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Hydrostatic and Stability

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T A Robert Bronsart

Hydrostatic and Stability
of

Floating Structures

TEXTBOOK

Robert Bronsart

4

Version Date Comment
1.52 April 2016 new printing: new title page

Author: Robert Bronsart
Universität Rostock
Albert-Einstein-Straße 2
18059 Rostock
Germany
email: info@schiffbaustudium.de

c 2016 Robert Bronsart, Rostock
Copyright

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This document was typeset using LATEX on April 8, 2016.

3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Small Changes in Floating Position of Intact Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 5. . . . . . . . . . . Contents 1 Hydrostatic of Floating Objects . . 36 3 Buoyancy and Gravity 39 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2. . . . . . .4 Fully Submerged Objects . . . . . . .Archimedes’ Law 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Floating Stages .5 Arbitrary Changes in Floating Position . . . . . . .3 Pressure Distribution on a Freely Floating Object . .6 Effect of Density of Fluid . . . 81 i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Trim Definition . . . . . . .2 Stability Criteria for Ships – Naval Architectural Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 4 Trim 61 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Centroid of Mass out of Midship Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Stability Criteria for Floating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4. . . . . . .4 Principles of Lift Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 5. . . . . . . . .6 Exercises and Sample Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. .5 Questions . . . . . . . . 4 1. . . . . 27 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. . . . . 2 1. . .8 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. . . . . .7 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Exercises and Sample Solutions . . . .3 Fully Submerged Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3. . . . . 80 5. . . . . . . .1 Object (Ship) Quasi Static Motions in Six Degrees of Freedom . . . . .2 What is a Small Change in Floating Position? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3. . . .2 Pressure Distribution in a Fluid . . . . . . . 21 2 Changes of Floating Position 27 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Co-ordinate System Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3. .3 Change of Local Draft . . . . .4 Stability during Docking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Exercises and Sample Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Forces and Moments due to Buoyancy and Gravity . . . . . . . 17 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 68 5 Stability Criteria for Floating Structures 71 5. . . . . . . . . 54 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4. . . . . . . . . .2 Moment to Alter Trim one Unit Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 6. . .11 Dynamic Stability Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Questions . . . . . . .4 Influence of Ship Hull Form on Righting Arm . . . .9 Dynamic Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Ship Condition during Test . . . . . . . . . . . 173 9. . . . 96 6. . . . . . . . . 104 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6. . . . . . . . . 111 7. . . . . . . . . . . 133 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 IMO Intact Stability Code: Purpose and Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 IMO Safety Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Righting Arm of Ships in Waves . 123 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Free Surface Correction . . 113 8 Righting Arm 115 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Wall Side Formula . . 151 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Righting Arm Curve . . . . . .5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Cross Curves of Stability of a Cuboid .12 Fully Submerged Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 10 Standards for Ship Intact Stability 183 10. 149 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 7. .10 Righting Arm Curve and Dynamic Stability . . . . . 117 8. . . . . . . . 92 6. 135 8. . .1 Heeling Moment Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Test Conditions . . 129 8. . 133 8. . . . . .6 Exercises and Sample Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Form Effect on Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 8. 138 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Transverse Location of Centroid of Displaced Volume ηB . . . . . . . . . 94 6. . . . . . . 158 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Updated Stability Criteria . . . . . 107 7. . . . . . . .2 Cross Curves of Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Definitions . . . . . . . . 126 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Exercises and Sample Solutions . . . . . . . . 83 5. .8 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 6 Inclining Test 91 6. . . . . . .16 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Stability when Grounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Fully Submerged Objects . . . . . . . . . .8 Initial Ship Stability and Roll Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 9. .1 Righting Arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . 143 9 Heeling Moments 149 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Canting Keel in Racing Yacht Design . . . . . . 103 7. . . . . . . . . 116 8. .6 Negative GM . . 98 7 Cross Curves of Stability 101 7. . . . . . .17 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Exercises and Sample Solutions .5 Centroid of Mass out of Centre Plane . .7 Questions . . 126 8. . .2 Floating Condition . 187 . . . . . . 186 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Vasa Accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 8. 161 9.2 Shifting the Position of Centroid of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . .5 Test Results . . . . . .15 Ship Hull Form Influence on GZ Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 8. . . . .4 Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ii 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 7. .

. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Wind Force and Moment Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 10. . . .2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Inclining Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Exercises and Sample Solutions . . . . .4 Questions . 227 10. . . . . . 240 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 IMO Intact Stability Code . . .6 Special Criteria for Certain Types of Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hull Form Properties for Hydrostatic Calculations . . . . . . . . 221 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 B English → German Dictionary 357 Index 365 . . . . . 294 13. . .12 United States Navy Intact Stability Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Cross Curves of Stability . . 324 A. . . .8 Discussion of the IS-Code Criteria . 315 14. . . . . . . . . . . 323 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Stability Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Heeling Moments . . . . . . . . . . . 278 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 14. . 255 12 Numerical Interpolation 259 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Exercises and Sample Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Archimedes’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Bibliography 321 A Appendix 323 A. . . . . . . . iii 10. . . . . . . .2 Exercises and Sample Solutions .2 Small Changes in Floating Position: Buoyancy and Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Example of Loading Manual . . . . . . . . . . .7 Icing Considerations . . . . . . . 236 11 Ship Hull Form Properties 239 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 A. . . . . . . . . . .10 Hull Form Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 14. . . . 315 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Questions . . . . . . . . . 312 14.2 Examples of Ship Hull Form Data . . . . . . . . . . . .11 UK Ministry of Defence: Stability Criteria for Surface Ships . . . . . . . . . .5 Stability Criteria . . . . . . . . . .3 Beaufort Wind Force Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 German Navy Intact Stability Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Retrospective . . . 312 14. . . . . 215 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Righting Arm Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Numerical Integration Methods . . 274 13 Numerical Integration Methods 277 13. . 209 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 10. . . . . . . . . . . 311 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Questions . . 313 14. . . . . . . . . . 253 11. . . . . . . 335 A. . . . . .1 Polynomial Interpolation . .3 Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Summarisation of IS-Code Stability Criteria . . . . . .14 Questions . . . . 234 10. . . . . . 278 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Density of Water . . . . . . . 307 14 Summary 311 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1. . . . .1 Definition of trim (t) .4 Ship side view: longitudinal metacentre M L . . . . . . . . . . 15 1. . . . . 7 1. . . .4 Forces due to fluid pressure acting on a SWATH Hull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Fully submerged object: centroid of displaced volume and metacentre . .2 Resulting trim due to load at position x L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pressure distribution in a fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Modern container ship hull form . . . . . . . .6 Change of water plane shape due to a small heel angle δϕ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Pressure and buoyant forces acting on a floating object . . . . . . . 10 1. . . . . . . 8 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Rotation of centre of buoyancy . . . .4 Large change of water plane shape due to small trim . . . . .12 Offshore wind farm installation vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. . centroid of mass out of symmetry plane . . . . . . . . 49 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Pontoon. . . . . 34 2. . . . . . . .8 Ship in floating dock . 63 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3. . . . . . . . . . . List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. . 31 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ship motions: six degrees of freedom . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1. . . . . . . . . . 45 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Ewer sailing boat . 51 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. . 28 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Load scale of a container vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cartesian coordinate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.6 Principles of buoyancy (lift) generation (according to Jewell) . . . 45 3. . . . . . .4 Trim monogram for a pontoon . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Ship cross sectional view: centroid of mass off centre plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. .13 Tension leg platform . . Gravity and Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Change in draught δT and rotation δϕ about the ξ axis . . 54 4. . . . . . . . .9 Resting on ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3. . . . . . . . 29 2.3 Trim monogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4. . . . . .2 Ship water plane with principle coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . .3 Ship cross sectional view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Freeboard mark . . . . . . . 64 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Pressure distribution on ship hull with speed v > 0 . . . . . . . . .11 Gravity based structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Rotation of centre of weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2. . . . . . . . 13 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Principle floating states . . 17 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. . . . . .7 Pontoon: mooring line pulling vertically . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Ship cross sectional view: stable and instable floating condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Righting arm curves of two hull form alternatives . . .6 Upsetting and righting arms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5. . . . . . 81 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Capsized ships. . . . . . . .25 Periodical changes of righting arm in regular longitudinal waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Approval of inclining test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Model test in waves . . . . . . .16 Dynamic heeling angle and capsizing condition . . . . . . . . . 120 8. . . . . . .1 Hull deflections: hogging and sagging conditions . . . . . . 80 5. . . . .8 The warship “Vasa”: hull cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 8. . .24 Righting arm oscillations in waves . . 137 8. . . . . . . . 104 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Dock ships in operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 7. . . 124 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Righting arm curve of a fully submerged object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Example of payload with high centroid of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Ship grounded: local support .13 Dynamic aspects: energy to roll the vessel to an angle ϕ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Heeling due to wind moment . . . . 134 8. . . . . 108 7. . . . . . . . . .22 Wave profiles for crest and trough condition . . . . . .19 Racing Yacht with Canting Keel . . .9 Dock ship “Super Servant 3” . . . . . . . . . . .5 Circular “hull form” in heeled position . . . . . . . 83 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 8. . . . . . . . .9 Model of the warhip “Vasa” and situation at capsizing .10 Righting arm curve for vessel with centroid of mass off centre . . . . . 121 8. . . . . 117 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7. . 131 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Righting arm curve of yacht with canting keel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Exploration platform . 122 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 8.1 Righting arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Coordinate systems with trim and heel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 8. . . . . . . . . 79 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Work required to increase draught by δT . . . . . .12 Ship dynamically heeling back . . . . . . . . . . . 138 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Angle of list for vessel with small negative GM at ϕ = 0 . . . . . . . . .15 Dynamically acting heeling moments . . 133 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Large angle of list due to transverse shift of load . . . . . . . . . . . 132 8. . . . . . . . . . . 139 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Righting arm for heeling to Port and Starboard side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Inclining test: list angle as function of heeling moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 5. . . . 120 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 8. 104 7. 84 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi LIST OF FIGURES 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 “Wall sided” ship hull form . .8 Docking of a vessel: critical situations to be observed . . . . . . . . . . 78 5. . . . . .7 Rigthing arm cure: capsizing due to upsetting moment – maximum angle of list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Vessel with larger angle of heel but no trim . . 106 7. . . . . .1 Transverse shift of load . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Stable and unstable floating condition for a fully submerged object . . . . . . . . . 107 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ship cross sectional view: upright floating position . . . .2 Vessel with trim but no heel . . . . . . . . . 118 8. . .2 Righting arm curve . .21 Profile of water surface at ship hull due to longitudinal waves . . . . . .17 Dynamic heeling and angle of downflooding . . . . . . . . . . 127 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 5. . . 152 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Fully submerged object: cross curve of stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 . . . . . . . . . . .3 Ship side view: location of longitudinal metacentre M L . . . . . . .3 Righting arm in the range of heeling angles 0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 360◦ . . . . . .6 Effect of hull form on stability . . 109 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 6.3 Vertical shift of load . stable afloat at ϕ ∼ 180◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Heeling and righting arm curves of two hull form alternatives . . . 135 8. . . . . . . . . . . 119 8. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 9. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Three equally spaced offsets of a function to be integrated . . . .14 Reduction of ship stability characteristics due to icing . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Polygonal representations of ship hull form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 10. 282 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 11.2 Numerical integration based on Rectangular Rule . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Breaking wire criterion . . . . 161 9. . . . . 271 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 German Navy stability criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Upsetting moment criteria . . . . . . . . 169 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Lagrange Factors of interpolated polynomial function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Heeling due to beam wind . . . . . . . . . 224 10. . 273 13. . . . . . . . . .9 Heeling moment due to wind . . . 158 9. . . . . . 220 10. . . .8 Ship in very heavy sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Mobile Offshore Units: Upsetting and righting arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 9. . . .7 Offshore supply vessel . . .20 Weight of ice load . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coordinate system and station positions .2 Example of an interpolated function: required power vs. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Bulk cargo: effect of angle of rest on heeling . . .S. . . . . . . . . .3 Maximum capacity of container vessels as function of year of delivery . 158 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Crane operation with suspended load . . . . . . . . . .6 Righting Arm Curve GZ = f ( ϕ) and GM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 10. . . . .5 Station plans and sectional are curves for a container vessel and a tanker . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 10. . . 223 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 10.7 Free surface of partially filled tanks . . . . . 170 10. . . . . Navy stability standard: wind heel criterion . . . . . . . . 210 10. . . . . . 230 10. . . 212 10. . 167 9. . . . . . . . . . .4 Hull deflections: Hogging and Sagging conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 10. .1 Selected IMO Regulations for Ship Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Definition of parameter for calculating corrected depth D ′ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Sea spray icing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 11. . . . . . 227 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Container vessel daily charter rates .2 IMO IS-Code: General stability criteria based on GZ-curve . . . 262 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Weight lifting criterion . . . . . . . 231 11.17 U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 9. . . . . 270 12. . . .16 Tugboat almost capsized by being towed transversely . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Wind forces and moments . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example offset data of a water plane . . .3 IMO IS-Code: Severe wind and rolling criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Geographical areas of icing conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Examples of ice formation . . . . . . .14 UK Navy stability standard: beam wind criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 13. . . . . 241 11. . . . .3 Numerical integration based on Trapezoidal Rule . . 189 10. . . 260 12. . . . . . . . 246 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Centrifugal forces acting on a turning ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES vii 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Status 2013 . . . . . .6 Ship with timber load on deck . 205 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planimeter to be used for manual integration of an area . . . . . . .3 Example of bonjean curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Mobile offshore drilling unit types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Container vessel: non-dimensional wind force and moment . . . . . . . . 278 13. . . . . . . . .17 Heeling forces acting on a tugboat . . . . . .2 Ship hull from cross section at two stations . . .18 Anchor forces acting on a vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Towline pull heel criterion . . . . .6 Bulker: barley loading in a partially filled cargo hold . . . . . . 242 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 10. . . . . 165 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vessel speed .4 Modern ship hull form with large stern overhang . . . . . . . . 205 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Righting arm curve dependent on wave profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 9. .

6 IMO IS Code: General intact stability criteria for all ships . . . .7 IMO IS Code: Severe wind and rolling criterion: weather criterion . . . . 332 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Light ship weight distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 First and second order moment (Mx . . . 285 13. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Ship hull form parameter as function of draught . . .21 Longitudinal strength data at arrival . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 A. . . . . 291 13. . . . . .1 Station geometry properties . . . . 317 14. . . . . . . . . . .19 Storage at arrival. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 13. . . . . . . . . . . . 326 A. . . .4 Righting arm curve over a full range of ϕ . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 A. . 14 t each . .17 GZ-curve at departure: IS-Code parameter . . . . . .4 Cross curves of stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 A. . . . . . . 316 14. . . . 343 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Vessel with larger angle of heel: location of ηG . . . . . . . .1 Ship changes in floating position: 3 DOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 A.9 Reference axis for moments of a region . 339 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 13. . . . . . . . . ys . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Geometrical interpretation of Simpson’s First Rule .16 Storage at departure. . . . . 312 14. . . . . . . . .10 Reference axis through centroid of area: xs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 . . . . . . 284 13. .9 Station plan of TWR 841 . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Longitudinal strength data at departure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 A. . . . . . 330 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Integration of one interval: Simpson’s Third Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ηB = KN and distance GZ . . . 331 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Curves of form . . . . .3 Station plan of vessel “Mercator”” . . . . . . .2 Stability criteria – righting arm curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 A. . . . . . . 284 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 A. . . . . . . .5 Odd number of pairwise equally spaced offsets to be integrated by Simpson’s Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 A. . . 290 13. . . . . . . . . .20 GZ-curve at arrival: IS-Code parameter . . . . .10 Hull form. . . . payload of 2081 TEU. . payload of 2081 TEU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Waterline to be integrated with help of Simpson’s Rules . . . . lines in forward and aft region . . . . . . . 14 t each . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Container ship: non-dimensional wind force and moment coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 A. . . . . . . f 2 ( x ). . . . . . . . . 314 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 KN values as function of heeling angle . . . . . . . . 316 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Coordinate system to calculate hull form properties . . .7 Four equally spaced offsets to be integrated by Simpson’s Second Rule . .14 Tank arrangement plan . . . . . . . . . . x1 and x2 . . . Ix ) about the y-axis . . . . . . .viii LIST OF FIGURES 13. 326 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 A.13 Floating dock with bulk carrier: non-dimensional wind force and moment coefficients . . . . . . 292 14. . . . . . . . . . 283 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Heeling and righting arm curves of two hull forms in longitudinal waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 A. 337 A. . . . . . . . .12 Empty floating dock: non-dimensional wind force and moment coefficients . . . . . . .2 Station plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 14.11 Region G bounded by f 1 ( x ). . . . . . . .8 US Navy Torpedo Weapon Retriever (TWR 841) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 161 9. . . . . . . .2 Hull form properties during inclining test . . . 97 9. . . . . . . . 202 10. . . . . . . . . . .5 Hull form properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hull offset table of aft region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 A. . 254 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 IMO IS-Code weather criterion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . factor k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 IMO IS-Code stability criteria for different ship types . . . . . . . . . . List of Tables 4. . . . . . . . .3 Free surface correction in loading manual . . . . . . . . . 93 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Free surface correction in inclining test . 253 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 10. . . . . . . 171 10. . . . . . . . . . 206 10. . . . . . . . . .1 Angle of rest for different bulk loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Hull offset table of forward region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Area properties of hull form cross sections . . . . . . . 207 10. . . . . . .5 Calculating free surface corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Heeling moments . . . . .2 IMO IS-Code weather criterion. . 93 6. . . 161 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Result of inclination test: maximum deadweight . . . . . . . . . . 157 9. . . . . . . .8 MODU Stability Code: wind velocity profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Offset positions according to Tchebycheff’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 MODU Stability Code: wind drag coefficient . . . . factor s . . . . . . . . . . . . factor X1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 A. . . . . 323 A. . .2 Section areas taking hull deflection into account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Density of fresh and sea water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6.1 Hull form properties of a container vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 13. . . . . . . . 192 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .“exact value” . . . . . .3 Items to go from and onboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 BV1030-1: Wind pressure . .2 Offset positions and multipliers according to Gaussian Quadrature formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . factor X2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 IMO IS-Code weather criterion. . . . . 192 10. . . 327 ix . .6 Wind pressure for fishing vessels to be used for weather criterion . . . . . .2 Salinity of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Excerpt of inclining test protocol . . . .3 Comparison of results. . . . difference is “result Simpson” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 10. . . . . . . . . . .4 Result of inclination test: KG . . . .3 IMO IS-Code weather criterion. . . . . . . .1 Floation condition during inclinig test . . . . . . 216 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Beaufort wind force scale . . . . . .18 GZ-curve at departure condition . . . . . . . . 349 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 A. . . . . . .13 Loading conditions to be checked against the IS-Code requirements . 336 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 GZ-curve at arrival condition . . . . . .20 Total weight at departure . . 350 A. . . . .6 Cross curves of stability . . . . .12 Wind loading coefficients for a floating dock with bulk carrier . . . . . . . .x LIST OF TABLES A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Wind loading coefficients for a container ship . . . . . . . . . . .9 Data of vessels in wind tunnel tests . . . . . . . . . 351 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Stability criteria according to IS-Code requirements at departure . . . . . . . . . 334 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Storage at departure . . . . . . . . .17 Total weight at departure . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 A. . . . . 339 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Storage at arrival . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 A. 353 A. . 347 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 A. . . . . . . .11 Wind loading coefficients for an empty floating dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 A. . . . . . . 328 A.16 Container Storage at departure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Stability criteria according to IS-Code requirements at arrival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Offset table for TWR 841 hull form . . . . . . . . . .

