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Submitted by:
Ravindra Singh Yadav
Civil Engineering
GLNA Institute of Technology,Mathura

Clubhouse Structure Completed Finishing in Block- A Block Work in Block- B Work in Progress
Progress Progress for Terrace Slab

Block- D Work in Progress Block- F Work in Progress Block- G Work in Progress

for 9th & 10th Floor for 4th & 7th Floor for 7th Floor and Terrace

Block- J Work in Progress West Wing Completed up to East Wing Completed up to

for 4th & 5th Floor 19th Floor 18th Floor

Block C Finishing in progress Block H structure completed up to terrace, finishing started

I would like to express gratitude to all the concerned respectable executives of Larsen & Toubro
Limited, ECC Division for me this wonderful opportunity for internship which has been a pure
learning experience and which has enhanced my knowledge of the subjects which I knew only
theoretically before.
I extend my heartfelt gratitude to Mr Shyam Mohan Rao,my mentor for the valuable guidance,
constructive suggestions and encouragement throughout the project period .I express a deep
sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to all the project team members for their guidance, valuable
suggestions, unfailing support and channeling my efforts in the right direction throughout the
progress of this research without which this report would not have attained the present form.

Ravindra Singh
Larsen & Toubro Limited (L&T) is a technology, engineering,construction and manufacturing
company. It is one of the largestand most respected companies in India's private sector.
ECC - the Engineering Construction and Contracts Division of L&T is India's largest
construction organisation with over 60 years of experience and expertise in the field.
ECC figures among the World's Top Contractors and ranks 35th among top global
contractors and 60th among international contractors as per the survey conducted by
Engineering News Record magazine, USA(August200S).

Many of the country's prized landmarks - its exquisite buildings, tallest structures, largest
airports/ industrial projects, longest fIyovers, highest viaducts, longest pipelines including many
other benchmark projects have been built by ECC. ECC's leading edge capabilities cover every
discipline of construction: civil, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation engineering and
services extend to all core sector industries and infrastructure projects.ECC is equipped with the
requisite expertise and wide-ranging experience to undertake Engineering Procurement and
Construction (EPC) projects with single source responsibility. Contracts are executed using state
of the art design tools and project management techniques from concept to commissioning.


Logix is the first and the largest Private Equity Fund dedicated to the Indian real estate sector
with a fund size of US $2 billion and the backing of global blue chip investors and financial
institutions. They have emerged as a major pan India developer equipped with financial strength
to fully leverage available opportunities in this sector
Since establishing in 2004 they have evolved into a fully integrated real estate organization that
is both the financer and developer of its projects. The company has a pan India footprint of
projects in prime location across NCR(including Gurgaon), Haryana, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and
Maharashtra under various stages of development.
Combining the best of Indian and International resources, the teams consists of accomplished
Indian and expatriate professionals from diverse backgrounds to lead initiatives and to deliver
best in class products and services to our customers.
Logix has a diversified portfolio of high quality, strategically located projects across
approximately 3000 acres of owned land one of the leading pan India real estate asset portfolios.
Name of Work : Construction of Multi storied Residential Apartments & Commercial
Project-"Logix Riviera Project"
Name of Client : Logix Estates Pvt Limited, Delhi
Name of Executive Architect: Spazzio Design Arch. Pvt. Ltd, Delhi
Name of Design Architect : C.P Kukreja ASSOCIATES, New-Delhi
Name of Consultant : Vintech Consultants, Delhi
Date of LOI :06thMarch 2010
Date of Commencement :20th April 2010
Date of Completion : 18th December 2012
Project Duration : 33 months + DLP 12 months
Total Cost of Project : 455 crores
Contract Value : 280.00 Cr. (Excluding Service Tax)
Contract Type : Item Rate
No of Flats : 757 flats
Built-up area : 2,45,000 sqm

Other subcontractors:
For buildings and construction: L&T ECC
For Electrical- Sterline & Wilson
For Plumbing, Fire Fighting - Scenario
For Glazing - SP Fab
For Productivity Improvement McKinsey


