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Thermodynamics
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Thermodynamicsisabranchofphysicsconcerned
withheatandtemperatureandtheirrelationtoenergyandwork.
Thebehaviorofthesequantitiesisgovernedbythefourlawsof
thermodynamics,irrespectiveofthecompositionorspecific
propertiesofthematerialorsysteminquestion.Thelawsof
thermodynamicsareexplainedinterms
ofmicroscopicconstituentsbystatisticalmechanics.
Thermodynamicsappliestoawidevarietyoftopics
inscienceandengineering,especiallyphysical
chemistry,chemicalengineeringandmechanicalengineering.

Historically,thermodynamicsdevelopedoutofadesiretoincrease
theefficiencyofearlysteamengines,particularlythroughthework
ofFrenchphysicistNicolasLonardSadiCarnot(1824)who
Annotatedcolorversionoftheoriginal
believedthatengineefficiencywasthekeythatcouldhelpFrance 1824Carnotheatengineshowingthehot
wintheNapoleonicWars.[1]ScottishphysicistLordKelvinwasthe body(boiler),workingbody(system,steam),
andcoldbody(water),theletterslabeled
firsttoformulateaconcisedefinitionofthermodynamicsin
accordingtothestoppingpointsinCarnot
1854[2]whichstated,"Thermodynamicsisthesubjectofthe cycle.
relationofheattoforcesactingbetweencontiguouspartsof
bodies,andtherelationofheattoelectricalagency."
Thermodynamics
Theinitialapplicationofthermodynamicstomechanicalheat
engineswasextendedearlyontothestudyofchemical
compoundsandchemicalreactions.Chemical
thermodynamicsstudiesthenatureoftheroleofentropyinthe
processofchemicalreactionsandhasprovidedthebulkof
expansionandknowledgeofthefield.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]Other TheclassicalCarnotheatengine
formulationsofthermodynamicsemergedinthefollowing Branches [show]
decades.Statisticalthermodynamics,orstatisticalmechanics, Laws [show]
concerneditselfwithstatisticalpredictionsofthecollectivemotion
Systems [show]
ofparticlesfromtheirmicroscopicbehavior.In1909,Constantin
Systemproperties [show]
Carathodorypresentedapurelymathematicalapproachtothe
Materialproperties [show]
fieldinhisaxiomaticformulationofthermodynamics,adescription
Equations [show]
oftenreferredtoasgeometricalthermodynamics.
Potentials [show]

Contents[hide] HistoryCulture [show]

1 Introduction Scientists [show]

2 History Book:Thermodynamics
3 Etymology
4 Branchesofdescription
4.1 Classicalthermodynamics
4.2 Statisticalmechanics
4.3 Chemicalthermodynamics
4.4 Treatmentofequilibrium
5 Lawsofthermodynamics
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6 Systemmodels
7 Statesandprocesses
8 Instrumentation
9 Conjugatevariables
10 Potentials
10.1 Appliedfields
11 Seealso
11.1 Listsandtimelines
11.2 Wikibooks
12 References
13 Furtherreading
14 Externallinks

Introduction [ edit ]

Adescriptionofanythermodynamicsystememploysthefourlawsofthermodynamicsthatformanaxiomatic
basis.Thefirstlawspecifiesthatenergycanbeexchangedbetweenphysicalsystems
asheatandwork.[12]Thesecondlawdefinestheexistenceofaquantitycalledentropy,thatdescribesthe
direction,thermodynamically,thatasystemcanevolveandquantifiesthestateoforderofasystemandthat
canbeusedtoquantifytheusefulworkthatcanbeextractedfromthesystem.[13]

Inthermodynamics,interactionsbetweenlargeensemblesofobjectsarestudiedandcategorized.Centralto
thisaretheconceptsofthethermodynamicsystemanditssurroundings.Asystemiscomposedofparticles,
whoseaveragemotionsdefineitsproperties,andthosepropertiesareinturnarerelatedtooneanother
throughequationsofstate.Propertiescanbecombinedtoexpressinternalenergyandthermodynamic
potentials,whichareusefulfordeterminingconditionsforequilibriumandspontaneousprocesses.

