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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF

FITNESS LADDER

A thesis Submitted in partial fulfilment of the


requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology
In
Mechanical Engineering
By

Swarup Raj Jena


(111ME0299)

Under The Guidance of


Prof. K. P. Maity

Department of Mechanical Engineering


National Institute of Technology
Rourkela
Orissa -769008, India
2014-15
National Institute of Technology Rourkela
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled Design and


fabrication of Automatic Floor Cleaner submitted to the
National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) by
Swarup Raj Jena, Roll No. 111ME0299for the award of the
Degree of Bachelor in Technology in Mechanical Engineering is
a record of research work carried out by him under my
supervision and guidance. The results presented in this thesis has
not been, to the best of my knowledge, submitted to any other
University or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma. The
thesis, in my opinion, has reached the standards fulfilling the
requirement for the award of the degree of Master of technology
in accordance with regulations of the Institute.

Place: Rourkela Dr. K. P. Maity


Date Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of technology,
Rourkela- 769008
DESCRIPTION

1. ABSTRACT . 1

2. INTRODUCTION 2

2.1 CLEANING
2.2 SCRUBBING
2.3 AUTOMATION
3. AIM OF CURRENT WORK . 4
4. LITERATURE REVIEW .
4.1 BODY
4.2 INDOOR NAVIGATION
4.2. MODELLING THE SPIRAL PATH
5. DESIGN OF PRESENT WORK
5.1 FRAME
5.2 BEARINGS
5.3 SHAFT
5.4 PULLEY
5.5 BELT
5.6 RUNG
5.7 DC GENERATOR
5.8 LED BULB
8. CONCLUSION

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Acknowledgement

I express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to my thesis supervisor Er.RUSSI


KAMBOJ, Professor of Mechanical Engineering for providing precious guidance, inspiring
discussions and constant supervision throughout the course of this work. His timely help,
constructive criticism, and conscientious efforts made it possible to present the work contained
in this thesis.

I express my sincere thanks to Prof. Suraj Kumar Behera and Mr.Rajaranjan Senapati,
Btech student for their support during the project work. I am also thankful to all the staff
members of the department of Mechanical Engineering and to all my well-wishers for their
inspiration and help. I am also thankful to my classmates for their help during my project
work.

I feel pleased and privileged to fulfil my parents ambition and I am greatly indebted to
them for bearing the inconvenience during my B Tech. course.

Swarup Ra
Jena Rol
No:111ME0299
CHAPTER -1
ABSTRACT

Jacobs Ladder is a unique climbing treadmill. Its exceptional design places the user at a 40
order to take stress off of the lower back. You will not achieve it on any other cardio machin
patented system allows to perform the training without power consumption!!! In this versi
Jacobs Ladder, you only need to connect the display to the electrical outlet. This has a low i
on the cost of electricity. However, you can still exercise on the machine even without using
display. In comparison to other cardio equipment such as treadmills or elliptical trainers, yo
sure that the cost of using the machine is virtually the cost of the purchase. Hundreds of fitn
clubs all over the world have replaced treadmills and elliptical trainer with Jacobs Ladder.
Comparing Jacobs Ladder Ultimate to its precursor Jacobs Ladder Exclusive, the difference
in the necessity of display connection and in the materials. It is known as more economical

Jacobs Ladder Positioned at a 40-degree angle, this ladder offers a low-impact and intens
workout with a high return in cardiovascular improvement. With benefits similar to a climb
version of a Step mill, climbers can expect little to no stress on the lower back and joints wh
being in full control of the machines speed. Through the tension placed on the cable conne
the users waist belt and the bottom of the machine, climbers can pick up speed by moving
top of the machine and can slow down by easing back to the lower end

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2. INTRODUCTION

It is an angled, self-propelled, ladder-like cardio machine thats a favourite of


military training facilities. Due to the unique motion of climbing the ladder, it is
considered easier on the joints than other pounding movements such as running,
Beginners or those needing a steady-state cardio session can go a bit slower,
making it accessible whatever your goals.
It elevates your calorie burn. Because you utilize your entire body through
climbing the ladder, it burns a very high amount of calories per minute in
comparison to other cardio machines.
More efficient cardio workout, more calories burned per minute, more bang for
your buck. Since moving all four limbs at the same time requires stabilization,
your core and joint stabilizers (especially in the shoulders) are activated at a higher
rate than on most other cardio machines.

