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New issues in Training and

Development
Ram Singh
SENIOR RESEARCH FELLOW
TRANING NEED ASSESSMENT

A TRAINING NEED ASSESSEMENT IS A METHOD WHICH DETERMINES


WHETHER A T RINAING NEED EXSISTS AND IF IT DOES , WHAT TRAINING
IS REQURIED TO FILL THE GAP
THE RESULTS OF TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS HIGHLIGHTS THE SUBJECT
MATTER THAT NEEDS TO BE COVERED DUIRNG THE TRAINING.
LEVELS OF TRANING NEED ASSESMENT

INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS
ORGANISTATIONAL ANALYSIS
TASK ANALYSIS
INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS

It analyses how well the individual employee is doing the job and examines that what kind of training which employees
needs. The sources of information are
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
PERFORMANCE PROBLEM
OBSERVATION
Work samples
Interviews
Questionnaires
Attitude survey
Training programme chart (Up to date lisiting of current skills)
Orgnisatioanl analysis

It identifies the issues like


Impact of environment on operating cost
State of the economy and increasing global market place
Changing work force demographic
Organisational goals
Climate and support for training
Organisational goals
Changes in equipment
Anaysis of efficiency
Annual report and planning system
Analysis of cost of labour, equipment utilisation, customer complaint etc.
Employee attitudes and satisfaction
Task analysis

It provides data about a job or a goruop of jobs and knowledge, skills, attitudes and
abilities needed to achieve optimum performance
Sources of information
Job description
KSA Analysis (Knowledge, skill and attitude)
Performance standards
Review literature about the job
Analysis of operating problems ( Late deliveries, waste, repairs and quality control)
DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMME

SELECT STRATEGIES
BREAKING OBJECTIVES
CHOOSING METHODS
DECIDING ON PACKAGES
DESIGNING THE PROGRAMME
Meaning and significance of training
design
After assessing training Designing successful training
needs, the training manager programs requires not only a
will come to know whether thorough understanding of
training is the right solution the training problem, but also
to the performance or a well-stated definition of the
compliance problem. results to be achieved & a
If training is seen as solution thought out plan for
achieving those results.
to the problem, then the
training process moves to the
next stage designing a
program.
Meaning and significance of training
design

Design is a planning activity which in the context of training,


refers to
the framework for analyzing a training problem, defining the
intended outcome,
determining how to present the content to learners to achieve those
outcomes,
developing the training course according to the design, implementing
the course,
evaluating its effectiveness and
devising follow-up activities.
Meaning and significance of training
design
Training designers will have to consider certain important
factors from three perspectives before designing a program
and the three perspectives are
cost, availability and appropriateness.
Training designers will have to answer the following questions
-
What materials will be required to implement the program in a
particular way?
What media will be used?
What specialized expertise will be required for implementation of this
design?
The basic elements of an effective training
design
It is learner-focused
It should be based on identified
needs
It has measurable objectives
It is goal oriented
It is time bound

It has taken into account the


resource constraints and
availability.
Training design models

Instruction system development model


Training design models

The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:


1. Analysis
This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis.
2. Planning
This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that
measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media
selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to
impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.
Training design models

The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:


3. Development
This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing
course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration
props, etc. course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.
4. Execution
This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipment
benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories.
Training design models

The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:


5. Evaluation
The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in
terms of subsequent work performance.
This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and, making necessary
amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.
Factors to be considered for designing a training

The training manager has to take


several aspects into account while
designing a training program:
Previous knowledge, skills and position
in the hierarchy
Learning styles
Previous experience
Business or organizational purpose
Trainee characteristics
Nature of learning
Resources
Process of training design

Designing a training program involves a series of steps from identifying the


learning objectives, determining the training content, deciding the
methodologies, selecting the learning activities, defining evaluation criteria
and to specifying follow-up activities.
Even though it is the standard sequence of activities, training managers may
have some variations depending upon the situations.
Process of training design

Identifying the training objective


Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder
perspectives:

Trainer Trainee

Evaluat Design
or er
Process of training design

Determining training content


The major activities involved in the action plan are:
Identifying the program contents and activities.
Dividing program contents into sub-topics.
Segregating the contents and activities into knowledge, skill, and attitude related
Organizing the content sequentially.
Process of training design

Selecting training methods


Training methods can be broadly classified into two groups
On the job approaches like job instruction training, job rotation, coaching, mentoring, etc.
Off the job approaches like classroom training, seminars, workshops, etc.
Process of training design

Identifying learning activities and developing lesson plan


There are some basic rules for developing lesson plans:
There should be proper sequencing of learning.
The training manger should prepare an instructor guide
The training manager should ensure that the morning sessions are used for difficult topics,
subject to proper sequencing
Process of training design

Defining evaluation criteria


Training design is
incomplete if it does not
contain evaluation
criteria
The objectives of the
evaluation are to see
how far the training
program was effective enough in meeting the training objectives.
Process of training design

Specifying follow-up activities


Following questions while specifying follow-up activities and has to find answers for
them in advance:
Whom can the trainee ask if he requires any guidance while practicing at workplace?
What should the trainee do for his part to master the taught skills?
Can those trainees who fail to meet the pre-determined standards of performance be
retrained?
Training Aids

NON PROJECTED AIDS


CHALK BOARD
WHITE BOARD
MAGNETIC BOARD
PLASTIGRAPH
FLIP CHARTS
WALL CHARTS
PROJECTED AIDS
These devices pass lights through films or acetate sheeting to project an image to a suitable
screen
SLIDE PROJECTORS
FILMS
EPIDIASCOPES
OVERHEAD PROJECTORS
AUDIO VISUAL AIDS
LCD SCREEN
Manpower Redundancy

