionary Che Guevara (based on the photo Guerrillero
by contemporary critics. As chromo-lithography began Heroico), also became a common youthful symbol of
to reshape European posters, American artists began to rebellion.[12]
take the medium more seriously. Indeed, with work of After the September 11 attacks, in the United States, pub-
designers like Edward Peneld or Will Bradley gained an lic schools across the country posted "In God We Trust"
audience in Europe as well as America. framed posters in their libraries, cafeterias and class-

5.1 Propaganda and political posters

A framed poster displaying the national motto of the United

States, "In God We Trust, in a New Philadelphia High School
German propaganda poster, 1921

rooms. The American Family Association supplied sev- During the First and Second World Wars, recruiting
eral 11-by-14-inch posters to school systems.[13] posters became extremely common, and many of them
have persisted in the national consciousness, such as the
"Lord Kitchener Wants You" posters from the United
Kingdom, the "Uncle Sam wants you posters from the
4 Poster printing United States, or the "Loose Lips Sink Ships" posters[14]
that warned of foreign spies. Also in Canada, they were
Many printing techniques are used to produce posters.
While most posters are mass-produced, posters may also Posters during wartime were also used for propaganda
be printed by hand or in limited editions. Most posters purposes, persuasion, and motivation, such as the fa-
are printed on one side and left blank on the back, the mous Rosie the Riveter posters which exhorted women
better for axing to a wall or other surface. Pin-up sized workers to work in factories during World War II. The
posters are usually printed on A3 Standard Silk paper in Soviet Union also produced a plethora of propaganda
full colour. Upon purchase, most commercially available posters, some of which became iconic representa-
posters are often rolled up into a cylindrical tube to al- tions of the Great Patriotic War. During the democratic
low for damage-free transportation. Rolled-up posters revolutions of 1989 in Central and Eastern Europe the
can then be attened under pressure for several hours to poster was very important weapon in the hand of the op-
regain their original form. position. Brave printed and hand-made political posters
appeared on the Berlin Wall, on the statue of St. Wens-
It is possible to use poster creation software to print large eslas in Prague and around the unmarked grave of Imre
posters on standard home or oce printers. Nagy in Budapest and the role of them was indispens-
able for the democratic change. An example of an inu-
ential political poster is Shepard Fairey's Barack Obama
HOPE poster.
5 Types of poster designs

Many posters, particularly early posters, were used for 5.2 Movie posters
advertising products. Posters continue to be used for this
purpose, with posters advertising lms, music (both con- Main article: Film poster
certs and recorded albums), comic books, and travel des-
tinations being particularly notable examples. The lm industry quickly discovered that vibrantly
5.4 Event posters 5

changes in British society, along with the changing styles

of art, architecture and fashion as well as changing pat-
terns of holidaymaking.[20]

5.4 Event posters

Lithograph poster for Ranch 10, a Western-themed play by

Harry Meredith which opened in New York City in August 1882

coloured posters were an easy way to sell their pictures.

Today, posters are produced for most major lms, and
the collecting of movie posters has become a major
hobby. The record price for a poster was set on Novem-
ber 15, 2005 when US$690,000 was paid for a poster of
Fritz Lang's 1927 lm Metropolis from the Reel Poster
Gallery in London.[17] Other early horror and science c-
tion posters are known to bring tremendous prices as well,
with an example from The Mummy realizing $452,000 in
a 1997 Sothebys auction,[17] and posters from both The
Black Cat and Bride of Frankenstein selling for $334,600
in various Heritage Auctions.[18] The 1931 Frankenstein
6-sheet poster, of which only 1 copy is known to exist,
is considered to be the most valuable lm poster in the

5.3 Travel posters

Event poster, 2005
Poster advertising or proposing a travel destination, or
simply artistically articulating a place have been made.
An example is the Beach Town Posters series, a collec-
tion of Art Deco travel posters of American beach resorts
that refer to the advertising style of the 1920s and 1930s.