Withthesetools,thermodynamicscanbeusedtodescribehowsystemsrespondtochangesintheir
environment.Thiscanbeappliedtoawidevarietyoftopicsinscienceandengineering,such
asengines,phasetransitions,chemicalreactions,transportphenomena,andevenblackholes.Theresultsof
thermodynamicsareessentialforotherfieldsofphysicsandforchemistry,chemicalengineering,aerospace
engineering,mechanicalengineering,cellbiology,biomedicalengineering,materialsscience,andeconomics,
tonameafew.[14][15]

Thisarticleisfocusedmainlyonclassicalthermodynamicswhichprimarilystudiessystemsinthermodynamic
equilibrium.Nonequilibriumthermodynamicsisoftentreatedasanextensionoftheclassicaltreatment,but
statisticalmechanicshasbroughtmanyadvancestothatfield.

ThehistoryofthermodynamicsasascientificdisciplinegenerallybeginswithOttovonGuerickewho,in1650,
builtanddesignedtheworld'sfirstvacuumpumpanddemonstratedavacuumusinghisMagdeburg
hemispheres.GuerickewasdriventomakeavacuuminordertodisproveAristotle'slongheldsuppositionthat
'natureabhorsavacuum'.ShortlyafterGuericke,theEnglishphysicistandchemistRobertBoylehadlearned
ofGuericke'sdesignsand,in1656,incoordinationwithEnglishscientistRobertHooke,builtanair
pump.[17]Usingthispump,BoyleandHookenoticedacorrelationbetweenpressure,temperature,
andvolume.Intime,Boyle'sLawwasformulated,whichstatesthatpressureandvolumeareinversely
proportional.Then,in1679,basedontheseconcepts,anassociateofBoyle'snamedDenisPapinbuilt
asteamdigester,whichwasaclosedvesselwithatightlyfittinglidthatconfinedsteamuntilahighpressure
wasgenerated.

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Laterdesignsimplementedasteam
releasevalvethatkeptthemachinefrom
exploding.Bywatchingthevalve
rhythmicallymoveupanddown,Papin
conceivedoftheideaofapistonanda
cylinderengine.Hedidnot,however,
followthroughwithhisdesign.
Nevertheless,in1697,basedonPapin's
designs,engineerThomasSaverybuiltthe
firstengine,followedbyThomas
Newcomenin1712.Althoughtheseearly
engineswerecrudeandinefficient,they
attractedtheattentionoftheleading
scientistsofthetime.

Thefundamentalconceptsofheat
capacityandlatentheat,whichwere
necessaryforthedevelopmentof Thethermodynamicistsrepresentativeoftheoriginaleightfounding
thermodynamics,weredevelopedby schoolsofthermodynamics.Theschoolswiththemostlastingeffectin
ProfessorJosephBlackattheUniversityof foundingthemodernversionsofthermodynamicsaretheBerlinschool,
particularlyasestablishedinRudolfClausiuss1865textbookThe
Glasgow,whereJamesWattwas MechanicalTheoryofHeat,theViennaschool,withthestatistical
employedasaninstrumentmaker.Black mechanicsofLudwigBoltzmann,andtheGibbsianschoolatYale
andWattperformedexperimentstogether, University,AmericanengineerWillardGibbs'1876OntheEquilibriumof
HeterogeneousSubstanceslaunchingchemicalthermodynamics.[16]
butitwasWattwhoconceivedtheideaof
theexternalcondenserwhichresultedina
largeincreaseinsteamengineefficiency.[18]DrawingonallthepreviousworkledSadiCarnot,the"fatherof
thermodynamics",topublishReflectionsontheMotivePowerofFire(1824),adiscourseonheat,power,
energyandengineefficiency.ThepaperoutlinedthebasicenergeticrelationsbetweentheCarnotengine,
theCarnotcycle,andmotivepower.Itmarkedthestartofthermodynamicsasamodernscience.[10]

Thefirstthermodynamictextbookwaswrittenin1859byWilliamRankine,originallytrainedasaphysicistand
acivilandmechanicalengineeringprofessorattheUniversityofGlasgow.[19]Thefirstandsecondlawsof
thermodynamicsemergedsimultaneouslyinthe1850s,primarilyoutoftheworksofWilliamRankine,Rudolf
Clausius,andWilliamThomson(LordKelvin).