It's a great and tough cardio piece. It is a step mill that combines the lower and
upper body and you have Jacobs Ladder. Except instead of steps, you have rungs.
Because the user climbs with arms as well as legs more muscles are working and
more calories are burned. People using the machine are placed at a 40-degree angle
to put the spine in a more neutral position, relieve the back of stress and engage
core muscles.
CHAPTER-3
AIM OF PRESENT WORK :

Therapeutic climbing has been suggested to increase muscular strength and perceived physi
mental well-being. This study focused on the psychological effects of therapeutic climbing
compared it with standard exercise therapy.
It's a great and tough cardio piece. It is a step mill that combines the lower and upper body
have Jacobs Ladder. Except instead of steps, you have rungs.
Jacobs Ladder Ultimate is a patented cardio machine specifically designed for fitness and h
lifestyle enthusiasts. It is recommended for athletes and professionals. It used in private hou
fitness clubs as well as in the rehabilitation centres.
LITERATURE VIEW

Universities and professional sports teams agree that Jacobs Ladder is the ultimate
fitness experience. The unique design on the machine allows for both aerobic and
anaerobic workouts. Aerobically, Jacobs Ladder not only increases heart rate quicker
than other machines, but correspondingly results in increased VO2MAX levels. Jacobs
Ladder also offers the athlete the option of HIIT (high intensity interval workouts).
Because speed of the rungs is determined by the user, HIIT interval training workouts
can be achieved by utilizing 1-3 minute intervals at 85-90% maximum heart rate.
Jacobs Ladder emulates sprinting or stair climbing without incurring the high impact on
joints. While traditional stair climbers, elliptical and treadmills are well-suited for the
recreational athlete, Jacobs Ladder was designed to offer the interval training athlete an
improved method for in-season, pre-season and post-season workouts.

A study just completed at Louisiana State University has concluded with statistically
significant data that Jacobs Ladder uses less RPE (Relative Perceived Exertion) while
offering a greater Energy Expenditure (Calorie Burn) and lower impact on joints than a
similar workout on a treadmill.

The Jacob's ladder cardio machine is suitable for both a relaxing training and a solid
cardio workout. The cardio device offers a completely unique design and a new way to
work on your stamina.

Specifications
Frame: Welded Tubular Steel(mild steel)
Width: 24"
Length: 65"
Height: 48"
Rungs: Wood
Power: 110 V (220 V available upon request)
Output: 5-6watts,12volts
Elapsed Time, Feet Climbed, Rate (Feet/Min), Calorie Burn, Heart Rate (using chest strap)

Summary of Background Data.


Therapeutic climbing has become increasingly popular in rehabilitation and its effects on muscular
strengthening have been shown. Therapeutic climbing has also been suggested to yield psychological effects
such as changes in attentional focus from pain to physical capabilities. To date, no controlled clinical trial has
investigated these psychological effects and it is unclear whether therapeutic climbing is comparable or
superior to other forms of exercise
One of the great benefits of this machine is that everyone can go at their own pace, reads a statement from
the fitness center. The machine is not set according to speed or levels, in the manner that treadmills and stair
climbers are. It is a self-powered machine, so the faster you go, the faster it goes. In addition, ULF is the only
fitness facility in this area to have the Jacob'sLadder, and they have three.

The Jacob's Ladder optimizes cardiovascular and physical training, while protecting the body from hard
pounding and stressful movements, according to Stephanie Cook of Upper Level Fitness. Its design places the
user at a 40 degree angle to create a natural climbing position that takes stress off the lower back and hip
areas. Also, the low impact activity of climbing the Jacob's Ladder minimizes strain on joints, like knees,
elbows, back, and shoulders.

The dynamic climbing movement guarantees wide range of lower body muscle use, while significantly using
the upper body, arms and shoulders for increased efficiency as well, according to the staff at Upper Level
Fitness.