5.3.1 Railway posters

In the early days of steam railways in Britain, the var-

ious rail companies advertised their routes and services
on simple printed sheets. By the 1850s, with increas-
ing competition and improvements in printing technol-
ogy, pictorial designs were being incorporated in their
advertising posters. The use of graphic artists began to
inuence the design of the pictorial poster. In 1905,
the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) com-
Replacing an advertising poster in London using an aerial work
missioned Norman Wilkinson to produce artwork for a
new landscape poster, advertising their rail/steam packet
link to Ireland. In 1908, for the Great Northern Rail-
way (GNR), John Hassall produced the famous image of Posters advertising events have become common. Any
the Jolly Fisherman with the Skegness is so Bracing sort of public event, from a rally to a play, may be ad-
slogan. The development of this commercial art form vertised with posters; a few types of events have become
throughout the rst half of the 20th century reected the notable for their poster advertisements.

5.4.1 Boxing posters

Boxing Posters were used in and around the actual venue

to advertise the forthcoming ght, date, ticket prices,
and usually consisted of pictures of each boxer. Box-
ing Posters vary in size and vibrancy, but are not usually
smaller than 18x22 inches. In the early days, few boxing
posters survived the actual event and have thus become a

5.4.2 Concert posters

Many concerts, particularly rock concerts, have custom-

designed posters that are used for advertisement of the
event. These often become collectors items as well.

5.5 Band/music posters

Posters that showcase a persons favorite artist or music

group are popular in teenagers' bedrooms, as well as in
college dorm rooms and apartments. Many posters have
pictures of popular rock bands and artists.

5.5.1 Blacklight poster

An example of an armation poster
Main article: Blacklight poster

Blacklight posters are designed to have a special eect 5.8 Publications

under a blacklight (ultraviolet light).
5.8.1 Comic book posters

5.6 Pin-up posters The resurgence of comic book popularity in the 1960s
led to the mass production of comic book posters in the
Pinup posters, pinups, or cheesecake posters are pic- 1970s and onward. These posters typically feature pop-
tures of attractive women designed to be displayed, rst ular characters in a variety of action poses. The fact that
coming to popularity in the 1920s. The popularity of comic books are a niche market means that a given poster
sexy pin-up girl posters has been erratic in recent decades. usually has a smaller printing run than other genres of
Pin-ups such as Betty Grable and Jane Russell were highly poster. Therefore, older posters may be quite sought after
popular with soldiers during World War II but much less by collectors. Promotional posters are usually distributed
so during the Vietnam War. The late 1970s and into folded, whereas retail posters intended for home decora-
the beginning of the 1980s were boom years for large tion are rolled.
posters of television actresses, especially Farrah Fawcett
and Cheryl Tiegs.
5.9 Educational posters

5.7 Armation posters 5.9.1 Research posters and poster sessions

Main article: Armation posters Main article: Poster session

This refers to decorative posters that are meant to be Posters are used in academia to promote and explain re-
motivational and inspirational. One popular series has search work. They are typically shown during confer-
a black background, a scene from nature, and a word ences, either as a complement to a talk or scientic paper,
such as Leadership or Opportunity. Another version or as a publication. They are of lesser importance than ac-
(usually framed and matted) uses a two-image hologram tual articles, but they can be a good introduction to a new
which changes as the viewer walks past. piece of research before the paper is published. They may

be considered as grey literature. Poster presentations are

often not peer-reviewed, but can instead be submitted,
meaning that as many as can t will be accepted.

5.9.2 Classroom posters

Posters are a standard feature of classrooms worldwide.

A typical school in North America will display a variety,
including: advertising tie-ins (e.g. an historical movie rel-
evant to a current topic of study); alphabet and grammar;
numeracy and scientic tables; safety and other instruc-
tions; artwork and displays by the students.
See also: Motivational poster

The Queen of Chinatown by Joseph Jarrow, Broadway poster,



Pin-up (disambiguation)

Poster session

Street Poster Art

Swann Galleries

7 References
Poster about Tungsram laments, Hungary ca.1910 [1] [Gosling, Peter. (1999). Scientists Guide to Poster Pre-
sentations. New York: Kluwer. ISBN 978-0-306-46076-

[2] Stephen Eskilson, Graphic Design: A New History, Yale

6 See also University Press, 2012, pp. 43-7.

[3] Gallo, Max, The Poster in History, (2002) W.W. Norton

The Tennis Girl poster was an iconic image from the
late 1970s [4] Elizabeth Guey, Posters: A Global History, Reaktion:
2015, pp. 8-9.
Death to the Brutes, an anti-war anarchist poster
printed in France during the Second World War. [5] Barnicoat, John, Posters: A Concise History, (1985)
Thames and Hudson
Graphic design
[6] The modern poster by Arsne Alexandre
Grey literature
[7] Roger Marx, Masters of the Poster, 18961900 (New
Illustrations York, 1977), p. 7.