ThefoundationsofstatisticalthermodynamicsweresetoutbyphysicistssuchasJamesClerkMaxwell,Ludwig
Boltzmann,MaxPlanck,RudolfClausiusandJ.WillardGibbs.

Duringtheyears187376theAmericanmathematicalphysicistJosiahWillardGibbspublishedaseriesof
threepapers,themostfamousbeingOntheEquilibriumofHeterogeneousSubstances,[3]inwhichheshowed
howthermodynamicprocesses,includingchemicalreactions,couldbegraphicallyanalyzed,bystudying
theenergy,entropy,volume,temperatureandpressureofthethermodynamicsysteminsuchamanner,one
candetermineifaprocesswouldoccurspontaneously.[20]AlsoPierreDuheminthe19thcenturywroteabout
chemicalthermodynamics.[4]Duringtheearly20thcentury,chemistssuchasGilbertN.Lewis,Merle
Randall,[5]andE.A.Guggenheim[6][7]appliedthemathematicalmethodsofGibbstotheanalysisofchemical
processes.

Etymology [ edit ]

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Theetymologyofthermodynamicshasanintricatehistory.[21]Itwasfirstspelledinahyphenatedformasan
adjective(thermodynamic)andfrom1854to1868asthenounthermodynamicstorepresentthescienceof
generalizedheatengines.[21]

AmericanbiophysicistDonaldHaynieclaimsthatthermodynamicswascoinedin1840from
theGreekroottherme,meaningheatanddynamis,meaningpower.[22]However,this
etymologyhasbeencitedasunlikely.[21]

PierrePerrotclaimsthatthetermthermodynamicswascoinedbyJamesJoulein1858todesignatethe
scienceofrelationsbetweenheatandpower,[10]however,Jouleneverusedthatterm,butusedinsteadthe
termperfectthermodynamicengineinreferencetoThomsons1849[23]phraseology.[21]

By1858,thermodynamics,asafunctionalterm,wasusedinWilliamThomson'spaperAnAccountofCarnot's
TheoryoftheMotivePowerofHeat.[23]

Branchesofdescription [ edit ]

Thestudyofthermodynamicalsystemshasdevelopedintoseveralrelatedbranches,eachusingadifferent
fundamentalmodelasatheoreticalorexperimentalbasis,orapplyingtheprinciplestovaryingtypesof
systems.

Classicalthermodynamics [ edit ]

Classicalthermodynamicsisthedescriptionofthestatesofthermodynamicsystemsatnearequilibrium,that
usesmacroscopic,measurableproperties.Itisusedtomodelexchangesofenergy,workandheatbasedon
thelawsofthermodynamics.Thequalifierclassicalreflectsthefactthatitrepresentsthefirstlevelof
understandingofthesubjectasitdevelopedinthe19thcenturyanddescribesthechangesofasystemin
termsofmacroscopicempirical(largescale,andmeasurable)parameters.Amicroscopicinterpretationof
theseconceptswaslaterprovidedbythedevelopmentofstatisticalmechanics.

Statisticalmechanics [ edit ]

Statisticalmechanics,alsocalledstatisticalthermodynamics,emergedwiththedevelopmentofatomicand
moleculartheoriesinthelate19thcenturyandearly20thcentury,andsupplementedclassical
thermodynamicswithaninterpretationofthemicroscopicinteractionsbetweenindividualparticlesorquantum
mechanicalstates.Thisfieldrelatesthemicroscopicpropertiesofindividualatomsandmoleculestothe
macroscopic,bulkpropertiesofmaterialsthatcanbeobservedonthehumanscale,therebyexplaining
classicalthermodynamicsasanaturalresultofstatistics,classicalmechanics,andquantumtheoryatthe
microscopiclevel.

Chemicalthermodynamics [ edit ]

Chemicalthermodynamicsisthestudyoftheinterrelationofenergywithchemicalreactionsorwithaphysical
changeofstatewithintheconfinesofthelawsofthermodynamics.