Arch Tower- West & East Wing:

Each wing consists of 2B + G.F. +22 Floor +Terrace
Both wings connected by Sky Deck Slabs at 20th floor
Height of(+) 83.05m above G.L. and (-) 8.50m below G.L.
Typ. Floor height - 304m
Size (single wing) - 42.65m x 20.00 m
Total built up-area - 31222 sqm (approx)

Single Tower - B.D,F &H Block:

Each wing consists of2B + G.F.+28 Floor +Terrace
Height of(+) 104.95m above G.L. and (-) 8.50m below G.L.
Typ. Floor height - 304m
Size (single block) - 40.9m x 34.15 m
Total built up-area -,98931 sqm (approx)

Mid Rise - A,C,G&J Block:

Each wing consists of IB + G.F.+7 Floor +Terrace
Height of(+) 31.75m above G.L. and (-) 4.65m below G.L.
Duplex units up to 5thfloor
Single Units in 6th& 7'h floors
Typ. Floor height - 33m
Size (single block) - 56.20m x 28.80 m
Total built-up area - 32501 sqm (approx)
Access Roads:11

Major Quantities:
Excavation : 17000cum
Backfilling : 90060 cum
Concrete works (PCC & RCC) :141786 cum
Aluminum Shuttering: 487810 sqm
Plywood Shuttering : 133355sqm
Reinforcement : 13929 MT
Structural Steel : 378MT
Brick Work : 4754 cum
Block work : 134020 sqm
Water proofing :110185 sqm
Plastering & painting : 1115013 sqm
False ceiling : 51095 sqm
Flush door : 13065 sqm
Flooring : 211356 sqm
Vitrified ceramic tile: 133355 sqm
Kota stone : 12423 sqm
Granite : 39612 sqm
Marble/ sand stone : 39788 sqm
I had to cover the following departments during my training period. Such division of the
departments helped me in proper analysis and allocation of specific time for better understanding
of every division. The roles and responsibilities of the various departments are clearly defined in
the Project Quality Plan(PQP) some of which are as follows:

Planning Department caters to planning for resources, with inputs from the site team
leaders. It reviews contracts and prepares schedules on Microsoft project and drafts
Accepted Cost Estimate(ACE). It synchronises the activities of all teams to achieve the
schedule while monitoring the process, financial performance and resource usage. It
ensures timely updating in Enterprise Information Portal (EIP) and arranges required
information to customers as per the contract. It prepares the Job Cost
Reports(JCR),Monthly Progress Report(MPR) and functions as Management Information

Execution Department takes care of site engineering coordination and helps to execute
the activities planned by the Planning Department. It draft drawings/engineering
deliverables from Strategic Business Unit(SBU) for submission to the customer and
coordinates to obtain approval of customer/consultant. It maintains all required codes and
standards of reference as well as the latest approved drawings for use in construction. It
also maintains liaisons with SBU and customer/consultant, if any engineering related
problems need attention during construction. Site Engineer carries out the construction
erection testing and commissioning as per approved construction drawings and work
methods with the requires Quality &Safety within the required time and cost.

Quality Assurance/Quality Control Department as the name suggests ensures the

quality of the materials and methods used at site. It prepares the Project Quality
Plan(PQP) and conducts QA/QC tests on materials/inspection as per Inspection and Test
Plan(ITP). It coordinates for early disposal of non-conformity reports, monitors
calibration of all testing and measuring equipments. It organizes and conducts the
Management Review Meetings at regular intervals at site.

Reinforcement Department caters to the steel yard related a work comprising of

bending and cutting the bars and preparing them as per the Bar Bending Schedule and
dispatch them to the required areas at site. It receives the steel bars from the suppliers as

Safety Department prepares and implements the Environment Health and Safety
Plan(EHS). It identifies potentially unsafe acts, areas and practice and educates people. It
monitors EHS practices and persuades to minimize non compliance. It reports incidents
beyond control and unsafe occurrences while initiating preventive steps. It conducts
safety training programmes and maintains health and environment related aspects.