List of poster artists [8] Guey, op cit, p. 13.


[9] David Kunzle, Posters of Protest: The Posters of Political Gosling, Peter. (1999). Scientists Guide to Poster
Satire in the U.S., 19661970 (New York, 1971), p. 14. Presentations. New York: Kluwer. ISBN 978-0-
[10] Hilton Kramer, Postermania, New York Times Magazine
(11 February 1968). King, Emily. (2003). A Century of Movie Posters:
From Silent to Art House. Barrons. ISBN 978-0-
[11] Guey, op cit, 127. 7641-5599-4.
[12] Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon, by Trisha Zi, Noble, Ian. (2002). Up Against the Wall: Interna-
Abrams Image, 2006, pg 19 tional Poster Design. Mies, Switzerland: RotoVi-
sion. ISBN 978-2-88046-561-2.
[13] "'In God We Trust' pressed for schools - USA Today. 2002-02-19. Retrieved 2013- Timmers, Margaret. (2003). Power of the Poster.
02-28. Victoria and Albert Museum. ISBN 978-0-8109-
[14] Archived October 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
Le Coultre, Martijn F. & Purvis, Alston W, (2002)A
[15] "'Canadian War Poster Collection'". Digi- Century of Posters, Lund Humphries ISBN 978-0- Retrieved 2013-02-28. 85331-863-7
[16] Propaganda posters - Collection of 1400+ POSTERS Rennert, Jack, (1990), Posters of the Belle Epoque,
from Russia, Czech republic, Poland and Cuba. Wine Spectator Press, ISBN 978-0-9664202-1-0 Retrieved 2013-02-28.
Wrede, Stuart, (1988), The Modern Poster, Little
[17] Lang lm poster fetches record. BBC News. 2005-11- Brown and Company, ISBN 978-0-87070-570-0
15. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
Gold, Laura (1988), Posters, Please ISBN 978-0-
[18] 9664202-0-3
Cole, Beverley and Durack, Richard (1992), Rail-
[19] BIRD GEI Consultoria Idiomas. " way Posters 19231947, Laurence King, ISBN 978-
2012/02/07/film-posters/" 1-85669-014-0

[20] Railway posters - Our collection - National Railway Mu-

seum. 2009-10-13. Retrieved 2013-02-28.
9 External links
"Poster". Encyclopdia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.).
8 Further reading 1911.
Posters from World War I and II A selection of
Josef Mller-Brockmann: Geschichte des Plakates posters covering subjects such as recruitment and
Phaidon Press 2004, ISBN 978-0714844039 enlisting, saving stamps and munitions, from the
Franz-Josef Deiters: Bilder ohne Rahmen: Zur UBC Library Digital Collections
Rhetorik des Plakats, in: Medienrhetorik, ed. by World War I and World II Poster Collection - fea-
Joachim Knape. Attempto, Tbingen (Germany) turing propaganda posters and broadsides from the
2005, ISBN 3-89308-370-7, S. 81112. United States, Western Europe and the Axis powers
from the University of Washington Library
Franz-Josef Deiters: Plakat, in: Historisches
Wrterbuch der Rhetorik, ed by. Gert Ueding (et Features nearly 8,000 circus
al.). Max Niemeyer, Tbingen (Germany) 2003, posters from 1880 to the present
ISBN 3-484-68100-4, vol. 6, pp. 1230-39. London Transport posters Over 5,000 posters from
the London Transport museum
New Masters of Poster Design. John Foster, Rock-
port Publishers 2008 ISBN 978-1592534340 Posters of the Russian Civil War, 1918-1922 New
York Public Library digital collection
100 Best Posters - NO ART. Hermann Schmidt Pub-
lisher 2006, Fons Hickmann, Niklaus Troxler ISBN USSR posters Ben Perrys Flickr photoset with al-
978-3874397032 most 1500 Soviet propaganda, advertising, theatre
and movie posters from 1917-1991
Fons Hickmann, Sven Lindhorst-Emme (Hrsg) An-
Psychedelic posters Andrew Olsens collection of
schlag Berlin - Zeitgeistmedium Plakat. Verlag Selt-
hundreds of psychedelic posters for gigs at The Fill-
mann+Shne, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-944721-
more and The Avalon