Another great aspect of the Jacob's Ladder is that it keeps the heart rate up. It is a great way to increase
anaerobic capacity and aerobic endurance. Moreover, the Jacob's Ladders provide a unique fitness
experience, while mixing up your workout routine.
CHAPTER-5
DESIGN OF PRESENT WORK :
Using the Jacobs Ladder, it is you who regulate the pace- the faster you go, the faster the machine works. I
stop, you only need to stop climbing. Nothing else! You have control over the machine, not the machine ov
The distance between rungs is equal to one English foot. This is a basic unit used by Royal Geographical S
it is commonly used to specify the climbing distance. If you want to calculate how many meters you did, y
multiply the result (in foot) by the number 0,3048.Hence the total system can be sub-divided into different
such as:
1. Frame
2. Bearings
3. Shaft
4. Pulley
5. Belt
6. Rungs
7. DC generator

8. LED bulb

BEARING
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and
reduces friction between moving parts. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear mov
the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of
forces that bear on the moving parts. Most bearings facilitate the desired motion by minimizing friction. Bearing
classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads (forc
to the parts. In the project, journal bearing is used to hold the shaft. The diameter of journal bearing is

SHAFT
A shaft is a rotating machine element, usually circular in cross section, which is used to transmit power from o
another, or from a machine which produces power to a machine which absorbs power.[1] The various members
as pulleys and gears are mounted on it. In the project, shaft is used to hold the pulleys and drive the belt.

TYPES

They are mainly classified into two types.

Transmission shafts are used to transmit power between the source and the machine absorbing power
PULLEY

A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of
a taut cable, supporting shell is referred to as a "block."

A pulley may also be called a sheave or drum and may have a groove or grooves between
two flanges around its circumference. The drive element of a pulley system can be a rope, cable, belt,
or chain that runs over the pulley inside the groove or grooves

Pulleys are assembled to form a block and tackle in order to provide mechanical advantage to apply
large forces. Pulleys are also assembled as part of belt and chain drives in order to transmit power from
one rotating shaft to another. In the project, pulley is used for belt drive.The bore of the pulley is1.25
inches.

How it works

The simplest theory of operation for a pulley system assumes that the pulleys and lines are weightless,
and that there is no energy loss due to friction. It is also assumed that the lines do not stretch.

In equilibrium, the forces on the moving block must sum to zero. In addition the tension in the rope must
be the same for each of its parts. This means that the two parts of the rope supporting the moving block
must each support half the load.

Belt
A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically, most often
parallel. Belts may be used as a source of motion, to transmit power efficiently, or to track relative
movement. Belts are looped over pulleys and may have a twist between the pulleys, and the shafts
need not be parallel. In a two pulley system, the belt can either drive the pulleys normally in one
direction (the same if on parallel shafts), or the belt may be crossed, so that the direction of the driven
shaft is reversed (the opposite direction to the driver if on parallel shafts). As a source of motion,
a conveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted to carry a load continuously between two
points.

FLAT BELT
Flat belts were widely used in the 19th and early 20th centuries in line shafting to transmit power in
factories.[1] They were also used in countless farming, mining, and logging applications, such
as bucksaws, sawmills, threshers, silo blowers, conveyors for filling corn cribs or haylofts, balers,
water pumps (for wells, mines, or swampy farm fields), and electrical generators. Flat belts are still used
today, although not nearly as much as in the line-shaft era. The flat belt is a simple system of power
transmission that was well suited for its day. It can deliver high power at high speeds (500 hp at
10,000 ft/min, or 373 kW at 51 m/s), in cases of wide belts and large pulleys. But these wide-belt-large-
pulley drives are bulky, consuming lots of space while requiring high tension, leading to high loads, and
are poorly suited to close-centers applications, so V-belts have mainly replaced flat belts for short-
distance power transmission; and longer-distance power transmission is typically no longer done with
belts at all. For example, factory machines now tend to have individual electric motors. The length of belt
ranges between 11 to 12 foots.

RUNG
A rod or bar forming a step of a ladder.It can be made of wood or metal.It acts as steps of ladder

D.C. GENERATORS

A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy for use in an
external circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water
turbines, internal combustion engines and even hand cranks. The first electromagnetic generator, the
Faraday disk, was built in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday. Generators provide nearly all of the
power for electric power grids.