displaced volume in sea water β − drift angle γ M/( L2 T 2 ) specific weight (unit weight) (= ρ · g) ∆ M Displacement (∆ = ∇ · ρ) ∆GM L change of metacentric height δ∇ L3 small change of displaced volume δϕ − small rotation about ξ or x-axis: heel δψ − small rotation about η or y-axis: trim δB ML/T 2 small change of buoyancy δMBη ML2 /T 2 small change of moment due to buoyancy about ξ axis δMBξ ML2 /T 2 small change of moment due to buoyancy about η axis δR x ML2 /T 2 small change of moment about ship principle transverse axis δRy ML2 /T 2 small change of moment about ship principle longitudinal axis δRz ML/T 2 small change of force in ship vertical direction δRη ML2 /T 2 small change of moment due to buoyancy and gravity about ξ axis δRξ ML2 /T 2 small change of moment due to buoyancy and gravity about η axis δRζ ML/T 2 small change of resulting force due to buoyancy and gravity in global vertical direction δT L small translation in global vertical direction: change of draft xi . For SI-units holds: Dimension symbol Unit symbol L m M kg T s ∇ L3 displaced volume. List of Symbols and Acronyms For a comprehensive list of symbols used in naval architectural calculations refer to the ITTC document ([13]). generally on mould lines ∇A L3 displaced volume of shell plating ∇ ACW L L3 displaced volume of shell plating at design draft ∇CW L L3 displaced volume at design draft ∇F L3 displaced volume in fresh water ∇S L3 displaced volume on moulded lines.

for precise values as function of temperature see Table A. AST L2 area of immersed hull cross section at position x B ML/T 2 buoyancy force B − symbol for centroid of buoyancy B L ship moulded breadth BL base line BM L vertical distance of M from B. ζ orthogonal to fluid surface η L coordinate value in direction of η-axis ηB L centroid of buoyancy in direction of η-axis. ξ.25 kg/m3 ) ρF M/L3 density of fresh water (1000 kg/m3 ). η. not further specified ϕ − angle of rotation about x-axis (ξ-axis) – heeling ϕdyn − dynamic heeling angle ϕlist − angle of list ϕstat − static heeling angle ϕstatmax − maximum static heeling angle ϕf − angle of downflooding ϕ˙ 1/T roll velocity ϕ¨ 1/T 2 roll acceleration ψ − angle of rotation about y-axis (η-axis) – trim ωϕ 1/T roll eigenfrequency 6-DOF six degrees of freedom: 3 translations and 3 rotations A L2 area AF L2 frontal projected area (to calculate wind forces) AL L2 lateral area exposed to wind (to calculate wind forces) AM L2 area of immersed hull cross section at midship position Aw L2 water plane area including approximated shell plating AwS L2 water plane area on mould lines A X . ζ − coordinate system related to the fluid surface.1 ρS M/L3 density of sea water (1025 kg/m3 ) for precise values as function of temperature see Table A. see KN ηG L centroid of gravity in direction of η-axis ηw L centroid of water plane in direction of η-axis ϑ − rotation about z-axis (ζ-axis) – yaw λ − in wall-side-formula: expresses the effect of a hull form not being wall sided λ L wave length ξ L coordinate value in direction of ξ-axis ξB L centroid of buoyancy in direction of ξ-axis ξG L centroid of gravity in direction of ξ-axis ξw L centroid of water plane in direction of ξ-axis ρ M/L3 density of fluid.1 ρT M/L3 density of fluid in tank ρW M/L3 density of water. (transverse) metacentric radius BM L L vertical distance of M from B. not further specified ρ air M/L3 density of air (∼ 1. ξ define plane parallel to fluid surface. longitudinal metacentric radius BN Beaufort number according to Beaufort wind scale .xii List of Symbols and Acronyms ǫ − angle of attack of apparent wind ζ L coordinate value in direction of ζ-axis ζB L centroid of buoyancy in direction of ζ-axis ζG L centroid of gravity in direction of ζ-axis η.

9 Containerships greater than 100 m CC − non dimensional coefficient of cross force acting orthogonal to wind direction CD − non dimensional coefficient of force acting in wind direction CX − non dimensional coefficient of force acting in ship longitudinal direction CY − non dimensional coefficient of force acting in ship transverse direction CN − non dimensional coefficient of yawing moment about z-axis CK − non dimensional coefficient of heeling moment about x-axis CL centre line CWL − water line at design draft c L/T wave phase velocity cB − block coefficient cD − drag coefficient c X (c M ) − (midship) section area coefficient cP − prismatic coefficient (c B /c M ) cV P − vertical prismatic coefficient (c B /cW P ) cW P − water plane coefficient D L ship moulded depth DOF degree of freedom to move or rotate an object D′ L ship moulded depth.9 Containerships greater than 100 m E ML2 /T 2 energy. minimum distance between the action lines of the buoyancy and gravity vectors GZn L righting arm at heeling angle of “n” degrees GZcw L righting arm curve in clam water GZcrest L righting arm curve for wave crest at midships GZmax L maximum righting arm GZtrough L righting arm curve for wave trough at midships .List of Symbols and Acronyms xiii C − form factor as defined in the IS-Code Chapter 4: Special Criteria for Certain Types of Ships: 4. corrected for hatch coamings as defined in IS-Code Chapter 4: Special Criteria for Certain Types of Ships 4. (transverse) metacentric height (GM = KB + BM − KG = KM − KG) GMcorr L GM correction due to free fluid surfaces in partially filled tanks GMR L reduced metacentric height: including free surface correction GM0 L initial metacentric height GM L L vertical distance between G and M L . longitudinal metacentric height (GM L = KB + BM L − KG = KM L − KG) GZ L righting arm for calm water condition (no waves). here equivalent to area under righting arm curve E30 L area under righting arm curve in range of 0◦ ≤ ϕ ≤ 30◦ (unit is L · radian → L!) E40 L area under righting arm curve in range of 0◦ ≤ ϕ ≤ 40◦ E30−40 L area under righting arm curve in range of 30◦ ≤ ϕ ≤ 40◦ ET M moment to alter trim by one meter F ML/T 2 force FB ML/T 2 force acting on keel blocks FG ML/T 2 force acting on ground FL ML/T 2 force to lift object from ground Fn ML/T 2 force acting normal to the body surface FT ML/T 2 force acting in tension legs Fv ML/T 2 force acting in vertical direction g L/T 2 gravitational acceleration constant (9.81 m/s2) G ML/T 2 gravity G − symbol for centroid of mass distribution GB L vertical distance between G and B GM L vertical distance between G and M.

