CMMI: Version 1.

2 Basics

A presentation by QAI

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CMMI Version 1.2 Basics

History of CMMs
• CMM v1.0 (Software) was the first to be developed • Others were developed subsequently:
– SE CMM (Systems Engineering) CMM – Integrated Product Development CMM – SA (Software Acquisition) CMM – People CMM


Why Integrate?
• Adaptability to enterprise needs
– designed for evolution to meet current and future enterprise-wide process improvement needs – can add new process areas, generic improvement approach still applies


• Systems Engineering
– Covers the development of total systems, which may or may not include software – Focus on transforming customer needs, expectations, and constraints into product solutions and supporting those product solutions throughout the product life cycle

• Software Engineering
– Covers the development of software systems – Focus on applying systematic, disciplined, and quantifiable approaches to the development, operation and maintenance of software

• CMMI - SE/SW covers both

• Increased dependency between systems engineering and software engineering • Low maturity of the interfaces between systems engineering and software engineering


What’s New in CMMI Ver 1.2


CMMI® Framework

Constellation: Collection of CMMI® components that includes the model, its training materials and appraisal-related documents for an area of interest. CMMI models for development, services and acquisition Model for development provides amplifications for the systems engineering, software engineering, and hardware engineering disciplines “Additions” used to expand constellations for specific additional content - CMMI® Dev has one such addition (CMMI® - Dev + IPPD) (In V1.1, IPPD was a discipline.) Based on the initial efforts to maximize commonality among CMMI models, 16 of the 22 process areas of CMMI-DEV comprise the process improvement core for the three areas of interest currently being pursued: development, acquisition, and services.


Concept of Constellations

• Latest version of CMMI i.e. CMMI ver 1.2 for Development was launched in Aug’06 • Constellation: Collection of CMMI® components that includes the model, its training materials and appraisal-related documents for an area of interest
• Other constellations in making
– Acquisition
– Services


Concept of Maturity
• Software Process Maturity
– – Extent to which a specific process is explicitly defined, managed, measured, controlled and effective Implies a potential growth in capability and indicates both the richness of an organization’s software process and the consistency with which it is applied in projects throughout the organization A well defined evolutionary plateau toward achieving a mature software process Each level provides a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement

Maturity Level
– –


Staged Approach
• Proven sequence of typical areas to focus on for improvement • Permits comparison across organizations - assessment results can be summarized into a single rating • Easy migration from SW-CMM


The Five Levels of Process Maturity
Continuous Process Improvement

Improvement Optimizing Institutionalize (5) d

Quantitative Management

Quantitatively Process measured Managed and controlled (4)

Process Standardization

Defined (3)

Process characterized for the organization and is proactive

Basic Project Management

Managed (2)

Process characterized for projects and is often reactive

Initial (1)

Process unpredictable, poorly controlled and reactive

© Software Engineering Institute


Level 1 Process Areas

There are no Process Areas at Level 1


The Initial Level (1)
• Environment not stable for developing and maintaining systems • Inadequate management and engineering practices • Ineffective planning • Reaction-driven commitment systems • Emphasis on development and testing during crisis • Success depends on having exceptional people • Unpredictable process capability • Unpredictable schedules, budgets, functionality, and quality • Few stable processes


Level 2 Process Areas
• Focus is on enabling institutionalizing Project Management Practices

Instilling basic discipline into project management Requirements Management practices. Project Planning Each project Project Monitoring and Control may follow Supplier Agreement Management their own Measurement and Analysis set of processes. Process and Product Quality Assurance Configuration Management


The Managed Level (2)
• • • • • • • • • • Policies for managing projects Planning and managing based on experience Allows repeatability of successful practices Specific processes implemented by the projects may differ Realistic project commitments Costs, schedules and functionality tracked Requirements and work products are baselined Standards defined and conformed to Strong customer-supplier relationship with subcontractors A measurement process is in place


Level 3 Process Area
• Focus is on developing technical/ engineering practices integrating it with management practices and institutionalizing it.

Developing Requirements Development engineering Technical Solution practices, integrating Product Integration them with management Verification practices and Validation standardizing Organizational Process Focus processes across the organization Organizational Process Definition + IPPD Organizational Training Integrated Project Management + IPPD Risk Management Decision Analysis and Resolution


The Defined Level (3)
• • • • • • • • Organization-wide standard processes Effective engineering practices Integration of engineering and management processes Reuse of organizational learning Process Engineering Group (PEG) Organization-wide training program Project’s “Defined Process” Good management insight into the technical progress on all projects


Level 4 Process Area
• Focus is on quantitatively managing project and organization wide performance

Quantitatively manage organizational processes

Organizational Process Performance

Quantitative Project Management


The Quantitatively Managed Level (4)
• Quantitative goals for projects and processes • Variation in process performance narrowed • Meaningful variations can be distinguished from random variation • Products are of high quality • Projects are controlled quantitatively


Level 5 Process Area
• Focus is on continuously improving project and organizational capability

Continuously improve project and organizational capability through innovations & do root cause analysis for common causes

Organizational Innovation and Deployment Causal Analysis and Resolution


The Optimizing Level (5)
• Organization focused on process improvement

– incremental advances in existing processes – innovations using new technologies and methods
• Proactive identification of weaknesses to strengthen processes • Goal of preventing occurrence of defects through error-cause removal • Cost-Benefit analyses of introducing new technologies and proposed process changes


Skipping Maturity Levels
• Counter-productive • Each level builds a foundation for succeeding levels • Required leverage for implementing processes effectively and efficiently • However, processes described at a higher maturity level can be used


Continuous Model
• Allows you to select the order of improvement that best meets your organization’s business objectives • Enables comparisons across and among organizations on a processarea-by-process-area basis • Provides an easy migration from models with a continuous representation to CMMI • Uses predefined sets of process areas to define an improvement path for an organization


Structure of PA

No common features


Click here for more on Software Process Improvement

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