The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and
motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate
electricity and frequently make acceptable manual generators.

A coil of wire rotating in a magnetic field produces a current which changes direction with each 180
rotation, an alternating current (AC). However many early uses of electricity required direct current (DC).
In the first practical electric generators, called dynamos, the AC was converted into DC with
a commutator, a set of rotating switch contacts on the armature shaft. The commutator reversed the
connection of the armature winding to the circuit every 180 rotation of the shaft, creating a pulsing DC
current. In the project, dc generator is used to produce the current so that led bul blows.

LED BULB

An LED lamp is a light-emitting diode (LED) product which is assembled into a lamp (or light bulb) for
use in lighting fixtures. LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times
greater than incandescent lamps, and are significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps, with
some chips able to emit more than 300 lumens per watt

LED chips require controlled direct current (DC) electrical power and an appropriate circuit as an LED
driver is required to convert the alternating current from the power supply to the regulated voltage direct
current used by the LEDs. LEDs are adversely affected by high temperature, so LED lamps typically
include heat dissipation elements such as heat sinks and cooling fins.
Comparison with other cardio machines

Fitness ladder got 1st rank in comparison to other machines which are used as a
workout. This machine not only helps in workout but also generate electricity.
Louisiana state university, los angeles has given the report on this machine.
ADVANTAGES

It is an innovative cardio machine and treadmill climber designed like a ladder tha
perennially.

It reproduces the action of climbing the ladder which positions the body in a 40 degree
and the spine in a neutral position.

So even as you have a gut blasting workout on it, theres no stress on any part of your
including the lower back, which often bears the brunt of grueling exercise sessions.

It guarantees unparalleled cardio workout the upper and lower body.

Challenges cardiovascular strength

Low impact and stress on joints

Incorporates total body

Offers low and high intensities based on climber

DISADVANTAGES
Large size of machine
Requires moderate to high handeye coordination
Location of cable on machine
CHAPTER-8
CONCLUSION:
Jacobs Ladder is a unique climbing treadmill. Its exceptional design places the user at a 40 an
order to take stress off of the lower back. You will not achieve it on any other cardio machine.
patented system allows to perform the training without power consumption!!! In this version
Jacobs Ladder, you only need to connect the display to the electrical outlet. This has a low imp
on the cost of electricity. However, you can still exercise on the machine even without using th
display. In comparison to other cardio equipment such as treadmills or elliptical trainers, you c
sure that the cost of using the machine is virtually the cost of the purchase. Hundreds of fitness
clubs all over the world have replaced treadmills and elliptical trainer with Jacobs Ladder.
Comparing Jacobs Ladder Ultimate to its precursor Jacobs Ladder Exclusive, the difference is
in the necessity of display connection and in the materials. It is known as more economical ver

FUTURE SCOPE

Fitness Ladder provides the most efficient exercise for those serious about conditioning. U
most cardio machines, this patented treadmill climber utilizes low impact, high range of m
exercise to provide a superior cardio workout to both the upper and lower body.

Fitness Ladder is an innovative cardio machine with ladder-type rungs on a non-mot


continuous treadmill. Its self-paced, so the faster you go, the faster it goes. This ladder is pre
by pro football teams, the FBI, the Army, the Navy, West Point and numerous Division I unive
to improve their strength and conditioning programs.
On this ladder the person's body weight is lifted over a 12-inch (30.5-centemeter) step for
range of motion than the eight-inches of a step mill.

You control the speed, the faster you go the faster the runners (on the ladder) come.

REFERENCE

http://www.austinfitmagazine.com/August-2013/AFM-Gym-Equipment-Review-2/

http://jacobsladder.eu/products/jl_ultimate.html

https://www.google.co.in/search?safe=active&biw=1366&bih=667&q=jaco
%27s+ladder+cardio+machine+disadvantages&oq=jacob
%27s+ladder+cardio+machine+disadvantages&gs_l=serp.3...506273.5068
0.507183.2.2.0.0.0.0.277.507.2-2.2.0....0...1c.1.64.serp..0.0.0.jLwzXVJ4g70

http://www.jacobsladderexercise.com/jacobs-ladder-2-cardio-machine/

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