Treatmentofequilibrium [ edit ]

Equilibriumthermodynamicsisthesystematicstudyoftransformationsofmatterandenergyinsystemsas
theyapproachequilibrium.Thewordequilibriumimpliesastateofbalance.Inanequilibriumstatethereareno
unbalancedpotentials,ordrivingforces,withinthesystem.Acentralaiminequilibriumthermodynamicsis:
givenasysteminawelldefinedinitialstate,subjecttoaccuratelyspecifiedconstraints,tocalculatewhatthe
stateofthesystemwillbeonceithasreachedequilibrium.

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Nonequilibriumthermodynamicsisabranchofthermodynamicsthat
dealswithsystemsthatarenotinthermodynamicequilibrium.Most
systemsfoundinnaturearenotinthermodynamicequilibriumbecause
theyarenotinstationarystates,andarecontinuouslyand
discontinuouslysubjecttofluxofmatterandenergytoandfromother
systems.Thethermodynamicstudyofnonequilibriumsystems
requiresmoregeneralconceptsthanaredealtwithbyequilibrium
thermodynamics.Manynaturalsystemsstilltodayremainbeyondthe
scopeofcurrentlyknownmacroscopicthermodynamicmethods.

Lawsofthermodynamics [ edit ]

Mainarticle:Lawsofthermodynamics

Thermodynamicsisprincipallybasedonasetoffourlawswhichare
universallyvalidwhenappliedtosystemsthatfallwithintheconstraints
impliedbyeach.Inthevarioustheoreticaldescriptionsof
thermodynamicstheselawsmaybeexpressedinseeminglydiffering
forms,butthemostprominentformulationsarethefollowing:

Zerothlawofthermodynamics:Iftwosystemsareeachinthermalequilibriumwithathird,theyarealsoin
thermalequilibriumwitheachother.

Thisstatementimpliesthatthermalequilibriumisanequivalencerelationonthesetofthermodynamic
systemsunderconsideration.Systemsaresaidtobeinequilibriumifthesmall,randomexchangesbetween
them(e.g.Brownianmotion)donotleadtoanetchangeinenergy.Thislawistacitlyassumedinevery
measurementoftemperature.Thus,ifoneseekstodecideiftwobodiesareatthesametemperature,itisnot
necessarytobringthemintocontactandmeasureanychangesoftheirobservablepropertiesintime.[24]The
lawprovidesanempiricaldefinitionoftemperatureandjustificationfortheconstructionofpractical
thermometers.

Thezerothlawwasnotinitiallyrecognizedasalaw,asitsbasisinthermodynamicalequilibriumwasimpliedin
theotherlaws.Thefirst,second,andthirdlawshadbeenexplicitlystatedpriorandfoundcommonacceptance
inthephysicscommunity.Oncetheimportanceofthezerothlawforthedefinitionoftemperaturewasrealized,
itwasimpracticabletorenumbertheotherlaws,henceitwasnumberedthezerothlaw.

Firstlawofthermodynamics:Theinternalenergyofanisolatedsystemisconstant.

Thefirstlawofthermodynamicsisanexpressionoftheprincipleofconservationofenergy.Itstatesthat
energycanbetransformed(changedfromoneformtoanother),butcannotbecreatedordestroyed.[25]

Thefirstlawisusuallyformulatedbysayingthatthechangeintheinternalenergyofaclosedthermodynamic
systemisequaltothedifferencebetweentheheatsuppliedtothesystemandtheamountofworkdonebythe
systemonitssurroundings.Itisimportanttonotethatinternalenergyisastateofthesystem
(seeThermodynamicstate)whereasheatandworkmodifythestateofthesystem.Inotherwords,achange
ofinternalenergyofasystemmaybeachievedbyanycombinationofheatandworkaddedorremovedfrom
thesystemaslongasthosetotaltothechangeofinternalenergy.Themannerbywhichasystemachievesits
internalenergyispathindependent.

Secondlawofthermodynamics:Heatcannotspontaneouslyflowfromacolderlocationtoahotterlocation.

Thesecondlawofthermodynamicsisanexpressionoftheuniversalprincipleofdecayobservableinnature.
Thesecondlawisanobservationofthefactthatovertime,differencesintemperature,pressure,andchemical
potentialtendtoevenoutinaphysicalsystemthatisisolatedfromtheoutsideworld.Entropyisameasureof
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howmuchthisprocesshasprogressed.Theentropyofanisolatedsystemwhichisnotinequilibriumwilltend
toincreaseovertime,approachingamaximumvalueatequilibrium.

