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2017 Siemens Industry, Inc.

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Usage-based preventative and predictive maintenance
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Model 7900AAV

Model 7950ILV

New NFPA 13 code requires venting of excess air from wet fire sprinkler systems to help prevent
corrosion. AGF PURGEnVENT Air Venting Valves are designed to exceed the requirements of the
NFPA 13 standard. Go beyond code requirements and install PURGEnVENT on all of your wet fire
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APRIL 2017

36 | Using BIM
for project coordination
BIM is used frequently when work-
ing across multiple disciplines, which
ON THE COVER: Different ceiling heights and open floor plans can prevent clashes across mechani-
require coordination of sprinklers and fire alarm notification cal, electrical, plumbing, and fire
appliances within the Graton Resort & Casino, Rohnert Park, protection engineering and with
Calif. Using a BIM model approach to this type of project
other stakeholders.
saved time and effort while also allowing the design team to
better coordinate systems within the building. Courtesy: DEREK MAIN
JBA Consulting Engineers, an NV5 Co.

COVER STORY 42 | Networked

30 | Coordinating fire protection lighting controls
designs via BIM With the advent of building technol-
ogy comes the need for monitoring
BIM can be a very powerful tool in the design and construc-
and intercommunication between
tion industry. It takes 2-D information far beyond just a 3-D
heating, cooling, electrical, lighting,
environment. It places the tool of a database or model in
fire/life safety, and other systems for
the hands of fire protection engineers, giving them the ben-
optimized efficiency and operation.
efit of what they want to achieve within the BIM model.

47 | Vote for this years

best products
05 | Viewpoint 26 | Codes & Standards
Who will win gold in 2017? Consulting-
Why work with Designing sprinkler systems Specifying Engineer announces the
Generation Y? for maintainability finalists for the 13th annual Product of
07 | Research the Year competition, and readers will
75 | Digital Edition
have the final word. Cast your votes
HVAC, BAS in industrial Exclusive
online at
facilities Clean agent fire suppres-
sion for mission critical
09 | Career Smart facilities
Three steps to updating
your LinkedIn profile 79 | Advertiser Index ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES
80 | Future of Use the icons to identify topics of interest.
10 | MEP Roundtable
Analyzing data centers
20 | Codes & Standards technologies in building ELECTRICAL PLUMBING
Whats new to NFPA 13 and automation
what to expect in the future

CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER (ISSN 0892-5046, Vol. 54, No. 3, GST #123397457) is published 11x per year, monthly except in February, by CFE Media, LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite
#250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher /Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER copyright 2017 by CFE Media, LLC. All rights reserved. CONSULTING-
SPECIFYING ENGINEER is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC used under license. Periodicals postage paid at Oak Brook, IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media, LLC, 1111
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Oak Brook, IL 60523. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Email: customerservice@ Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all issues: USA, $150/yr; Canada/Mexico, $180/yr (includes 7% GST, GST#123397457); International air delivery $325/yr. Except for special issues where price
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in the USA. CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regardless of whether such errors result from
negligence, accident or any other cause whatsoever. Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 3

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Editors Viewpoint
AMARA ROZGUS, Editor-in-Chief/Content Manager
630-571-4070 x2211,
EMILY GUENTHER, Associate Content Manager
630-571-4070 x2220,
AMANDA PELLICCIONE, Director of Research
MICHAEL SMITH, Creative Director
ELISA GEISHEIMER, Production Coordinator
630-571-4070 x2213,
Amara Rozgus,
Associate, Environmental Systems Design Inc., Chicago

Why work with Generation Y?

Principal, Mechanical Engineer, Arup, Seattle

Vice President, NV5/Sebesta, Kansas City, Mo.
MICHAEL CHOW, PE, LEED AP BD+C, eneration Y, aka millennials, know scattered throughout the casu-
Principal, Metro CD Engineering LLC, Columbus, Ohio has some oddities, to be sure. al roundtable, there also were several
Senior Electrical Engineer, But doesnt every generation? very well-thought-out insights that
Smith Seckman Reid Inc., Houston Millennials are some of the most came from the conversation.
Energy Modeling Wizard, TLC Engineering for Architecture Inc., connected people around, exploring The group included profession-
Brentwood, Tenn. some new and yet uncharted digital alsengineers, engineers in training,
Vice President, Electrical Engineer, territory. They like to be connected, and recent graduateswith varied
CannonDesign, Grand Island, N.Y. both online and off, but theyre not engineering backgrounds. They all
Mechanical Engineer, GRAEF, Milwaukee tethered to, say, paid cable TV. The felt they had a role in the projects
JOSHUA D. GREENE, PE, majority lives in urban areas, and is they worked on; no one felt they were
Vice President, Jensen Hughes, Framingham, Mass.
migrating from suburbia to urban doing meaningless work without
Principal, Arup, Washington, D.C. areas. impact. They worked in project teams
DANNA JENSEN, PE, LEED AP BD+C, with mixed levels of experience.
Vice President, ccrd, a WSP Co., Dallas
Yet the assumptions about the mil- And they all had opinions on how
President, Koffel Associates Inc., Columbia, Md. lennial generation continue to circu- to improve in their jobs and in their
Senior Mechanical Engineer - Mission Critical,
late: interaction with others, including
exp US Services Inc., Chicago manufacturers.
Engineering Manager, Jacobs, Philadelphia
 Generation Y wont make a phone Each professional had the theo-
JULIANNE LAUE, PE, LEED AP BD+C, BEMP, call or have a face-to-face conver- retical knowledge needed to design
Senior MEP Engineer, Center for Sustainable Energy,
Mortenson Construction, Minneapolis
sation to resolve an issue systems in buildings, and their col-
DAVID LOWREY, laborative environment gave them the
Chief Fire Marshal, Boulder (Colo.) Fire Rescue
 Millennials know only how to practical knowledge they needed to
Senior Electrical Engineer, Buildings and Places, complete a design via a software succeed. The open dialogue that flew
AECOM, Portland, Ore.
program; theyve never seen a around the table showed the trust,
Chief Executive Officer, JBA Consulting Engineers, Las Vegas project in real life strong mentoring approach, and prac-
RODNEY V. OATHOUT, PE, CEM, LEED AP, tical tack this firm employed concern-
Principal, Regional Engineering Leader,
DLR Group, Overland Park, Kan.  Team discussions dont happen ing its junior members.
FREDDY PADILLA, PE, ATD, everyone just texts each other. Without giving away their company
Principal/Senior Electrical Engineer, Page, Austin, Texas
secrets or divulging the incredible
Senior Engineer, CDM Smith Inc., Boston Ive seen the exact opposite. On feedback they provided our team, I
Principal, Health Care Market Leader,
a recent trip to Washington, D.C., I can provide at least one important
Affiliated Engineers Inc., Madison, Wis. visited with eight young professionals thing: The next generation of consult-
Associate, SmithGroupJJR, Chicago
who debunked nearly every negative ing engineers is a smart, thoughtful,
SUNONDO ROY, PE, LEED AP BD+C, assumption. While there were plenty engaging group. And yes, theyll pick
Vice President, CCJM Engineers Ltd., Chicago of words such as like and you up the phone if you call.
Austin Operations Group Manager and
Senior Mechanical Engineer,
Stanley Consultants, Austin, Texas
Senior Electrical Engineer and Acoustics Engineer,
KJWW Engineering Consultants, Rock Island, Ill.
Campus Energy Market Leader, MEP Associates, Verona, Wis.
Lead Electrical Engineer, McGuire Engineers Inc., Chicago Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 5

STATview SPACEview LISTview

Reliable Controls unveils the new MACH-ProView LCD.

This freely programmable, combination BACnet Building
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input #5 at
Impact of changing codes,
standards on future fire,
life safety systems
Not a challenge Definitely a

HVAC, BAS in industrial facilities
ifty-seven percent of respon- by designing for interoperability and
Somewhat A challenge dents to the Consulting-Specifying complementing systems (69%).
of a challenge
Engineer 2015 HVAC and Build- 3. Researching systems: The average
ing Automation Systems (BAS) Study mechanical engineer spends 31% of their
Figure 1: The majority of engi-
specify, design, or select products for billable hours researching and/or specify-
neers believe that keeping up with
industrial/manufacturing facilities/ ing HVAC systems and BAS for industri-
updates to codes and standards is
warehousesand seven in 10 of these al facilities. These engineers mostly refer
challenging and greatly affecting the
engineers are responsible for determin- to product specifications, best practices,
future of fire and life safety systems,
ing requirements/writing specifications and training/education during this time.
engineers, and/or the industry.
and/or supervising or consulting on 4. Important product considerations:
Source: Consulting-Specifying Engi-
these projects. Below are five HVAC When selecting HVAC products for
neer 2016 Fire and Life Safety Study
and BAS findings: industrial facilities, engineers compare
1. Annual specified products value: product quality (83%), energy efficiency
The average engineering firm specifies of a product (63%), and service support
/3 of engineers currently specify
electrical inspection and test equip-
$2.46 million in total HVAC and build-
ing automation/control products for
offerings (56%).
5. HVAC, BAS specifications: Engi-
new and existing industrial facilities on neering firms most often write perfor-
ment. Source: Consulting-Specifying a yearly basis, with one-quarter of these mance (83%), prescriptive (73%), or open
Engineer 2016 Electrical and Power firms specifying more than $5 million. (alternate or substitute; 63%) HVAC and
Study 2. Future of HVAC systems, BAS: controls specifications for industrial facil-
Looking ahead to future industrial ity projects.
facility projects, HVAC system design View more information at

1 in 5 engineering firms
specifies less than $100,000 in light-
will be most affected by energy effi-
ciency requirements (56%), while
BAS will continue to be challenged
Amanda Pelliccione is the research director
at CFE Media.
ing and lighting control products for
new and existing buildings. Source: HVAC equipment, BAS, control systems
Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2017 recently specified into industrial facilities
Lighting and Lighting Controls Study
Pumps, pumping systems 76%
Fans, air movement 7
Air handlers 7

62% of mechanical engineers

recommend the brand of HVAC sys-
Rooftop units 66%
6 %

Boilers, domestic hot water 63%

tems, equipment, and/or controls Chillers, chilled water systems 62%
to be used in a project. Source: Air balancing, test-and-balance,
Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2015 environmental balancing

HVAC and Building Automation Sys- Building management system 51%

tems Study Variable refrigerant flow systems 41%
Building envelope systems 21
Chilled beams 15%

More research Figure 2: Seven in 10 engineering firms have recently specified pumps and pumping sys-
Consulting-Specifying Engineer cov- tems, fans and air movement, and air handlers into industrial facility projects. Over the
ers several research topics each year. next 12 to 24 months, firms have plans to specify chillers and chilled water systems (34%)
All reports are available at and variable refrigerant flow systems (32%). Source: Consulting-Specifying Engineer FOR MORE RESEARCH INFORMATION Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 7

User driven.
Purpose built.

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Our expertise is listening to our customers and delivering purpose built cooling solutions for data centers and
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input #6 at
Career Smart
Thought Leadership Resources, Mississauga, Ontario

How to update your LinkedIn

profile for career advancement
A LinkedIn profile can help position you for the next step in your career.

f someone is considering hiring or thought leadership. These files are
working with you in the future, they Taking advantage of the available on a users profileand are
will most likely do some research also sent to connections when a user
online. Your LinkedIn profile is likely features LinkedIn offers publishes them. LinkedIn allows users
the first search result, in many cases, so to add up to three tagskeywords
can help users turn their
its important to make that first impres- at the bottom of each post, so people
sion a good one. profiles into successful outside the users network who are
The following are the top three ways looking for information on that topic
engineers and other technical profes- job-search tools. can find who posted the content.
sionals can get their careers on the fast When composing posts, reach those
track through LinkedIn. various jobs, titles, and job descrip- you want to appeal to most by writ-
tions. But job seekers can go much ing about the pressing issues they face.
1 Make your profile current further by showing, not just telling, For example, a lighting engineer might
First, make sure that the current job employers what they can do. LinkedIn want to serve certain specific markets,
title and job description is accurate and has added new features that allow users such as big-box retail. A good post for
delete really old jobs and references. to provide evidence of skills, work reaching this market might enlighten
Some people might not have paid much ethic, and abilities by uploading work retail-sector members about the vari-
attention to their profile since the last samples to their profile. ous types of low-energy lighting fix-
time they looked for work. Take the PDF forms, slideshows, videos, and tures that are available and describe
time to clean it up and update it so the other images can be uploaded. Employ- the benefits and drawbacks for retail
most up-to-date information is fea- ers and others looking at profiles can applications.
tured. then click through the images for more Taking advantage of the features
Take a look at your pictureis it details. Indicate the role you played in LinkedIn offers can help users turn
professional? Using a professionally each project, especially if you worked their profiles into successful job-search
done portrait rather than one snapped as part of a team. Its also important tools. In addition, keeping profiles
by a friend using a smartphone is pref- to not publicize any information that updated and showcasing the proper
erable. Also, project sites present good should stay confidential. information will help open more doors
opportunities to take photos with a for career advancement.
relevant background image. 3 LinkedIn posts:
Reach beyond your network
2 Stand out as a candidate The posts function within LinkedIn Carl Friesen is the founder of Thought
through skills, experience allows users to create medium and Leadership Resources, helping business
A big part of a LinkedIn profile long-form content in text form, with professionals build careers by showing
involves its resum-like listing of images added, that show ideas and their expertise. Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 9

MEP Roundtable
Robert C. Eichelman,

Analyzing data centers

Technical Director
EYP Architecture and
Albany, N.Y.

Data is the lifeblood of any business or organizationwhich makes a

data center a facilitys beating heart. Here, engineers with experience
on data center projects show how to succeed on such facilities, and
how to keep your finger on the pulse of data center trends.
Karl Fenstermaker, PE
Principal Engineer
Southland Engineering CSE: Whats the No. 1 trend you see operations, security, engineering, etc.). They
Portland, Ore. today in data center design? are not working in silos anymore, but working
toward a common goal. We are seeing consis-
Karl Fenstermaker: ASHRAEs thermal tency in their needs and requirements.
guidelines for data processing centers is John Yoon: A trend is reduced infrastruc-
becoming more accepted and implemented in ture-redundancy requirements for clients
the industry. Operating over a wider range of that are migrating services to the cloud. A 2N
temperature and humidity conditions requires UPS and N+1 computer room air conditioner
more attention to detail during the design and (CRAC) redundancy used to be common-
Bill Kosik, PE, CEM, operation of the data center, so as a result, we place in our designs for corporate headquar-
LEED AP, BEMP are seeing more leveraging of advanced tech- ters building-type data centers. That type of
Senior Mechanical nology tools, such as computational fluid redundancy is now becoming the exception.
exp design for thermal modeling and data center The prevailing information technology (IT)
Chicago infrastructure management (DCIM) systems mindset seems to be that if mission critical
for more precise monitoring and control of the services are being moved offsite, why invest
data center environment. extra money in redundant infrastructure (and
Keith Lane: Were seeing modularity, manpower) for whats left behind?
increased efficiency, and flexibility. Most data One significant experience that would speak
center end users require all of these in their to the contrary involved a client that decommis-
facilities. sioned their main data center at headquarters and
Brian Rener: Calculated and measured per- replaced it with a much smaller server room. The
Kenneth Kutsmeda, formance, whether on energy efficiency, reli- new server room was provided with no redun-
PE, LEED AP ability, or life cycle costs. Owners are seeking dancy for the UPS equipment. That UPS was in
Engineering Manager verified value for their investment in the data service for more than 4 years without an inci-
Mission Critical
center facility. dent. However, one day during a utility blip, the
Philadelphia Saahil Tumber: Colocation providers UPS dropped the critical load because a single
used to be conservative in their approach battery cell faulted, causing a full battery-string
and tended to follow standardized designs. failure. Although the power interruption was
However, they are now open to deploying brief and the generator started, the inability of the
new technologies and topologies to increase UPS to immediately sync to an unstable bypass
resiliency, improve power-usage effectiveness voltage took down everything downstream of the
(PUE), reduce time to market, reduce cost, UPSincluding the core network switches that
and gain a competitive advantage. They are allowed headquarters to communicate with the
Keith Lane, PE, RCDD, NTS, coming out of their comfort zones. They are rest of their facilities around the world.
LC, LEED AP BD&C also laying emphasis on strategies that reduce Although power was quickly restored via
President stranded capacity and space. For enterprise the UPS manual bypass, the reboot of the core
Lane Coburn & clients, there is more collaboration between switches did not occur smoothly. Communi-
Associates LLC
Bothell, Wash. various stakeholders (information technology, cations back to headquarters were knocked

10 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Brian Rener,
Senior Electrical Engineer

Mark Suski,
Associate Director
Lincolnshire, Ill.

Figure 1: The University of Utah data center in Salt Lake City uses airside free cooling 75% out Saahil Tumber,
of the year, on average. The fan-matrix air handling units use MERV 8/14 pre- and final filtration PE, HBDP, LEED AP
and a sophisticated weather station to inform the building management system of what action Senior Associate
to take based on the weather patterns of that particular moment. Courtesy: SmithGroupJJR
Systems Design
out for nearly a day. Needless to say, execu- batteries recently acquired UL listings (UL
tives were not pleased. 1642: Standard for Lithium Batteries and UL
1973: Standard for Batteries for Use in Light
CSE: What other trends should engi- Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Station-
neers be on the lookout regarding such ary Applications), and others will soon follow.
projects in the near future (1 to 3 years)? Unlike cell phones that use lithium cobalt oxide,
which has a high-energy density and is prone to
Bill Kosik: There will still be a high demand safety risks when damaged, data center batteries
for data centers. Technology will continue to use a combination of lithium manganese oxide John Yoon,
evolve, morph, and change. The outlook for and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, PE, LEED AP
new or renovated data centers continues to which has a lower energy density but longer Lead Electrical Engineer
McGuire Engineers Inc.
be bullish with analysts looking at the indus- lifecycle and inherent safety features.
try doubling cloud strategies over the next 10 Jacobs recently completed a project using
years. So, trends will center around lower-cost, lithium batteries. The lithium battery has a
higher shareholder-return data centers that more than 15-year lifecycle and requires no
need to address climate change and comply maintenance. Lithium batteries provide a
with data-sovereignty laws. 65% space savings and 75% weight reduction
Kenneth Kutsmeda: A trend that will become as compared with wet-cell batteries. The lith-
more popular in data centers is the use of lith- ium battery-management system provides
ium batteries. One manufacturer of lithium the ability to isolate individual cabinets Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 11

MEP Roundtable
without taking down the UPS and Rener: One of the more exciting Emphasis is being placed on designs that
eliminates the need for a separate moni- projects weve worked on in a mixed- recover low-grade heat from the data cen-
toring system. use building is the National Renewable ter and uses it for other purposes, such as
Rener: New metrics on reliability Energy LabEnergy Systems Integration space heating.
versus the old terms of availability. Facility, which is a 182,500-sq-ft energy
We are seeing a move away from pre- research lab with supporting offices and CSE: What are the challenges
scriptive terms on availability to cal- high-performance computing (HPC) that you face when designing data
culations on reliability using IEEE. data center located in Golden, Colo. The centers that you dont normally face
Edge-cooling approaches (local to the IT cabinets supporting the HPC research during other building projects?
server) have become more popular as component are direct water-cooled cabi-
well as fluid-based cooling at the rack. nets and the cooling system has the ability Robert C. Eichelman: With few excep-
tions, data centers serve missions that are
Most data centers have very littler tolerance for disruptions much more critical than those served by
other building types. The infrastructure
to their IT processes, as interruptions can result in disturbances design, therefore, requires a higher degree
to critical business operations, significant loss of revenue and of care and thoughtfulness in ensuring
that systems support the missions reli-
customers, or risk to public safety. Robert C. Eichelman ability and availability requirements.
Most data centers have very little toler-
Yoon: We expect to see further densi- to transfer the waste heat from the data ance for disruptions to their IT processes,
fication of server equipment. As recently center to preheat laboratory outside air as interruptions can result in disturbances
as 10 years ago, a 45U high rack full of during the winter months. This ability to critical business operations, significant
1U pizza-box servers seemed like to use waste energy from the data center loss of revenue and customers, or risk to
absurdly high density. Now, the high- in other parts of the building is sure to public safety.
est-density blade server solution that become an emerging trend in mixed-use Most often, the supporting mechanical,
Im currently aware of has 280 blade buildings with data centers. electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems
servers in a 60U high rackthats a Fenstermaker: One emerging trend is need to be concurrently maintainable,
six-fold increase in density. With these recovering heat from the data center to meaning that each and every component
dramatically higher equipment densi- heat the rest of the building. This is most has the ability to be shut down, isolated,
ties, traditional environmental design commonly employed by using hot-aisle repaired/replaced, retested, and put back
criteria just wont cut it anymore. Much air for the air side of a dual-duct system into service in a planned manner without
higher cold/hot-aisle temperatures are or heating air intake at a central AHU. In affecting the continuous operation of the
becoming the norm. addition, smaller data centers are using critical IT equipment. Systems usually
In the next year or so, we also expect to direct-expansion (DX) fan coils con- have a high degree of fault tolerance as
see an increase in the use of lithium-ion nected to a central variable refrigerant well. The infrastructure design needs to
(Li-ion) in place of valve-regulated lead- flow (VRF) system with heat-recovery be responsive to these requirements and
acid batteries for systems 750 kVA and capabilities to transfer heat from the data most often includes redundant major
larger. The value proposition appears to center to other zones requiring heating. components, alternate distribution paths,
be theretheyre lighter, last longer, and Tumber: Large-scale data center and compartmentalization, among other
more tolerant of higher temperatures. deployments are not common in mixed- strategies. Power-monitoring systems are
The one uncertainty is which Li-ion bat- use buildings as they have unique require- much more extensive to give operators a
tery chemistry gains dominance. Some ments that typically can only be addressed complete understanding of all critical
chemistries offer high energy densities in single-use buildings. One of the main parameters in the power system.
but at the expense of increased volatil- issues is with securing the data center. Systems are also more rigorously tested
ity. The guiding NFPA safety codes and This is because even the most compre- and commissioned and routinely include
standards havent yet evolved to the point hensive security strategy cannot eliminate factory witness testing of major equip-
where any significant distinction can be non-data center users from the premises. ment including UPS, generators, and par-
made between these. For small-scale deployments where secu- alleling switchgear. MEP engineers also
rity is not a big concern, a common infra- have a larger role in controlling costs. The
CSE: What are the newest trends structure that can serve both the needs of MEP infrastructure for data centers rep-
in data centers in mixed-use build- the data center and other building uses resents a much higher percentage of the
ings? is important to ensure cost-effectiveness. total building construction and ongoing