10 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

10.1 Text
Poster Source: Contributors: Magnus Manske, Eloquence, Vicki Rosenzweig,
Bryan Derksen, Koyaanis Qatsi, SimonP, Jahsonic, Gabbe, Zanimum, Tzaquiel, Egil, Stan Shebs, Nichtich~enwiki, Wik, Phoebe, Nufy8,
Zandperl, ZimZalaBim, Romanm, Meelar, Carnildo, Snobot, Mintleaf~enwiki, Mark.murphy, JillandJack, Rdsmith4, Boy in the bands,
Pak21, Rama, ESkog, CanisRufus, PatrikR, Bobo192, John Vandenberg, Elipongo, Joshlmay, La goutte de pluie, LuoShengli, Rje,
Notreadbyhumans, Polylerus, Pharos, Alansohn, Free Bear, Ricky81682, Yamla, Flambe, Water Bottle, Pedro Aguiar, DreamGuy, Angr,
LOL, Benbest, Prashanthns, Stefanomione, Floydgeo, Mandarax, Graham87, Kbdank71, JIP, Rjwilmsi, NeonMerlin, Matt Deres, Koopa-
Troopa211, FlaBot, Windchaser, Margosbot~enwiki, Pathoschild, Gurch, Carrionluggage, Spikebrennan, King of Hearts, Chobot, Yurik-
Bot, Wavelength, Borgx, Schoen, Rsrikanth05, RadioKirk, NawlinWiki, Grafen, Tastemyhouse, Howcheng, Bami~enwiki, Ragesoss,
Malcolma, Brian Crawford, Matticus78, Misza13, Nate1481, Mareklug, Nlu, Richardcavell, Calaschysm, Zzuuzz, JLaTondre, Rootlevel,
Mcavalcanti, Meegs, CIreland, Luk, SmackBot, Davepape, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kintetsubualo, PeterSymonds, Portillo, Ohnoitsjamie,
Ghosts&empties, Skizzik, Saros136, Bluebot, Bidgee, Simon123, Deli nk, Jfsamper, Miguel Andrade, Robth, Junius49, Colonies Chris,
Brinerustle, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, OrphanBot, WMXX, Jmlk17, Nakon, Giancarlo Rossi, Dogears, EinarKramer, Cast, The un-
dertow, SashatoBot, AmiDaniel, Kleinburgerei, Marinecorps, Mgaigg, Javit, IronGargoyle, SpyMagician, BikeStrong, Bytwerk, Shangri-
laista, Erwin, Optakeover, E-Kartoel, Hu12, A4Tech, Joseph Solis in Australia, Tawkerbot2, Ko'oy, CmdrObot, ShelfSkewed, Reques-
tion, Richard Keatinge, The Photographer, Mato, Gogo Dodo, Alvesgaspar, Tommy amorim, Joyradost, Jimcripps, Legotech, Thijs!bot,
Epbr123, Pouwerkerk, LeeG, Sry85, T00C00L, Gamer007, Mojo Hand, Z10x, JustAGal, Skrivande, AntiVandalBot, MangoChicken,
Prolog, Alphachimpbot, JAnDbot, Jca2112, Nthep, ThePartyVan, Struthious Bandersnatch, Hut 8.5, Freshacconci, VoABot II, Mysikot,
Lucyin, Cat Whisperer, Ciell, Nyttend, Ahecht, Japo, Oicumayberight, Jtir, MartinBot, Elachys, Ariel., Dwalls, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker,
Brothejr, KTo288, Zeete, Rgoodermote, EscapingLife, Komowkwa, Tokyogirl79, Babalumba, Lordprice, Prosto, Plasticup, Mattferranto,
Fountains of Bryn Mawr, Motorolla, Inspire5.1, NeatlookingGirl, CardinalDan, Idioma-bot, Deor, King Lopez, Killer 777~enwiki, Pazsit
Ulla, VolkovBot, HollyTeacher, Concert Posters, Dashesndots, TXiKiBoT, Jeremy5561, Victimoeisure, Broadbot, Canaima, Wiae, Pa-