about ξ-axis . generally function of ϕ (Mk ( ϕ)/B) k′ L roll radius of gyration L L ship length. suspension length lw{1. not further specified LA L distance between aft and forward draft marks. defined in IS-Code weather criterion M − (transverse) metacentre. centroid of water plane area LCG L longitudinal centre of gravity.xiv List of Symbols and Acronyms H L wave height H L vertical centre of lateral area above water surface h L water depth.η coordinate-system IξηS L4 water plane product moment of area.2} L wind heeling lever. IMO Safety Regulation l L transverse distance.y} ML2 /T 2 moment of buoyancy force about y-axis. position of vertical centroid of buoyancy KG L vertical distance of G from K. in ξ . centroid of mass LLC International Load Line Convention. IxyS L4 product moment of water plane area in principle x . measured in the ship longitudinal direction LCW L L ship length at design draught TCW L L pp L ship length between perpendiculars Loa L ship length over all Lwl L ship waterline length (= f ( T )) LCB L longitudinal centroid of buoyancy LCF L longitudinal centre of floatation.y co-system Iy L4 water plane moment of inertia about x-axis Iy S L4 water plane moment of inertia about the principle x-axis in x-y coordinate-system IL L4 water plane longitudinal moment of inertia IT L4 water plane transverse moment of inertia IMO International Maritime Organization IS-Code Intact Stability Code of the International Maritime Organization K − “Keel point”: the intersection of centre line CL and base line BL in a station view KB L vertical distance of B from K. position of vertical centroid of mass KM L vertical distance of M from K. (transverse) metacentre KM L L vertical distance of M L from K. location on centre line M∇ ζ L4 vertical moment of displaced volume ( M∇ζ = ∇ · ζ B ) MA ML2 /T 2 heeling moment due to anchor cable MB{ x. height above water surface. upsetting arm.η co-system IFys L4 moment of inertia of free fluid surface in transverse direction Ix L4 water plane moment of inertia about y-axis Ix S L4 water plane moment of inertia about the principle y-axis Ixy L4 product moment of water plane area. distance between two adjacent offsets Iη L4 water plane moment of inertia about ξ-axis Iη S L4 water plane moment of inertia about the principle ξ-axis Iξ L4 water plane moment of inertia about η-axis Iξ S L4 water plane moment of inertia about the principle η-axis Iξη L4 water plane product moment of area.η } ML2 /T 2 moment of buoyancy force area about η-axis. local change of fluid surface. longitudinal metacentre KN ( ϕ) L cross curve of stability (= ηB ( ϕ)) k L heeling. about x-axis MB{ξ. about principle ξ .

about ξ-axis Mk ML2 /T 2 upsetting. generally function of ϕ ML ML2 /T 2 longitudinal metacentre (location on centre line) MP ML2 /T 2 heeling moment due to crowding of people MSTn L3 vertical moment of immersed part of station n MT ML2 /T 2 heeling moment due to turning or due to towing hawser MY ML2 /T 2 yawing moment My L4 transverse moment of displaced volume due to an angle ϕ MW0 ML2 /T 2 wind heeling moment in upright position Mw{ x. in a station view: intersection of line through K parallel to the water surface and the action line of the buoyancy vector PORT. equal to zero for symmetrically shaped ship hull forms floating without list TCG L transverse centre of gravity. centroid of mass in transverse direction.y} L3 moment of water plane area about y-axis. STBD starboard side T L moulded draft Tϕ T natural period of roll TAP L moulded draft at aft perpendicular TCW L L moulded design draft TSCL L moulded draft for calculation of scantlings TFP L moulded draft at forward perpendicular TCB L transverse centre of buoyancy. centroid of water plane area in transverse direction. centroid of buoyancy in transverse direction. δψ. about x-axis MG{ξ. about x-axis Mw{ξ.η } L3 moment of water plane area about η-axis. δϕ SAC section area curve SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea.η } ML2 /T 2 moment of gravity force area about η-axis. equal to zero for symmetrically designed ships t L trim (TFP − TAP ) u L/T (mean) wind velocity uz L/T wind velocity at height z above the (water) surface v L/T vessel speed . equal to zero for symmetrically shaped ship hull forms floating without list TCF L transverse centre of flotation. heeling moment.y} ML2 /T 2 moment of gravity force about y-axis. IMO Safety Regulation STB.List of Symbols and Acronyms xv MF ML2 /T 2 heeling moment due to free fluid surfaces in tanks MG{ x. about ξ-axis Mz L4 vertical moment of displaced volume due to an angle ϕ m M mass my L3 local transverse moment of immersed station area due to an angle ϕ at longitudinal position x mz L3 local vertical moment of immersed station area due to an angle ϕ at longitudinal position x N . PS port side p M/( T 2 L) pressure (1 Pa = 1 N/m2) pW M/( T 2 L) wind pressure p0 M/( T 2 L) air pressure Rη ML2 /T 2 resulting moment due to buoyancy and gravity about ξ axis Rξ ML2 /T 2 resulting moment due to buoyancy and gravity about η axis Rζ ML/T 2 resulting force due to buoyancy and gravity in vertical direction rT L radius of turning circle S hydrostatic matrix of a freely floating object. relates changes in forces and moments due to buoyancy and gravity to changes of δT.

see TCF ywl L offset data (y wl = f ( x.xvi List of Symbols and Acronyms vred L/T reduced speed in turning circle vrel L/T relative velocity between wave phase velocity and ship speed vT L/T speed of transverse ship motion (while being towed) W ML2 /T 2 work. YCG L centroid of gravity in the floating object’s transverse direction. here to be applied to change a floating position X ML/T 2 wind induced force in ship longitudinal direction x L x-coordinate in the floating object’s longitudinal direction xB L centroid of buoyancy in the floating object’s longitudinal direction (LCB) x G . see TCG yW L centroid of water plane area in the floating object’s transverse direction. ZCG L centroid of gravity in the floating object’s vertical direction (KG) zM L location of metacentre in the floating object’s vertical direction (KM) z ML L location of longitudinal metacentre in the floating object’s vertical direction (KM L ) . XCG L centroid of gravity in the floating object’s longitudinal direction (LCG) xW L centroid of water plane area in the floating object’s longitudinal direction (LCF) Y ML/T 2 wind induced force in ship transverse direction y L y-coordinate in the floating object’s transverse direction yB L centroid of buoyancy in the floating object’s transverse direction. T. see TCB y G . t): distance from centre plane to local breadth of water plane z L z-coordinate in the floating object’s vertical direction z∇ L centroid of displaced volume in the floating object’s vertical direction zB L centroid of buoyancy in the floating object’s vertical direction (KB) z G .

We take your comments seriously and will try to incorporate reasonable suggestions into future versions. The shipyards Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft. Jonas Wagner and Michael Zimmermann helped to improve the document by proofreading and giving many suggestions to make the textbook clearer and more useful. Sebastian Nostheide helped to typset the document with LATEX. xvii Acknowledgements Many people helped in writing this textbook and I am grateful to all of them. Many of the chapters are based on Heinrich Söding’s work. misleading or confusing statements and typos that you find anywhere in this document. Lutz Kleinsorge. Michael Vogt from the research group “Instruc- tion and Interactive Media” of the University of Gießen thoroughly reviewed some of the chapters based on his didactic background. Request for Comments Please help us to improve future editions of this textbook by reporting any errors. which was first published in 1975 as Report No. knowing how students are best aided to understand the topics. Please also let us also know what can be done to make this textbook more useful to you and your col- leagues. Some of the exercises were supplied by them. Aker Yards and Volkswerft Stralsund con- tributed to the textbook by supplying data. inaccuracies. Gernot Knieling. documents and pictures from selected ships they have designed and successfully delivered to their customers. To improve the understanding for the reader. Eva Binkowski. Without their valuable contributions I would not have been able to finish the work. 11: “Schwimmfähigkeit und Stabilität von Schiffen” of the “Lehrstuhl und Institut für Entwerfen von Schiffen und Schiffstheorie” at the University of Hannover. Robert Bronsart June 2015 .