Administration and Accounts cater to liaison with local statutory and regulatory
authorities for obtaining approvals , monitors compliance to statutory regulations , filing
returns and preparing and updating all data related to accounts, booking, cost statements,
cash & fund management, banking operations for withdrawal and deposits and assures
supplier and sub contractor payments.

Stores maintains issue and receipt of materials including customer approved supplied
material. It arranges of inspection /customer approval of samples of incoming material s.
It provides proper storage of materials on ensures proper identification and traceability of
materials. I t carries out proper stock analysis and inventory control control
Safety is prime requisite at a construction site. With the advancement of technology in
construction the need for proper attention to safety aspects has become essential for human
economic and other considerations. The complex techniques in wide range ofconstruction and
building activities have led to many new problems in safety.
There is direct cost of accident but at the same time it leads to indirect of hidden cost also. This
hidden cost can have adverse effect on productivity. More than the cost the human life involved
is paramount concern to us.

L&T Safety Pledge: "I Solemnly affirm that I will do everything possible for the
prevention of accidents & occupational diseases & Protection of the environment in
the interest of Self, My Family, My community and the Nation at large."
Safety does limited to safe working conditions, it is for health and environment too.
For this the policy followed are:

Environment, Health & Safety (ERS) Policy:

Building & Factories Operating Company of Larson & Toubro Limited, ECC
Division affirms its commitments to conserve the environment and provide a safe and
healthy workplace to its employee and stakeholders.
Our EHS Policy:
All adverse environmental impacts and accidents are preventable and
No task is so important that risk of injury to people or damage to
environment is justified.
The objective of this EHS Policy shall be achieved at our work place by:
Incorporating EHS considerations in all business decisions
Promoting a positive EHS culture
Ensuring compliance to legal and other requirements
Identifying and controlling EHS risks arising in the work place.
Imparting structured training for employee and stakeholders.
Integrating EHS procedures into every operations of the company
Employing contractors who aspire to adopt the same EHS standards in
their work.
Encourage communication, consultation & collaboration with all
employees and stakeholders.
The senior management shall visibly upholds the principles of this policy and
integrate them through the operations. The management and supervisory personnel
shall be responsible for implementing and maintaining the EHS management system
necessary to sustain this policy.
Each and every department/unit of the company shall support the operation of this
management policy.
Working safely and in an environment appropriate manner are conditions of
We shall strive for continual improvement in our EHS management & performance.
Emergency Response Plan:
For the safety to be followed at a particular time, Emergency Response Plan is made.
Purpose of ERP: To ensure workman are familiar with the emergency evacuation
procedure to follow in the events of any emergency in the jobsite High Rise building.
Project EHS Plan:
Objective: To facilitate safe execution of the works by EHS factor into construction
program in a saturated way as per various requirement of job. It followed by:
Education & Training (staff, workmen, visitors)
Measuring & Monitoring
Energy Conservation
Fall Protection(person, material)
Encourage incident reporting
Implementation of monthly EHS drives
Enviromental protection.

Personal Protective Equipment:

Suitable PPE for different body parts are given below:
1.Head: helmet, wirenet, leather caps
2.Eyes and face: safety glasses ,face shields, splash proof goggles, welder screen, impact goggles
3.Ears: ear plugs, ear snuffs
4.Respiratory System: self contained breathing apparatus, dusk mask, supplied air hood etc
5.Hands and Arms: heat/chemical/sharp edge resisting gloves, arm guards
6.Trunk/Main body: apron, safety belt, heat resisting cloth, chemical resisting clothing
7.Feet and legs: safety shoes, skin guards etc

Colour categories:
White Helmet - engineer, staff
Yellow Helmet - unskilled workers
Blue Helmet- semi-skilled workers
Red Helmet- electrical workers
Green Helmet- safety workers
Violet Helmet - skilled workers

Task Assigned for this department:

To study the Emergency Response Plan
To have a look over the Evaluation of legal compliances
To know the Project EHS Plan
To have the observations over the safety measure taken at the site.
To visit labour colony

Safety policy is completely followed over the site.
The PPE issues for every workman over there.
In site safety measures are thoroughly taken.
The workmen have been given a proper training
over the site but then also some don't follow.
The labour colony is properly maintained

Reinforced concrete is concrete in which reinforcement bars ("rebar"), reinforcement
grids, plates or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension.
Concrete is strong in compression, but weak in tension, thus adding reinforcement
increases the strength in tension. In addition, the failure strain of concrete in tension is
so low that the reinforcement has to hold the cracked sections together. For a strong,
ductile and durable construction the reinforcement shall have the following properties
High strength
High tensile strain
Good bond to the concrete
Thermal compatibility
Durability in the concrete environment
The reinforcement department does the job of cutting and bending of steel bars an producing
them at the site as and when required. This is done at the steel yard as per he BBS.
This involves through study of through study of architectural and structural drawings according
to which the engineers decide the exact length of the steel bars to be laid, thus reducing wastage
of steel

Development lengths depending upon the grade of concrete for Fe 500 bars
M15: -
M20: 57D
M25: 49D
M30: 46D
M35: 40D
M40: 30D

Whenever a bar is bent by 90 degrees its length increases by 2D. Hence prior to cutting and
bending from initially long bar this factor is reduced from total length of the bar calculated for
cutting. However for bars(6mm & 8mm dia) that are used for making rings and are bent
manually this factor is ignored.
The clear cover to reinforcement is provided to safeguard the steel from fire hazards, to prevent
the steel rods from getting exposed to the atmosphere, to place and to fix the reinforcements as
per the drawings.
Cover blocks help to provide clear cover at the bottom of the reinforcement. Cover blocks are
made of cement sand mortar(1:3)
The clear cover for reinforcement is provided as:
Bottom of foundation:75mm
Top of foundation:50mm
Sides of foundation:50mm

In site the Reinforcement activity is followed by:

Reinforcement bars brought from supplier
Unloading at Steel Yard III
Monthly Target is set
Making of Bar Bending Schedule for cutting and Bending
Site Input
Cutting and Bending
Finished steel
Checking is done as per drawing
Pour card is prepared.

1. The bundles are visually inspected
2. We randomly select 2or 3 bars to check the mass difference aming these
3. Mass per unit length of bars=d^2/162
4. Tolerance for mass difference is 1.5% of dia
5. Counting of steel bars
6. Unloading of steel bars is done at site
7. Samples are sent to Quality Lab for ROLLING MARGIN TEST
8. Stock is counted and sent to steel yard
9. Steel yard ends the finished products to the respective blocks
10. If the steel is sent to the blocks is more han needed then it becomes scrap. The
scrap is sent back to the steel yard

Task Assigned for this department:

To study the preparation of Bar Bending Schedule.
To check the use of material and the scrap quantity.

Different types of formwork:

1. Aluminium Formwork
2. Conventional Formwork

ALUMINIUM FORMWORK:The panels of aluminium formwork are made from high

strength aluminium alloy with the face of contact surface of the panel, made up of 4mm thick
plate, which is welded to a formwork of specially designed extruded sections, to form a robust
component. The panels are held in position by a simple pin and wedge arrangement system that
passes through holes in outside rob of each panel. The panel fits precisely securely and requires
no bracing. The walls are held together with rigid high strength wall ties , while the decks are
supported by beams and props.

CONVENTIONAL FORMWORK: In conventional formwork we use H beams, plywood and

tower. In conventional method we firstly make the wall then we go for the slab. We first
complete the walls then we make the tower stand. And for getting more height we join 2 towers
consequently with the help of a coupler. At the lower end of the tower we use U head or Four
head. H beam ends are placed over U head which get support from the tower. There shouldnt be
any remaining space in the U head so these spaces are filled with wooden blocks. Then over
these beams we place plywood for the concreting of slab.