cic messenger, Plutonium27, Alfatester, RaseaC,, Logan, CapitanLab, Choichi8, Dogah, Grepol, SieBot, Moebiusuibeom-en,
Coee, Posterdecorium, Sullage, Ttonyb1, Work permit, OatmealSmith, SE7, Wallplace, VAwebteam, Mikymikmik, Joshuasloan, Corey
Tegeler, Lightmouse, Apathyisboring, IdreamofJeanie, Dnssgh, Chris fardon, ImageRemovalBot, WikiBotas, Loren.wilton, ClueBot, Bri-
anolanboatright, Zakhzakh, Binksternet, PipepBot, Wikievil666, Hafspajen, Paulcmnt, DragonBot, Excirial, Nymf, Alexbot, Nuclear-
Warfare, Cenarium, Fairseeder, Carafe, SoxBot, Redthoreau, Levent, Light show, SoxBot III, Camboxer, PretentiousSnot, XLinkBot,
MarmadukePercy, RyanCross, Karynannestuckey, ArtPol08, Addbot, Grayfell, Some jerk on the Internet, Anthony Neo, Ukebloke,
Damiens.rf, MrOllie, Wikisocko, Cyberuly, Tassedethe, Setwisohi, Alamo jackson, Bwrs, PosterArt, Gail, Luckas-bot, Themfromspace,
Wikiedy, MelaniePedia, Phildeco, Gongshow, Ezprint2008, X3ika~enwiki, AnomieBOT, Jim1138, Galoubet, Materialscientist, Bob e
saget, Xqbot, Nesenhof, Nasnema, Natrium Virens, OLDman1960, Carrite, JulianDelphiki, Shadowjams, Fotaun, Thehelpfulbot, Fres-
coBot, Gatorsrule546, Matthaeuswien, LucienBOT, Mdavidy, EvilFlyingMonkey, Nicole Allgood, Tlork Thunderhead, Boleyn3, La-
casati, Foxman95, HRoestBot, Chicon59, Serols, Lotje, Edwrai, Vrenator, Lachecestmoi, PFAStudent, Wikimotivate, Bongdentoiac,
Mean as custard, Androstachys, EmausBot, John of Reading, Spiessens, WikitanvirBot, Achernih, RA0808, Goodguy1066, Dcirovic,
K6ka, PBS-AWB, F, Neun-x, Xjosh2k6x, Marknrm, Suslindisambiguator, Printguy123, Minortuning, Lizhibaoguo, Staszek Lem, An-
gelovers, Zzhiguo, , Oimee, Alborzagros, Tiredrod, Philafrenzy, Ploessi, Sista tofunky, Dezzycbaby81292, ChuispastonBot, Zevers,
Peterpistole, 28bot, Eileenloh1, ClueBot NG, Gareth Grith-Jones, CocuBot, Justlettersandnumbers, Turn685, Widr, Titodutta, Trunks
ishida, BG19bot, Andrew.Naylor.1984, AvocatoBot, Adubinsky, Ericbispresident, GeraldRichie, MariaEya, Stevensrichards, Williamberr,
Xaverin, Conifer, Pratyya Ghosh, Cyberbot II, ChrisGualtieri, Emilyjane91, J.elizabeth.golden, Aksupplies, Hmainsbot1, Uncommon frit-
illary, 2012 Cali, Hillbillyholiday, Cindyxomarie, Maria.tomassetti, Forgot to put name, Red-eyed demon, Stockdisplays, Raekay7, Tenti-
nator, Posterframing, TechFilmer, WTD437, Ginsuloft, Betojimenez, Ccdlsta, Esquin, Bballer123456789321, Ian98989898, Teardown-
media, TheOtherUnknown, Weegeerunner, Knapp, Justin Anthony, Paupaupick, CBHusky, Spits21, KasparBot, Daisy 595, CAPTAIN
RAJU, Zanegray89, Goodmorninghpvn, Harshameesala, KGirlTrucker81, GreenC bot, Dankmemer12345, Marvellous Spider-Man, Im-
sortstest, What cat?, Fosterolivia1, Home Lander and Anonymous: 357