12 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

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input #7 at
MEP Roundtable
operating costs than for other building process extremely challengingand and designing a system that meets all the
types, requiring engineers to be much even confrontational at timeswhen requirements can be challenging.
more sensitive to these costs when design- youre trying to lock in MEP infrastruc-
ing their systems. ture requirements. The key is to remem- CSE: Describe the system design
Lane: A data center is a mission critical ber that many CIOs and their MIS/IT in a colocation data center. With all
environment, so power cannot go down. departments are accustomed to operat- the different clients in a colocation
We are always striving to provide the ing with reasonably high levels of inde- facility, how do you meet the unique
most reliable and maintainable data cen- pendence within their companies. Many needs of each client?
ter as cost-effectively as possible. These people within their own organizations
projects are always challenging when con- dont understand exactly what the MIS/ Lane: The shell in a colocation facility
sidering new and emerging technologies IT staff members do, only that they con- must be built with flexibility in mind. You
while maintaining reliability. trol the key infrastructure thats critical to must provide all of the components for
Rener: Future flexibility and modular the day-to-day operations. If they havent reliability and concurrent maintainability
growth. IT and computer technologies been involved in the construction of a while allowing the end user to tweak the
are rapidly changing. Oftentimes during data center before, the MEP engineer is data center to their own unique needs.
the planning and design of the facility, often viewed as an external threat. The Typically, the shell design will stop either
the owner has not yet identified the final key is to make sure they understand the at the UPS output distribution panel or
equipment, so systems need to be adapt- complementary set of skills that you bring at the power distribution unit (PDU).
able. Also, the owner will often have mul- to the table. The redundancy (N, N+1, or 2N) and
tiyear plans for growth, and the building Tumber: The project requirements the specific topology to the servers can
must grow without disruption. and design attributes of a data center are be unique to the end user. Some larger
Yoon: Managing people and personali- different from other uses. The mission clients will take a more significant por-
ties. Most management information sys- is to sustain IT equipment as opposed tion of the data center, if timing allows,
tems/IT (MIS/IT) department staff are to humans. They are graded on criteria and they will be able to select the UPS,
highly intelligent, extremely motivated including availability, capacity, resil- generator, and medium-voltage electrical
people, but they are not used to being iency, PUE, flexibility, adaptability, time distribution topology.
questioned on technical points. This to market, scalability, cost, and more. Tumber: The design of a coloca-
can make the data center programming These criteria are unique to data centers, tion data center is influenced by its

Figures 2 and 3: The climate in which a data center is found can greatly
impact a projects specifications. The warm, moist weather in South
Florida impacts equipment and HVAC concerns in different ways than
the cooler, drier climate of Prineville, Ore.where this 30-mW data
center is located. Courtesy: Southland Engineering

14 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017





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MEP Roundtable
business model. Powered shell, whole- provisions for hot-aisle or cold-aisle con- A system and distribute it to multiple
sale colocation, retail colocation, etc. tainment and underfloor chilled water other systems while keeping the second
need to be tackled differently. If the for water-cooled equipment and in-row half of the dual-corded load on the B
tenant requirements are extensive, the coolers. Power distribution could also be UPS system. Extensive load calculations
entire colocation facility can be designed provided via an overhead busway system were required to keep track of all the
to meet their unique needs, i.e., built- to allow flexibility in accommodating a swing loads, and detailed phasing plans
to-suit. Market needs and trends typi- variety of power requirements. and methods of procedure were created
cally dictate the designs of wholesale and The tendency to allow unusual to ensure no loss of power to the load.
retail data centers. These data centers requirements to drive the design, how- Lane: The engineer must be able to
are designed around the requirements ever, should be carefully considered understand the reliability, maintainabil-
of current and target tenants. They offer or avoided, unless the facility is being ity, and flexibility needs of the owner.
varying degrees of flexibility, and any purpose-built for a specific tenant. The challenge is to meet or exceed these
unique or atypical needs that could push
the limits of the designed infrastructure The most important thing is to work with the colocation
are reviewed on a case-by-case basis.
Fenstermaker: The most important providers to fully understand their rate structures, typical
thing is to work with the colocation contract size, and the menu of reliability/resiliency they want
providers to fully understand their rate
structures, typical contract size, and the
to offer clients in the marketplace. Karl Fenstermaker
menu of reliability/resiliency they want
to offer to their clients in the market- To optimize return on investment, its owner expectations as cost-effectively as
place. The optimal design solution for important to develop a design that is possible. Another significant challenge
a retail colocation provider that may modular and rapidly deployable. This occurs when changes or additions are
lease a few 10-kW racks at a time with requires the design to be less dependent made to an existing and operating mis-
Tier 4 systems, located in a high-rise in on equipment and systems that have sion critical data center. The engineers
the downtown area of Southern Califor- long lead times, such as custom parallel- and contractors must be able to imple-
nia, is drastically different than another ing switchgear. Designs need to be par- ment the design changes and ensure
that leases 1-MW data halls in central ticularly sensitive to initial and ongoing that no live critical loads are impacted.
Oregon with Tier 2 systems. Engineers operational costs that are consistent with The original design should include pro-
need to be fully aware of all aspects of the providers business model. visions for changes and additions. All
the owners business plan before a design work must be clearly thought out and
solution can be developed. CSE: Describe a recent electrical/ communicated with the entire team.
Yoon: Colocation facilities seem to power system challenge you encoun- The method of procedures must be
be evolving into one-size-fits-all com- tered when working on a data center documented and followed during con-
modities. Power availability and access project. struction in a live data center to ensure
to multiple carriers/telecommunication that critical loads arent lost.
providers with low-latency connections Kutsmeda: One challenge that we are Rener: A recent data center design
still seem to be how they try to differ- encountering is replacing end-of-life involved multiple large generators and a
entiate themselves. However, simple electrical equipment in older data cen- desire to use UPS systems that do not use
economies of scale give larger facilities ters that were built in the 1990s. Many batteries. Several options were looked at
the upper hand in these key metrics. of these data centers have large mul- including rotary UPS and traditional UPS
Eichelman: For a colocation data timodule UPS systems and associated with flywheel energy-storage units. A
center, its important to understand the switchgear that need to be replaced and challenge was to coordinate these stored-
types of clients that are likely to occupy updated with newer technology. A proj- energy run times with the start-up times
the space. The specific design solutions ect Jacobs currently finished required of the generators.
need to be responsive to the likely/typi- us to maintain full 2N distribution and
cal requirements while also being flex- reliability during the replacement of CSE: What PUE goals have clients
ible and practical to accommodate other equipment. Luckily, the original proj- asked you to achieve in difficult
needs that may arise. A typical approach ect was overbuilt, so there was stranded situations? Describe the project.
could include designing a facility with a capacity in other UPS systems within
pressurized raised floor, which allows the facility. That stranded capacity Kosik: Generally, the most demanding
for air-cooled equipment while making allowed us to take the load from the clients I have seen in terms of energy Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 17

MEP Roundtable
efficiency goals and PUE have been (kilowatt-per-hour-based) of 1.15 or Mark Suski: There are many unique
European. In general, the European better. To meet the aggressive goal, the HVAC requirements that affect data
market has been ahead of the United client was willing to accept tempera- centers. In fact, the design of the HVAC
States in reducing energy use in build- ture and humidity conditions at the system is one of the most critical factors
ings and focusing on greenhouse gas inlet of IT equipment that were similar for all data centers. The HVAC system
emissions. Given these boundary con- to an ASHRAE Class A2 thermal enve- in data centers not only provides com-
ditions and a more temperate climate in lope for data processing equipment. fort air for the occupant, but it also (and
many countries, there is just an expec- For example, the maximum accept- more importantly) provides the cool-
tation that PUEs of 1.20 and less are able inlet-air condition was 95F DB ing air for the equipment. Damage can
achievable. As an example of this, one and 80% RH. We used direct-evapo- occur to circuit boards and electronic
project was located in Amsterdam, and rative cooling technology for condi- equipment starting at 80F, so it is criti-
we used the canal that runs through the tioning the data center and completely cal to data center operations that the
city as a source of condenser water. eliminated the need for a mechanical HVAC system function properly.
Eichelman: As energy efficiency refrigeration system. It is important to Understanding the different HVAC
requirements continue to become remember that reducing PUE requires design approaches will allow fire
more stringent, client PUE limits con- a holistic approach, and there are mul- protection engineers to identify the
tinue to be reduced. Federal govern- tiple strategies that can be leveraged. appropriate fire protection strategy of
ment facilities are now required to have Rener: Most clients have asked us the particular data center. The HVAC
PUEs of no more than 1.5 for existing to design systems that achieve a PUE systems configurations range from
facilities and between 1.2 and 1.4 for of 1.4 or less, which is reasonable flooded to targeted to contained. Each
new facilities, which is fairly consis- using best practices of aisle contain- type of air-distribution configuration
tent with the expectations of most ment and efficient power distribution. has a unique approach and protection
data center owners. To achieve these Working with one particular client, we strategy.
requirements, very efficient electrical performed PUE predictions at vari- Fenstermaker: The proliferation of
and HVAC equipment and distribution ous levels of IT load, such as 25% and direct-evaporative cooling application in
are required. 50% loading, with the PUE prediction large data centers, combined with expand-
Typical approaches include the use based on an annualized calculation. ed allowable temperature and humidity
of high-efficiency UPS systems and Yoon: Oddly enough, most of our limits for IT- equipment intakes, means
transformers, water- or airside econo- clients dont seem to place a very high mechanical engineers need to pay close
mizers, high-temperature chilled-water priority on low PUE numbers. Initial attention to all wall- and system-compo-
systems, rack or aisle-level containment capital cost and redundancy are the nent surfaces for the possibility of surface
systems, direct water-cooled IT equip- primary topics of conversation. This, temperatures that could drop below room
ment, and containerized/modular data of course, is probably much different dew point, effectively creating rain inside
center solutions. for the large cloud providers. of the data center.
One of the main challenges in meeting Lane: Owners, general contractors, Tumber: The project requirements
an aggressive PUE requirement relates to and engineers must be on the same and design attributes of a data center are
the ramp-up of the IT deployment. As page when discussing PUE. There is different from other uses. The mission
a data center module comes online, the average PUE, which will dictate the is to sustain IT equipment as opposed
PUE may be very high, as there is often electrical bill, and there is maximum to humans. They are graded on criteria
a small amount of equipment initially PUE, which will dictate the size of the such as availability, capacity, resiliency,
installed with the corresponding infra- electrical infrastructure required to flexibility, adaptability, time to market,
structure being fully built-out. As equip- feed the critical loads. We have used scalability, cost per megawatt, and more.
ment is added, the PUE continues to fall, efficient UPS systems, outside-air These criteria are unique to data centers,
with the lowest PUE being achieved at economizers, enclosed hot aisles, and and designing a mechanical system that
full build-out. To reduce these inefficien- increased temperatures as well as other meets all the requirements can be chal-
cies, a modular infrastructure build-out methods to achieve very low average lenging.
approach should be considered, with and maximum PUE.
each phase deployed to match the next Read more at about:
IT installation. CSE: What unique HVAC require-
 Automation and controls
Tumber: For a hyper-scale data cen- ments do data center building  Codes and standards
ter located in the Midwest, we were projects have that you wouldnt  Fire/life safety
directed to achieve an annualized PUE encounter in other buildings?  Sustainable buildings/energy efficiency.

18 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

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Codes & Standards

Whats new to NFPA 13 and what

to expect in future editions
Changes to the 2016 edition of NFPA 13 are evaluated along
with what to expect in the 2019 edition.


tandards that are regularly applied in daily There are a number of significant changes in
Learning practices are developed years in advance of the 2016 edition of NFPA 13 that will be evalu-
objectives them actually being adopted and enforced. ated in addition to the new organization of the
 Review changes made to The 2016 edition of NFPA 13: Standard for the 2019 edition.
the 2016 edition of NFPA 13: Installation of Sprinkler Systems will not be Metric conversions: During the development
Standard for the Installation adopted locally until the locations jurisdiction of the 2016 edition of NFPA 13, the associations
of Sprinkler Systems. adopts the 2018 edition of the International correlating committee established a task group to
 Discuss the updated orga- Building Code or 2018 edition of NFPA 101: review the metric conversions within the standard
nization to the 2019 edition of Life Safety Code. and make recommendations for potential revi-
NFPA 13.
There are some authorities, however, that adopt sions to enhance usability outside of the United
the most current edition of the standards. Most States. Previous editions of the standard used an
notably, the U.S. Department of Defense typically exact conversion between U.S. customary units
applies the most recent edition of the NFPA stan- and metric units. Where it was deemed appropri-
dards to projects. It may also be advantageous ate by the task group and technical committees,
from a risk management perspective to apply the nominal metric equivalents or approximate con-
most recent edition of a code to a project. This is versions have been provided. The standard explic-
because there may be areas addressed in the most itly notes in Section 1.6.3 that it is acceptable to
recent code that arent addressed in previous edi- use the exact conversion or the conversion stated
tions that can influence a design. in the standard even though they may not be the
The most recent edition of a standard is typi- same. Section A.1.6.3 of Annex A provides explan-
cally considered to contain the latest and best atory information and examples of conversions.
thought on the subject. However, if there are Storage commodity classification: The crite-
changes from the actual standard that are being ria for defining Class IV commodities has been
enforced on a project, it is recommended that any expanded to include criteria for cartoned versus
deviation from the adopted standard be reviewed exposed products. Class IV commodities can
with the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) dur- also include limited amounts of Class A plas-
ing the design process. tics (expanded and unexpanded). Figures have
For product manufacturers and installers, been added that note the allowable mixtures (on
knowing what is coming down the road can also a percentage by volume basis) of expanded and
help prepare for implementing the new code unexpanded Group A plastics for purposes of
requirements. The knowledge also can be used defining the commodity classification. (Figures
to impact product design or help develop train- [a] and [b])
ing material for employees who design and install Cellulosics, natural rubber, and nylon have
systems. been reclassified from Group B to Group A

20 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

plastics. PVF (polyvinyl fluoride) has been reclas-
sified from a Group C plastic to a Group A plastic.
Treatment of extension fittings: A definition of
extension fittings and criteria for their use have
been added to the standard. An extension fitting
is an adapter that is used to adjust the final fit
where sprinklers are installed in a finished ceiling
or wall. Previous editions of the standard do not
address extension fittings.
A new Section 6.4.8 has been added. Exten-
sion fittings are allowed to be used with sprinklers
having a K factor of 8 or less in light or ordinary
hazard occupancies only. A single extension fit-
ting having a maximum length of 2 in. is allowed
and is not required to be included in the hydraulic
Extension fittings longer than 2 in. are allowed
if they are specifically listed and are included in It is also important to note that the 2013 and Figure 1: This photo shows a
the hydraulic calculations. 2016 editions allow omission of sprinklers from dry pipe system being fed from
Air venting: A requirement has been added skylights that are less than 32 sq ft in area when a wet combination sprinkler/
that each wet-pipe system using metallic pipe they are located greater than 10 ft from another standpipe riser. The dry pipe
be provided with a vent. The vent is required unprotected skylight or ceiling pocket. system is extending to an exte-
to be located near a high point in the system to Sprinklers under obstructions: Most designers rior area to protect mechanical
allow air to be removed from the system (Sec- and installers are aware that obstructions wider equipment on the roof of the
tions 7.1.5 and 8.16.6). The vent can consist of than 4 ft require sprinkler protection below the building. All graphics courtesy:
a manual valve, an automatic valve, or other obstruction. Two new criteria have been added Arup
approved means. The intent of the requirement is to the standard addressing these obstructions.
to provide a means for removing trapped oxygen One requirement mandates that sprinklers be
that could fuel corrosion, and that the valve be installed no more than 12 in. from the bottom
operated after each drain-and-fill event. Only one of the obstruction and is applicable to all types
vent is required per system. There isnt an intent of sprinklers with the exception of residential
that all air that may be trapped in the system be sprinklers, which are to be installed in accordance
vented. The provision of more than one vent is at with their listed distance below ceilings (Sections
the designers discretion.,,, and The
Galvanized pipe in dry systems: The require- other requirement addresses sprinklers below
ment that galvanized steel pipe be used in dry round ducts that are creating an obstruction,
and preaction systems was removed from the stating that the sprinklers be intermediate-level/
standard. The technical committee removed the rack-storage type or otherwise shielded from the
requirement because there have been instances discharge of overhead sprinklers. This require-
where galvanized pipe has corroded as quickly ment is applicable to pendant and upright sprin-
as nongalvanized steel pipe. klers as well as residential sprinklers (Sections
Sprinklers under skylights: A clarifying section,, and
(Section has been added to the stan- Clearance to storage: An allowance has been
dard regarding the placement of sprinklers under added to the standard to permit wall-mounted
skylights. This section notes that for the purpose shelving not located directly below a sprinkler
of determining the distance of a sprinkler to the to extend above a plane that is 18 in. below the
ceiling, the ceiling plane shall be measured to the sprinklers. The standard does not limit the height
ceiling as if the skylight were not present. This is of wall-mounted shelving that is not directly
applicable to skylights that are less than 32 sq ft below a sprinkler. Wall-mounted shelves could
in area. be installed up to the ceiling (Section Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 21

Codes & Standards
an obstruction. There has been clarifying of the cloud ceiling, and the gaps between
criteria added to the rule for standard cloud elements must be performed. If
pendant and upright spray sprinklers and specific parameters are met, sprinklers
sidewall standard spray sprinklers, noting can be eliminated above the cloud ceil-
that the maximum clear distance of 24 in. ing. Sprinkler-coverage limitations are
is not applicable when considering vertical also driven by the size of cloud elements
obstructions, such as columns (Sections and the space between elements relative and to the cloud ceiling height. There are also
The four times rule, which is appli- parameters on types of sprinklers that are
cable to extended coverage and residential allowed as well as the surface of the clouds
sprinklers, has also been revised to note (smooth ceiling construction). These
that the maximum clear distance rule is requirements and allowances are located
not applicable to vertical obstructions, in Section 8.15.24 of the standard.
such as columns. The criteria in this section is intended
Small openings and concealed spaces: to apply to a cloud ceiling that has been
A new definition for small openings has installed throughout a room. This section
been added to the standard. A small open- would not allow the space above obstruc-
ing is defined as an opening in a ceiling or tions suspended from a ceiling to not be
a construction feature of a concealed space sprinklered. These obstructions are often
that allows limited amounts of heat to referred to as clouds by interior designers,
enter the concealed space (Section 3.3.21). but due to the large openings around the
Figure 2: This photo illustrates sprinklers The annex section notes that a 4x2-ft dif- clouds, would not fall within the allowances
installed below a sloped glass skylight. The fuser would meet the definition of a small of Section 8.15.24. The maximum space
temperature rating of the sprinklers need opening. If the length of the opening is between clouds or the edge of a cloud and
to take into account the maximum ambient greater than 4 ft, the width of the opening the wall of a room is 1 in. of gap per foot
temperatures. Also, if the sprinklers will be is limited to 8 in. of vertical height of the cloud ceiling from
exposed to direct sunlight, they are required Small openings come into play when the floor. Therefore, a cloud ceiling that is
to classified as intermediate temperature determining whether a concealed space 10 ft above the floor could have a maxi-
sprinklers. needs to be sprinkler-protected. For mum of 10 in. between clouds or between
example, noncombustible or limited- the edge of the cloud and the wall.
Sidewall sprinklers in soffits and combustible concealed spaces that do The minimum dimension of the indi-
above cabinets: The limitation that side- not have access are not required to be vidual cloud elements and the actual gap
wall sprinklers be located within 4 in. of sprinkler-protected. A ceiling forming the relative to the height of the ceiling is used
the bottom of a soffit to avoid sprinklers bottom of the concealed space is allowed to determine the sprinkler coverage from
below the soffit has been removed. The to have small openings and is still not Table of the NFPA 13 standard.
sidewall sprinkler just needs to be located required to be sprinkler-protected (Sec- If the actual gap is larger than 1 in./ft of
on the soffit within the spacing limitations tion ceiling height, the omission of sprinklers
from the ceiling (Section Bathroom sprinkler exception: Section above the cloud ceiling is not allowed.
Criteria for sidewall sprinkler installa- has been revised to make the Sprinklers in revolving doors: A code
tion in soffits above cabinets were previ- sprinkler exception for bathrooms that section was added to explicitly note that
ously only applicable to soffits and cabi- are smaller than 55 sq ft and have limited sprinklers are not required in revolving
nets in residential areas and occupancies. combustible or noncombustible walls, doors (Section 8.15.25).
Limiting the use of these rules in other applicable to all dwelling units. In the Sprinkler-protected glazing: Crite-
occupancies has been deleted (Section previous edition of the code, this excep- ria has been added to address the use of tion was only applicable to dwelling units sprinklers and glazing when used as an
Minimum distance from obstruc- in hotels and motels. alternative to a fire-rated wall or window
tions: The three times rule to limit the Cloud ceilings: A new section in the protection (Section 8.15.26).
impact of obstructions on water distribu- standard has been added that allows cloud Inside hose stream allowance: For com-
tion requires that standard sprinklers be ceilings to be installed without sprinklers bination sprinkler/standpipe systems (Class
located away from the obstruction at a above the cloud ceilings. To take advan- I or III) in buildings that are fully sprinkler-
distance equaling at least three times the tage of the allowances, an analysis consid- protected, an inside hose stream demand is
width of the obstruction. The standard ering the elevation of the cloud ceilings, not required to be included in the hydraulic
notes a maximum clearance of 24 in. from the maximum dimension of the elements calculations (Section