Whereas the term “Hydrostatic” stands for the effects of forces acting on floating objects. also serve to better understand the different aspects which are relevant for all floating structures. the function they serve. each addressing special aspects which are relevant in the context of ship’s and floating structures’ hydrostatic and stability characteristics (see also the outline on the title page). students are highly encouraged to carefully study the textbook before signing up for an exam! In some chapters reference is made to regulations each ship or offshore structure has to comply with in operation and which have to be checked in the design process already. . Whereas the first ten chapters deal with different hydrostatic and stability topics.g. the reader is encouraged to always refer to the actual official documents which are made available by IMO or by the related national bodies. the term “Stability” is related to ship safety in that conditions are dealt with which might cause catastrophic accidents if not handled carefully. Students who seek a professional career in the maritime industry are strongly recommended to take this course. The fundamental prin- ciples are discussed in a way being applicable to any floating object irrespectively how these objects are called according to e. the special con- ditions which can be applied for intact ships are derived. Furthermore two coordinate systems are introduced which are used throughout the whole document. The equations developed are based on the assumption that the changes in floating position are small.xviii Preface Hydrostatic and Stability play an utmost important role for all floating objects Naval Ar- chitects and Ocean Engineers design and Mariners operate. In Chapter 1 the Archimedes’ Principle is introduced which represents one of the most impor- tant physical laws relevant in ship design. potentially more frequently than new versions of this textbook will be released. some of them with ex- ample solution. The reader is offered a set of questions for each chapter which he/she should answer to fully understand the corresponding topics dealt with. examples of ship hull forms with corresponding hull form properties are given. This approach serves to develop a sound understanding of the mechanical basics and at the same time to understand what ships and offshore structures makes special in this context. As these regula- tion are subject to changes. In Chapter 2 it is shown how forces and mo- ments due to buoyancy acting on a floating object change when the initial floating position of the object is changed. Additionally some basic mathematical methods for performing the numerical interpolation and integration to derive these values are shown. sometimes yielding to moments which can cause considerable changes of e. The given exercises. In the appendix. Document Structure The document is structured in a sequence of 13 “modules”. According to the experience made over the last two decades. The term “small” is discussed and by this it is shown that specially modern ship hull forms do not justify this assumption in any case. Furthermore wind force coefficients for selected ships are presented.g. This textbook covers the topics of hydrostatic and intact stability of floating structures which are taught in the course “Ship Hydromechanics I” of the undergraduate programme in Me- chanical Engineering at the University of Rostock. the last three chapters were added to describe some basics about ship hull form properties relevant for the evaluation of the vessel’s hydrostatic characteristics. In a second step. heel.

The effect of moments about the transverse principle axis which lead to trim is discussed in Chapter 4. the procedure is described and the results achieved are discussed.S. among them the metacentre which plays an utmost important role in the hydrostatic stability characteristics of ships. The principal methods applied for this are described in the following two Chapters 12 and 13 in which numerical interpolation and numerical integration methods are developed. the stability criteria developed in Chapter 5 are updated. Furthermore the important effect of free surfaces of partially filled tanks on the initial stability is derived. In the appendix water density data as well the Beaufort Wind Scale are given. The naval architectural terms are intro- duced. Based on a protocol of an inclining test for a real ship. It is shown how the cross curves of stability are being calculated and which special conditions hold for fully submerged objects. The result is the hydrostatic matrix applicable for any floating object which relates forces and moments to changes in the three relevant degrees of freedom namely change in draught and rotation about the two principle coordinate axes defining a plane parallel to the undisturbed fluid surface and vice versa. Exemplary ship station plans are shown with corresponding offset tables and hull form properties as function of draught. Wind loading coefficients are tabulated for selected ships. In Chapter 7 forces and moments due to buoyancy are described which act on a ship being afloat at a heeling angle of any value. The righting lever expressing the ships capability to withstand an upsetting moment is introduced in Chapter 8 in which all aspects of the righting arm curve are described. Formulae are given which serve to calculate the moments due to the shifting of the centroid of gravity as well as environmental and operational aspects. by this the relevance of the righting arm curve for the evaluation of the ship stability characteristics becomes obvious. xix In Chapter 3 the investigations on forces and moments due to changes in floating position are completed in that the gravity force and moments due to gravity are also considered. The effect of dynamic aspects due to roll motions is explained. The VASA accident is discussed as an example showing the righting and upsetting moments acting on a ship over a large range of heel. The importance of the vertical centre of gravity on the stability is underlined leading to the discussion of the inclining test in Chapter 6. Stability criteria as defined in the IMO Intact Stability Code and for the German. Special aspects like fully submerged objects and stability during docking or when grounded are shown. A method to calculate the changes in floating position without the requirement of these being small is described. The final chapter 14 summarises important equations and functions in form of a formulary. In a following step the hydrostatic matrix is discussed for symmetrically shaped objects (which might be called ships) with which the set of three equations can be decoupled with respect to the three relevant degrees of freedom. The discussion of sec- tions of an example stability booklet shows how the compliance with IMO stability criteria is documented for a ship. UK and U. Stability criteria for floating objects are derived in Chapter 5 leading to a set of three equations and three inequations which hold for all objects being in a stable equilibrium state. heeling moments are discussed in Chapter 9. navies are discussed in detail in Chapter 10. . It is shown how these criteria can be interpreted for ships yielding to the important statement that the initial metacentric height has to be larger than zero. In Chapter 11 it is shown how the relevant characteristics of ship hull forms with respect to the hydrostatic and stability performance can be calculated as a function of draught or loading condition. The influence of the ship hull form on the righting arm curve is shown which is specially to be considered when taking waves into account. Upsetting. As a result.

He is considered by some math historians to be one of history’s greatest mathematicians. the other related to the water plane) is discussed. is known as the Archimedes’ Law or Archimedes’ Principle. The pressure distribution in a fluid at rest and the buoyancy force is introduced. The Archimedes’ Principle is derived leading to one of the most important equations in Naval Ar- chitectural calculations. The influence of the water density on the floating condition is shown. physicist. astronomer and philosopher born in the Greek seaport colony of Syracuse. wholly or partially immersed in a fluid. Archimedes (287 BC– 212 BC) was a Greek mathematician. along with possibly Newton. Special conditions for submarines and objects resting on ground are described. The principle difference between the two fundamental co-ordinate sys- tems (one related to the floating object. engineer. 1620 Alte Meister Museum. 1 . Gauss and Euler. The reader learns which basic conditions have to be fulfilled for an object in a freely floating equilibrium condition. Different prin- ciples of lift generation are discussed with help of corresponding actual ship designs. Dresden The fundamental physical law of the static behavior of an object. Hydrostatic of Floating Objects - 1 Archimedes’ Law Archimedes by Domenico Fetti.

Finally a matrix is derived which allows for the calculation of changes of buoy- ancy and moments for any combination of changes in floating position. It is discussed which degrees are relevant for the investigations of the static behavior of floating objects. She/he is able to judge the results achieved with respect to the assumptions made that “small changes” formulae can be applied. Key Words • degrees of freedom for quasi static behavior of floating objects • heave. roll. The term “small” change is discussed showing that for modern ship hull forms the assumptions made are in many cases not met. These formulae are later used to calculate changes in floating position if external forces act on a floating object. trim. sway • yaw. 27 .1. She/he is capable to calculate the buoyancy and moments of the buoyancy with respect to the two coordinate axis which are either parallel to or even in the water surface. rotation about main coordinate axis • small changes in floating position 2.1 Object (Ship) Quasi Static Motions in Six Degrees of Freedom An object freely floating on the surface of a fluid might encounter six different changes in its floating position (6 DOF). MBξ or MBη . surge. pitch • increase in draught. Subse- quently it is shown how small changes with respect to three degrees of freedom influence B. The reader understands that small changes to an initial floating position result in changes to the buoyancy as well as in moments with respect to the chosen coordinate system axis. list. Changes of Floating Position 2 In this chapter. heel. see Figure: 2. the six degrees of freedom in ship motions are introduced.

longitudinal metacentric height: GM L • (transverse) metacentric radius: BM. the derived equations are discussed for floating object shaped like ships. • (transverse) metacentre. Key Words • Gravity forces and moments • vertical centre of displaced volume. The resulting changes of the initial floating position can be solved when external forces and/or moments act on the floating object. She/he will be able to discuss achieved results with respect to the “small” condition. The naval architectural notation is introduced. the changes of forces and moments due to buoyancy and gravity are discussed. longitudinal metacentre. KM L • vertical centre of mass: KG • (transverse) metacentric height: GM. δϕ and δψ where derived. The reader will be capable to calculate the changes in floating position under the assumption that the change is small. Furthermore the decoupling of the three equations to calculate the changes in the three degrees of freedom is shown. The effect of symmetry is considered which simplifies the set of equations. In a second part. KM. In this chapter. She/he will be able to use important naval architectural terms in the discus- sion of ship static motions. KB. Buoyancy and Gravity 3 In chapter “Small Changes of Floating Position” the changes of buoyancy and corresponding moments with respect to small changes in the three relevant degrees of freedom δT. longitudinal metacentric radius: BM L • centre of mass out of midship plane 39 . This leads to a set of equations for static ship motions which can be used to solve two principally different problems: Forces and moments can be calculated acting on a floating object when the floating position is changed.