10.2 Images
File:"Me_travel"_-_NARA_-_514996.tif Source:
-_NARA_-_514996.tif License: Public domain Contributors: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration Original
artist: Unknown<a href='' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='' width='20'
height='11' srcset=' 1.5x, 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a> or not provided
File:Arctic_Thunder_Air_Show_2004_poster__DF-SD-08-01275.JPEG Source:
a/a2/Arctic_Thunder_Air_Show_2004_poster_%C2%B7_DF-SD-08-01275.JPEG License: Public domain Contributors: High resolution
download from
Force/DF-SD-08-01275.JPG. Original artist: Miguel Lara III
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: License: PD Contributors: ? Origi-
nal artist: ?
File:Farag,_Gza_-_Poster_for_Tungsram_Light_Bulbs_(ca_1910).jpg Source:
commons/e/ef/Farag%C3%B3%2C_G%C3%A9za_-_Poster_for_Tungsram_Light_Bulbs_%28ca_1910%29.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors: Original artist: Gza Farag
File:Farag,_Gza_-_Poster_for_the_Holzer_Fashion_Store_(1902).jpg Source:
2/22/Farag%C3%B3%2C_G%C3%A9za_-_Poster_for_the_Holzer_Fashion_Store_%281902%29.jpg License: Public domain Contribu-
tors: Original artist: Gza Farag

File:Flickr_-_trialsanderrors_-_Madam_Ada_Castello_and_Jupiter,_poster_for_Ringling_Brothers,_ca._1899.jpg Source:
2C_poster_for_Ringling_Brothers%2C_ca._1899.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Madam Ada Castello and Jupiter, poster for
Ringling Brothers, ca. 1899 Original artist: Courier Lithographic Co, restored by trialsanderrors with additional work by Adam Cuerden
File:Flickr_-_trialsanderrors_-_The_Queen_of_Chinatown_by_Joseph_Jarrow,_Broadway_poster,_1899.jpg Source:
Joseph_Jarrow%2C_Broadway_poster%2C_1899.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: The Queen of Chinatown by Joseph Jarrow,
Broadway poster, 1899 Original artist: trialsanderrors
File:German_propaganda_poster,_Upper_Silesia_Plebiscite_1.jpg Source:
German_propaganda_poster%2C_Upper_Silesia_Plebiscite_1.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Anonymous work, photo took in
Muzem Historii Katowic Original artist: anonymous work
File:Goals_affirmation_poster,_Navy__DF-SD-04-09850.JPEG Source:
Goals_affirmation_poster%2C_Navy_%C2%B7_DF-SD-04-09850.JPEG License: Public domain Contributors: High resolution
download from
Force/DF-SD-04-09850.JPG Original artist: Mitch Fuqua
File:Henri_de_Toulouse-Lautrec_049.jpg Source:
Toulouse-Lautrec_049.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002.
ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH. Original artist: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
File:In_God_We_Trust_AFA_Poster_in_New_Philadelphia_High_School.jpg Source:
commons/a/a9/In_God_We_Trust_AFA_Poster_in_New_Philadelphia_High_School.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: I took
this picture. Original artist: PFAStudent
File:Poster_for_Ranch_10_by_Harry_Meredith.jpg Source:
Ranch_10_by_Harry_Meredith.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University [2]
Original artist: unknown creator of lithograph poster
File:Question_book-new.svg Source: License: Cc-by-sa-3.0
Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:
File:Replacing_an_advertising_poster_in_London_using_an_articulated_platform_02.JPG Source:
wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Replacing_an_advertising_poster_in_London_using_an_articulated_platform_02.JPG License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Philafrenzy
File:Wiktionary-logo-v2.svg Source: License: CC BY-
SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Dan Polansky based on work currently attributed to Wikimedia Foundation but originally
created by Smurrayinchester

10.3 Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0