22 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

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Codes & Standards
Storage: Numerous clarifications in the n Provide a more logical sequence for Chapter 9. Criteria for the protection
requirements for storage occupancies have the presentation of information and area per sprinkler and spacing also will
been made in chapters 12 through 20. requirements for users not intimate be located in Chapter 9.
Those dealing with storage occupancies with the current format. n Chapters 10 through 15 will contain
should thoroughly review these chapters. n Address current redundancies and the design and installation criteria for the
Air-leakage testing of modifications to gaps in requirements for protection various types of sprinklers that are cur-
existing systems: A new section has been of storage. rently all located within Chapter 8.
added to Chapter 25 addressing air-leak- n Address dispersal of requirements n Chapters 16 and 17 will address piping
age testing of modifications to existing throughout the standard that deal valves and appurtenances and hanging and
dry pipe and double-interlock preaction with a common subject. support requirements.
systems. Two options for testing are pro- n Reorganize Chapter 8. n Chapter 18 will address seismic design
vided in Section One method requirements, and Chapter 19 will provide
involves a 2-hour pressure test and the The recommendations of the task design and calculation requirements.
other allows a 4-hour test under normal group have been accepted, and the 2019 n Chapter 20 will provide general require-
operating pressure. edition of NFPA 13 will be reorganized ments for storage, and chapters 21 through
as noted below. 25 will address specific storage requirements
n Chapters 1 and 2 will continue to and in-rack sprinkler requirements.
address the administrative requirements n Chapter 26 will address special-occu-
and referenced publications with no reor- pancy requirements. System testing will be
ganizational changes. addressed in Chapter 27. Chapter 28 will
n Chapter 3, which addresses defini- address modifications to existing systems,
tions, will be reorganized. The definitions and 29 will address marine systems. Chap-
currently are divided into subcategories ter 30 will address system inspection, test-
within the chapter, and items are alpha- ing, and maintenance.
betized within the subcategory. If a user There will also be technical changes to
is not aware of the subcategory where a the standard, as there are in every revision
definition would reside, it can be difficult cycle. The committees have tried to limit
to find. All of the definitions will be in significant technical changes during this
alphabetical order and the subcategories cycle due to the major reorganization.
Figure 3: This photo shows the use of sprin- will be deleted. This article highlights many of the
klers as part of a code modification to allow n Chapter 4 will contain the general changes in the 2016 edition of NFPA 13.
a glass floor within an elevator lobby. Note requirements for sprinkler systems. These These identified changes are ones that are
that the sprinklers are provided in each bay requirements are currently scattered deemed to have a more critical impact on
to wet the floor above. They are also closer amongst Chapters 5, 8, and 23. the standard and should not be considered
than 6 feet on center, however, the structure n Chapter 5 will contain the require- inclusive of all changes.
creates baffles to prevent cold soldering of ments for water supplies that currently The 2019 edition should be much
adjacent sprinklers. reside in Chapter 24. improved from a usability perspective. As
n Chapter 6 will contain the require- can be seen by the organization, the intent
Future revisions to the standard ments for underground piping currently in is to be able to apply the document as one
The development of the 2019 edition of Chapter 10. would go through the steps of designing
NFPA 13 is well underway. The first-draft n Chapter 7 will contain the require- or reviewing a system. As always, the stan-
meetings of the technical committees were ments for system components and hard- dards are in a continual state of change to
held last year. The public comment closing ware. allow for improvement and acceptance of
date is May 10, 2017, and committees will n Chapter 8 will address system types new technologies and approaches.
be meeting in June to act on the public and requirements. The current Chapter 8
comments. is being split into multiple chapters, and Raymond A. Grill is a principal with Arup.
Leading up to the development of the the current requirements in Chapter 7 He is chair of the of the NFPA 13 Technical
2019 edition, the technical correlating will be moved to the new Chapter 8. Committee on Sprinkler System Installation
committee established a reorganization n Chapter 9 will include sprinkler- Criteria and serves on the Technical Com-
task group. The work of the task group location requirements that are currently mittee on Building Services and Fire Pro-
resulted in a recommendation that the in Chapter 8. Allowances for sprinkler tection Equipment for NFPA 101/5000. He
standard be reorganized. The goals of the omissions and protection for special is a member of the Consulting-Specifying
reorganization include: situations will be located in the new Engineer editorial advisory board.

24 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

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Codes & Standards

Designing sprinkler systems

for maintainability
Best practices for designing an automatic sprinkler system
that can be easily inspected, tested, and maintained.


JENSEN HUGHES, Westminster, Colo.

sprinkler system designed strictly in application of effective inspection, testing, and
Learning accordance with the requirements of maintenance (ITM) is required to ensure system
objectives NFPA 13: Standard for the Installation performance during a fire event. NFPA 25 is the
 Learn about the codes and of Sprinkler Systems does not necessarily lend established standard for sprinkler system ITM
standards that fire protection itself to a simple regimen of inspection, testing, criteria. An NFPA 13-compliant sprinkler sys-
engineers should reference and maintenance. A sprinkler system designer tem will include the minimum system features
when designing fire sprinkler needs to understand the various post-installation required to complete NFPA 25 ITM activities.
inspection, testing, and maintenance procedures However, even an NFPA 13 code-compliant sys-
 Understand that inspection, required by NFPA 25: Standard for the Inspection, tem does not automatically lend itself to applying
testing, and maintenance are
key to compliant fire sprinkler
Testing and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire the most efficient ITM.
systems. Protection Systems to design a system that can Experience has shown that when sprinkler
be inspected, tested, and maintained efficiently. system design features result in additional dif-
NFPA 13 serves as the primary automatic fire ficulty or cost in completing ITM activities,
sprinkler system design and installation standard building owners often choose to forgo portions
in the U.S. It is also adopted and used for fire of the required ITM procedures over time. Poor
sprinkler system design in locations outside of ITM practices increase the probability that the
the U.S. Once sprinkler systems are installed, the sprinkler system may not perform properly when
needed. NFPA 25 ITM activities may be accom-
plished with greater ease and are, in turn, more
likely to be completed over the sprinkler systems
lifetime when the system is designed to include
features that increase the practicality of ITM.
The following describes best practices that may
be used to meet some of the NFPA 13 require-
ments while still facilitating the ITM activities
described in NFPA 25.

Inspecting sprinkler system components

Sprinkler system components are required to
Figure 1: This photo be visually inspected at regular intervals. For
shows a 4-in. drain example, NFPA 25 requires quarterly inspec-
below a sprinkler sys- tions of gauges, control valves, waterflow alarm
tem main drain line. devices, and supervisory devices. Gauges on dry
Courtesy: James Taylor, and pre-action systems are further required to
PE, JENSEN HUGHES be inspected on a monthly basis. Gauges are

26 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

inspected to ensure that they are free from phys- accidental discharge. Addition-
ical damage and are displaying normal system ally, it is recommended that
pressures. Valves, waterflow devices, and super- the floor control assembly be
visory devices are inspected to ensure that they located no higher than 7 ft above
are free of physical damage. In addition, valves the stairwell landing, where the
are inspected to ensure that they are maintained stairwell landing depth is of
in the appropriate orientation (open/closed). sufficient size to accommodate
This inspection is of particular importance due such equipment without impact-
to the fact that normally open valves placed in ing required egress width.
the closed position are known to serve as a lead- In addition to quarterly
ing cause of sprinkler system failure. According inspections, a number of com-
to NFPAs June 2013 article, U.S. Experience ponents are required to be
with Sprinklers, 64% of sprinkler systems failed inspected annually including
to operate during a fire scenario due to system hangers and seismic bracing,
valves being closed. Closed valves serve as a sprinklers, pipe, fittings, spare
leading cause of sprinkler system failure. sprinklers, system information signage, and fire Figure 2: Water rapidly overflows
All of the aforementioned components are department connections. The majority of these the 4-in. drain during a main
generally located at the sprinkler system riser items are located as necessary to meet system drain test. Courtesy: James
or at sprinkler system floor control assemblies. design criteria including design density and Taylor, PE, JENSEN HUGHES
Given the frequency of these inspections, the spacing. The designer, therefore, has minimal
sprinkler system designer can best serve the control over location for ease of ITM.
building owner by locating the risers and floor Section requires identification signs
control assemblies where such devices can be at every control valve to indicate valve function
easily viewed, preferably without the need for and what the valve controls. While not required by
a ladder. The 2016 edition of NFPA 13 refers to NFPA 13, it is also recommended that valve iden-
this need in Section 8.1.2 by requiring that sys- tification signs indicate whether a valve is intended To facilitate ease
tem valves and gauges be accessible for opera- to be normally open or normally closed. This is
tion, testing, and maintenance. The Annex note one of several sections requiring signage for iden-
of maintenance
for this section allows that valves do not have tifying various components. These signs are vital and inspections,
to be in an open or exposed location and may for better serving building owners, maintenance
be located behind doors, removable panels, or staff, and responding fire department personnel it is recommended
in valve pits. Given these vague guidelines, one who may not be fully familiar with the building
could argue that a valve located 20 ft above a layout and the details of the building design.
that the system
finished floor can be reached by scissor lift and designer locate
considered accessible. Testing sprinkler systems
Most sprinkler system designers and install- NFPA 25 requires that a main drain test be floor control
ers locate sprinkler system risers and trim at a completed on an annual/quarterly basis (depend-
height that can be easily reached and viewed for ing upon system configuration) to determine if
assemblies inside
inspection and maintenance. However, in multi- any degradation of the water supply has occurred. stairwells rather
floor buildings, floor control assemblies tend to A portion of this test involves fully opening the
be located near ceiling level either inside a stair- main drain valve and allowing water to flow for a than above
well or outside of stairwells, or above suspended duration long enough to obtain a stabilized resid-
ceilings. To facilitate ease of maintenance and ual pressure before the valve is closed again. To
suspended ceilings.
inspections, it is recommended that the system facilitate this test, the 2016 edition of NFPA 13
designer locate floor control assemblies inside Section states that the main drain test
stairwells rather than above suspended ceilings. connection shall be installed that the valve can
Following this rule provides the advantage of be opened wide for a sufficient time to assure a
easy visibility for inspection, testing, and mainte- proper test without causing water damage.
nance and also makes the floor control valve con- If the final design of the main drain does not
siderably easier to locate in the event of a system permit full flow for a long enough duration, Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 27

Codes & Standards
sprinkler system service personnel may be contained space into which excess water assembly in areas not subject to freezing.
forced to throttle the drain valve, close the can be permitted to accumulate. Given the large amount of water that can
drain valve prematurely, or not perform the Backflow preventers are required to be be discharged during a forward-flow test
test at all in an effort to prevent water dam- tested annually by forward-flowing water (approximately 200 gpm for a light hazard
age. Ineffective main drain tests may allow at a flow rate greater than or equal to the system; 350 gpm for an ordinary hazard
a degraded water supply to go unnoticed. system demand. While this requirement group 1 system), the test header should be
One common method is to route the has been included in NFPA 25 at least located so that a 50-ft hose can discharge
main drain discharge to the exterior of since the 1992 edition, NFPA 13 does not water to a location that does not negatively
the building. Alternatively, practicality contain any specific direction to help the impact nearby buildings or vegetation. A
or local environmental laws may require designer identify how to meet this require- nearby storm drain may be ideal, if per-
that the main drain be discharged to the ment. For example, the U.S. Department mitted. Where local environmental laws
sanitary sewer. In both cases, a number of of Defense Unified Facilities Criteria prohibit sprinkler system discharge to the
factors must be considered by the engi- 3-600-01 Fire Protection Engineering exterior or to storm drains, it may be best
neer to ensure that the main drain will be for Facilities, with Change 1, November to locate the test header near a roadway
installed to allow for proper testing. 2016 specifically requires that all new so that the hose can discharge to a truck-
If the drain will discharge to the exte- sprinkler systems be provided with a test mounted portable tank.
rior of the building, the engineer should header consisting of 2-in. angle or globe NFPA 25 requires pre-action and deluge
consider whether the discharge location valves, with at least one valve for every 250 valves to be trip tested. This test can be
will negatively impact property, vegeta- gal per minute (gpm) of system demand. completed with a partially opened con-
tion, building use, etc. Is the discharge NFPA 20: Standard for the Installation trol valve annually and with a fully opened
location sufficient to prevent water from of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection control valve every 3 years. In each case,
flowing back into the building? Is the also contains some guidance for providing water is admitted into an otherwise dry
ground surface at the discharge location waterflow test devices, such as test head- system. Pre-action systems are frequently
capable of resisting erosion due to water ers and closed test loops using flowme- installed in locations, such as data centers
discharge? Could vegetation, vehicles, or ters. Traditionally, sprinkler systems that or refrigerated buildings, where the acci-
other nearby objects be damaged by the do not require fire pumps have not been dental release of water can result in espe-
discharge of water? Will the discharge of provided with a test header or a closed cially costly damages. Annual trip testing
water outside during the winter months test loop even though these two methods introduces unwanted water into the dry
create a dangerous situation, such as an provide the best means for accomplishing portion of the system piping. Even when
piping is properly sloped and provided
with the proper drains, it is very difficult
If the drain will discharge to the exterior of the to remove all of the water from the system.
building, the engineer should consider whether the Additionally, if the pre-action system
is protecting a freezer, the water from the
discharge location will negatively impact property,
trip test may freeze in the piping prior to
vegetation, building use, etc. being drained. The remaining water in
the pipe increases the systems suscep-
ice-covered building entrance? If dis- the yearly forward flow test. Without the tibility to corrosion and damage due to
charging to an interior floor drain, it is provision of a test header or test loop, the freezing. For these reasons, a trip test that
important to ensure that the test can be best way to forward-flow test a backflow does not introduce water into the system
completed without negatively impacting preventer is to reverse the fire depart- piping is preferred. NFPA 13 allows for
the building interior due to flooding or ment connection (FDC) check valve and a second indicating control valve to be
splashing. Can the floor drain handle the allow water to flow out of the FDC. The installed in the riser assembly above the
anticipated flow? Is the drain located near amount of effort required to reverse the pre-action or deluge valve to permit full
storage or electrical components? check valve and perform the test is likely function trip testing without flooding the
The engineer should estimate the to be a strong deterrent to performing this system piping. The specifying engineer
expected waterflow from the main drain. test. It is, therefore, recommended that or consultant should consider including
This will depend on the water supply pres- sprinkler system designers include a test the second indicating valve in the design.
sure and drain piping size and will drive header in their design, sized to provide Without this valve, it is likely that NFPA
the necessary size of the interior floor at least one 2-in. valve per 250 gpm of 25s required trip testing would be consid-
drain. If the drain cannot be sized to fully system demand. The test header should ered impractical (e.g., systems protecting
handle the anticipated flow, then consid- be located on a building exterior wall or cold-storage warehouses) and may not be
eration should be given to providing a as a part of an exterior backflow preventer performed at all.

28 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Maintenance for sprinkler systems
NFPA 25 states that, at a minimum,
dry-pipe system auxiliary drains should
be drained after each operation of the
system and before the start of freezing
weather conditions. It is vital that con-
densate be regularly drained from these
auxiliary drains to prevent freeze failures
of the dry-pipe system. If possible, the
engineer should stress to the building
owner the importance of regularly emp-
tying these drains.
Dry-pipe sprinkler systems typically
have a number of auxiliary drains. Build-
ing owners and maintenance personnel
are not always aware of the location of
every auxiliary drain. To facilitate the reg-
ular emptying of these drains, NFPA 13
requires a sign at the dry-pipe valve that Figure 3: This floor drain is inadequately sized for forward-flow testing of the backflow
indicates the number and location of each preventer. Courtesy: Jacob Epstein, PE, JENSEN HUGHES
low-point drain. The standard requires
that this sign be a permanently marked existing sprinkler system for protecting a include informative and durable sig-
metal or rigid plastic sign. new hazard, or investigating a recurring nage, test-valve discharge locations that
The engineer should pay close attention maintenance issue, will likely require the minimize their impact on the building
to ensure that the installing contractor contractor or engineer to recreate at least and environment, system riser locations
adheres to this requirement. A laminated some of the lost information. The inves- that afford visibility and easy access for
sheet of paper listing the drain locations, tigation to recreate the missing as-built ITM, and additional valves that reduce
thumbtacked to the wall adjacent to the drawings will have an associated cost and the amount of labor required for annual
dry valve, is likely to become unreadable may be destructive in nature. testing and allow for the isolation of main-
over time. Without this sign, a low-point While NFPA 13 does not have a require- tenance activities. Providing a designated
drain may be overlooked. For example, a ment for retaining working plans and location for as-built document storage and
low-point drain located under the stair calculations, the engineer may want to ITM recordkeeping will help to reduce the
in a far corner of a large building can be consider the use of a documentation cabi- amount of rework required when system
easily forgotten by building maintenance net similar to what is required by NFPA modifications are necessary.
staff or overlooked by a sprinkler system 72: National Fire Alarm and Signaling
service company during a 1 a.m. emer- Code. This cabinet can be used to store Andrew J. Taggart is a senior fire pro-
gency service call. as-built drawings, calculations, opera- tection engineer at JENSEN HUGHES
tions and maintenance manuals, and ITM and has more than 9 years of experi-
Proper documentation for records in a convenient waterproof loca- ence in the design of fire suppression
sprinkler systems tion. Depending upon the type of cabinet systems including experience as a fire
Almost inevitably at some point in specified, electronic files (i.e., CAD files protection consultant and a fire sprin-
the lifetime of a sprinkler system, hav- of the system design and acceptance test kler contractor, during which he often
ing access to the original contractor-pre- documentation) may also be stored. assists building owners in solving ongo-
pared, as-built shop drawings and hydrau- Inspection, testing, and maintenance ing sprinkler system maintenance issues.
lic calculations will be greatly beneficial. activities are essential to prolonging the
Many times, the original shop drawings life of sprinkler systems and ensuring Julie E. Buffam Brown is a senior fire pro-
and other documentation pertaining to that sprinkler systems are able to oper- tection engineer at JENSEN HUGHES. As
the original system installation are lost ate as designed in the event of an emer- a fire protection engineer and code consul-
shortly after construction is completed, gency. An engineer can include a number tant, she has performed numerous property
or accurate as-built shop drawings are of simple features in sprinkler system condition assessments and has seen many
not provided. Without these documents, design to make ITM activities easier and instances where poor design can impact the
many situations, such as renovating an less of a burden for the building owner frequency and quality of sprinkler system
existing sprinkler system, evaluating an and maintenance staff. These features inspection, testing, and maintenance. Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 29

Coordinating fire protection
designs via
BIM can be a very powerful tool in the design and construction industry.
It takes 2-D information far beyond just a 3-D environment. It places the
tool of a database or model in the hands of fire protection engineers,
giving them the benefit of what they want to achieve within the BIM model.

BY ALLYN VAUGHN, PE, FSFPE, LEED AP, JBA Consulting Engineers, an NV5 Co., Las Vegas

30 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Figure 1: Different ceiling heights
and open floor plans require coor-
dination of sprinklers and fire alarm
notification appliances within the
Graton Resort & Casino, Rohnert
Park, Calif. This image illustrates
the variations in ceiling heights
along the casino floor. The Graton
Resort & Casino is larger than
300,000 sq ft and contains a vari-
ety of different uses as well as a
very complex ceiling configuration
within the main casino. The ceiling
is a series of waves that required
a lot of coordination for sprinkler
location and positioning with other
systems and ceiling features. Exit-
ing was complex in that the engi-
neers needed to employ a variety of
features to make exit capacity and
travel distances work. Using a BIM
model approach to this type of proj-
ect saved time and effort while also
allowing the design team to bet-
ter coordinate systems within the
building. All graphics courtesy: JBA
Consulting Engineers, an NV5 Co.

ccording to the Autodesk dimensional platforms but takes it even further
website, building infor- allowed designers to use Learning by introducing other
mation modeling (BIM) an inventory of stored objectives dimensions, such as time
is an intelligent 3-D symbols and line types (for scheduling purposes)
 Describe some of the ways
mo del-b as e d pro cess to improve on the hand BIM is being used in the fire and cost (for estimat-
that equips architecture, engineering, drafting that was previ- protection industry. ing and control). It also
and construction (AEC) profession- ously used in the industry.  Outline how BIM can be
introduces what could be
als with the insight and tools to more Then the use of 3-D used in the future to coordi- considered a database to
efficiently plan, design, construct, and design became prevalent, nate fire protection designs. store specific informa-
manage buildings and infrastructure. So giving way to what is now  Learn to use 3-D models to tion about the objects
what does that really mean? And how BIM. Three-dimensional coordination fire protection used in design. Objects
can the use of BIM benefit the design modeling allows engi- system design. are added to the model
community, specifically in the fire pro- neers to see what they to build the database or
tection industry? are designing before it is built, to get a design. The objects store information
The concept of BIM in the AEC indus- feel for the layout of the space and how that can be used in a wide variety of
try has been around since the 1960s, but the various elements fit into the design. ways to enhance the database or model
didnt evolve to its current use until the This helps designers avoid conflicts with being used to design the building. This,
early 2000s. The design community used other disciplines or trades before the sys- in turn, enhances the design tools avail-
a 2-D platform to design buildings for tem is installed. able to the design community.
many years, even after the introduction When BIM was introduced, it allowed
of the personal computer gave way to a database or model to be used so that Fire protection system design
computerized software for architec- an inventory of symbols can include Fire protection engineers and con-
tural and engineering design. Two- objects. BIM is a form of 3-D modeling, tractors have been using 3-D modeling Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 31

Coordinating fire protection designs via BIM
for many years to design systems, such tion, the concept design can be enhanced and equipment. However, BIM applica-
as automatic sprinkler, standpipe, fire to shop-drawing design while keeping tions can be of benefit to the fire alarm
pumping, and special hazard-suppres- the original design concepts in place. and detection industry as a tool for inven-
sion systems. The use of 3-D design tory and cataloging of equipment. While
applications helps with the coordination BIMs payback detailed field coordination may not be as
of design and installation by showing the The benefits of a BIM application critical with the smaller equipment, the
designers how the various components design through the life of the building use of BIM can help with panel locations,
of the systems will fit into the building or allows the contractors to keep an inven- fire command rooms, and coordinating
space. Some applications also have inte- tory of equipment within the model, so the placement of devices on ceilings with
grated hydraulic calculations into other trades.
the program to allow for more The traditional applications
efficiency in design. seen for fire protection BIM
Most of the fire protection sys- design are for installed systems.
tem shop drawings being developed However, there also can be a
today use a combination of 2-D and benefit of using BIM for fire-
3-D designs. Two-dimensional engineering designs. Egress plans
floor plans are used to show piping can be automated through the use
runs and layout as well as sprinkler of BIM. Egress plans are used to
locations. They also are used to develop the exiting scheme for
show sprinkler locations on reflect- buildings and take into account
ed ceiling plans to coordinate the the occupant load of rooms and
layout with other ceiling devices. the overall building while show-
Three-dimensional applications ing the egress routes to exit the
are used to show riser details, building.
floor control valve locations, fire BIM applications can take the
pump rooms, and other equip- architectural model and import
ment where space relationships room data into the egress model.
are necessary. These are beneficial The room data can give the type
because they show how the equip- or use of the room and the size of
ment or systems fit into the spaces the room. Those two factors are
for which they are being designed. then used to determine the calcu-
However, most of the applications lated occupant load of the room to
being used to develop design and determine the width and quantity
shop drawings have been 3-D Figure 2: This BIM model depicts a typical floor of exits from the room or space,
applications, and are not truly control assembly for a fire sprinkler system. and for the overall building. Using
BIM applications. a BIM application allows engineers
With BIM becoming more prevalent that recurring maintenance and repairs to calculate the occupant load based on
in the design community over the past can be performed on the system while load factors found in the building code.
10 to 15 years, fire protection systems are knowing what equipment is in place and Developing egress plans in a 2-D plat-
now being designed using BIM applica- without having to field-verify equip- form often requires the use of polylines
tions. Some software programs export ment every time. This can include major to determine the required area of the
the information from the BIM model to equipment, such as pumps, controllers, space. Once that is determined, a manual
2-D for shop-drawing use. This allows valves, and sprinklers. The transfer of calculation is performed to determine
for continuity in the model as the con- the information in the BIM model to the occupant load. Changes to the plan
struction process begins. It also allows the end user allows the use for facilities- show up when the polylines differ from
for continuous coordination from the management purposes the initial layout.
design to construction phases. BIM applications for fire alarm and With BIM applications, changes to
The BIM model allows the design detection systems are not as common as rooms and areas can be automated using
team to determine space layouts for for suppression systems. This may be due the BIM model to show deviations in the
major equipment and then the contrac- to the smaller size of equipment as well areas and calculated loads. This automa-
tor to avoid field conflicts with other as wiring runs being easier to coordinate tion can reduce the effort typically seen
trades and key building elements. By in the field, whereas suppression systems when using only a 2-D model or appli-
adapting the design model to construc- have a need for coordinating larger pipe cation.