The reader will be capable to calculate the rotational change in floating position under the assumption that the change is small. the rotation about the principle coordinate axis passing through the centroid of the water plane area (LCF) for which the moment of inertia of the water plane area has a maximum value.1) t = TFP − TAP = tan δψ · L pp 61 . Also the resulting changes of the initial floating position can be solved when external forces and/or moments act on the floating object. In chapter “Buoyancy and Gravity” a set of equations for static ship motions was derived to calculate forces and moments acting on a floating object when the floating po- sition is changed. see Figure 4. special focus is on the rotational movement of the ship about a transverse coor- dinate axis through the centroid of the water plane area. He/she will be able to calculate changes in draught due to trim at any longitudinal position of the ship. δϕ and δψ where derived.1. For this. Trim 4 In the chapter “Small Changes of Floating Position” the changes of buoyancy and correspond- ing moments with respect to small changes in the three relevant degrees of freedom δT.1 Trim Definition The trim (t) defines the inclination of the ship in longitudinal direction. the naval architectural terms “trim”and “moment to alter trim one metre” are introduced. Key Words • trim • moment to alter trim one unit lenth 4. It may be expressed as the angle between the baseline and the water plane (δψ) but is usually expressed as the differences in draught at the bow and at the stern. (4. In this chapter.

unstable conditions • Metacentric height GM • Longitudinal metacentric height GM L • Stable equilibrium state 5. Based on the related naval architectural notation stability criteria to be met by ships are derived which yield to three equations and three inequalities to be satisfied by all ships floating in a stable equilibrium position.1) Rζ = Rξ = Rη = 0 71 . criteria are developed which have to be fulfilled by objects to be in a stable floating position. Key Words • Work required to change floating position • Stability criteria • Stable.1 Stability Criteria for Floating Objects A freely floating object is assumed to be in an equilibrium state which means that all resulting forces and moments acting on the object have to be zero: (5. neutral. The reader will be capable to check a floating position with respect to stability characteristics. Stability Criteria for 5 Floating Structures In this chapter. He/she will be able to observe these criteria in the ship design process which have a great influence on the hull form parameters as well as on the load and lightship weight distributions and loading capacities. These criteria are defined that stability does exist in case a change in any of the three relevant degrees of freedom or any combination thereof requires a positive amount of work to be applied.

He/she will be capable to calculate the light ship weight and its vertical centre of mass based on the measurement protocol of an inclining test. The reader will learn how the inclining test is performedand which calculations yield to the results of this test. Key Words • Inclining test • Inclining test protocol • Hogging floating condition • Sagging floating condition • Heeling moment • KG • Light ship weight • Deadweight 91 . this does not hold for the light ship weight as well as the corresponding vertical location of the centre of mass (KG). the light ship weight and its vertical centre of mass have to be checked for the actual values. Before the ship is delivered to the owner/operator and certified to operate according to all legal requirements. The protocol of the test is an important part of the delivery documents. This is done with help of the “inclining test” which is performed for every ship operating under commercial conditions. Whereas all relevant parameters of the hull form can be calculated very accurately for any shape in the early design stage. a copy is kept on board the ship. the as-built condition. Therefore Naval Architects have to make assumptions for these two properties which substantially influence ship stability characteristics. Inclining Test 6 Stability criteria were derived which are a function of the immersed hull form. the weight of the floating object as well as its centroid of mass in vertical direction.

This leads to the definition of the “cross curves of stability”. It is shown that for modern ship hull forms a heeling also results in some trim.η . Mwξ. the vertical position of the metacentre (KM = KB + BM) is not relevant as the buoyancy force vector passes through the centroid of displaced volume which has to be calculated as function of the heeling angle. As ships are very sensitive to rotational movements about the longitudinal axis. What is meant by “small” was discussed in chapter “Small Changes of Floating Position” while empha- sis was put on the amount of change and the fact that even small changes in floating position might result in larger changes of the relevant ship hull form parameters (Aw .1 Transverse Location of Centroid of Displaced Volume ηB In the preceding discussions. The effect of the ship hull form (below and above the initial water plane) on the transverse shift of centroid of the displaced volume is discussed. the transverse shift of the centroid of displaced volume (ηB ) for large angles of heel will be looked at. Key Words • cross curve of stability • cross curve calculations with balanced trim. changes of floating position were regarded being small. Cross Curves of Stability 7 In the preceding chapters. form effect 7. the heeling angle is not limited to be small but can be of any value. fixed trim • coupled degrees of freedom: heel + trim • cuboid: cross curve of stability • Wall Side Formula.η ). the two degrees of freedom can not considered as being decoupled. all changes in floating position were regarded as being small. The reader will learn that for larger heeling angles. Iξ. the term “small” was discussed in the chapter “Small Changes of Floating Position” where 101 . In the following.

Even though the righting arm curve is calculated for static heeling. heeling arm curve • static heeling angle • equilibrium floating under upsetting moment • range of stability • influence of hull form on stability • stability criteria 115 . The characteristics of the righting arm curve will be discussed. heeling moments acting only for a short period of time but potentially causing large heeling angles. Righting Arm 8 In the preceding chapter the cross curve of stability was discussed. The reader will learn how to calculate and utilise the righting arm curve for a vessel under specific loading conditions. the righting arm curve serves to discuss dynamic aspects also. The changes of floating position namely heel were regarded as being of any value causing a transverse shift of the cen- troid of the displaced volume. the actual loading condition which yields the float- ing position and the heeling angle resulting in the righting arm curve. In this chapter. She/he will be capable to judge upon the stability characteristics of a certain vessel under a specified configuration applying a quasi static view. the righting arm is introduced which represents the righting moment due to the weight and buoyancy forces acting on a floating object. righting arm curve • cross curve of stability • upsetting. Dynamic aspects like temporarily acting external forces are also considered which result in e.g. Key Words • righting arm. The righting arm is a function of the hull form. Stability criteria are formulated which add to those requirements derived for the initial stability. This yields to the basics of static and dynamic ship stability criteria to be met.

icing. unloading of cargo. Measures are indicated to minimize heeling moments and therefore to improve safety. are balanced with the uprighting moment resulting in a heeling angle. Vessels have to withstand these moments to operate safely. turning. A classification of forces resulting in heeling moments is given. Where relevant the influence on stability as well as the righting arm curve is discussed. For all heeling moments the functional dependency on the heeling angle is given which can serve to find the equilibrium floating position under a specific configuration. Heeling Moments 9 Ships like any floating objects are exposed to heeling moments due to different phenomena. whether acting statically or dynamically.1 Heeling Moment Categories In the chapter on the righting arm curve. anchoring 9. suspended loads • crowding people • bulk cargo • liquids in tanks. She/he will be capable to judge upon the stability characteristics of a vessel under a specified configuration and operational condition. The effect of partially filled tanks on the initial stability GM is derived which leads to a formula for the correction of the metacentric height under the presence of free surfaces of fluids. Three categories distinguish between moments due to cargo. the en- vironment and operation. The reader will learn how to calculate heeling moments due to different effects. loading. free surface correction. GM reduction • wind. Key Words • heeling moment • shifting. The acceptance of the resulting heeling angle can be expressed by the requirement that the 149 . towing. it was shown that heeling moments.