Major activities during execution:

DAY 1:
Setting out line and slab level/kicker level survey
Adjustment if any and timber stay fixing along the setting out line
Vertical rebar fixing
Wall formwork stripping and erection
Wall formwork can be struck after 12 hours.
DAY 2:
Wall formwork erection
Deck / soffit formwork stripping & erection
M&E activities
(Slab formwork can struck after 36 hours with left out prop support)
DAY 3:
Deck & soffit formwork erection
Vertical & horizontal Alignment
Slab rebar fixing
M&E activities
Sunk formwork fixing
Building Spacer & vertical soldier fixing
Checking & concreting
Formwork erection at site
Level surveys: A concrete level survey should be taken and all
remedial work carried out prior to erection of wall/column formwork.
A record of the survey should be kept by SFE. For a good practice
mark the (+) / (-) levels by paint.
High spots on the concrete (waIVcolumnline and PL position) should
be chipped off to the required level.
Low spots on the concrete (wall/column line and PL position) should
be packed to required level by using plywood or timber.
After concreting, level surveys should be carried out on the top of
kickers. ( it's very important for to maintain the verticality of
Setting out: Only the approved shell drawings should be used for
setting out.
Ensure the slab is clean and free from obstruction before setting out.
Ensure the setting out lines is visible after rain or cleaning.
Setting out line should be continuing thru opening, external comers,
etc., by approx. l50mm.
It's important that the reference point and the setting out points are
protected against damage.

Task Assigned for this department:

To know the types, process, method involved in formwork.
To know the formwork and its productivity analysis.
Management planning means "systematically planning the course of action for
achieving the objects within the stipulated time in the most economical manner, with
utmost safety". Control system helps to monitor:
The deployment and effective utilization of various resources
Progress of the work vis-a-vis the plans set
Predict the end result at in -between stages so that a corrective action may be taken, if
required, during the course of the project.

Management Planning & Control Systems is the common system designed by ECC
for the above purpose for various projects. It consists of. the following four
Tendering System: consists of planning and actual preparation of tenders.
Scheduling System: planning in advance of all activities & resources.
Monitoring System: feedback to Management
Management Information System: is the arrangement of information from
individual sites, compiled and converted to information which the top.
management would like to review each time.

Scheduling system:-
To evaluate requirement of inputs for the project in advance so as to take effective
steps in making them available in time.

To fix targets of achievement, in terms of milestone events, invoicing and

contribution, this will form the basis for budgeting & monitoring.
The following schedules form part of the scheduling system,
SO- Construction programme-Gantt chart, Bar chart
SI - Schedule of Invoicing
S2 - Schedule of Milestone Events
83 - Schedule of Plant and Machinery
S4 - Schedule of Staff
85 - Schedule of Labour
86 - Schedule of Material
87 - Schedule of Specialised Agencies
S8 - Schedule of Direct Costs
S9 - Schedule of Overheads
S10 - Schedule of Liquidity Forecast

All these schedules are to be prepared in the standard formats at the start of the
project, and are to be updated at least once in three months. Or, whenever there is a
major change in the scope of work; with the exception of schedules S-3 and S-4
which are required to be submitted monthly.

These schedules are to be prepared by the Construction Manager/Resident Engineer

and Planning Engineer identified for the job within a month from the date of receipt
of LOr. If either the RE or PE is not available, then the sarne is to be done in
consultation with the Regional Project/Planning Manager. However, it is preferred
that these schedules are made at Site by the Construction Manager / Planning
Engineer after collection of necessary inputs and going through the contractual
specifications terms and conditions. All necessary assistance with basic requirements
will be sent to Site by the Regional Office / Headquarters

Task Assigned for this department:

To have the cost analysis for concreting, for a month.
To calculate the concreting and shuttering quantity for a block.
Joint responsibility of site team to achieve the goal.
Responsibility for providing comprehensive support services to the project
Manage the show of site by compiling, organizing, directing and controlling.
Functions involve reflection analysis, intellectual judgement and firm decision
at every step.
Administration is not a specialised subject.
To achieve the goal without breaking the rules and violating any law/statute.
Flexibility, accessibility and humanity.
Industrial relation/human relation.
Managing a volatile site.
Modus operation differs from location to location.