Inclassicalthermodynamics,thesecondlawisabasicpostulateapplicabletoanysysteminvolvingheat
energytransferinstatisticalthermodynamics,thesecondlawisaconsequenceoftheassumedrandomness
ofmolecularchaos.Therearemanyversionsofthesecondlaw,buttheyallhavethesameeffect,whichisto
explainthephenomenonofirreversibilityinnature.

Thirdlawofthermodynamics:Asasystemapproachesabsolutezero,allprocessesceaseandtheentropy
ofthesystemapproachesaminimumvalue.

Thethirdlawofthermodynamicsisastatisticallawofnatureregardingentropyandtheimpossibilityof
reachingabsolutezerooftemperature.Thislawprovidesanabsolutereferencepointforthedeterminationof
entropy.Theentropydeterminedrelativetothispointistheabsoluteentropy.Alternatedefinitionsare,"the
entropyofallsystemsandofallstatesofasystemissmallestatabsolutezero,"orequivalently"itisimpossible
toreachtheabsolutezerooftemperaturebyanyfinitenumberofprocesses".

Absolutezero,atwhichallactivitywouldstopifitwerepossibletohappen,is273.15C(degreesCelsius),or
459.67F(degreesFahrenheit)or0K(kelvin).

Systemmodels [ edit ]

Animportantconceptinthermodynamicsisthethermodynamicsystem,
whichisapreciselydefinedregionoftheuniverseunderstudy.Everything
intheuniverseexceptthesystemiscalledthesurroundings.Asystemis
separatedfromtheremainderoftheuniversebyaboundarywhichmay
beaphysicalboundaryornotional,butwhichbyconventiondefinesa
finitevolume.Exchangesofwork,heat,ormatterbetweenthesystemand
thesurroundingstakeplaceacrossthisboundary.

Inpractice,theboundaryofasystemissimplyanimaginarydottedline
drawnaroundavolumewithinwhichisgoingtobeachangein Adiagramofageneric
theinternalenergyofthatvolume.Anythingthatpassesacrossthe thermodynamicsystem
boundarythateffectsachangeintheinternalenergyofthesystemneeds
tobeaccountedforintheenergybalanceequation.Thevolumecanbe
theregionsurroundingasingleatomresonatingenergy,suchasMaxPlanckdefinedin1900itcanbeabody
ofsteamorairinasteamengine,suchasSadiCarnotdefinedin1824itcanbethebodyofatropical
cyclone,suchasKerryEmanueltheorizedin1986inthefieldofatmosphericthermodynamicsitcouldalsobe
justonenuclide(i.e.asystemofquarks)ashypothesizedinquantumthermodynamics,ortheeventhorizonof
ablackhole.

Boundariesareoffourtypes:fixed,movable,real,andimaginary.Forexample,inanengine,afixedboundary
meansthepistonislockedatitsposition,withinwhichaconstantvolumeprocessmightoccur.Ifthepistonis
allowedtomovethatboundaryismovablewhilethecylinderandcylinderheadboundariesarefixed.For
closedsystems,boundariesarerealwhileforopensystemsboundariesareoftenimaginary.Inthecaseofa
jetengine,afixedimaginaryboundarymightbeassumedattheintakeoftheengine,fixedboundariesalong
thesurfaceofthecaseandasecondfixedimaginaryboundaryacrosstheexhaustnozzle.

Generally,thermodynamicsdistinguishesthreeclassesofsystems,definedintermsofwhatisallowedtocross
theirboundaries:

Interactionsofthermodynamicsystems
Typeofsystem Massflow Work Heat

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Open
Closed
Thermallyisolated
Mechanicallyisolated
Isolated

Astimepassesinanisolatedsystem,internaldifferencesofpressures,densities,andtemperaturestendto
evenout.Asysteminwhichallequalizingprocesseshavegonetocompletionissaidtobein
astateofthermodynamicequilibrium.