Please pay attention that the regulations of the IMO Intact Stability Code will be updated to the actual state of knowledge when consensus is achieved in the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) on an international level! The criteria discussed in this document express the status as of May 2013. Many of the following text related to the IS-Code is taken from the corresponding document and adjusted to the layout and structure of this document. was established in 1948 through the United Nations to coordinate international maritime safety and related practices. The original version is far more comprehensive consisting of many more chapters and paragraphs while e. The pros and cons are discussed with respect to the formulation of the criteria and the safety level achieved therewith. the latter under the umbrella of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). To ease the reading and to focus on the essentials. Even though this textbook will be updated regularly to reflect the state of the art. addressing additional ship types.g. Standards for 10 Ship Intact Stability In the preceding chapters. only relevant parts of the original document are cited and discussed here. formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization. In this chapter the reader will learn how these criteria are translated to national and interna- tional regulations. it can not be guaranteed that some of what is described here is outdated already when referred to after the date of printing! It is strongly recommended to always refer to the most actual original docu- ments when evaluating the stability criteria of a vessel on a professional basis! 183 . The assumptions made in defining the criteria are described which allows the reader to understand the potential for improvements. These criteria were related to the initial stability as well as to requirements with respect to the righting and heeling arm curves. The International Maritime Organization. criteria were derived for an object to be in a stable floating condition. The regulations of the IS-Code have to be fulfilled by basically all commercially operating vessels. also taking dynamic effects into account.

formulae are derived which are used to calculate the different properties needed in hydrostatic calculations. For this. After introducing values related to the water plane area. Ship Hull Form Properties 11 The shape (form) of the ship hull substantially influences the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic performance of the vessel. Today computer programs are used to calculate the required values for actual floating conditions. Key Words • Bonjean Curves • Displaced volume • Block coefficient • Longitudinal centre of displaced volume • Area coefficient of immersed main station • Water plane (Waterline) area 239 . more important. Hull form coefficients are introduced which serve as global hull form parameter in many naval architectural calculations. With this she/he will be able to perform some of the most important calculations in the ship design process. The reader will be capable to calculate all form data based on a lines plan or an offset table representing the ship hull form. numerical interpolation and. As today these calculations are in any case done by computer applications. integration methods are utilised. which is exactly defined by the ship hull form and the floating position. In this chapter. Examples of hull form data are given for different ship hull forms. Traditionally. volumetric properties are discussed. the reader will gain sound knowledge to judge the results of these “automated” calculations. It is shown how the caculated values have to be modified to take the shell plating into account. the relevant values were calculated or measured and plotted for a number of draughts each with a floating condition with no heel and trim (even keel condition). Empirical formula can serve to estimate major properties in case the lines plan is not available yet and the properties have to be known in the design process.

Figure 12. a correlation function can be derived applying interpolation meth- ods. These interpolated functions then allow to calculate any corresponding functional value in the definition ranges. measured in twenty foot container (Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit: TEU) over years is a correlation of statistical nature and is shown in Figure 12. For each of these examples.1: Example offset data of a water plane The required power to run at a certain speed is an example for a functional correlation between two very important properties of a vessel. bulkheads etc.2. can be expressed with help of interpolated functions defined by a set of points in 3D coordinate space. Geo- metrical. Numerical Interpolation 12 The derivation of a function which exactly fits a given set of data or other defined properties such as the derivative at certain locations or even the area or moments under a curve is called interpolation. The increase of loading capacity of container vessels. This is a very common task performed in naval architectural calculations. see Figure 12.3. For simplicity reasons the representation of intersection curves (geometry) between the hull form and major internal structural elements like decks. functional or statistical relationships might serve as examples. see Figure 12. 259 .1.

moments of higher order. In this chapter. An example is the calculation of the water plane area for which the boundary is defined by the intersection curve of a horizontal plane and the hull form. for a water plane of a ship. It is described how the resulting error can be minimized by choosing an appropriate integration approach. different methods for the integration of a function based on a given set of data are introduced.g.g. station positions. Numerical Integration Methods 13 Often the need arises to evaluate integral values of a function that has no explicit analytical representation or for which such a representation is not easily obtained. centroid • Steiner’s Theorem • Symmetry 277 . In many cases this curve can not be described exactly by an analytical formula. The reader will be capable to select a suitable method for a given integration problem and to calculate the functional values which include the area and moments of higher order about any axis e. Key Words • Rectangular Rule • Trapezoidal Rule • Simpson’s Rules • Tchebycheff’s Rule • Gaussian Quadrature • Properties of Regions: area. In a following step an inter- polation function representing this curve is interpolated which then can be used to calculate the area. e. Examples show how these methods can be applied for problem solving in naval architecture calculations. Instead it is possible to calculate the local breadth (y-co-ordinate) at given longitudinal positions (x-co-ordinate).

265 displaced volume. 102. 243 suspended load. 7. 129 cW P . 153 transverse shift. 3 floating stages. 244 block coefficient. 1 bulk. 7 resting on ground. 116 365 . 32 BM. 248 side wall craft. 221 BV1030. 215 air-cushion vehicle. 243 Blendermann. 46 δϕ. 226 surplus. 249 anti-rolling device. Index XW (LCF). 154 area. 30 bow flare. 40. 163 YW (TCF). 198 δψ. 266 vertical shift. 44 Beaufort Number. 248 δT. 103 loading conditions. 315 buoyancy. 311 change of GM. 8 ϕ: angle of heel. 105 ηB . 249 anchoring. 7 and gravity. 40 binomial coefficient notation. 11 accidental payload/deadweight movement. 29 Blume. 119 transverse centre. 242 shifting. 6. 244. 150 water plane. 335 centroid of Beaufort wind scale. 188 c M . 190 calm water. 51 cargo Archimedes. 188 ACV. 170 cP . 289 bilge keels. 4. 312 γ. unloading. 192 buoyancy ηB . 102. 157 Archimedes’ Law. 134 arbitrary changes in floating position. 266 cargo ship. 195 ballast water. 46 aging. 94. 340 centre of coordinate system. 151 B-Spline. 6 Aft Perpendicular (AP). 290 vertical centre. 27 principles of lift generation. 311 ηG . 189 longitudinal centre. 152 Bézier. 288 loading. 335 area. 247 6 DOF. 154 station. 13 ϕ f : angle of downflooding. 12 afloat upside down. 5. 189 fully submerged object. 188 cB . 189 approximation. 249 angular velocity. 163. 102. 260 canting keel. 187 balanced trim.

40 effect of hull form. 201. 219 time function. 341 general criteria. z. 62. 215 dynamic motions. 187. y. 215 dock ship. 218 dynamic lift. 129 wind heeling. 10 out of midship plane. 136. 126 ewer. η. 2 fixed trim. 104 free surface effect. 44 fresh water. 2 Five. 44 Froude number Fn . 44 fully submerged object. 187 breadth. 80. 14 Gaussian Quadrature. 203 charter rate. 158 cruise ship. 248 floating position container vessel. 13 changes in floating position fishing vessel. 94. 269 wind pressure. 342 δψ. 82 crowding of personnel. 202 co-ordinate systems. 4. 80 vertical prismatic coefficient. 269 stable. 133 global ship parameter dynamically supported craft. 215 dynamic heeling angle. 125 mass. 104 midship section area coefficient. 78. 9 free fluid surfaces in tanks. 14 δT. 103 related to fluid surface: ξ. 102 y G off centre. 353 form effect. 49 transverse location ηG . 136 greater than 100 m. 133 icing. 249 critical heeling arm. 133 density ρ effect of. minus One Rule. 217 downflooding. 188 decoupled ship static motions. 248 coordinate transformation. 2 floating dock. 248 stern overhang. 209 small. 286 values of. 188. 125 . 249 criteria for stable equilibrium position. 81 coefficients of form. 34 icing considerations. 131. 339 unstable. 198 floating stages. ζ. 191 liquids in tanks. 8 form factor C. 219 docking. 162 replenishment at sea. 214 displaced volume ∇ [m3 ]. 217 draught marks. 61 fish. 219 drag coefficient. 160 cuboid. 214 not small. Eight. 198 form coefficients. 218 DOF. 249 crest. 121 containership. 185 moment. 216 dynamic stability criteria. 226 water plane area (LCF). 312 righting arm curve. 312 high speed turning.366 Index gravity ηG . 92 righting moment. 247 German Navy Intact Stability Standard. 108 degrees of freedom. 79 inclining test. 7 upsetting moments. 285 fixed to floating object: x. 107 Forward Perpendicular (FP). 249 cross curve of stability. 48 equilibrium floating position. 215 prismatic coefficient. 193 damage condition. 132 towline pull for tugs. 116. 194 deckhouse. 45 mark. 33 standard loading conditions. 189 freeboard. 199 following seas. 11 diesel oil. 122 flare. 244 discussion. 315. 116 fire fighting. 187 δϕ. 212 displacement ∆ [t]. 156 free surface correction. 350. 323 GBS: gravity based structure. 103. 198 block coefficient. 132 stability criteria. 50. 150 waterline area coefficient. 290 crowding of people.