32 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Required egress capacity also can
be automated using BIM applications.
While doors, stairs, and other exit
components still need to be placed, the
BIM application can help confirm the
exit capacity is sufficient to accommo-
date the calculated occupant load. The
designer can take the occupants of the
various rooms and spaces into consid-
eration when determining the required
egress routes, and the BIM application
can confirm that the capacity is within
the required amounts. This allows the
calculation of occupant loads and confir-
mation of overall and individual capacity
to be streamlined, saving time and effort.
When developing egress plans, the most Figure 3: A BIM model shows penetrations of a fire-resistance-rated wall that will
tedious task is determining the calculat- require protection.
ed occupant loads and required capacity
and verifying that all building occupants rial is being used or stored in a given the HMMP and takes on a life through
are accounted for in the exiting capacity. space or process? the lifecycle of the building, rather than
When dealing with very large crowds, Once these are determined, then an as a separate database to be used when
automating this portion of the process inventory can be developed that shows determining the impacts that changes to
can be of great benefit. how much and of what type each haz- the building may have.
Using the data from the model allows ardous material exists. The benefit of
the fire protection designer to automate using a BIM application is to allow the Fire resistance
some of the exiting process. Engineers data to be stored in the model or data- Another benefit for using BIM applica-
will still need to manually determine the base for future reference and for the tions to coordinate fire protection designs
exit flow, but the time to determine the initial survey. It can be used to allow is the ability to define wall types for
total occupant load and the required exit the designer to determine whether opening protection requirements. In the
capacity is reduced. It is also very useful the amount of material being used or United States, most of the jurisdictions
for streamlining the changes in design stored in the space is within the exempt use an edition of the International Build-
that occurs during the overall design amounts allowed by code. If the material ing Code (IBC). The IBC defines various
process. By using a BIM application, exceeds the code-exempt amounts, then wall types and requires different levels of
more time can be spent on determining additional measures need to be taken protection based on these wall types. It
the egress routes while less time overall into account for the room or space to also defines fire partitions and fire barri-
is needed to develop the exiting scheme comply with code. ers and has fire-resistance ratings ranging
for the building. The inventory can then be developed from 30 minutes to 3 hours. Fire barri-
in a BIM model that correlates to the ers used for exiting also take on different
Benefits and special needs location of the space within the build- opening protection requirements.
Other examples include using BIM ing and shows the nature of the space Opening protection for fire-resis-
applications to develop a hazardous for building operators and possibly tance-rated walls, floors, and roofs range
materials identification system (HMIS) responding personnel. Rather than cata- from doors and windows to ductwork
or a hazardous materials management log the inventory in a separate database, and penetrations. Each opening or pen-
plan (HMMP). An HMIS is essentially a the BIM model or database can be used etration requires a specifically listed
survey of all of the potentially hazardous to store this information. This model assembly to protect the integrity of the
materials found or used in a building. can be used during the design of the wall or barrier. Using BIM applications,
The type of material must be quantified building to formulate the code-required the designer can identify the specific
in terms of weight or volume and then protection scheme and by the end user wall or floor configuration by not only
analyzed toward its classifications. Is for building operations. defining the fire-resistance rating, but
it a physical hazard, such as combus- The end user also can use this to main- also the specific wall or floor classifica-
tible and flammable materials, or it is tain the types and quantities of materials tion. This would allow other designers
a health hazard, such as a corrosive or at the levels for which the building or to choose the appropriate protection for
toxic material? How much of the mate- space is designed. This becomes part of the opening or penetration. Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 33
Coordinating fire protection designs via BIM
The fire protection designer often chosen. There are many damper varia- etrations to match available through-
works closely with the architect to define tions from which to choose based on stop penetration assemblies.
the wall type and then advise on the pro- the wall type and configuration. If the The use of BIM applications to coor-
tection scheme for doors and windows. designer is able to better identify the dinate opening protection for walls and
Door ratings can include fire-resistance- type of wall by referencing the BIM floors has numerous possibilities. Some
rated doors, smoke- and draft-control model, this would better help in the can be adapted today and put in use
assemblies that provide fire and smoke coordination of the design and also while others may need to be worked on
protection, and doors that have spe- avoid costly changes arising from the for future applications. The true ben-
cific requirements for the maximum wrong damper being chosen. efit of identifying wall types depends
transmitted-temperature rise. It can be on how the different models are shared
difficult to design the correct door type by various disciplines. Because each
if only the hourly rating of the wall is discipline essentially creates its own
shown on the plans. Using BIM applica- model from the architects model, the
tions, designers can more readily iden- models would have to be shared or
tify the specific wall type to choose the linked to gain the maximum benefit. By
right door application. doing this, the fire protection designer
For example, if the wall is a 1-hour-rated can identify the type of wall and then
corridor, a 20-minute smoke-and-draft the architects, interior designers, and
control assembly can be chosen for the mechanical and electrical trades can
design. However, if the wall is a 1-hour fire determine the appropriate protection
barrier, a 45-minute fire door is required. scheme for openings and penetrations.
If the wall is part of an exit enclosure, then The use of BIM brings new tools to
the 2-hour wall would require a 90-min- the fire protection designer, as it can
ute-rated door with the T rating to meet now provide more than a 2-D or 3-D
the temperature-rise requirements. model to the design. It allows infor-
With 2-D applications, a line type is mation specific to the design into the
usually used to identify the wall type, model itself. It can be used as a database
which typically only identifies the hourly for ongoing reference for service and
rating. If a BIM application is used, the parts inventory as well as a database
database contains not only the hourly for cataloging materials within specific
rating, but also the specific type of wall. areas of the building.
This level of information could avoid It also can enhance the design work-
costly changes in the field caused by the Figure 4: A fire sprinkler riser room is flow process by giving the designers the
wrong application being chosen based shown. An isometric diagram coordi- necessary information to appropriately
only on the hourly rating. nates the location of a multiple riser design their systems where conflicts
assemblies within the building. may occur. This is especially true where
Consider all requirements equipment and designs require pene-
Another benefit to using a BIM appli- Lastly, by using BIM to identify a trations of fire-resistance-rated walls.
cation for identifying wall types is for specific wall type, the penetrations The BIM model also can help automate
the protection of HVAC ductwork that can be identified and the appropriate some of the design process, saving time
penetrates fire-resistance-rated wall and through-stop penetration assembly can and cost. The advantages to using BIM
floor assemblies. As with doors, there be chosen. Through-stop penetration for coordinating fire protection designs
are different requirements for protect- assemblies are as numerous as they is only limited by the things we have not
ing the opening where ductwork passes are specific to the type and amount of thought of yet.
through the assembly. Some penetra- items (conduit, pipe, ductwork, etc.)
tions require fire dampers, some require penetrating the rated assembly as well
smoke dampers, some require both, and as the types of assembly being penetrat- Allyn Vaughn is president at JBA Con-
some do not require dampers at all if ed. By identifying the type of assembly sulting Engineers, an NV5 Co., and has
other measures are provided. and knowing the types of penetrants, been a fire protection engineer for more
It will help in the coordination of the the designer can have more control than 30 years. He has been involved with
HVAC design if the specific wall types over the types of penetration-protection life safety system development and coordi-
are known, so that the appropriate type schemes to use. The designer also may nation in large-scale buildings using BIM
of protection for the ductwork can be be able to adapt the design of the pen- for many of his projects.

34 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Continuing Education
Register for continuing education on a variety of topics, including critical
power, smart buildings, HVAC systems, fire and life safety, lighting design,
and many more. Classes range from 1-hour Webcasts to intermediate-level
interactive courses. Course attendees obtain a certificate of completion or
AIA CES Learning Units upon successful completion of the course.

evolve engage
enroll encourage
Learn more at the Education Center at
Figure 1: A coordi-
nated mechanical
room is modeled to a
level of development
(LOD) 300. At an
LOD 300, all piping,
equipment and other
items are modeled at
actual size, quantity
and type, which is
necessary for proper
coordination. All
graphics courtesy:

uilding information modeling
(BIM), clash detection, clash

BIM for project

prevention, level of develop-
ment (LOD), 4-D, 5-D: These
are terms heard or used regu-
larly by those working in the architec-
ture, engineering, construction (AEC)
Industry. But at the rate these terms are
thrown around, do we really understand

what they are? Are we really doing what
we say were doing? If we arent, why arent
we? Are we following best practices?
Many engineers assume that if theyre
using Revit, theyre doing BIM. However,
BIM is used frequently when working across although Revit is one of the many tools
to use for BIM, many individuals only
multiple disciplines, which can prevent clashes use Revit for 3-D modelingand they

across mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and

Learning objectives
fire protection engineering and with other  Understand the basics of BIM for project
stakeholders.  Compare clash prevention and clash detec-
tion; identify where each is best used for BIM
BY DEREK MAIN, CannonDesign, Buffalo, N.Y.  Illustrate how BIM can improve workflow
and overall engineering design.

36 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

may or may not be coordinating among
disciplines. Three-dimensional model-
ing is only considered BIM when infor-
mation is tied to what is modeled; that
is, when elements in the model have data
in them that is scheduled on drawings
or used for cost estimating, exported for
other tasks in construction, or even used
for facilities management.

Clash prevention versus

clash detection
When it comes to using BIM coor-
dination to determine where elements
fit, there are primarily two processes
of coordination: clash prevention and
clash detection.
Clash prevention provides assurance
that the modeled geometry of all build-
ing components and systems will fit in
their allocated space and that all items
can maintain access and serviceability.
This process is primarily done during
the design phase when laying out the
routing of all systems. While not every Figure 2: Using Revits interference check tool allows an engineer to quickly find any
offset or adjustment is shown in the invalid intersections that may have been missed through other coordination methods.
model for design documentation, the
building can be constructed without
issue, and any adjustments not requir-
ing a request for information (RFI) are
made by the contractor during the con-
struction phase.
Most clash prevention tasks on a project
can be performed simultaneously while
developing the design, but require each
individual on the project team to do due
diligence of coordinating any congested
areas of the building. While designers are
working in a model, some critical areas
may still require communication among
team members, whether it be face-to-face,
over the phone, via email, etc.
The clash-detection process is a review
that ensures all building components,
assemblies, and systems properly fit in
their to-be-installed condition without
interferences or encroachment with any
other building assemblies. This process
is occasionally done by the design team
if required; however, this is often done on
the contracting side. Several ways clash
detection can be accomplished include, Figure 3: Navisworks is a popular software solution to use for model-coordination
but are not limited to: reviews and clash detection. Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 37

Using BIM for project coordination
in some coordination issues.
Another type of coordination or work-
ing view in Revit that is valuable during
design is the structural plan view. These
views are used to see where the beams
or foundations are located that support
the level being viewed. With these, it is
easy to coordinate the location of floor
drains, fixture drains, or any other floor

LOD specification
The LOD, while sometimes referred
to as the level of detail, is actually the
level of development specification. This
is a reference used in the AEC industry
to standardize the level of quality and
reliability of content in building infor-
Figure 4: This project involved remodeling an existing building where the floor load mation models at various stages of the
doubled, requiring additional beams to be added with a spacing of 5 ft on center. design and construction process. This
Using structural plan views made it easy to coordinate drain and floor penetrations specification receives annual updates and
for the restaurant areas above. review by BIMForum, the U.S. chapter of
buildingSMART International. The LOD
in a model has a direct connection with
 Interference check reports in Revit comes to BIM coordination and is very coordination in that model, and using the
popular on the contractor side. Navis- BIMForum LOD for your companys stan-
 Clash detective in Navisworks works can handle many different file dard level of detail is best for collabora-
Manage types and is typically quicker to use than tion with other firms or contractors on the
an equivalent Revit model. Search sets same project. For clash detection or even
 Model checks by visual inspection can be used for filtering or color-coding clash prevention, a minimum of LOD 300
in 3-D coordination views. the various systems in a model, and clash is required. At an LOD 300, all piping,
detection is relatively easy as well. Dur- equipment, and other items are modeled
The interference check tool in Revit ing the coordination process, clashes at actual size, quantity, and type, which is
has received some improvements recently, can be found in the Navisworks model necessary for proper coordination.
allowing for easier coordination checks. and updated in the Revit model. These When agreeing on the LOD for a proj-
Within the tool, element categories are updates are done manually in the Revit ect, it is better to think about what level
selected to compare against other ele- model; however, Autodesk does have a the project is required to be at for com-
ments in the model or with elements in tool called switchback, which allows users pletion, rather than what is desired at
other linked models, such as inspecting for to quickly move back and forth between each phase. While an LOD 200 (in which
clashes between structural steel and plumb- the Revit design and Navisworks review most content is generic in size, shape, or
ing piping. After the report is run, elements models. type) may only be needed for an earlier
that have an invalid intersection (collision) Coordination views that are predefined phase of a project, sometimes it makes
are listed, with both element ID number in the Revit model are easy to use for both sense for some content to already be
and a descriptive name ID. These can then clash prevention and clash detection. at an LOD 350 (where content is true
be selected and shown in an available view These can include 3-D views, sections, to size, shape, and type and may have
to adjust. Using this method can be quicker and working views that are double-line embedded information).
than performing clash detection in a sepa- (fine detail level of graphics) as well as For example, at the design develop-
rate program, however, using a program like color-coded with filters applied to the ment phase of a project, the require-
Navisworks for this may be better perfor- various systems. These views are regularly ments may be to provide an LOD 200.
mance-wise for those using computers with used throughout the design of a project However, the water heater may have
less horsepower on larger projects. and can be used in coordination meetings already been selected, so an LOD 350 is
Clash detection in Navisworks is prob- instead of the old paper tacked to the used to place the water heater graphi-
ably the most well-known option when it wall method, which usually still results cally in the model. Also included at a

38 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

LOD 350 is the parameter information
that is automatically populated in the
water heater or equipment schedule,
which in turn is needed for the design
development submission. For this rea-
son, it is better to view the required LOD
for each phase as a minimum rather than
as a required target.
Keep in mind, the LOD for a project
is usually specified in a projects con-
tract and BIM execution plan, where
many firms have an LOD to which they
typically design projects. However, some
projects may have circumstances requir-
ing a different LOD from the norm, so
it is helpful for this information to be
communicated to team members during Figure 5: Using the automation of piping systems in Revit allows for better coordination
a projects BIM kickoff meeting where between sheets, in addition to improved quality and quicker design changes or revisions.
all model-related information is shared
with the project team. plan and simulate with time and space model to quantify materials allows for
allows team members to review and better alignment between project bud-
Beyond 3-D improve trade coordination, phased get and the design/construction pro-
Outside of geometry coordination, construction, site logistics, and instal- cess. To ensure accuracy, using BIM for
there is another coordination pro- lation sequencing. For example, review cost estimating should be an item that
cess that can be happening with BIM. of the model geometry shows that some is defined in the projects requirements.
Four-dimensional, or model-based mechanical, electrical, and plumbing Elements in the model can be quantified
scheduling, happens when we virtually (MEP) systems may need to be installed in automated schedules and extracted
communicate planned construction out of order to ensure proper fit or for use in other cost-estimating soft-
phases in a project by merging model coordination during construction. ware, such as Innovaya Visual and Sage
data with project schedule milestones Five-dimensional is model-based Estimating.
and duration. Being able to visually cost estimating, where using the BIM

CASE STUDY: Robinson-Falconio Residence Hall

A complete renovation was finished on this

St. Bonaventure University (N.Y.) dormitory
building of approximately 85,000 sq ft, includ-
With tight clearances and the need to maintain
constructability, even a 1-in. sprinkler branch pipe
needed to be routed where it would not cross
ing replacing a majority of the domestic water over an electrical fixture or light mounted in the
and waste systems as well as the addition of ceiling. Other areas of the building needed extra
a sprinkler system conforming with NFPA 13R; attention as well, such as the shower rooms where
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems downlights in each stall needed to be offset to
in Low-Rise Residential Occupancies. For this allow clearance for exhaust ductwork and the
project, the process of clash prevention was used drain p-trap from the floor above.
for BIM coordination. Thorough clash prevention was performed
With a floor-to-floor elevation of 8 ft 8.5 in., the throughout the design of the building, including
structural concrete building allowed for 7.5 in. of holding coordination meetings, with all work and
space above a 7 ft corridor ceiling height. In the coordination accomplished in Autodesk Revit soft-
adjacent rooms, a decreased slab thickness and ware. As a result, there was only one request for
an exposed ceiling allowed for a clear height of 8 information during construction for the plumbing Figure 6: Coordinated sections were
ft 3 in. Soffits with sidewall sprinkler heads were and fire protection design: An existing wall that was placed on drawings to aid the contrac-
used for protecting these rooms, while concealed chosen to install a flush-mount fire department tor in locating the various mechanical,
pendent sprinkler heads were located in corridors connection was not viable, so a free-standing fire electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems
and community spaces with ceilings. department connection was used instead. in tight, congested areas. Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 39

Using BIM for project coordination
For instance, having the plumbing When working in a Revit model, auto- information. The schedule sheets are
systems modeled accurately with equip- mation is another form of coordina- coordinated with the floor plans, and
ment and fixture content, pipe sizes, and tion. Taking advantage of Revits piping any changes made in the model to these
location allows for a significant reduction systems allows for flow in piping to be items related to quantity, type, etc., will
in time for the cost estimators. Instead automated, which can then be tagged. automatically update in the schedules.
of counting fixtures and measuring pipe When these are automated and tagged, As the popularity of BIM increases, 2-D
runs on a set of drawing plans and enter- the information is consistent between construction documents seem to evolve
ing that information into estimating soft- drawing sheets; the values on floor plans from being more schematic in nature.
ware, the estimator can open the model match the values on riser diagrams. Complaints about this, expressed by proj-
and export data directly into the software, When a modification is made to the ect engineers, include drawings not look-
saving hours of time. design, the changed values are automati- ing the way theyre used to seeing them,
cally updated on all affected sheets. changes in workflow requiring designers
But wait, theres more In addition to the piping, automa- to model in a third dimension, and hours
When thinking about BIM coordina- tion of all schedules also improves the shifting to performing different or unfa-
tion, the terms clash prevention, clash coordination between sheets and MEP miliar tasks. While these are all true, and
detection, LOD, etc. are all obvious pro- disciplines on a project. Using content there are learning curves to some work-
cesses that come to mind. However, there with true dimension and parameter flows, the improved coordination and
is another type of coordination in BIM: information allows for fixture and equip- efficiency of working in a 3-D world allow
automation. ment schedules to be populated with this for quicker design completion.