Onceinthermodynamicequilibrium,asystem'spropertiesare,bydefinition,unchangingintime.Systemsin
equilibriumaremuchsimplerandeasiertounderstandthanaresystemswhicharenotinequilibrium.Often,
whenanalysingadynamicthermodynamicprocess,thesimplifyingassumptionismadethateachintermediate
stateintheprocessisatequilibrium,producingthermodynamicprocesseswhichdevelopsoslowlyastoallow
eachintermediatesteptobeanequilibriumstateandaresaidtobereversibleprocesses.

Statesandprocesses [ edit ]

Whenasystemisatequilibriumunderagivensetofconditions,itissaidtobeinadefinitethermodynamic
state.Thestateofthesystemcanbedescribedbyanumberofstatequantitiesthatdonotdependonthe
processbywhichthesystemarrivedatitsstate.Theyarecalledintensivevariablesorextensive
variablesaccordingtohowtheychangewhenthesizeofthesystemchanges.Thepropertiesofthesystem
canbedescribedbyanequationofstatewhichspecifiestherelationshipbetweenthesevariables.Statemay
bethoughtofastheinstantaneousquantitativedescriptionofasystemwithasetnumberofvariablesheld
constant.

Athermodynamicprocessmaybedefinedastheenergeticevolutionofathermodynamicsystemproceeding
fromaninitialstatetoafinalstate.Itcanbedescribedbyprocessquantities.Typically,eachthermodynamic
processisdistinguishedfromotherprocessesinenergeticcharacteraccordingtowhatparameters,suchas
temperature,pressure,orvolume,etc.,areheldfixed.Furthermore,itisusefultogrouptheseprocessesinto
pairs,inwhicheachvariableheldconstantisonememberofaconjugatepair.

Severalcommonlystudiedthermodynamicprocessesare:

Adiabaticprocess:occurswithoutlossorgainofenergybyheat
Isenthalpicprocess:occursataconstantenthalpy
Isentropicprocess:areversibleadiabaticprocess,occursataconstantentropy
Isobaricprocess:occursatconstantpressure
Isochoricprocess:occursatconstantvolume(alsocalledisometric/isovolumetric)
Isothermalprocess:occursataconstanttemperature
Steadystateprocess:occurswithoutachangeintheinternalenergy

Instrumentation [ edit ]

Therearetwotypesofthermodynamicinstruments,themeterandthereservoir.Athermodynamicmeteris
anydevicewhichmeasuresanyparameterofathermodynamicsystem.Insomecases,thethermodynamic
parameterisactuallydefinedintermsofanidealizedmeasuringinstrument.Forexample,thezeroth
lawstatesthatiftwobodiesareinthermalequilibriumwithathirdbody,theyarealsointhermalequilibrium
witheachother.Thisprinciple,asnotedbyJamesMaxwellin1872,assertsthatitispossibletomeasure
temperature.Anidealizedthermometerisasampleofanidealgasatconstantpressure.Fromtheidealgas
lawpV=nRT,thevolumeofsuchasamplecanbeusedasanindicatoroftemperatureinthismanneritdefines

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temperature.Althoughpressureisdefinedmechanically,apressuremeasuringdevice,called
abarometermayalsobeconstructedfromasampleofanidealgasheldataconstanttemperature.
Acalorimeterisadevicewhichisusedtomeasureanddefinetheinternalenergyofasystem.

Athermodynamicreservoirisasystemwhichissolargethatitsstateparametersarenotappreciablyaltered
whenitisbroughtintocontactwiththesystemofinterest.Whenthereservoirisbroughtintocontactwiththe
system,thesystemisbroughtintoequilibriumwiththereservoir.Forexample,apressurereservoirisasystem
ataparticularpressure,whichimposesthatpressureuponthesystemtowhichitismechanicallyconnected.
TheEarth'satmosphereisoftenusedasapressurereservoir.Ifoceanwaterisusedtocoolapowerplant,the
oceanisoftenatemperaturereservoirintheanalysisofthepowerplantcycle.

Conjugatevariables [ edit ]

Mainarticle:Conjugatevariables

Thecentralconceptofthermodynamicsisthatofenergy,theabilitytodowork.BytheFirstLaw,thetotal
energyofasystemanditssurroundingsisconserved.Energymaybetransferredintoasystembyheating,
compression,oradditionofmatter,andextractedfromasystembycooling,expansion,orextractionofmatter.
Inmechanics,forexample,energytransferequalstheproductoftheforceappliedtoabodyandtheresulting
displacement.