226 Simpson’s First Rule. 189. 96. 188 Lagrange hull deflection factors. 315 wind. 197. 153 keel point K. 217. 7 icing. 282 bulk cargo.Index 367 draught. 232 conditions. 250 turning. 125 accumulation level. 212 KG. 230 kinetic energy. 29 heavy fuel oil. 209 light ship weight distribution. 277 bow or body lifts. 76. 189. 46. 126 IMO. 210 GM. 92 heading seas. 213. 46 recommended general criteria. 225 KN. 129. 232 MSC: maritime safety committee. 118 LCB. 125 areas. 28 intact condition. 186 GM L . 185 heeling arm. 314 form. 350. 46 towing hawser. 121 integration heeling moment. 232 heel. 92. 96 heave. 183 GM reduction Intact Stability Code. 117 background. 216. 116 angle of roll. 250 water on deck. 285 gust. 213. 198. 205. 136 results. 218. 171 numerical. 188 lift dynamic. 232 Tchebycheff’s Rules. 129 transverse shift of load. 263 sagging. 214. 185 loading and unloading of cargo. 229 interpolation. 280 lifting of heavy weights. 168. 224. 285 categories. 187 vertical centre. 28 increase of draught. 219. 232 inclining test. 193. 7 icing considerations. 29 hull form data. 92. 164. 162 hull form. 189. 341 initial metacentric height. 314 towline pull. 248 suspended load. 219 static. 158 Simpson’s Second Rule. 160 MARPOL. 156. 46. 149 Simpson’s Third Rule. 261 maximum without capsizing. 131. 46. 46. 222. 94 protocol. 240 length of ship. 92. 153 committee. 186 gravity force. 131 trapezoidal rule. 218 replenishment at sea. 162. 125 adverse effects. 9 weather criterion. 185 gravity based structure (GBS). 211 based on natural roll period. 118. 228 high-speed craft. 191 GZ-curve. 183 partially filled tanks. 217 KB. 209 negative value. 40 definitions. 183. 191 area. 231 KM L . 122 IS-Code. 190 GZ. 92. 155 MEPC: maritime environmental protection vertical move of load. 5. 186 GM0 . 245 method. 102. 121 Gaussian Quadrature. 11 IMO IS-Code. 213. 223. 157. 353 wind heeling lever. 224. 151 KM. 128 fishing vessel. 211 freebord. 76 SOLAS. 264 hogging. 189 grounding. 188 hydrofoil boat. 285 crowding of people. 245 lateral area. 169 KG. 317 free liquid surface. 139 LCF. 343 . 315. 189. 213. 286 anchor cable. 247 stability characteristics.

47 unit. 44. 48. 156 longitudinal metacentre. 46. 288 area coefficient c M . 279 mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU). 243 offshore supply vessel (OSV). 185 Newton loading condition. 28 load line. 352 iteration method. 61 vortices. 28 metacenric radius. 79 buoyancy. 7 metacentric radius. 323 turning. 3. 241. 195. 28 maximum value. 48. 95 pitch. 75 pressure transverse GM. 291 righting arm. 128 Load Line Convention LLC 66/88. 14 natural period of roll. 9 moment. 195 measured data. 46. 187. 316 righting and wind heeling moment curves. 348 offset. 138 station. 121 righting arm curve. 350 draught. 241. 129 water plane area. 28 intact stability criteria. 48 principle coordinate system. 250 polygon. 193. 121 in waves. 261 standard to be examined. 75. 250 passenger longitudinal moment of inertia. 188 roll radius of gyration. 118. 46 derivative. 262 vertical location. 5 loading conditions. 129. 249 mobile offshore drilling unit. 188 free surface effect. 315 righting. 207 modes of operation. 75. 45 transverse BM. 351. 95 metacentre. 250 polynomial function. 47. 192 breadth. 47 prismatic coefficient. 197. 344 forward divided difference method. 339 example. 187. 94. 288. 250 roll. 130 moulded roll period. 192 list. 291 righting moment. 198 mass displacement ∆ [t]. 265 arrival. 62. 214 of floatation. 250 friction. 208. 117. 242 integral. 261 transverse KM. 116. 288. 75 pontoon. 214 additional criteria. 195 offset table loading manual. 266 metacentric height. 48. 247 offshore supply vessel. 243 partially filled tanks. 203 water plane area. 250 degree. recommended general criteria. 195. 189 heeling. 250 height of the centre of gravity. 214 quasi-static behavior. 241 waves.368 Index liquids in tanks depth. 3 longitudinal BM L . 129 moment of inertia. 196 departure. 197 mass density. 187. 204 range of stability. 196 lubricating oil. 196 longitudinal strength. 355 mass. 129 moment to alter trim one unit length. 46 plumb line. 214 longitudinal GM L . 185 crowding of passengers. 49. 265 assumptions for calculations. 121 longitudinal. 249 midship section product moment of area. 342 passenger ship. 324 longitudinal centre offshore platform. 261 longitudinal KM L . 61 roll damping transverse. 213 205 rectangular rule. 29. 128 . 204 resting on ground. 48. 49. 104. 47. 197 MARPOL. 75 distribution. 128.

131. 231 Simpson’s Rule. 281 3/8 Rule. 43. 223. 189 rotation surge. 74 icing. 226 harbour conditions. 187 upsetting moments. 230 SOLAS. 214 section area curve. 28 symmetry. 269 sea water. 5 about ξ axis. 222 static lift. 225 bollard pull. 244 ship hull form data transverse moment of inertia. 312 towing pull criterion.Index 369 RoPax. 294 knuckle. 250 cross curves of stability. 78 area. 167. 104 trim due to heeling. 74 high speed turning. SAC. 221 static heeling angle. 244 capsized. 227 grounded. 188 turning. 245 transverse centre ship aging. 243.S. 185 towline pull for tugs. 328 Trapezoidal Rule. 331 trim. 316 lifting of heavy weights. 230 side wall craft. 354 UK Navy Stability Standard. 61. 81 beam wind criterion. 231 third order parabola. 3 weights. 200. 262 pulling force. 312 LCB. 30 sway. 242 Vasa. 228 small changes in floating position. 229 stability wind heeling. 132 upsetting moments. 279 KN curves. 292 high speed turning. 138. 83 bow or body lifts. 7 wind heeling. 13 RoRo. 215 tension leg platform. 46 Steiner’s Theorem. 64. 221 waterline. 118. 168 set of linear equations. 43. 224 instable. 168 shell plating correction. 120 Tchebycheff’s Rules. 134 canting keel. 227 exercise. 215 ship motions: degrees of freedom. 137 VCG. 28. 223. 71. 166 TEU. 228 specific weight. 103 symmetrical shape. 224 neutral. Navy Stability Standard. 224 stable. 312 trough. 283 righting moment. 328 empirical formulae. 328 trapezoidal rule. 12 sea spray icing. 223 during dry docking. 74 righting moment. 228 criteria. 221 docking. 42. 79 superstructure. 313. 230 special purpose ship. 222 station uprighting moment. 231 moment of inertia Ix . 247 monogram. 285 sea climate. 246 towing. 351. 120 sailing yacht. 251 ship hydrostatic matrix. 28 tug. 104 trim moment. 242 moment. 342 timber deck cargo. 47. 221 stability criteria. 32 SWATH vessel. 292 icing. 251 curves of form. 285 U. 225 crowding of passengers. 222 range. 28 about η axis. 67 LCF. 123 station flare. 127. 134 TCF. 79 submarine. 136. 232 moment Mx . 290 vertical centre . 294 crowding of personnel. 217. 219 ship aging.

249 coefficient: empirical formulae. 44 waterline area coefficient. 103 wall side formula. 215 weather criterion. 244 watertight. 290 transverse centre. 136. 150. 190. 129 yawing. 161 crest. 150. 251 length. 206 work to heel. 150. 197 wind. 28 . 248 displaced volume. 164. 251 mass. 243 principle coordinate system. 162 heeling moment. 205. 103 watertight. 342 water on deck. 138. 335 pressure. 162 drag coefficient. 215 height. 228 non-dimensional coefficients. 163 velocity. 105. 243 longitudinal centre. 164. 46 vertical moment. 248 empirical formulae. 136. 189 wave. 214. 225 water plane area. 215 trough. 215 length.370 Index buoyancy. 222. 125 wall sided. 191 profile. 216. 105 waste water. 137. 103 superstructure. 190 wide beam. 135. 106 volume above the water plane.