CASE STUDY: Wegmans Food Markets

W egmans Food Markets built a new store
in Owings Mills, Md., of approximately
130,000 sq ft with a considerable amount of food
Other requirements included adequate spacing
for constructability, such as offsets from walls for
hanging drywall, proper spacing between hangers
to see the model at once, in addition to having a
video conference call session running for those that
were working on the project from a different office.
prep/production/kitchen space and a burger bar. for decorative features, and ensuring any system While all team members were doing their due
For the design deliverable, the engineers were penetrations through walls were above trim work. diligence for clash prevention when laying out
required to produce an Autodesk Revit model In addition, it was necessary to have all systems their systems, these meetings proved valuable
and documents that had all mechanical, electri- and mains located for maintaining serviceability for determining solutions to coordination issues
cal, and plumbing (MEP) systems in their to-be- and future modifications in renovation, such as that would appear in congested areas. Toward
installed conditions, including dimensioning of being able to dig up a sanitary main for drain the end of the design phase, clash detection also
some system mains and all floor penetrations. relocations in one area without having to tear was performed by one team member from each
into walls or go through other areas not receiving discipline to ensure there were no interferences.
renovations. While there were many building layout and
It was also necessary to run clash-detection design changes that resulted in revisions, proper
reports in Navisworks and provide model walk- coordination and clash detection allowed for
throughs with the owners design group. These minimal revisions to the plumbing systems via
model walkthroughs allowed the client to see how requests for information due to conflicts. One
the buildings MEP systems would look before was the adjustment of a sprinkler branch line
construction, to ensure they maintain the required that was clipping a duct, which was easy to cor-
appearance as well as to locate any desired chang- rect. The other issue was an interference with a
es with the MEP systems. At the end of construc- couple of drain p-traps and the structural footing,
tion and after the store opened, any changes or which was also easy to resolve. Unfortunately, this
adjustments in construction also needed to be was missed when coordinating with the structural
incorporated into the Revit design model, which engineering team, as that portion was performed
would then become the as-built model. by another engineering firm that was not using
Over the course of the projects design, weekly Revit at the time.
coordination meetings lasting 1 to 2 hours were For this project, an in-house structural engineer
Figure 7: Weekly coordination meetings conducted to visually inspect the MEP systems created and updated a model of the structure from
with prepopulated views in the model throughout the building. These meetings were design progress drawings, which worked out well.
proved valuable for determining solu- conducted while in the Revit model with predefined Having to recreate the model was extra effort, so
tions to coordination issues that would coordination views, using a meeting room with a PC it is beneficial for all external team members to
appear in congested areas. and a large interactive display panel for everyone use the same or compatible software.

40 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

The 2-D drawing is still the primary effort on the owners side to keep infor- BIMForums LOD specification pro-
document to construct from; however, mation up-to-date, but for some owners, vides an industry standard for a mini-
it is produced from a 3-D model. Areas, this effort can be worth it long-term. mum baseline that architects and engi-
such as a toilet chase wall, may appear neers can follow for better alignment
congested on a plan view, as piping is So what does this all mean? when collaborating with other proj-
modeled as it would be installed instead While the AEC industry as a whole has ect partners. Model-based scheduling
of being spaced where it would be graph- been a bit slower to improve processes (4-D) can improve timelines to meet
ically pleasing, but a reference to an iso- as compared with other industries, there shorter construction windows and 5-D
metric view quickly clarifies the area. are significant advances happening right model-based cost estimating allows for
Not only are these 3-D isometric views now. Not only is BIM here to stay, but the design to better align with required
significantly quicker to generate than a the available software for use with BIM is project costs. At the end of construction,
flat riser diagram would be, but they continuously improving in capabilities and not only has the project team provided
are typically clearer and easier to under- interoperability. a better-quality project, the owner has
stand for contractors needing to install While some feel that various workflows more accurate data that can be retained
the system, resulting in fewer RFIs. in BIM take too much time, the reality and used for facilities management or
In some instances, more emphasis is is that many other workflows and tasks future renovations.
put on the isometrics, rather than the throughout a project see improved effi-
plan views, to define the design system. ciency and a significant reduction in time Derek Main is a plumbing engineer and
In addition, while working in a 3-D world as a result. With shorter design and con- BIM development leader at CannonDesign
is an adjustment for more experienced struction time frames, tighter budgets, with 9 years of experience in educational,
engineers, it allows for younger designers and higher expectations from clients, health care, and grocery markets. In addi-
to get up to speed quicker, as it is much BIM is invaluable. Clash prevention and tion, he is responsible for managing and
easier to understand how these systems detection allow for better-coordinated advancing the digital practice/design pro-
are put together in 3-D than in 2-D. projects, resulting in fewer RFIs. cesses for the firms plumbing group.
Automation of various processes
in the plumbing design allows for a
better coordinated drawing set, bet-
ter coordination with other MEP dis-
ciplines, and cost estimation. It also
allows better overall drawing quality.
This automation, in combination with
smarter model content, can then allow
the owner to use the BIM for facilities
management. When model elements
are consistent with the manufacturers
data, such as make, model, product data,
and other information, they can then be
exported to Excel or used with other
software products, such as Building-
Ops in the BIM360 suite.
While this may require owners to adapt
or use new software, the electronic infor-
mation can enable better record-keeping,
such as recording building conditions,
than traditional paper drawings and
equipment binders that are easily lost.
If a piece of equipment fails, a facilities
engineer can scan the equipment tag with
their electronic device and view infor-
mation, such as the install date or any
possible warranty information, in one
place. Using a model and its information
for facilities management does require

APRIL 2017 41 input #12 at

Figure 1: This render-
ing shows the electric
lighting in the space
at a very reduced level
due to available day-
light, showcasing the
implementation of day-
lighting control using
networked lighting con-
trols. All graphics cour-
tesy: CannonDesign

lighting controls
With the advent of building technology comes the need for monitoring and
intercommunication between heating, cooling, electrical, lighting, fire/life
safety, and other systems for optimized efficiency and operation.

BY ROBERT J. GARRA JR., PE, CDT, CannonDesign, Grand Island, N.Y.

ighting is typically one of the The networked lighting control system
Learning largest energy loads in any leverages the power of digitization and
objectives building, and historically, it granularity to completely control a build-
 Understand the basics of has been the hardest to control. ings lighting system from a centralized
networked lighting controls in For example, have you ever location. When properly implemented,
commercial buildings. wondered if people would really notice these systems are user-friendly and easy
 Review codes and stan- if you evenly reduced the output of light to maintainand they streamline physi-
dards that address require- fixtures in a corridor or open space? cal operation and maintenance. Software-
ments of lighting controls.
Think of the energy savings. Thankfully, based lighting control also allows sharing
 Discover how lighting con- technological advancements have led to of data not only between components of
trols can lead to better energy
a solution that is extremely effective at the lighting control system, but also with
combating these issues: networked light- mechanical, fire safety, and security sys-
ing controls. tems. This integration of smart systems

42 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

enables effective management of all the
buildings energy consumers to realize
energy reduction and cost savings.
The term networked lighting control
system may sound complicated, but what
it really means is that you are layering
communication interfaces over common
hardware components that have been tra-
ditionally usedballasts, lamps, occupan-
cy sensors, and other control devices. The
hardware is pretty much the same as it has
always been; the real change and advance- Figure 2: A rending illustrates the output of a lighting study showing the results of task
ment is the software systems. tuning and daylighting control in a space using networked controls. Only the lighting nec-
essary for the task of presentation is at full output, due to the contribution of daylight.
Updates to codes and standards
Energy codes, such as ASHRAE Stan- changes. The thinking now is to achieve workspace uses. Minor reconfiguration of
dard 90.1: Energy Standard for Build- a seamless installation that provides user spaces can be implemented through the
ing Except Low-Rise Residential Build- comfort, but only consumes what you control software without having to alter
ings, International Energy Conservation absolutely need. With the addition of the wiring or luminaires.
Code (IECC), and California Title 24, are plug-load control requirement, lighting Software can provide unprecedented
becoming more stringent, and networked control systems are quickly moving into energy-management power by enabling
lighting controls simply make it much the realm of energy management. centralized management (with remote
easier to comply. With each new version, access); integration and data sharing with
energy codes are trending toward the ulti- System implementation other building systems, such as building
mate goal of net zero energy consump- A review of networked control manu- automation systems (BAS), security sys-
tion. Each of the codes is updated every facturers will show that each manufactur- tems, or fire alarm systems; and auto-
3 years, and biggest changes are made er configures its hardware and software matically generated maintenance alerts,
to the thresholds for triggering compli- interface a little different. The major man- device- and system-commissioning
ance, which are revised in each edition to ufacturers fit into one of three categories: reports, and device-usage reports. Armed
encompass more projects. n System typeall devices and com- with all of this data and control, building
Instead of looking at lighting control ponents must be from the same manufac- operators are empowered to optimize
from a building level, many engineers still turer as the control system. The commu- energy consumption in their facilities.
try to address each energy code require- nication between hardware and software is
ment on a space-by-space basis, installing embedded in the devices and components. Advantages of networked lighting
multiple types of systems (e.g., relay con- n Non-system typedevices and com- control systems
trol, architectural dimming systems, wall ponents can be from any manufacturer. Networked lighting control systems
box dimming) in a single building without The communication between hardware provide centralized control to ensure
any central control. While this approach and software is layered over the top of the that all spaces can be optimized around
may satisfy the projects basic functional devices and components. energy savings and visual performance.
and energy code requirements, it makes it n Non-system type with digital The best combination of said energy
difficult for building managers and facil- addressable lighting interface (DALI) savings and visual performance can
ity operators to maintain. Having multiple devices and components can be from any be achieved by implementing six basic
systems to maintain is much more cum- manufacturer as long as they have the lighting control strategies:
bersome than maintaining just one system. DALI protocol integrated. The commu- n Time/astronomical scheduling:
Energy code requirements, rising nication between hardware and software Lighting in a defined area turns on or off,
energy costs, the importance of histori- uses the DALI protocol interface. or dims, based on a predetermined, cus-
cal and up-to-the-minute building data- But what really sets these systems apart tomizable schedule.
collection and analysis, research on the is the software interface. Several manufac- n Occupancy/vacancy control: Light-
effectiveness of controls, emerging tech- turers now use a graphical user interface ing is turned on or off based on detected
nologies like easy-to-control LEDs, and (GUI) that allows the user to point and occupancy. With vacancy control, users
demand for green buildings have driven click to make programming changes to must manually turn lights on, but lights
manufacturers to develop systems that the system. The allows the system to be are automatically turned off when a space
engineers can implement to meet these easily adapted to changing building and is vacant. Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 43

Networked lighting controls
n Daylight harvesting: Electric light daylighting control, ASHRAE 90.1 states n In addition to the simple light-
levels are automatically adjusted to that electric lighting shall be reduced with ing switching strategy, the networked
account for the amount of natural sun- at least one control step that is between lighting control system automatically
light in a space. Appropriate light levels 50% and 70% of design lighting power and dims the lighting in areas that have
are maintained for functional purposes, another control step that is no greater than adequate daylight penetration. As day-
and total illumination is evenly main- 35% of power design. light levels change, the dimming levels
tained throughout the space. The following examples spell out best of individual luminaires are adjusted
n Task tuning: Maximum light levels practices for implementing current energy so that the total illumination is evenly
are set for a particular use or task in a code requirements: maintained throughout the space at the
specific room to prevent overlighting. n Start with a simple user-triggered required level.
n Personal control: Individuals can lighting strategy. In each area of the n The networked lighting control
tailor the lighting in their workspace to building, occupants turn lights on and system controls emergency egress light-
their personal preferences, via a GUI on off via a low-voltage switch. Electricity ing. In the past, lighting on emergency
their computer. savings are maximized if users turn the circuits was often on 24/7 as a safety
n Load shedding (or demand- lights on manually when they enter and measure, burning through the night long
response): Lighting control can contribute remember to turn them off when they after building occupants left. Advances
to a buildingwide effort to reduce demand. exit. If the user forgets to turn the lights in control devices now allow emergency
Lighting is turned off or dimmed in prede- off, automatic sensor coverage picks up lighting circuits to be controlled by time
termined areas at times of peak demand. the slack, signaling the central lighting schedules or by automatic sensors. By
In addition to maximizing lighting effi- control system to switch the lighting off equipping these devices with a UL 924
ciency, these systems increase occupant in an area that is unoccupied or vacant, emergency transfer device that can over-
satisfaction and possibly even productiv- per energy code requirements. Vacancy ride the digital lighting control system if
ity. When occupants have control over sensors are generally considered more normal power is lost, the system is able
their space, they tend to be happier and efficient than, therefore preferable to, to turn on all lights connected to the
more productive. occupancy sensors, because they only emergency circuit and maintain egress
turn lighting off, not onusers have levels for occupant safety without wast-
Best practices for design to turn lights on manually. In a private ing energy when no one is around.
implementation office with large windows letting in n The advanced lighting control system
Energy codes (ASHRAE 90.1, IECC, ample daylight, for example, the vacancy is digitally connected to the BAS to use
Title 24) define functional requirements sensor ensures that the lights will only be the detection signal of occupancy sen-
that must be met by lighting controls with- turned on when occupants truly want or sors at all hours to adjust mechanical set-
in the space. For example, for automatic need them. points. If multiple lighting control zones
are provided in a single mechanical sys-
tem zone, the lighting control system can
accumulate the occupancy zones within
the mechanical zone to help refine the
efficiency of the HVAC system.

Common concerns
One concern often voiced about net-
worked lighting control systems is that
they are expensive. To operate a net-
worked lighting control system at the
extreme of optimization, each light fix-
ture would be individually controlled,
therefore, equipped with a dimming
ballast or driver. Such a system could be
very expensive.
A few things have helped make these
systems become competitive. First, LED
technology is increasingly affordable
Figure 3: A rending illustrates the output of a lighting study showing the electric light- and is being used more frequently. One
ing the space at a targeted level due to available daylight. advantage of LED lighting is that it is

44 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

inherently dimmable; if you pair the and future energy code regulations, while understands clients and their goals, Garra
LEDs dimmable driver with a compat- achieving client goals related to energy applies his project leadership and industry
ible control, additional components are conservation, reduced operating costs, knowledge across the firms market seg-
not required to tune the light. The 20% and improved lighting quality. ments while providing strategic direction
to 30% adder for a dimmable fluorescent to the engineering group. He is a member of
ballast over a standard fluorescent ballast Robert J. Garra Jr. is vice president at the Consulting-Specifying Engineer edito-
has disappeared now that LED technol- CannonDesign. An engineering leader who rial advisory board.
ogy has become more mainstream and
cost-effective, thus opening up the pos-
sibilities of light modularity as the norm
instead of a novelty.
Second, as engineers have learned
how to leverage networked lighting con-
trols to manage energy usage, they have
realized that significant savings in the
system first cost could be achieved by
thoughtfully grouping control of light
fixtures into zoned areas and not relying
on individual light fixture control, which
is rarely necessary in typical building
designs. Third, most networked control
systems use distributed low-voltage com-
ponents instead of more traditional pipe
and wire control strategies, so costs
associated with a less rigorous installa-

tion method can often be reduced if a
savvy contractor is brought on to imple-
ment the design. I GET MORE POWER IN
Another common concern is that
networked lighting control systems are
difficult to manage. But this is generally Our new higher power density ratings mean you get
a matter of perception. When dealing more efficient standby power with a smaller footprint,
with a building that has more than 1,000 so you have more space for your work. Youll also get
light fixtures, the thought of individually the same legendary reliability and performance you
controlling each of them can seem over- expect from Caterpillar, and the peace of mind of
whelming. But, as noted earlier, individ- Cat dealer support.
ual control isnt necessary, and careful
Now thats an easy choice.
planning can create a system that goes
a long way to help facilities managers Learn more at
truly understand more about how their
buildings really operate. Management of
the entire building is done through web-
based software. Anyone comfortable
with using software on a PC will find
this kind of system very straightforward
to manage properly.
Rising energy costs and more regulation
through energy codes are making energy 1750 eKW rating
management a top priority for building
owners and facility managers. Networked
lighting controls give designers additional
tools to deliver solutions that both meet
2017 Caterpillar. All Rights Reserved. CAT, CATERPILLAR, BUILT FOR IT,
and exceed the expectations of current their respective logos, Caterpillar Yellow, the Power Edge trade dress
as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of
Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.

APRIL 2017 45 input #13 at

CFE Medias
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Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 47
Supporting Engineers In-Person,
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Vote for this years

best products
Who will win gold in 2017? Consulting-Specifying Engineer
announces the finalists for this years 13th annual Product of the
Year competition, and readers will have the final word.
Cast your votes online at

nother year of innovation and
 Air Movement, Dehumidification, Humidification 51
technological advancement has
 BAS, Controls, Energy Management 52
 Chillers 53 led up to the 13th annual Product
 Electrical: Cable, Wire, Components 54 of the Year awards. This year, companies
 Electrical Distribution 55 submitted new and improved products
 Electrical: Fuses, Circuit Breakers, Safety 56
introduced in the 2016 calendar year to be
 Emergency, Onsite, Standby Power 58
 Equipment-Level Sensors & Controls 59 judged for this distinguished honor. Here
 Fire, Life Safety, Mass Notification 60 are the finalists in each of the 16 catego-
 HVAC 62 ries. It is now up to Consulting-Specifying
 Lighting & Luminaires 65 Engineer readers to determine which
 Lighting Controls 68
products will stand out from the crowd
 Plumbing & Water Management 70
 Pumps, Pump Controls 71 and win gold, silver, and bronze.
 Software: Design, Modeling, Analysis 72 Go to
 Test Instruments, Meters, Data Loggers 74 and vote for the products you feel are the
best in their categories by June 30, 2017.

2017 The product that receives the most votes

within the program will be named the
Most Valuable Product (MVP) of 2017. The
results will appear in September 2017 in
print and online.

Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 49

Specifying Engineer
Webcasts help you
obtain educational

Webcasts information on
specific topics and
learn about the latest
industry trends.

Check out some of our

Webcasts on topics like:

Critical power: Backup, standby, and

emergency power in mission critical facilities

HVAC: Hospitals and health care facilities

Critical power: Emergency power

Electrical: Data and communications cabling

and pathways

Lighting: Designing lighting systems with


Critical power: Power generation systems in

high-performance buildings

Fire and life safety: Specifying fire detection

and notification systems

Critical power: Designing electrical rooms
Air Movement, Dehumidification, Humidification

Air handling unit

V3 Series air handling units with energy-recovery wheels are
available from 450 to 10,000 cfm and provide a solution to help
a building exceed ASHRAE standards and acquire LEED points.
V3 Series units include energy-saving, double-wall rigid polyure-
thane foam-injected panel construction; high-efciency direct-
drive backward-curved plenum ECM supply and exhaust fans;
corrosion-resistant, double-sloped stainless steel drain pans;
and serviceability features. Energy-saving options include fully
modulating AMCA-certied low-leakage economizer dampers,
air-source heat pump heating, and factory-provided split-system
controls capable of controlling 10% to 100% variable-capacity
compressors for precise capacity modulation.

Smart industrial fan

The Powerfoil X3.0 smart industrial fan produces
15% more airow than its predecessor without
compromising durability and reliability. Power-
foil X3.0 includes a SmartSense controller that
provides convenience and improves efciency
by eliminating the guesswork of nding the ideal air
speed when temperatures change. SmartSense features
summer and winter modes as well as dual air temperature sen-
sors. When temperatures elevate in summer, the fan speeds up to combat the
heat with a cooling effect of up to 10F. In winter, SmartSense automatically slows the fan to gently push rising heated
air back down to occupants without creating a draft, easing the facility heater workload and reducing energy costs.
Big Ass Solutions,

High-precision heater humidifier

The heaterSteam titanium features heating elements designed to work with ex-
tremely aggressive water, such as demineralized/deionized water with conductivity
below 1 S/cm and softened water of up to 0fH. The reliability of the titanium heat-
ing element in combination with the overheating protection makes this solution ideal
for applications where service continuity is essential (i.e., clean rooms, hospitals,
and museums). By using demineralized water, this heater humidier can meet hu-
midity requirements with 1% accuracy. The production-capacity modulation range
from 0% to 100% in combination with the possibility of preheating the water inside
the boiler means that heaterSteam is ready to respond to humidity requirements.

Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 51

BAS, Controls, Energy Management

Rooftop-unit economizer
The Outside Air Optimization (OAO) Kit uses the power of cloud-based predictive analytics to
create thermal models of a building based on the past 7 days of tem-
perature and humidity space readings. Live data feeds forecasted
weather conditions and predicts the needs for proactive runtime and
damper-position optimization. The kit meets and exceeds California
Title 24-2013 economizer faults and ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016.
This solution does not require retrotting the constant-volume RTU
and a variable frequency drive. Key features include demand-control
ventilation, comparative-enthalpy economizer control, multispeed fan
control, and 24/7 remote monitoring and control.

Touchscreen HVAC systems controller

The AAON Touchscreen Controller is an economical HVAC unit control solution for energy-
savings applications. It controls complex energy-saving operations without requiring the ex-
pense of a large building automation system. Applications include variable air volume (VAV),
single-zone VAV, make-up air, and constant air-volume control. It can control air-cooled
condenser systems, air-source heat pump systems, water-source heat pump systems, and
chilled-water and hot-water hydronic air handling units with modulating water valves. The
AAON Touchscreen Controller includes a user-friendly, high-contrast 4.3-in. touchscreen
interface and can function as a stand-alone unit controller or as part of a BACnet MS/TP or
Modbus RTU networked system.