Conjugatevariablesarepairsofthermodynamicconcepts,withthefirstbeingakintoa"force"appliedto
somethermodynamicsystem,thesecondbeingakintotheresulting"displacement,"andtheproductofthe
twoequallingtheamountofenergytransferred.Thecommonconjugatevariablesare:

Pressurevolume(themechanicalparameters)
Temperatureentropy(thermalparameters)
Chemicalpotentialparticlenumber(materialparameters).

Potentials [ edit ]

Thermodynamicpotentialsaredifferentquantitativemeasuresofthestoredenergyinasystem.Potentialsare
usedtomeasureenergychangesinsystemsastheyevolvefromaninitialstatetoafinalstate.Thepotential
useddependsontheconstraintsofthesystem,suchasconstanttemperatureorpressure.Forexample,the
HelmholtzandGibbsenergiesaretheenergiesavailableinasystemtodousefulworkwhenthetemperature
andvolumeorthepressureandtemperaturearefixed,respectively.

Thefivemostwellknownpotentialsare:

Name Symbol Formula Naturalvariables

Internalenergy

Helmholtzfreeenergy
Enthalpy
Gibbsfreeenergy

LandauPotential(Grandpotential) ,

where isthetemperature, theentropy, thepressure, thevolume, thechemicalpotential, the


numberofparticlesinthesystem,and isthecountofparticlestypesinthesystem.

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Thermodynamicpotentialscanbederivedfromtheenergybalanceequationappliedtoathermodynamic
system.OtherthermodynamicpotentialscanalsobeobtainedthroughLegendretransformation.

Appliedfields [ edit ]

Atmosphericthermodynamics Industrialecology(re:Exergy) Philosophyofthermaland


Biologicalthermodynamics Maximumentropy statisticalphysics
Blackholethermodynamics thermodynamics Psychrometrics
Chemicalthermodynamics Nonequilibrium Quantumthermodynamics
Classicalthermodynamics thermodynamics Statisticalthermodynamics
Equilibriumthermodynamics Thermoeconomics

Seealso [ edit ]

Listsandtimelines [ edit ] Physicsportal

Listofimportantpublicationsinthermodynamics
Listoftextbooksinstatisticalmechanics
Listofthermalconductivities
Listofthermodynamicproperties
Tableofthermodynamicequations
Timelineofthermodynamics

Wikibooks [ edit ]

EngineeringThermodynamics
EntropyforBeginners

References [ edit ]

1.^Clausius,Rudolf(1850).OntheMotivePowerofHeat,andontheLawswhichcanbededucedfromitforthe
TheoryofHeat.Poggendorff'sAnnalenderPhysik,LXXIX(DoverReprint).ISBN0486590658.
2.^WilliamThomson,LL.D.D.C.L.,F.R.S.(1882).MathematicalandPhysicalPapers .1.London,Cambridge:C.J.
Clay,M.A.&Son,CambridgeUniversityPress.p.232.
3.^ a bGibbs,Willard,J.(1876).TransactionsoftheConnecticutAcademy,III,pp.108248,Oct.1875May1876,and
pp.343524,May1877July1878.
4.^ a bDuhem,P.M.M.(1886).LePotentialThermodynamiqueetsesApplications,Hermann,Paris.
5.^ a bLewis,GilbertN.Randall,Merle(1923).ThermodynamicsandtheFreeEnergyofChemicalSubstances.
McGrawHillBookCo.Inc.
6.^ a bGuggenheim,E.A.(1933).ModernThermodynamicsbytheMethodsofJ.W.Gibbs,Methuen,London.
7.^ a bGuggenheim,E.A.(1949/1967).Thermodynamics.AnAdvancedTreatmentforChemistsandPhysicists,1st
edition1949,5thedition1967,NorthHolland,Amsterdam.
8.^IlyaPrigogine,I.&Defay,R.,translatedbyD.H.Everett(1954).ChemicalThermodynamics.Longmans,Green&
Co.,London.Includesclassicalnonequilibriumthermodynamics.
9.^EnricoFermi(1956).Thermodynamics .CourierDoverPublications.
pp.(ix).ISBN048660361X.OCLC230763036 .
10.^ a b c Perrot,Pierre(1998).AtoZofThermodynamics.OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN019856552
6.OCLC123283342 .
11.^Clark,John,O.E.(2004).TheEssentialDictionaryofScience.Barnes&NobleBooks.ISBN076074616
8.OCLC58732844 .