No longer in employment because there is no more work available


Why Organisation have to go for adjustment

Technological Development Organisation made Redefining


Global Competition adjustments in their
The Emergence of new market Structure relationship
with
Demographic and political System Customers
changes Process Stakeholde
rs
Managing Organisation HR Requirement in such a way that so that for
rightsizing redundancy never arises
Approaches to reduce Redundancy
Long Term /Strategic
Short Term / Operational
Characteristics of an organisation facing the
risk of Manpower Redundancy
Organisation have made no assessments of the likely trends affecting the viability of the
business
Such organisations would not have any clear business objectives values or standards
Such organisation would not have analysed the age and service profiles of their workforce
or maintained statistics on the trends of employee turnover
Such organisation would probably have a complex organisational hierarchy and a rigid
centralised management systems.
Jobs in such a organisations will be very closely defined with a multiplicity of work
demarcations
Almost all the workforce of such organisations would be permanent, full time
employees, with little or no use being made of part timers, temporary and fixed
term contracts. There will be consequently very limited scope for varying the size
of workforce.
Such organisations would operate a complicated and very detailed set of
conditions of employment in which changes in working time or in job duties are
difficult to introduce.
Such organisations would not have concluded any redundancy agreements with
their trade unions, as a result when redundancy occurs there is immediate
disagreements as to how these should be handled.
REDUNDANCY AVOIDANCE BY SKILL
RENEWAL AND MUTISKILL INITIATIVES
Computing ROI skill renewal and multi skill training
Step 1 Calculate all direct costs associated with the training programme
Step 2 Calculate lost productivity while trainers are in the programme
Step 3 Calculate the total cost of the programme
Step 4 Estimate expected hourly weekly or monthly productivity benefits per trainee
Step 5 Estimate the actual quality benefit from the training
Step 6 Using a standard discount rate formula to estimate the time length of the
trainings effect
Step 7 Calculate profit per trainee
Step 8 Calculate benefits of the total programme
Step 9 Calculate return on investment
REFER CASE
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

It is a set of techniques and procedures for improving organisational


performance. To sustain competitive advantage , the organisation not only
needs to recruit the best people but also focus on their continuous
development through an effective PMS.
MAIN FEATURE OF PMS
Focus on objective settings
KRA (Key Result Areas)
KPAs (Key Performance Areas)
KPIs (Key performance indicators)
KSOs (key sales objectives)
Develop system for ongoing review of objectives
Develop personal improvement plans
PMS aligns with training and development
Helps in pay review
Develop competence based organisational capablities
Developing performance objectives

SMART
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Result Oriented
Timely and consistent
STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE

Along with Technological Change like objectives, performance, standards


also change.
Performance standards are developed in collaboration with employees and
should be explained to the employees during the first month of his job.
Writing Performance Standards

Performance standards should be related to the employees assigned work and job
requirements
Reporting systems should be adequate to measure and report any quantitative
data
Quantifiable measures may not apply to all functions
Accomplishment of organisational objectives should be included where
appropriate such as cost control, improved efficiency, productivity and process
redesign etc.
HOW TO DEVELOP PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS

Participants will be able to:


Define performance standards.
Identify the seven performance/job factors.
Develop performance standards for employees whom they supervise.

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Competencies

501-5 The Supervisor is able to formulate and communicate performance


expectations of supervisees in behavioral and measurable terms.
534-2 The Supervisor can develop performance criteria that are specific,
measurable, behavioral indicators of task accomplishment, and can
communicate these expectations to staff.

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Agenda

Welcome and Introductions


The Importance of Defining Agency Expectations and Standards
What Are Performance Standards?
Developing Performance Standards
Summary and Evaluation
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Agency Expectations

Mission
Vision
Values
Performance
Core

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Defining Job Factors Activity

In small groups, write the following on flip chart paper.

1. Define what your assigned factor measures.

2. Give general answers, not specific examples.

3. For example, communication measures the employees performance level related to writing
skills
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Key Points in Writing Performance Standards

Employee feedback should be solicited when performance standards are


developed or revised.
The more specific the performance standards are, the more valid and
measurable they will be.
It is essential to determine how the performance standard will be measured,
how much time is required to measure it, and whether it reflects a priority of
the job.
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Key Points continued

Performance standards should be written to define the expectations of a satisfactory


employee.
The number and type of performance standards should be as inclusive as necessary to
adequately measure the expectations of each job factor.
Performance standards should be consistent with agency mission, vision, values,
policies, and priorities.
Employees in the same classification doing the same or similar work must have the
same performance standards.

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Writing Performance Standards Activity Part 1

With the participants at your table


o Choose a position description (pre-work) to use along with previous handouts,
including power point slides, write at least one performance standard, as it would be
stated for a satisfactory employee, for the job factor you were assigned.

You will have 15 minutes to develop the standards.

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Writing Performance Standards Activity Part 2

Pass your performance standards to the table next to you (each table should have another
groups performance standards).
For each performance standard complete the following S.M.A.R.T. assessment:
o Circle the part of the standard that is Specific.
o Underline the part of the standard that is Measurable.
o Draw a box around the part of the standard that is Action-oriented.
o Make a brief note as to why or why not the standard is Realistic.
o Underline two times the part of the standard that is Time-bound.
You will have 15 minutes for this part of the activity.

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Writing More Performance Standards Part 1

The first part of this activity is to be done independently.

Using the position description you brought with you, along with previous handouts,
including power point slides, write at least one performance standard for one of
the seven job factors as it relates to the position description you brought with you.

You will have 15 minutes to develop the standards.

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Writing More Performance Standards Part 2

Find a partner.

Review the performance standards that your partner wrote and provide feedback
using the checklist provided (Handout # 13 Writing Performance Standards
Activity Checklist).

You will have 20 minutes for the peer review.

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Questions?

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