Intelligent pump controller

Capable of running systems with up to eight
pumps, the fth-generation Hydrovar features
multimaster functionality, enabling each indi-
vidual pump to take control of the system if one
or more units or sensors are not active. This
ensures reliable water pressure across
commercial and industrial applica-
tions and can reduce energy
consumption of a pump by
as much as 70%. Hydrovar-
Connected-equipment controller
features a modular design
The Eclypse Connected Equipment Controller (ECY-303
that enables a customized
series) is designed to satisfy the needs of a wide range
t for any conguration of
of small and medium terminal HVAC equipment applica-
pumps. It can be retrot-
tions, with a diversied I/O count in a compact design
ted to any standard xed-
and footprint for easy in-cabinet installation. It integrates
speed pump motor suitable
a control, automation, and connectivity server; power
for variable-speed operation
supply; and I/O in one convenient package. It is a native
and can accommodate both new
BACnet/IP controller and is BTL-listed as a BACnet Build-
and retrot installations including
ing Controller. The controller features an embedded web
premium efcient motor designs.
server, hosting the Envysion HTML5-based conguration
Bell & Gossett,
and visualization interface. It also features embedded
scheduling, alarming, and logging.
Distech Controls,

52 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

BAS, Controls, Energy Management
Building system support service
Connected Services helps facility leaders maximize their buildings through a
condition-based, proactive maintenance approach that effectively combines action-
able information, expert advice, and advanced technology to keep building systems
operating at peak performance. Connected Services includes new and enhanced
capabilities that create a network between facility teams and Schneider Electrics
experts to deliver a range of proactive maintenance support for facilities professionals
and engineers. Benets include digital connectivity that ensures facilities are always
monitored, better access to actionable information, expert advice/recommendations,
increased system uptime due to faster resolution when possible, and skilled techni-
cians equipped to focus on areas of greatest impact.
Schneider Electric,

Building management system

The Tracer Ensemble building management system makes advanced building manage-
ment fast and easy with a web-enabled, enterprise wide view into multiple buildings and
control systems. Tracer Ensemble helps organizations that are dealing with more build-
ings than maintenance staff, diverse systems and equipment vintages, and signicant
distances between facilities by improving access to system data. It enhances a building
automation system by providing custom dashboards that create a visual display of cur-
rent system health and performance. Global functionality provides the ability to man-
age schedules, setpoints, and alarms across the entire enterprise, while a uniform and
consistent user interface allows for rapid troubleshooting and faster response.


Variable-speed chiller
The AquaForce 30XV air-cooled variable- Air-cooled screw chiller
speed chiller was developed to ensure performance and The YORK YVFA free-cooling, air-cooled screw chiller
efciency that meet the cooling needs of tomorrows build- combines variable-speed drive (VSD) screw compressors
ings, in a design thats ready for action today. By using a with integrated waterside economizer free cooling into a
tiered approach, the 30XV can be customized to t almost simple-to-operate package that is AHRI-certied. YVFA is
any building need, anywhere. With value-adding features, available in nominal sizes from 150 to 450, delivering more
such as variable-speed rotary screw compressors, quiet than 2,110 kW at higher liquid temperatures. With intelligent
AeroAcoustic fan system with variable frequency drives, controls, the free-cooling coils reduce the mechanical cooling
and microchannel condenser coil technology, this machine load at a much higher ambient temperature, allowing the VSD
is made for versatility, robustness, and efciency. User- compressors to reduce speed and energy use more hours of
friendly control with color touchscreen display incorporat- the year. YVFA combines control strategies with mechanical
ing self-optimizing control enables the 30XV to run at advances to further enhance performance at all conditions.
optimum performance at any given set of conditions. Mechanical improvements include variable volume ratio com-
pressors and VSDs for both the compressors and fans.
Johnson Controls,

Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 53

Electrical: Cable, Wire, Components

The PMA XR90
multilayered conduit Duplex AC/MC strap
protects a greater The Crouse-Hinds 567BXD
range of cable for Duplex AC/MC Strap is
robotic and automa- designed for AC/MC and
tion applications with FMC cable. This strap
sizes up to NW 70 provides the capability to
and Metric 80. The mul- support and secure two
tilayered conduit indicates the individual AC, MC, or FMC cables by installing
extent of surface wear with three with a single screw. The duplex strap takes up
concentric layers of Nylon 12, less space, simplies installation, and offers a
each a different color. With no wear, clean and professional-looking installation. The
the PMA XR90 multilayered conduit retains its black surface. As solution is designed to be cost-effective for the
wear occurs, the center layer begins to show its yellow surface, most commonly used size of cable due to its
which is an alert to prepare for maintenance. As more abrasion much smaller volume and reduced number of
occurs, the inner layer shows its red surface, which indicates clamps needed for each application.
that maintenance is required. This visual-inspection capability Eaton,
makes it more efcient to monitor wear and plan maintenance.
Thomas & Betts, ABB,

Slicing connector
The 221 series Lever-Nuts Splicing Connector simplies electrical
installation of solid, stranded, and ne-stranded wire in the most
space-restricted applications. The transparent housing makes it
possible to verify proper insertion and strip length. Two conve-
niently accessible test slots located in the wire-entry face and
one opposite make for easy testing. Each wiring port of the 221
contains its own individually operated lever and spring, permitting the
combination of varying sizes and types of wire in one secure splice. This de-
sign permits Lever-Nuts to be used and reused in any application. The 221
series is available in two-, three-, and ve-wire connectors and can safely connect
wires ranging from 12 to 24 AWG.
Wago Corp.,

Aluminum conduit body

The T&B Fittings Sand Cast Aluminum Form 7 Conduit Body is made
of CorroStalla corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy. After 1,200 hours
of 5% salt fog testing, the CorroStall aluminum alloy enabled the
conduit body to remain free of red rust and surface pitting. The T&B
Fittings Sand Cast Aluminum Form 7 Conduit Body is recommended for
electrical systems in harsh environments, especially where salinity or
chemical compounds are present. In addition to the conduit body, cast
covers are available in CorroStall aluminum alloy. Stamped covers in
aluminum are also available.
Thomas & Betts, ABB,

54 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Electrical Distribution
Solar combiner box
The Crouse-Hinds series 1,500-Vdc solar combiner box, with and without integral dc-disconnect
switches, is built to minimize system costs by providing maximum exibility. By designing the
combiner box specically for 1,500-Vdc systems, this solution helps facilitate longer strings, fewer
connection points, reduced labor, and lower installation costs. The combiner box is available with up
to 36 input circuits and a 15-amp fuse size to help save material costs, installation time, and labor. Ad-
ditionally, the combiner box is congurable with NEMA 4X, 4, and 3R enclosures for robust environmen-
tal protection. Further customized options are available to meet specic application requirements.

Dry-type capacitor
The LKT...Type DD603-phase dry-type capacitor is safer and stronger for solving
power factor and harmonic ltering applications where high harmonics can destroy
traditional capacitors. The Type DD60 ac power capacitor employs four degrees
of safety plus patented design features that improve the reliability of capacitors
in harsh environments. Contact to the internal windings is made by a patented,
nonsoldered contact ring to eliminate winding stress due to soldering. Self-healing
lm quickly isolates areas of dielectric breakdown in the winding when exposed to
dangerous transient voltages. The segmented lm completely removes a tiny sec-
tion of lm to prevent catastrophic failures due to severe transient voltages.
Frako Capacitor,

Outdoor charging station

The Outdoor Charging Station provides permanent power that allows individuals to charge
mobile devices outdoors. Offered in three models and standard nishesblack, bronze,
and silvereach station includes a combination of two or three gangs of power devices
including USB charging, but also be used for audio/video or communications connectivity.
The charging station with accent light includes a small LED locator light to enable device
charging during the day and after dark. The station stands out from traditional bollards by
virtue of the accent light, which clearly indicates charging. They are NEMA 3R-rated for
use in all weather conditions.

Outdoor ground box

The Outdoor Ground Box provides 20-amp, 30-amp, and low-voltage electrical connections that
can be installed on college campuses, in commercial outdoor ofce spaces, and at outdoor retail
shopping centers, amusement parks, sports venues, and other exterior gathering spaces. The
box uses a diving bell design to create and maintain an air pocket that protects the electrical
connections from getting wet in adverse weather conditions. To sustain a safe working product,
there are holes on the bottom of the box that allows the water to drain into the ground. It also has
anti-oat clips to prevent the cover from lifting up and keeps the protective air pocket intact.

Medium-voltage switchgear
Premset incorporates a Shield Solid Insulation System (2SIS) to enhance robustness, protec-
tion, and exibility of medium-voltage switchgear. The 2SIS system encases every current-
carrying conductor in dielectric epoxy and shields that epoxy with a grounded conductor to
offer unprecedented safety, efciency, and ease of use. Premset minimizes the risk of internal
arc ash and prevents phase-to-phase faults by ground-shielding each individual phase. The
circuit breaker and isolation switch are positive-indicated and interlocked to prevent access
to live compartments. Maintenance is reduced due to better environmental protection for the
current-carrying portions and complete encasement of the circuit breaker and isolation switch.
Schneider Electric,

Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 55

Electrical: Fuses, Circuit Breakers, Safety
Power distribution fuse block
The Bussmann series Power Distribution Fuse Block (PDFB) combines a fuse block and power
distribution block into one component. This innovative, patented design simplies panel layout
and uses up to 65% less panel space than traditional solutions. Additionally, the PDFB uses
fewer wire connections and reduces installation time and labor by 33%. The PDFB is avail-
able for Class J applications from 1 to 600 amp and Class H(K) and R ferrule applications up
to 60 amps. The block eliminates wire runs from the fuse block to a power distribution block to
reduce component count, material cost, and labor.

Integrated panelboard
The Crouse-Hinds series SynergEX Panelboard uses individually encapsulated circuit breakers
to provide maximum safety in extreme environments. The encapsulated and integrated design
provides ultimate exibility and speed during installation, normal operations, and maintenance
activities in the eld. This advanced design is approved for all hazardous gases, which allows for
operation in multiple locations and hazardous situations. SynergEX is available in 12 to 42 circuit
congurations (up to 84 circuits when coupled) with 10- to 40-amp breakers and an external main
breaker up to 225 amp. The panelboard provides overcurrent and short-circuit protection for low-
voltage power, lighting, and heat-tracing applications in indoor and outdoor hazardous areas.

Enclosed circuit breaker Motor control center

The enclosed circuit breaker (ECB) equipped The FlashGard motor control center (MCC) features an up-
with the Arcash Reduction Maintenance Sys- dated range of arc-resistant features to help further strength-
tem can improve safety by providing a simple en protection against arc ash events. This solution combines
and reliable method to reduce fault-clearing arc-preventive and arc-resistant technology within a single
time and downstream incident-energy levels. MCC. Designed to emphasize prevention, insulation, and iso-
The Arcash Reduction Maintenance System lation, the patented FlashGard design
provides an accelerated instantaneous trip to enables units to be disconnected and
reduce arc ash. The operator can preselect reconnected to the vertical bus with
from ve levels of protection to facilitate the the unit door closed; maintaining a
maximum arc-ash reduction while avoiding dead-front barrier during maintenance
nuisance tripping during planned start-up and operations helps enhance operator
maintenance operations, without disturbing safety. The MCC incorporates a Roto-
the normal operational trip-unit settings. The Track racking mechanism, designed
Arcash Reduction Maintenance System is to provide bus isolation, stab indica-
designed for use only during the time a worker is exposed tion, and lockout features to proac-
to the ash hazard. The system is not activated or armed tively prevent the initiation of an arc
continuously. ash event.
Eaton, Eaton,

Line-isolation switch
The OEM Line Isolation (OLI) switch provides the ability to access the control panel
without exposure to line-side voltage. The switch isolates line-side power and provides
an external disconnecting means for industrial control panels, reducing the risk of arc
ash hazards. The OLI switch can be mounted on a control cabinet or disconnect enclo-
sure, providing safer access to the panel. The switch is offered as a complete package
including enclosure, disconnect, handle, ex-cable operator, and all other necessary
components. Features include a gasketed side wall that mounts to the OEM cabinet
and a modied heavy-duty safety switch with NEMA Type 12/3R and 4/4X enclosures.

56 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Electrical: Fuses, Circuit Breakers, Safety

Low-voltage circuit breaker
circuit breaker The PowerPact B-
The Series NRX low- frame circuit break-
voltage circuit breaker with er offers robust
Power Xpert Release trip power protection
unit can be seamlessly in a compact size
installed within existing and easy installation.
panel and switchboard The 125-amp B-frame
designs to provide en- circuit breaker uses economical, thermal
hanced circuit protection, magnetic-sensing elements in each of the various
connectivity, and worker one-, two-, three- and four-pole construction types.
safetyalong with tools for quicker installation and Designed to be exible, it offers a unique integrated DIN
commissioning to help address energy-management rail and traditional back-pan mounting capabilities without
challenges. The Series NRX allows advanced com- extra adapter brackets. The PowerPact B-frame circuit
munication and circuit-protection technology to be breaker features EverLink creep-compensating lug technol-
embedded directly within existing power distribution ogy. This patented, spring-based power-terminal system
equipment. The circuit breaker is engineered with an ensures a lasting connection by mitigating the loosening
intuitive user interface that allows for real-time power effects of heat cycling or vibration. The lugs are UL-listed
and energy metering as well as the ability to closely for use directly with stranded and also ne-stranded wire
monitor critical performance metrics. up to Class K.
Eaton, Schneider Electric,

input #14 at

Emergency, Onsite, Standby Power

Automatic transfer
The contactor-based, UL
1008-listed automatic transfer
switch (ATS) is specically
engineered for applications up
to 3,000 amps. The contactor-
based ATS is simple to oper-
ate and available in a broad
selection of congurations and
features to meet a wide array
of application types. The ATS
Diesel generator set is engineered for enhanced
Rated at 1,750 kW, 60 Hz for standby applications, the Cat safety and uptime, with the
3512C diesel generator set features an optimally sized front door of the switch form-
engine and a reduced overall footprint. The generator set ing an isolated compartment.
provides reliable power that can deliver lower installed costs Upon opening the front door, service personnel can
per electrical kilowatt, reduced fuel consumption, and lower turn the maintenance-isolation switch and electrically
emissions. The Cat 3512C generator set has a footprint isolate the control compartment while the transfer
of 151.56 sqft, saving up to 13% of installed space and switch is energized. This design enhances safety in
a weight of 31,240 lb, which cuts up to 6% of necessary the working environment when performing inspection
weight-supporting installation costs. Users may select the or routine maintenance.
standard 108F ambient radiator or an optional high-ambient Eaton,
radiator that delivers full power with no derating at ambient
temperatures up to 122F.
Caterpillar Inc.,

Uninterruptible power supply

The 93PM UL 924 uninterruptible power supply (UPS) delivers enhanced efciency for emer-
gency and auxiliary lighting applications. The UPS is offered in models developed specically
for emergency lighting and power, ranging from 20 to 120 kVA, as well as auxiliary lighting and
power-listed models from 20 to 200 kVA. The 93PM UL 924 UPS allows users to tailor their light-
ing solutions based on their existing environments and requirements while reducing operating
expenses. The 93PM UL 924 UPS helps customers reduce costs through efciency of up to 97%
in double-conversion mode and up to 99% with Energy Saver System technology.

On-line UPS
The on-line, double-conversion SC UPS features advanced
Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and Surface Mount Device
(SMD) technologies. These combined technologies provide
high reliability, use fewer components, and offer a robust
system. The SC model is designed for protecting IT/IoT equip-
ment, telecommunications, servers, security systems, and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Features include
multimode operation, intelligent self-diagnostic technology, an innovative battery-boost circuit that allows use of
fewer components, high reliability and mean time between failures, and a very large design margin for power com-
ponents for higher reliability. The SC model is based on one of the most advanced and high-frequency DSP.
Falcon Electric Inc.,

58 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Emergency, Onsite, Standby Power

Industrial generator
The SDC20 industrial diesel generator is designed specically to meet the changing market needs for
cell-site backup power and is available in 20-kW ac or 15-kW dc options. From internal geometry to remov-
able access panels on the enclosure, every aspect of the SDC20 was designed to reduce shadow footprint,
leading to an overall size that is up to 50% smaller than alternative generators. The design also increases
consistency and reduces complexity. Integrated fork pockets and four-point lift connections are included in
the standard design to provide additional exibility during installation. The ability to service the generator from
a single side reduces the time and the cost of routine maintenance.
Generac Power Systems,

Large-facility UPS
The Galaxy VX UPS is an easy-to-deploy power-protec-
tion solution with exible operating modes that supports
efciency, exibility, and reliability in large facilities, data
centers, and industrial applications. The UPS offers
advanced electrical features that result in excellent power
conditioning, input power-factor correction, and high
power efciency. Its exible operating modes optimize
the efciency of information technology environments.
Through the highly efcient Double Conversion Mode, Galaxy VX reduces switching losses using a
four-level conversion technology. The reduced switching stress offers greater reliability and a reduction
in failure rates. Galaxy VX offers a traditional Eco Mode, which delivers up to 99% efciency.
Schneider Electric,

Equipment-Level Sensors & Controls

Indicator light
The Series 14 Indicator Compact provides safe and reli- Scalable monitoring system
able, high-intensity, homogeneous LED illumination in a Fluke Condition Monitoring is a system of rugged voltage, cur-
variety of bright, distinguishable colors that are projected rent, temperature, and power sensors that can be moved from
with 180-deg visibility due to an innovatively designed asset to asset or left in place for continuous monitoring. The
domed lens. Capitalizing on the latest LED technology, practical, scalable system delivers the continuous data and
audiences will experience quick recognition from far alarms that maintenance technicians need to prevent equip-
distances and in brightly lit areas. The unit can handle an ment downtime without costly equipment retrots or specialized
operational voltage range between 14 and 32 Vac/dc with training. Fluke Condition Monitoring consists of wireless sensors
a current consumption of less than 50 mA and features a and a gateway that receives signals from the sensors from up
range of customization options in addition to the varying to 30 ft away. It works seamlessly with other Fluke technolo-
colors, which include connectors and cables that are pre- gies. Maintenance technicians can setup the system and begin
sented to suit the unique needs and quality expectations monitoring quickly, with the sensors transmitting measurements
of an audience. to the cloud as frequently as one measurement per second.
EAO, Fluke Corp.,

Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 59

Fire, Life Safety, Mass Notification
Emergency signaling system
The Emergency Signaling System is designed to expedite, mobilize, and improve worksite
emergency-response time when an affected employee uses an emergency shower or eyewash
xture. Using the customizable Emergency Signaling System in an emergency helps all safety
personnel complete the safety loop quicker to help ensure a better outcome. By installing the
Emergency Signaling System along with the drench shower or eyewash, clear and immediate
notication is sent to co-workers, emergency medical responders, and management that an
employee is using an emergency xture and needs help. The Emergency Signaling System is
designed with customizable, reliable, and distinct audible sounds and ashing lights.
Bradley Corp.,

Clamped enclosure
The Crouse-Hinds series clamped
EBMX explosion-proof enclosure
is designed to operate in hazard-
ous areas to help oil and gas and
other industrial customers enhance
safety and dramatically improve
productivity. The EBMX technology
is designed to help customers avoid
unbolting enclosures to access
internal motor control components Nonmetallic signal platform
including circuit breakers, discon- The Global Series Signal Platform of nonmetallic
nect switches, motor starters, and signals is designed to meet global requirements in
combined starters. The clamped-en- hazardous atmospheres. Features include a strobe
closure technology allows customers to and LED beacon, sounder, amplied speaker, and
open and close enclosures faster than traditional loudspeaker. The Global Series Signal Platforms
bolted solutions while reducing the risk of installation errors. modular housing design allows individual signals to
The equipment also meets NFPA 70: National Electrical be combined into multisignal xtures, which reduces
Code (NEC) and Canadian Electrical Code requirements and a customers installation and wiring burden. Multisig-
is built to withstand extreme temperatures from -50 to 60C. nal xtures with two to six signals can be combined
Eaton, into myriad congurations. The congurations can
be ordered fully assembled and wired direct, or ac-
cessories can be used to eld-convert individual and
standard dual units into multisignal congurations.
Federal Signal Corp.,

Fire alarm control panel

The Person Machine Interface (PMI-3) is the primary user interface for the
FireFinder XLS re alarm control panel. PMI-3 serves as both operator
interface and central microprocessor for the XLS. It allows the end user to
acknowledge events, control the system-notication appliance circuits, and
reset the system for both re and mass notication system events. The PMI-3
display uses a 6-in. VGA color display, which allows the user to select up to
eight different event types for display on the same interface, including mass
notication system events and carbon monoxide events.
Siemens Industry Inc.,

60 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Fire, Life Safety, Mass Notification

Braided hose
The VicFlex Series
AH2-CC Braided
Hose features a
captured coupling
attached to the end of
the hose. It also has
a 100% kink-resistant
design and a 2-in.
bend. In previous Flexible dry sprinkler
models, pipetters Designed for owners, engineers, contractors, and architects,
had to tape or dope the VicFlex Style VS1 Dry Sprinkler has a 2-in. UL bend radi-
the threads of the us and 100% kink-resistant annular corrugation. The VicFlex
branch line nipple Style VS1 replaces traditional dry sprinklers that are rigid
and thread it into the and typically installed in a horizontal or vertical orientation.
branch line outlet, us- The exible dry sprinkler allows installers to keep the system
ing a pipe wrench to tighten the connection. The water inside climate-controlled areas and farther from freez-
AH2-CC provides a pipetter-friendly option by ing conditions within the wall, eliminating freeze-ups and
eliminating the need to use a pipe wrench on the impaired systems. The exible dry sprinkler enables systems
branch line side, reducing installation time and to meet or exceed NFPA 13 installation requirements.
the potential for pipetter injuries. Longer sprinkler barrel lengths and a tight bend radius mean
Victaulic, pendent installations are now a reality.

Precision Time Synchronization ... I 1588


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CyTime TM

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Modern Electrical Power Management Systems (EPMS) require precision time

synchronization of devices for reliable operation and meaningful data analysis.
CyTimeTM Sequence of Events Recorders (SER) record state changes to 1 msec
and serve as a time-sync hub for other devices. SERs sync automatically via PTP
(IEEE 1588), and generate legacy protocols (e.g., IRIG-B) for relays and meters.
Act now! Download SER guide specs, white papers and morevisit: /spec
input #15 at
ECM fan array
The software-selectable, factory-installed electronically commutated motor (ECM) fan array inte-
grated with semi-custom air handlers accommodates up to 20 ECM fans in 40 arrangements to meet
application requirements. The solution delivers space-saving cabinet design, greater efciencies, qui-
eter operation, and reduced maintenance; mission critical applications benet from n+1 redundancy.
Each fans ECM mounts directly to its impeller for compact design, eliminating nearly 3 ft of cabinet
space, which makes the unit 46% narrower than direct-drive cabinets with VFDs. Air-handlers with
the ECM fan array can gain 40% efciency (3- to 5-hp range) over direct-drive or belt-driven fans,
yielding signicant yearly energy savings.