Increase in staff productivity
Avoid idle labour
Control overtime
Proper planning of activities
Deploy required minimum
Safety awareness & prevention of accidents

Inventory control
Competitive Price
Control Wastages
Control non-moving/slow moving items
Handling dead stock

Money is nothing but working capital management.
Maintain only required minimum balance.
Collection of advances in time.
Timely submission & certification of invoices.
Vigorous follow-up and collection of outstanding.
Avoid I minimize deposits
Inventory control
Better terms of credit from vendors
Bank guarantees in lieu of "Cash Retention".

Optimum utilization
Timely maintenance
Control down time
Action for idle P&M
Monitoring of hired equipments

The site administration is five dimensional

Site mobilization
General Administration & Accounts
Functions of Stores
Functions of Time Office
Site demobilization
It is the process of filling the concrete slurry into the formwork for the designed shape
Concrete mix can be transferred by two ways
1. Manual(with the help of man power)
2. Machine (with the help of pump)

It is used to transfer concrete mix from the ground level to the assembled formwork

It is used for the uniform settlement of concrete mix.

POUR CARD(To be filled before concreting)


Grade of concrete
Members(where concreting is required)
Quality planned
Reference drawing(good for construction)
Sign of contractor

Sign of service manager L&T
Sign of services manager client
Sign by contractor safety officer
Sign by safety incharge

Formwork quality
Joints of formwork
Supports of formwork
Rebar size and dimensions

Start/finish time
Temperature at site
Actual concrete used


Finish conditions
No. of cubes cast
As the name suggests ensures the quality of the materials and methods used at site. It prepares
the Project Quality Plan(PQP) and conducts QA/QC tests on materials/inspection as per
Inspection and Test Plan(ITP). It coordinates for early disposal of non conformity reports,
monitors calibration of all testing and measuring equipments. It organizes and conducts the
Management Review Meetings at regular intervals at site.

Test Done For Quality:

1. Cement:
Compressive Strength
Setting Time (Initial & Final)

Fine Aggregate (Sand):

Silt Content
Sieve Analysis
Water Absorbtion
Bulk Density
Moisture Content
Chloride Content
Deterious material & Org. Impurities
Alkali Aggregate Reactivity
Penetrographic Examination

3 .Mineral Admixture:
Fly Ash
Physical Test

4.Course Aggregate:
Sieve Analysis
Specific Gravity
Bulk Density
Silt Content
Chloride Content
Deterious material & Org. Impurities
Alkali Aggregate Reactivity
Mechanical Properties (Crushing Value, Impact Value, Soundness, Finess
Flakiness Index & Elongation Index
Penetrographic Examination
5.Reinforcement Bars(steel):
Check for material & review of test certificate
Unit Weight
Physical Test

Testing done as per requirement ofIS 456
7. Admixture:
For concrete & mortars
Lab trial for workability & Setting Time.

8.Batching Plant:
Calibration of Batching Plant
Calibration of cube testing m/c

9.Mix Design/ Trial Mix:

Check on mix design
Combined grading
Water-cement ratio
10.Ready Mix Concrete/Daily concrete work:
Check for mix details
Workability (Slump Test)
Sampling for compressive strength
Cube compressive strength

Task Assigned for this department:

o To check the Quality of a Block with respect to Quality standards in
o To have a Quality Analysis in Concrete Production from Batching
Plant to Site.

Amongst various flourishing companies in the field of technology engineering, construction
and manufacturing L&T ltd is one of the largest and fastest growing company and I got a
wonderful chance to gain some practical knowledge I this respected and known company.
Learning the new concepts along with different activities involved in the project and their
respective analysis has been a very useful experience. This 4 week experience provided a
great knowledge regarding the basic principles of civil engineering and their application