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12.^VanNess,H.C.(1983)[1969].UnderstandingThermodynamics.DoverPublications,
Inc.ISBN9780486632773.OCLC8846081 .
13.^Dugdale,J.S.(1998).EntropyanditsPhysicalMeaning.TaylorandFrancis.ISBN074840569
0.OCLC36457809 .
14.^Smith,J.M.VanNess,H.C.Abbott,M.M.(2005).IntroductiontoChemicalEngineeringThermodynamics.
McGrawHill.ISBN0073104450.OCLC56491111 .
15.^Haynie,Donald,T.(2001).BiologicalThermodynamics.CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN052179549
4.OCLC43993556 .
16.^Schoolsofthermodynamics EoHT.info.
17.^Partington,J.R.(1989).AShortHistoryofChemistry.Dover.OCLC19353301 .
18.^TheNewcomenenginewasimprovedfrom1711untilWatt'swork,makingtheefficiencycomparisonsubjectto
qualification,buttheincreasefromthe1865versionwasontheorderof100%.
19.^Cengel,YunusA.Boles,MichaelA.(2005).ThermodynamicsanEngineeringApproach.McGrawHill.ISBN007
3107689.
20.^Gibbs,Willard(1993).TheScientificPapersofJ.WillardGibbs,VolumeOne:Thermodynamics.OxBow
Press.ISBN0918024773.OCLC27974820 .
21.^ a b c d"Thermodynamics(etymology)" .EoHT.info.
22.^DonaldT.Haynie(2008).BiologicalThermodynamics(2ed.).CambridgeUniversityPress.p.26.
23.^ a bKelvin,WilliamT.(1849)"AnAccountofCarnot'sTheoryoftheMotivePowerofHeatwithNumericalResults
DeducedfromRegnault'sExperimentsonSteam."TransactionsoftheEdinburgRoyalSociety,XVI.January
2.ScannedCopy
24.^Moran,MichaelJ.andHowardN.Shapiro,2008.FundamentalsofEngineeringThermodynamics.6thed.Wiley
andSons:16.
25.^"EnergyRules!EnergyConversionandtheLawsofThermodynamicsMoreAbouttheFirstandSecondLaws" .
Uwsp.edu.Retrieved20100912.

Furtherreading [ edit ]

Goldstein,Martin&IngeF.(1993).TheRefrigeratorandtheUniverse.HarvardUniversityPress.ISBN067475325
9.OCLC32826343 .Anontechnicalintroduction,goodonhistoricalandinterpretivematters.
Kazakov,Andrei(JulyAugust2008)."WebThermoTablesanOnLineVersionoftheTRCThermodynamic
Tables" (PDF) .JournalofResearchoftheNationalInstitutesofStandardsandTechnology.113(4):209220.

Thefollowingtitlesaremoretechnical:

Cengel,YunusA.,&Boles,MichaelA.(2002).ThermodynamicsanEngineeringApproach.McGrawHill.ISBN007
2383321.OCLC45791449 .
DunningDavies,Jeremy(1997).ConciseThermodynamics:PrinciplesandApplications.HorwoodPublishing.ISBN1
898563152.OCLC36025958 .
Kroemer,Herbert&Kittel,Charles(1980).ThermalPhysics.W.H.FreemanCompany.ISBN071671088
9.OCLC32932988 .

Externallinks [ edit ]

ThermodynamicsData&PropertyCalculationWebsites
Wikiquotehasquotations
ThermodynamicsEducationalWebsites relatedto:Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsatScienceWorld
BiochemistryThermodynamics
ThermodynamicsandStatisticalMechanics
EngineeringThermodynamicsAGraphicalApproach
ThermodynamicsandStatisticalMechanics byRichardFitzpatrick

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamics 10/10