Anti-microbial cooling tower

The Anti-Microbial Cooling Tower boasts additional protection against Legionella risk. The anti-
microbial compounded resin is a blue color to make these cooling towers distinctive in the eld as a
tower with this protection. Extra protection is provided by the sloped basin designs in larger towers
that prevent stagnant water areas. The anti-microbial concentrate is compounded into the cooling
tower base resin permanently before molding the casing as well as the PVC ll material, which also
has anti-microbial compounded into raw material before forming. It is applicable for all cooling tower
applications: HVAC comfort cooling, industrial process, and power generation.
Delta Cooling Towers,

Steam-dispersion panel
Designed and built for HVAC systems where moderate-capacity humidication requirements are
common, the Ultra-sorb MP is a framed steam-dispersion panel for pressurized and atmospheric
steam applications in air handling units or ducts. The Ultra-sorb MP features dispersion tubes spe-
cially engineered to provide maximum air contact at design capacity. These tubes are designed for
rapid, drip-free absorption so steam does not condense on downstream devices. The high-efciency
insulated dispersion tubes are available as an option, providing up to an 85% reduction in wasted
energy by signicantly reducing airstream heat gain and condensate production.

Air-displacement system
DataSox distributes a large volume of air down into data center cold aisles, but with
low 400-fpm velocities that dont upset critical equipment intake and exhaust or room
return-air-containment balances. It also offers the exibility of directional spot-cooling
capabilities with adjustable nozzles for high-wattage servers. DataSox features
factory-engineered, energy-efcient - to -in. wg of static pressure and results in
cold-aisle temperatures 3 to 5F lower than traditional distribution, but with up to 40%
less CRAC ow rates, especially when complemented with VFD equipment. Using Da-
taSox helps data centers achieve lower PUE levels, which makes it an ideal sustain-
ability product for green construction projects.
DuctSox Corp.,

Exhaust fan, stack assembly

The FumeJet pre-engineered exhaust fan with integral stacks is designed to safely remove
and disperse fumes and odors. The FumeJet system replaces utility set fans with eld-supplied
intake ducts and exhaust stacks to ensure a safe roof-deck area and aid in preventing re-en-
trainment of contaminated air into air-intake systems. Benets include single-source respon-
sibility, performance data that includes stack and accessory corrections, energy savings by
minimizing system effects, and features that reduce the cost of installation. The fan and
stack assembly have been designed and factory-tested to withstand a force of 22 psf with-
out the need for guy wires.

62 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

High-rise fan coil unit
The MiniReStoraMOD is a small high-rise fan
coil solution. While ideal for hospitality, multifam- Heat-recovery system
ily, and higher education applications, the Mini- The LG Multi V S is a single-phase
ReStoraMOD is optimal for most high-rise retrot variable refrigerant ow (VRF) 5-ton
projects as its size allows for it to t into the shell heat-recovery system. Ideal for light
of an existing unit. The replacement process is commercial installations including
quick, easy, and cost-effective, minimizing the multi-use spaces, small eateries, and
number of outside trades involved and eliminat- boutiques, this heat-recovery system
ing the need to shut down entire rooms or oors is designed to provide excellent
for renovation. The result is reduced downtime, energy efciency and the exibility
signicant cost savings, and decreased revenue of simultaneous heating and cooling,
loss. The MiniReStoraMOD replaces most exist- even in the most extreme weather.
ing high-rise fan coils with energy savings and For installation cost savings, the Multi
IAQ features, including an optional electronically V S only requires single-phase power, rather than the
commutated motor and closed-cell insulation. traditional three-phase, and can provide heat down to
an outside temperature of -13F.
International Environmental Corp.,
LG Electronics,

Axial integral horsepower motor

The UlteMAX is an axial integral horsepower motor with a reduced length of less than 5 in.
and an overall footprint reduction, resulting in it being 50% lighter than conventional radial
motors. With this compact, at, lightweight design, there is no longer a need to design
around the motor. It can be intentionally hidden inside a much smaller system, requiring less
space when installed. The UlteMAX motors three variable-speed axial horsepower motors
provide the output to cut the average motor inventory in half. The UlteMAX motor allows
for speed and horsepower congurations to cover a wide range of specications without
compromising system efciency.
Marathon Motors,

Floor-mounted indoor unit

The MFZ-KJ oor-mounted indoor unit features Multi-ow Vane Technology. This technology
efciently circulates air to quickly raise room temperature during cooler months. Multi-ow
Vane Technology uses the lower portion of a multiow vane to angle warm air into the return
vent of the indoor unit, where it is re-circulated through the heat exchanger before being
released into the room through the top portion of the multiow vane. This process signicantly
reduces the time it takes to heat the room, ensuring superior warmth and comfort. The MFZ-
KJs stylish, sleek panel suits a variety of aesthetics with minimal obtrusion.
Mitsubishi Electric U.S. Inc., Cooling & Heating Division,

Wall-mounted indoor unit

The MSZ-EF wall-mounted indoor unit can be used
in combination with multizone technology, including
the Hyper-Heating Inverter (H2i) systems that can
deliver heat in even the coldest climates to create
a Diamond Comfort System. Diamond Comfort
Systems provide the ability to choose the desired
temperature for each zone, while consistently using
30% to 40% less energy than traditional cooling
and heating systems. The MSZ-EF features whisper-quiet operation with indoor fans functioning at a sound level
lower than a human whisper, reduced energy waste with a weekly timer that allows up to four scheduling options,
and intelligent temperature control with Econo Cool.
Mitsubishi Electric U.S. Inc., Cooling & Heating Division,

Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 63

High-density cooling system
The InRow DX assists data center
managers in meeting the evolving Cooling tower
cooling needs of an ever-changing The Marley NC Everest Cooling Tower is a cross-ow
data center environment. The system evaporative cooling system that provides up to 50% more
signicantly improves cooling ef- cooling capacity than other single-cell, factory-assembled
ciency by reducing power consumption cooling towers. The NC Everest uses up to 35% less fan
while also increasing capacity. The power to achieve higher energy savings. Its unique design
solutions design closely couples cool- minimizes piping and electrical connections to reduce
ing with the IT heat load, preventing installation costs. Seven-foot doors provide access to the
hot-air recirculation while improving towers interior service decks and mechanical compo-
cooling predictability and allowing for nents, making routine inspections
a pay-as-you-grow environment. Avail- and maintenance safer and easi-
able in self-contained, uid-cooled, er. Featuring the patent-pending
and air-cooled congurations with or MarKey Drift Eliminators, the
without humidity control, InRow DX NC Everest Cooling Tower
meets the diverse requirements for achieves the lowest mea-
closet, server room, and data center surable drift rate, down
cooling. Providing up to 42 kW of pre- to 0.0005% of circulating
cision cooling capacity in a compact footprint, the system waterow, so less water
can support the most demanding cooling needs. escapes the tower.
Schneider Electric, SPX Cooling Technologies

Opposing-port tee
The ProPEX EP opposing-port tee was developed for PEX hydronic heating and cooling
applications with back-to-back installation-spacing constraints, such as vertical riser applica-
tions, vertical hi-stack fan coils, and heat pumps. One opposing-port tee does the job of four
ttings to change piping direction in a conned space, making it a time-, cost-, and labor-sav-
ing solution for engineers, installers, and building owners. The tee features the ProPEX tting
system, a method that uses the shape memory of PEX tubing to make a strong, reliable, and
watertight connection with a single tool. The ProPEX tee is available in 1-, 1.25-, 1.5-, and
2-in. ow-through sizes with 0.75-in. outlets.

Combination boiler
The AquaBalance combination boiler features the warmth of high-efciency space heat-
ing and the convenience of on-demand domestic hot water. The AquaBalance boiler
exceeds Energy Star-certication requirements at 94.4% annual fuel-use efciency
built with the stainless steel, titanium-infused, heat-exchanger technology. Additional
features and benets include compact design, multiple venting options, boiler controls
with digital display, quiet operation, and contractor-friendly access to panels, making in-
stallation and servicing clean and easy. AquaBalance provides a constant supply of hot
water by producing up to 4 gmp at 70F. By making the switch from a separate boiler
and hot-water tank to the system, the contractors installation process is streamlined.

64 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Lighting & Luminaires
LED wallwash luminaire
The CWW is a contemporary LED wallwash luminaire with a high efcacy of up to 116 lumens/W. The perfor-
mance of the CWW meets uniformity of 5:1 on vertical surfaces from ceiling to oor. With a slender prole and
narrow 3-in. aperture design, the CWW is lightweight and installs with ease. The narrow aperture creates
a clean, nished appearance and the proprietary optical design provides excellent vertical uniformity
while maintaining visual comfort. It features multiple optical distributions for varying wallwash
applications, 60,000-hour LEDs at L80 for reduced maintenance, four LED color choices, and
standard 80 CRI and optional 90 CRI for color-sensitive applications.
Columbia Lighting, Hubbell Lighting,

Plenum troffer luminaire

The LZPT is an LED version of the Zero Plenum Troffer (ZPT) that is designed for restricted
plenum spaces without impacting the required distribution of light. For installation, the patented
telescoping housing requires only 3 in. above the ceiling at one end of the xture. Once
installed, a housing height of 1.5 in. keeps the xture from intruding into the useable ple-
num. The LZPT features an efcacy of 119 lumens/Watt, superior color consistency
to a three-step MacAdam ellipse, and 82 CRI. The soft, uniform light distribution
provides superior vertical illumination free from harsh contrast.
Columbia Lighting, Hubbell Lighting,

Ceiling-mounted emergency LED

The EV4R is a recessed ceiling-mount LED emergency light that is not concealed, has
no moving parts, and is intended to be xed to the ceiling. The embedded EV4R design
reveals less than 316 in. below the ceiling plane and has up to 42 ft of spacing on mounting
heights from 9 to 12 ft. The EV4R features spacing based on photometric reports to meet
life safety codes for all recessed LED emergency lights. The EV4R is available in a rectan-
gular or round trim-plate included with each xture, in white or black nish to help comple-
ment the compact, low-prole design.
Dual-Lite, Hubbell Lighting,

LED weatherproof luminaire

The Crouse-Hinds series LED weatherproof luminaire combines the energy efciency of LED tech-
nology with a sharp, sleek design for aesthetically pleasing plant outdoor applications. Available in
gray, white, and bronze, these LED luminaires provide a variety of color options to help match any
outdoor landscape. The LED weatherproof luminaire has approximately the same lumen output as a
traditional 60-W incandescent lamp, uses approximately one-sixth of the energy to operate, and has
a rated life expectancy of up to 40,000 to 50,000 hours. Designed for the most demanding outdoor
applications, the luminaire is engineered with a durable die-cast housing for long life.

Dimming LED
The Halo ML56 LED with Dim-to-Warm (D2W) technology mimics the performance
of an incandescent halogen lamp source when dimmed, smoothly dimming from a
whiter LED color temperature to a warm, soft glow to create an inviting environment.
Dimming LED products reduce light output without changing the color when dimming
standard incandescent sources, and D2W technology provides crisp light at full power
of 3,000 K and dimming smoothly to 1,850 K. The Halo ML56 LED offers multiple lu-
men packages and color temperatures that are interchangeable with dedicated 5- and
6-in. downlight and directional trim.

Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 65

Lighting & Luminaires
Architectural luminaire
The Invue Arbor LED (ARB) is a post top, bollard, or wall-mounted architectural
luminaire featuring patented WaveStream LED technology, delivering precise
optical control and an attractive pixilation-free performance. WaveStream tech-
nology offers an architecturally organic luminaire design for area and pedestrian
applications while delivering precise optical control and an attractive pixilation-free
performance. The WaveStream LED optical platform with laser-precise AccuAim
technology provides quality site and area distributions normally not available in a
reduced-glare solution. The AccuAim optics, arranged in exacting patterns, provide
maximum uniformity while delivering the maximum amount of light on task with
efcacies in excess of 90 lumens/W achieved.

Linear LED
The Metalux WSL Linear WaveStream LED provides premium visual aesthetics designed to properly
illuminate a wide variety of workplace environments. The highly efcient LED system and advanced
optical design deliver an unparalleled combination of optimal light uniformity for enhanced visual
comfort. The advanced AccuAim optics allow for maximum energy savings while achieving
desired light levels. From retail to industrial applications, as either stand-alone or in a
continuous row, the WSL linear provides customers with unique installation features.
Features include 4- and 8-ft congurations, aluminum and steel housing, UNV,
0- to 10-V dimmable driver, and integral sensor options available for improved
energy savings.

Corrosive-environment linear LED

The Crouse-Hinds series Pauluhn Summit Linear LED luminaire is designed to
withstand high-pressure wash-down environments and can be customized for
application-specic performance requirements. The LED luminaire is suited for
food and beverage processing, pharmaceutical processing, agricultural process-
ing, and other corrosive environments. Pauluhn Summit Linear LED luminaires are
IP66-rated and designed to withstand a 1,500-psi high-pressure hose-down from
a 5-ft distance. The Pauluhn Summit Linear LED Luminaire can be customized for
application-specic performance requirements. Features include a through-feed
design for multiple-xture wiring and versatile mounting options.

High-output wallpack
At 7,500 to 14,500 lumens, the LNC4 Litepak is the largest and highest-output wallpack
in Hubbell Outdoor Lightings high-volume Litepak series. It features four different lumen
packages, multiple distributions, and CCT for maximum light levels and mounting-height
exibility. It is designed for new construction and retrot and is capable of replacing up
to 400 W high-intensity discharge (HID) luminaires. The LNC4s features include battery
backup for egress applications as well as a programmable occupancy sensor for even
greater energy savings when no motion is detected. A unique frosted acrylic diffuser is
available to soften output, improve uniformity, and protect the LED lens.
Hubbell Outdoor Lighting, Hubbell Lighting,

66 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Lighting & Luminaires
Linear high bay
The HL Series LED Linear High Bay is a high-output luminaire for com-
mercial and industrial lighting applications. Measuring 14 x 24 in., the HL
Series offers leading-edge efcacy (132 lumens/W) and scalability for
warehouses, distribution centers, and manufacturing facilities. Offered in
100, 150, and 200 W versions, with outputs from 12,000 lumens, the LED
high bay replaces traditional uorescent and HID xtures of up to 600
W. The HL Series High Bay can be congured with narrow or wide lens
distributions, as well as emergency controls, for optimal lumen output and
energy savings.

Energy-efficient high bay

The ISON High Bay Generation 3 (HBIF3) delivers 214 lumens/W, provid-
ing up to 77% energy savings over most HID xtures. The HBIF3 delivers
90% more lumens per watt than the average LED high bay while consuming
47% less energy. The packaging is labeled according to facility layout so that
xtures are delivered directly to where they will be installed. These features re-
duce waste, reduce labor costs, and make the HBIF3 installation process easier.
The HBIF3 xture works with most control systems, allowing for wireless xture
control, building management system integration, and tracking of people, products,
and assets through facilities.
Orion Energy Systems,

2016 The Metraflex Company

input #16 at

Lighting Controls
B-BC controller
The nLight Eclypse extends the power of nLight to deliver the next level of lighting control. This
BTL-listed B-BC controller leverages native BACnet/IP and WiFi to seamlessly integrate lighting
control systems with building management systems, without the need for a gateway. This scal-
able solution enables BACnet MS/TP-to-IP routing and Modbus RTU integration to cost-effec-
tively connect meters and other devices for a complete lighting control solution. nLight Eclypse
also makes it easier to keep up with changing technology and energy codes. IP connectivity
provides the speed and bandwidth needed for multiple technology integrations while the TLS/
SSL and RADIUS authentication support provide reliable data protection.
Acuity Brands,

Low-voltage lighting control system

The Distributed Low Voltage Power (DLVP) system blends the benets of both ac
and dc power distribution and is designed to reduce the total installed cost of LED
lighting and controls projects. Features include pre-terminated Class 2 cabling,
a congured plug-and-play system independent of system wiring, and simplied
energy code compliance. It leverages ac transmission and dc for connectivity and
has centralized maintenance from distributed power modules. The DLVP system is
designed to be a safe and easily recongured system without the need to rewire.

Fixture module
The NX Fixture Module (NXFM) is designed to replace everything from stand-alone controls
to wired and wireless networks in indoor and outdoor applications. It provides on/off switching,
full-range (0 to 10 V) dimming control, and a built-in astronomical time clock. The NXFM can
function as a simple occupancy sensor, but it also includes a passive infrared occupancy and
daylight sensor. It also features IntelliDAPT self-adaptive technology, which gives the NXFM
the ability to learn its environment and adjust automatically. The sensor head includes a Blue-
tooth radio, enabling from-the-ground commissioning and control with a smartphone or tablet.
Hubbell Control Solutions,

Dimming relay
wiSTAR is a wireless, self-powered lighting control system designed for stand-
alone indoor applications, such as ofces, conference rooms, break rooms,
classrooms, and other applications. wiSTAR devices harvest energy from their
surroundings. This relay is self-powered and requires no wires to operate. It can
be freely positioned, making for versatile layouts as compared with a wired solu-
tion. It also enables wireless dimming of LED luminaires using 0- to 10-V control.
wiSTAR also implements load shedding initiated by demand-response control-
lers; two molded buttons and one LED indicator light can be used for device
conguration and manual control, depending on user preference.
Hubbell Control Solutions,

Fixture connection module

The Connected Lighting Module (CLM) is a key component to a light management system
(LMS). It enables luminaires to be connected to the LMS which is based on ZigBee commu-
nication protocols. Individually addressable, the CLM enables each luminaire to be indepen-
dently controlled and congured to best meet the needs of the facility. The 0- to 10-V dimming
interface allows control of single or multiple luminaires in a single space. The CLM empowers
users to convert their existing luminaires to be wireless ready. It is intended for installation into a
standard -in. knockout present on virtually every luminaire.

68 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Lighting Controls

Lighting, automation system controller

Dimming wall-switch The InFusion Controller II extends BACnet support for
occupancy sensor the Wattstopper architectural dimming platform. This
The DW-311 is a passive infrared allows building automation and management systems
and ultrasonic dual-technology to control all lighting control and automation-panel dim-
0- to 10-V dimming wall-switch mer loads, buttons (tasks), and occupancy sensors. The
occupancy sensor designed to InFusion Controller II is applicable for larger applications
work in a variety of small- and where networking and expansion are possibilities. It can
medium-sized applicationsin- be integrated using built-in Ethernet, RS232, and RS485
cluding rooms with partitions, connections. The control-
such as restrooms, large ofces, ler meets demands for
conference rooms with cubi- delay-free and precise
cal walls, and classrooms. The control of integrated light-
sensor is designed to reduce the ing control systems. The
number of devices required in a controller has redundancy
space with full-function multiway built in through its system
control from one to four control lo- SD card so that even if a
cations. It has dual in-line package switches, which al- device fails, the system
low users to adjust settings to meet their needs, such can be restored with a
as power-loss-mode settings, optional smart light-level new processor and the
settings, and an optional presentation mode. original SD Card.
Wattstopper, Legrand, Wattstopper, Legrand,

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Plumbing & Water Management

Tankless rack system

The commercial Tankless Rack System can deliver up to 1,592,000 Btus
and link as many as 20 high-efciency 199,000-Btu condensing tankless
heaters, providing wall-mount, free-standing, and back-to-back installa-
tion options. This system simplies commercial installations by providing
prefabricated gas and water lines that link units together. Once bolted in
place, the commercial rack ensures a continuous, reliable supply of hot
water. Even during heater maintenance, each unit can be easily isolated
while other heaters continue with normal operation. The rack is built on a
durable, lightweight anodized aluminum frame and connects to schedule
40 PVC pipe for intake and exhaust.
A. O. Smith,

Integrated commercial faucet

The NextGen Selectronic integrated commercial faucet features exclusive Sm-
arTherm technology that incorporates an ASSE 1070-certied thermostatic hot-
water temperature limiter directly into the faucet, keeping all controls above deck
for easy installation and maintenance. This exclusive SmarTherm safety shut-off
eliminates the need for a separate thermostatic mixing valve to ensure ASSE
1070 protection. The integrated design incorporates the electronicsincluding
the sensor, battery, and solenoid valvein the spout, eliminating the need for a
control box below the deck. This shortens the installation time because only the
water connections are made under the sink.
American Standard,

Water heater system

The pre-engineered and prefabricated Commercial Water Heater System combines com-
mercial-grade tankless units with system controllers, manifolds, and other necessary com-
ponents and accessories into fully assembled metal rack systems, greatly reducing instal-
lation time and expense. With this system, the installer need only connect the water and
gas lines, build the vent runs, and setup the prewired system controller. Corrosion-resistant
aluminum construction, heavy-duty Type K copper, and stainless steel heat exchangers
are specially engineered to withstand the rigors of commercial applications. Accurate,
customized pre-sizing of gas and water supply lines save installation time, while functional
sizing allows the system to t easily through standard-sized commercial doorways.

Energy-saving Y-strainer
The LPD Y-Strainer has the same face-to-face size as a standard Y-strain-
er design and can be retrotted into existing piping systems. It is designed
to save energy and features a screen that is 30% larger and has signi-
cantly more holes, so it takes longer for debris to collect and impede ow.
The internal geometry has eliminated obstructions; the body casting does
not block the screen opening and there is a smooth, open ow from intake
to discharge. The LPD Y-strainer has opened up the interior of the strainer
so ow is straighter and smoother through the strainer.
The Metraex Co.,

70 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Pumps, Pump Controls

Horizontal heat pump

The WH Series horizontal-conguration, small-packaged water-source heat pump is
available from to 15 tons in replacement-ready sizes to match with conventional water-
source heat pump products. WH Series units are designed with standard efciencies that
exceed ASHRAE standards. WH Series standard construction consists of an all-alumi-
num cabinet with closed-cell neoprene foam rubber insulation, induction-brazed copper
piping, and stainless steel condensate drain pan. Toolless service panels provide access
to the controls, compressor, and fan. A bottom service-access panel provides access to
the expansion valve, reversing valve, lter drier, supply fan, and air lters.

