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Name: Ferraris, Queen A.

Date Performed: March 26, 2015

Lacson, Dina L. Date of Submission: April 10, 2015
Regatalio, Kyle Dymer
Experiment No. 8
I. Introduction
Electricity is one of the most needed kind of energy nowadays. Electricity is also
an energy which could be harnessed by using of physical means, nuclear, and
chemical means. One way in harnessing energy using chemical means is by the use of
galvanic cells. Electrochemistry is the area of chemistry that deals with the relation
between chemical changes and electrical energy. Chemical reactions involving the
transfer of electrons from one reactant to another are called oxidation-reduction
reactions or redox reactions. In a redox reaction, two half-reactions occur wherein one
reactant gives up electrons and undergoes oxidation while another reactant gains
electrons and undergoes reduction. The oxidation process provides the electrons
necessary for reduction to occur. Therefore, the oxidized species is the reducing
agent and the reduced species is the oxidizing agent. One important consequence of
electrochemical reactions occurs if you separate the oxidizing agent from the
reducing agent, connecting them only with electrodes, a wire, and salt bridge creating
an electrochemical cell. Doing so forces the electrons to travel through the wire from
the reducing agent to the oxidizing agent and so creates an electrical current.

II. Data and Results

NERNST (Volts)
Zn|0.1M Zn(NO3)2| |0.1M CuSO4| Cu Zn Cu 1.10V
Fe|0.1M FeSO4| |0.1M CuSO4| Cu Fe Cu 0.75V
Sn|0.1M SnCl2| |0.1M CuSO4| Cu Sn Cu 0.48V
Pb|0.1M Pb(NO3)2| |0.1M CuSO4| Cu Pb Cu 0.47V


1 Zn+2+2eZn0 -0.763V
2 Fe+2+2eFe0 -0.440V
3 Sn+2+2eSn0 -0.136V
5 Cu+2+2eCu0 +0.337V
4 Pb+2+2ePb0 -0.226V

III. Discussions
In performing this experiment, a makeshift galvanic cell was used. In this
galvanic cell, a copper metal was paired with iron, tin, lead and zinc. The set-up was
consist of 20 mL CuSO4, SnCl2, FeSO4, Zn (NO3)2, and Pb (NO3)2 that were prepared
and put in different container. The solutions of SnCl 2, FeSO4, Zn (NO3)2, and Pb
(NO3)2 were also paired to CuSO4 which made up a galvanic cell. A galvanic cell or a
voltaic cell is a set up where in electrons were freed and were freely traveling all
around the set up therefore these free electrons were harnessed to become electricity.
In an electrochemical cell, an electric potential is created between two dissimilar
metals. This potential is a measure of the energy per unit charge which is available
from the oxidation/reduction reactions to drive the reaction. It is customary to
visualize the cell reaction in terms of two half-reactions, an oxidation half-reaction
and a reduction half-reaction. The cell potential has a contribution from the anode
which is a measure of its ability to lose electrons called oxidation potential. The
cathode has a contribution based on its ability to gain electrons called reduction
potential. During this set up, an oxidation-reduction reaction is process that liberated
those electrons. In the set-up, a salt bridge of KNO3 was used. The salt bridge
functions as a path that carries the charges from one cell to another. These paths were
the free flowing electrons that carry these charges. In this experiment, different pairs
of metals and solutions were used because these would test the capabilities of every
solution to conduct electricity through the use of oxidation-reduction reaction.

IV. Answers to Questions

1. Write down the significant redox reaction. What is the oxidizing agent?
a. Zn (NO3)2 + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + CuNO3
Cu2+ + Zn + 2e- Cu + Zn2+ + 2e-
Oxidizing agent: Zn
b. FeSO4 + CuSO4 CuSO4 + FeSO4
Cu2+ + Fe +2e- Fe2+ + Cu +2e-
Oxidizing agent: Fe
c. Pb(NO3)2 + CuSO4 PbSO4 + CuNO3
Cu2+ + Pb + 2e- Cu + Pb2+ + 2e-
Oxidizing agent: Pb
d. CuSO4 + SnCl2 CuCl2 + SnSO4
Cu2+ + Sn + 2e- Cu + Sn2+ + 2e-
Oxidizing agent: Sn
V. Conclusion
Electrochemistry is the study of chemical process that makes electrons move.
One way of making the electrons move is the oxidation-reduction reaction where in
the liberated the electrons and allowed those electrons to move freely. One way to
achieve a Redox reaction is using a galvanic cell. In the course of the experiment, we
have become familiar with the various concepts such as the conductivity of solutions
by way of dissolved ions, the reactions at work, and that they can be reversed by
running current through the circuit. We have also learned to measure potentials of
reduction of various materials and to predict the voltage generated by a battery
through its material components. We found out that redox reactions in which
electrons are completely lost by one species and completely accepted by another are
very useful because the half-reactions can often be physically separated. As oxidation
and reduction proceed at the electrodes, ions from the salt bridge migrate into the two
half-cellscations migrating to the cathode half-cell and anions migrating to the
anode half-cellto neutralize charge in the half-cell solutions. Electrons flow from
the anode through the external circuit to the cathode. Because of this directional flow,
the anode in a voltaic cell is labeled with a negative sign and the cathode is labeled
with a positive sign. We can envision the electrons as being attracted to the positive
cathode from the negative anode through the external circuit.

VI. References
Brown,, (2014). Chemistry: The Central Science, Pearson Education
South Asia Pte Ltd.
Advanced Chemistry with Vernier: Experiments for AP, IB and College
General Chemistry,Jack Randall,Vernier Software and Technology,
2004, 20-1.

Standard Electrode Potentials. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2015, from
VII. Appendix

Cu2+ + 2e- Cu E= 0.34 V

Zn2+ + 2e- Zn E= - 0.76 V

Pb2+ + 2e- Pb E= -0.13 V

Fe2+ + 2e- Fe E = -0.41 V
Sn2+ + 2e- Sn E= -0.14 V

Cu2+ + Zn + 2e- Cu + Zn2+ + 2e-

0.34V (-0.76V) = 1.1 V

Cu2+ + Pb + 2e- Cu + Pb2+ + 2e-

0.34V (-0.13V) = 0.47 V

Cu2+ + Fe + 2e- Cu + Fe2+ + 2e-

0.34 V (- 0.41V) = 0.75 V

Cu2+ + Sn + 2e- Cu + Sn2+ + 2e-

0.34V (-0.14V) = 0.48V