End suction pump

The Design Envelope 4200 H split-coupled horizontal end suction pump is designed
to adjust output to match the exact needs of an HVAC system in response to changes
in system ow. Where many variable-speed pumps use a straight-line approach to
speed control, the 4200 H adjusts and controls pump speed according to a quadratic
curve that more closely matches the uid-ow dynamics of an HVAC system. It also
uses sensorless ow control for reduced installation costs and improved accuracy in
speed control. Other 4200 H features include built-in harmonic mitigation, soft start
and motor adaptation, and an outside mechanical seal and split-coupling design sup-
port easy maintenance.
Armstrong Fluid Technology,

Pump controller, VFD

The Technologic intelligent
Vertical pump retrofit
pump controller/vari-
The Design Envelope Vertical
able frequency drive
In-Line Retrot pump is de-
(VFD) is designed to
signed to allow building owners
provide users with two
to replace the moving parts of
advanced controller
an installed constant-speed
functionsthe Start-Up
pump while retaining the exist-
Genie and an electroni-
ing pump casing, insulation, and
cally controlled bypass
piping. Design Envelope solu-
to reduce onsite setup and
tions dont require differential
conguration time by more than
pressure sensors, wall-mount-
50%. These advanced controller
ed drives, or additional wiring.
functions help reduce operating
Theres no need for a pressure
costs, optimize building systems, and ensure ease of
test after the installation because
service. The Technologic can also provide more ef-
it reuses the existing casing. It allows engineers
cient operation for applications with varying ow ranges
to help their customers upgrade HVAC installa-
by altering hydraulic performance to maintain constant
tions from constant-speed solutions that waste
system pressure. The drive provides constant-speed
energy to variable-speed installations that align
lag control and has the ability to control one variable-
with industry requirements for energy savings at
speed pump with up to two xed-speed lag pumps.
part load.
Bell & Gossett,
Armstrong Fluid Technology,

Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 71

Software: Design, Modeling, Analysis
Electrical calculation add-in
Design Master Electrical RT 1.2 is an electrical calculation add-in for Autodesk
Revit software. Version 1.2 includes the addition of one-line diagrams to the
product. Designers can use their Revit model to create their one-line diagram,
and changes to the Revit model are automatically updated in the one-line
diagram. The goal of building information modeling (BIM) in Revit is to have ev-
erything in the project come from a single model. Allowing the one-line diagram
to be created from Revit moves one more part of the electrical design into BIM.
Design Master Software,

Arcing current calculator

The Bussmann series Arcing Current Calculator is designed to enable users to quickly
calculate the minimum and maximum arcing currents of electrical systems, based on IEEE
1584. This tool takes a given available short-circuit current and key system attribute inputs
and provides the calculation of arcing currents per the IEEE 1584 equations and standard.
Users can then output calculations for later reference or the creation of labels. Ad-
ditionally, the tool provides quick access to Eaton application engineers for further
assistance, if needed, and provides an interactive experience whether its on a
desktop or mobile device.

Firestop documentation manager

The CFS-DM Firestop Documentation Manager is a cloud-based system designed for
the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) market that provides an easy way
to document, manage, and report compliance for every penetration, joint, or other re
protection system throughout a building. It is designed to speed up a project and help
save valuable time on the jobsite and in the ofce. AEC professionals can use it to track all
paperwork and documentation during a build and manage a building in order to see whats
installed and where. CFS-DM Firestop Documentation Manager comes with an app for
both iOS and Android smartphones and tablets for improved mobility.

Automation, BIM-integrated plug-in

The Hilti Button for Firestop automation software is designed to integrate with BIM software platforms. It
automates the restop product and UL-system selection process and eliminates the tedious, manual task
of placing hundreds or thousands of restop objects in BIM. The software automatically detects penetra-
tions in re-related construction and populates the appropriate restop products and UL systems directly
into BIM to save time and reduce costs. AEC rms can save more than 1 months of project time. The
software integrates seamlessly with the Autodesk ecosystem around Navisworks Manage, AutoCAD MEP,
Fabrication CADmep, and Revit and automates the restop-selection process on a project.

BAS symbol library

The BAS Symbol Library v5 is designed to monitor complicated building systems
with ease. The library includes more than 450 total graphic les of a variety of
graphics and animations needed to construct building automation system (BAS)
graphics, HVAC graphics, or mechanical, electrical, and plumbing equipment. Al-
most any system graphic can be created, static or animated, as the symbol library
is compatible with more than 95% of all major mechanical systems. This library
provides end users with access to high-end graphics and animations that more
realistically represent the mechanical systems in place.
QA Graphics,

72 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Software: Design, Modeling, Analysis

Monitoring, control
system app
iCOM CMS is an Internet
of Things (IoT) mobile app
designed to provide informa-
tion technology (IT) managers
and service providers with
advanced thermal monitoring
and control for remote, mission
critical locations and edge-
BIM plug-in for Autodesk Revit computing sites. Operating
LayoutFAST is an intelligent plug-in for Autodesk Revit that as a mobile app, it provides
makes it easier and faster to congure and insert products into IT managers and authorized
projects. LayoutFAST supplies BIM managers, design engi- service providers with visibility
neers, and contractors with everything they need to design and into temperature, humidity, and
specify complete electrical systems. LayoutFAST allows users cooling-unit operating param-
to select and place products into designs from within Revit and eters. It also allows managers to forward alarms to techni-
congure them to meet project requirements. It also provides a cians or service providers. All parties can view each step
library of electrical products updated in real time from the cloud of the troubleshooting process. iCOM CMS is designed for
to ensure current information is used in the design process. simple, cost-effective connectivity to building management
LayoutFAST enables users to share les and models, helping to systems through BACnet, Modbus, and other protocols.
drive collaboration and speed the development process. Vertiv,
Schneider Electric,

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Test Instruments, Meters, Data Loggers

Branch circuit monitor

The Power Xpert Branch Circuit Monitor (PXBCM) is an advanced re-
mote power-monitoring solution designed to provide visibility of energy
usage and enhanced control response to energy loads and circuits all
the way down to the plug level. The electrical monitoring solution is
designed to help support improved power management and power-
usage efciency in high-density industrial sites or across an entire
enterprise. The PXBCM helps users cost-effectively monitor, integrate,
and protect mission critical electrical equipment and data systems. By
combining advanced sensing, monitoring, and reporting capabilities
down to the plug level, the PXBCM provides remote access to live,
circuit-level energy-usage data for entire facilities.

HVAC clamp meter

The Fluke 902 FC True-rms HVAC clamp meter is a wireless
Fluke Connect-enabled meter designed to improve the pro-
ductivity of HVAC technicians in the eld. With the Fluke 902
FC, technicians can document measurements, email results to
customers, and collaborate with colleagues in real time directly
from the jobsite. The rugged CAT III 600V/CAT IV 300V-rated
meter performs the essential measurements of HVAC systems,
such as microamps for testing pilot light sensors, resistance up to
60 kilohms, ac current, ac/dc voltage, capacitance, and contact
temperature. The clamp meter also decreases the frequency at
which technicians will need to wear personal protective equipment
when working on high-voltage/current panels.
Fluke Corp.,

Embedded micrometer
The Siemens Embedded Micro Metering Module (SEM3) integrates
advanced electrical metering into a modular micrometer designed
to be integrated into electrical equipment or provided loose for ret-
rot. The enhanced exible design allows for low-, medium-, and
high-density metering requirements to be met efciently and eco-
nomically using only a few standardized components that may be
integrated into panelboard, switchboard, PDU, RPP, and bus-plug
products. The SEM3 system has a wide range of applications and is
used in building design, power distribution, and critical-load applications.
SEM3 is available in solid and split-core CTs for retrot applications and
has an optional remote display for remote monitoring.

74 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Digital Edition
Exclusive Content
Visit for exclusive content and for
more technical feature articles. The digital edition includes tablet-friendly
viewing (HTML5), headlines linking to longer versions, and an emailed link
as soon as its ready.

DE-1 Clean agent

fire suppression
for mission
critical facilities
Specifying the proper clean
agent system for a mission
critical facility is vital to
minimize downtime and meet
building codes and standards.
Arup, Los Angeles

Visit for unique online content, including:

 Archives of articles at
 Career and professional development at
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 Webcasts, both live and on-demand, at Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 75

Clean agent
fire suppression for
mission critical facilities
Specifying the proper clean agent system for a mission critical facility is vital
to minimize downtime and meet building codes and standards.

BRIAN McLAUGHLIN, PE, Arup, Los Angeles

ission critical has a often reference NFPA 2001: Standard on
Learning broad definition that Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
objectives is most common ly The 2015 edition of NFPA 2001 is the
 Understand best practices def ined by faci lity most recent edition, and the standards
for specifying a clean agent owners as a function of scope is stated as follows: This stan-
system in a mission critical their perceived importance of continu- dard contains minimum requirements
facility. ous operation of their facility. Common for total flooding and local-application
 Explain clean agent sys- examples of mission critical facilities clean agent fire-suppression systems. It
tems available to specifying include data centers, control rooms, does not cover fire-extinguishing systems
emergency call centers, and military that use carbon dioxide or water as the
 Explore building codes and
facilities. Essentially, a mission critical primary extinguishing media, which are
facility is one where continued opera- addressed by other NFPA documents.
tion is of tantamount importance to the The standard identifies the system
business owner or operator. components, system design consider-
When thinking of the needs of a mis- ations, local application requirements,
sion critical facility, the concern of a fire and inspection, testing, maintenance,
rendering the facility inoperable is often and training provisions. NFPA 2001
at the top of a facility owners or opera- defines a clean agent as an electrically
tors list of risks. Furthermore, when nonconducting, volatile, or gaseous fire
considering how to mitigate a fire in one extinguishant that does not leave a resi-
of these facilities, one must consider the due upon evaporation. Typically, a clean
speed of cleanup to return the facility to agent fire-extinguishing system installed
operational status as soon as possible. in compliance with NFPA 2001 can be
This is where clean agents come into play. installed in a normally occupied space,
as these systems are designed to extin-
Design standards for clean agents guish a fire without reducing the oxygen
When thinking about clean agents, at levels within a space to below safe limits
first, most industry professionals will for humans.

DE1 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

Another standard to consider when Figure 1: This control room at Los Angeles International Airports central utility plant is a
discussing clean agent systems is NFPA real-world example of mission critical space. All graphics courtesy: Michael Urbanek, Arup
12: Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extin-
guishing Systems. The current 2015 edi- incorporate references to NFPA 2001 NFPA 5000 Section 55.5.1 also gener-
tion of NFPA 12 addresses design and and NFPA 12, wherein compliance with ally references both NFPA 12 and NFPA
installation for total flooding and local the model building code requires con- 2001 as the applicable standards for the
application for carbon dioxide fire-extin- formance to the relevant standard for the design, installation, and maintenance
guishing systems. It is crucial to note selected system. The two most common of carbon dioxide and clean agent fire-
that there are significant restrictions for model building codes incorporate NFPA extinguishing systems, respectively, for
using carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing 2001 as follows: use in any occupancy or building type.
systems in normally occupied spaces due
to the hazardous low-oxygen environ- NFPA 5000 IBC and IFC
ment created by the system discharge. NFPA 5000: Building Construction The 2015 editions of the International
The benefit of clean agent extinguis- and Safety Code, 2015 edition, refer- Building Code (IBC) and International
hants is that they do not cause addi- ences both NFPA 12 and NFPA 2001 Fire Code (IFC) contain limited refer-
tional damage to the facility beyond in Sections,, and ences to clean agent and carbon dioxide
what was caused by the fire. Typically, as approved approaches for fire-extinguishing systems. Sections 904.8
protected spaces would be ventilated providing automatic fire suppression in and 904.10 in both model documents
to remove any gaseous remnants of the power-generation structures of Type I provide references to NFPA 12 and NFPA
discharge, and once individual pieces of or Type II construction that are used to 2001 for carbon dioxide and clean agent
equipment are repaired, the facility can house generators, turbines, and flue gas- systems, respectively. Therefore, compli-
return to business as usual very quickly. treatment equipment. The use of these ance with the NFPA standards is incor-
systems within power-generation struc- porated within the model code require-
Building code considerations tures is permitted as the primary means ments. Furthermore, compliance with
NFPA 2001 and NFPA 12 are stan- of fire suppression in lieu of an automatic the manufacturers-listing requirements
dards that require adoption by a par- fire sprinkler system, allows for extended is mandatory. IBC Section 904 provides
ticular code, jurisdiction, or owner. egress travel distances, and enables the requirements for alternative automatic
For example, the model building codes unlimited building height and area. fire-extinguishing systems, which are Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 DE2

Clean agent fire suppression
generally used to protect specific hazards The SNAP list includes options for n Hydrochlorofluorocarbons
within a building as opposed to serving both total flooding agents and streaming (HCFCs) are predominantly used
as the primary fire protection system agents. NFPA 2001 defines a total flood- for local application conditions
for a building. With regard to IBC/IFC ing system as consisting of an agent and are typically used in fire extin-
compliance, the use of a clean agent or supply and distribution network designed guishers. For example, Halotron I.
carbon dioxide system as a replacement to achieve a total flooding condition in a
for a required automatic fire sprinkler hazard volume, while a streaming agent n Fluoroiodocarbons (FICs) are used
system will require approval from the is addressed as a locally applicable system in the aviation industry for engine
local authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). consisting of a supply of extinguishing nacelle and auxiliary power unit
Additionally, IFC Section 901.6.1 agent arranged to discharge directly on (APU) protection.
requires that carbon dioxide and clean the burning material. NFPA 12 provides
agent systems be inspected, tested, and similar, but not exact, definitions. Halocarbon agents are stored in liq-
uid form at room temperature and in
low pressure (<1,000 psi) cylinders.
It is always important to verify all codes and The liquid-storage format allows these
agent-storage cylinders to occupy a rela-
standards applicable to a project at the beginning, to tively small footprint within a building.
ensure that the design complies with the appropriate These agents are required to discharge
very rapidly and become gases during
regulations. discharge through the delivery nozzles.
They are intended to reach their design
maintained in accordance with the With carbon dioxide systems, the concentrations with a discharge dura-
appropriate NFPA standards. agent is always the same, but manufac- tion of not more than 10 seconds. Due
In the absence of incorporation into turers offer systems in a variety of stor- to this requirement, halocarbon agents
a model building code, or the locally age configurations, sizes, and pressures. are typically stored very close to the space
amended and adopted version of a model In most instances, these types of systems or enclosure being protected.
building code, an individual AHJ or facil- are used for industrial applications with
ity owner may require compliance with low occupant loads that can be evacuated Inert gas agents:
NFPA 2001. It is always important to ver- prior to discharge or spaces that are not NFPA 2001 defines an inert gas as an
ify all codes and standards applicable to normally occupied. agent that contains as primary compo-
a project at the beginning, to ensure that The remainder of clean agent systems nents one or more of the gases helium,
the design complies with the appropriate is subdivided into two primary catego- neon, argon, or nitrogen. Inert gas agents
regulations. ries: halocarbon agents and inert gas that are blends of gases can also contain
agents. carbon dioxide as a secondary compo-
Extinguishing system agents nent. In a similar manner to the halo-
and options Halocarbon agents: carbons, generic designations are given
The U.S. Environmental Protection A halocarbon is defined by NFPA 2001 to the common inert gases used for fire
Agencys (EPA) Significant New Alterna- as an agent that contains as primary suppression.
tives Policy (SNAP) provides an evolving components one or more organic com-
list of fire suppression and explosion-pro- pounds containing one or more of the n IG-01 is used for argon, an
tection agents that have been assessed by elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or unblended inert gas.
the EPA for overall risk to the environ- iodine. Since NFPA 2001 does not iden-
ment and human health in the following tify specific products by brand name, the n IG-55 is used for a blend of two
categories: various types of halocarbon agents are inert gasesnitrogen and argon
referenced in categories based on their (approximately 50% and 50%,
n Ozone-depletion potential (ODP) chemical compositions. respectively). Examples of this
n Global warming potential (GWP) agent include Argonite and
n Toxicity n Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and ProInert.
n Flammability Fluoroketones (FKs) are the most
n Occupational and consumer commonly used total flooding clean n IG-100 is used for nitrogen, an
health/safety agents within buildings. For example, unblended inert gas.
n Local air quality Ecaro, FE-13, FM-200, and Novec
n Ecosystem effects. 1230 are agents in these categories. n IG-541 is used for a blend of three

DE3 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017

inert gasesnitrogen, argon, and
carbon dioxide (52%, 40%, and 8%,
respectively). Inergen is an example
of this gas.

Inert gas agents are stored in a typi-

cally large quantity of high-pressure
(>2,100-psi) gas cylinders that can often
require a much larger footprint than a
comparable design quantity of a halocar-
bon agent. These agents are also required
to discharge rapidly, but are permitted to
reach their design concentrations with a
discharge duration between 60 and 120
seconds, depending on the nature of the
hazard protected. Due to the higher stor-
age arrangement and extended discharge
times, inert gas storage cylinders can be
located at a greater distance from the
protected hazard as compared with the
halocarbon agent systems.

Case study: Los Angeles

International Airport central utility
The new state-of-the-art central utility
plant (CUP) at the Los Angeles Interna-
tional Airport (LAX) opened in April
2015 and replaced a 50-year-old facility. Figure 2: This is an exterior image of the LAX central utility plant that contains mission
The CUP provides significant additional critical spaces.
capacity for airline terminals heating and
cooling and other buildings in LAXs cen- discharge nozzles at two different eleva- agent types, storage, and delivery sys-
tral terminal area. The CUP is the heart tions to account for the nearly 20-ft high tem configurations that must be con-
of the airport that keeps heating and ceilings in the server room. Eight photo- sidered while specifying a solution for
cooling the water pumping throughout electric smoke detectors were installed to each project. Its critical to consider the
the terminals and other buildings to pro- provide rapid smoke detection in the space. many types of systems for each project
vide passenger comfort for more than 70 The sequence of operations is pro- since there isnt one particular solution
million patrons who travel through LAX grammed such that activation of any two for every application. By carefully con-
each year. The continuous operation of smoke detectors within the room will ini- sidering the selection of appropriate
the CUP is mission critical to the busi- tiate a 30-second clean agent discharge clean agent fire-extinguishing systems,
ness of the airport, and a clean agent delay. If a building staff member does not an enhanced level of fire protection can
fire-extinguishing system was included take action to abort the agent discharge or be provided to safeguard mission critical
per the owners requirements along with manually activate the discharge more rap- facilities.
a pre-action fire sprinkler system locat- idly, the clean agent system will discharge
ed in the server room that contains the after the 30-second delay to protect the Brian McLaughlin is an associate and
brain of the CUP. equipment in the room. the Los Angeles fire-engineering practice
The server room is approximately 500 Clean agent and carbon dioxide extin- leader at Arup. He has 16 years of expe-
sq ft with a ceiling height of 19 ft 5 in., guishing systems are fire protection sys- rience in the application of building and
and the project requirements called for tems that can extinguish fires while leav- fire code requirements to hundreds of
FM-200 to be used as the clean agent. ing no residue that can damage sensitive projects on six continents, which includes
A single 600-lb cylinder installation equipment or delay reinstatement of a significant experience with mission criti-
with 345 lb of clean agent was used. The facility to operational order. There are cal facilities requiring clean agent fire-
engineered system design included four many options regarding extinguishing- extinguishing systems. Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017 DE4

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Future of Engineering
Computrols, Gretna, La.

Emerging wireless technologies

in building automation
Engineers need to consider wireless technologies for building automation
systems and realize the benefits of wireless systems for each scenario.

building automation system must be permanent and safe, and air with a few components, this is a viable
(BAS) is an inherently technical handlers cannot stop functioning. solution. Wi-Fi has the capability of
system. As such, the BAS indus- So, what if you run dedicated power providing very high throughput, with
try always seems to serve as a battle- wires to the sensor/radio? Well, that future improvements bumping it up to 5
ground for technological standards. defeats the whole point of not running GHz. With so many standards available
Recent advancements in wireless communication wire. This is the essence to building automation, its best to con-
technology have set the stage for the of the power problem: a truly wireless sider this as a last resort. Introducing
next big clash: BAS wireless standards. device has neither communication wire more congestion is something to take
There are three big contenders for BAS nor power wire running to it. If you into account when introducing another
wireless connectivity including Zigbee, were going to run a power wire to the Wi-Fi network into the mix.
Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth low energy (BLE). device(s), you might as well run the
communication wire as well. Long-life Bluetooth low energy (BLE)
Benefits to wireless systems batteries and energy harvesting, how- The standard is fast moving, with the
Wireless systems in large buildings ever, are possible solutions. 5.0 specification and Bluetooth mesh
have become a rapidly moving target. Before considering which wireless both slated to be released within the
Engineers feel increasing pressure to run standard is best for an application, its year. As for the 4.2 specification, Blue-
buildings more efficiently and with less necessary to consider the power connec- tooth makes for good point-to-point
downtime, and wireless systems are seen tions. Each use case for wireless systems communication as well as beaconing
as a risk to those comfortable with the should be considered separately. sensors. If the solution requires an
reliability of wired products. Engineers exponential number of components,
should consider the benefits of wireless The Zigbee standard with consistent back-and-forth com-
solutions that includes bigger savings, a The Zigbee standard was specifically munication, this may not be the right
smaller environmental impact, sustain- developed for building automation with solution.
ability, and easier upgrades. low energy in mind. If the use case in There are various scenarios that one
mind is meant to provide communica- may face when engineering a BAS,
Deterrents for using wireless systems tion for many nodes, with a minimal and wireless components can be seen
The most significant deterrent to full amount of communication, Zigbee as one of the many solutions available
implementation of wireless systems in should be considered. In theory, Zigbee with several associated benefits.
buildings is the power problem. Wire- networks become stronger as more
less BAS sensors are stationary and can- components are connected. This helps Bryce Jacobs is a software engineer for
not be regularly recharged, and usually with scalability and distance concerns Computrols Inc. In this role, he is tasked
not located near convenient wall power. by using mesh technology. with new product development and the
In large buildings, there will be thou- ongoing maintenance and improvement
sands of wireless sensors and located in Wi-Fi of Computrols BAS.
areas that are nowhere near a wall out- For building automation, if the
Read the longer version of this online at:
let. Power connections to BAS sensors implementation needs high throughput

80 Consulting-Specifying Engineer APRIL 2017


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