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Cambridge

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This
CONTENTS
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Contents
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of colour in society has been refl
ected inclothing,
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and popular culture. Colour is a natural phenomenon, o
f course,construct
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e historian,
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subject,
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ifficultyseparate
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from othercolour
historical
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nt sets ofdocumentation
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them
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timetheyhaswerealtered
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ns that often
different fromarethoseentirely
known by past societies. And finally, over the decades we h
ave developed
looking at objects
the habitfrom the
of past in black-and-white photographs and, despite the
photography,
current diffusion our ways of ofcolour
thinking about and reacting to these objects seem to ha
ve remained
and
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less blackconcerns methodology. As soon as the historian seeks
to studywith
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a host he of
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echniques of ideology,
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as meanings that colours convey. How to mak
e sense ofHow
elements? allcanof one
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ages and coloured
researcher, no method,
objects?has yet
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g the numerous
pertaining to colour,
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study that
those and tocontradict
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forgetis clearly a poor way to conduct research. And it
toisapply
made to worse
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the temptation
and images of a given historical period information foun
d in texts
proper methodof thatat least
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ntologists
cave paintings(whowithout
must study the aid of texts): by extrapolating from the images and t
ahesystem
objectsbasedthemselves
on various a logic
concrete
and factors such as the rate of occurrence of par
ticular objects
distribution andand disposition.
motifs, their In short, one undertakes the internal structural a
nalysis
image
The third
orwithcoloured
setwhich
of problems
object
any studyshould
is philosophical:
of begin.
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onto definitions
objectsofand colour
monuments of past centuries. Our judgements and val
ues are not(and
societies those
no doubt
of previous
they will change again in the future). For the writer-hi
storian
and taxonomy
lookingof colour,
at the definitions
the danger of anachronism is very real. For example, the
order
spectrum
of colours
with itswasnatural
unknown before the seventeenth century, while the notion of
colours
primarydid andnot
secondary
become common until the nineteenth century. These are not eterna
l have
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notionsreflected
but history
stageson such
inofthe
knowledge.
issues at greater length in my previous work, so while
the present
certain of them,
book fordoesthe address
most part it is devoted to other topics. Nor is it conc
erned
in images
onlyand withartworks
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e in searchinsights
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professionals
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maths and science
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s to promote the thinking
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on which a healthy
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express artsorenable
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pers laughed
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dience
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before laughter occurred. Contrary to expectation, most con
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s wereorremotely
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youwastoo.
nice Mutual
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speaker laughs
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cenarioina type
comedy stand-upof comedy performance in which a non-laughing speaker presents jok
es to a laughing
audience. Comedy performance in general proves an inadequate model for everyday
laughter. Analyses that focus only on audience behaviour (a common approach) are
conversational
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s, phrases,
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ogicallythe
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as priority
single vocalisation
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to punctuation
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ech by laughter
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that breathing and coughing also punctuate speech. Better yet
, why not test
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my theory the of placement of laughter in conversation around you, f
ocusing
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the placement
It's a good thing that these competing actions are neurological
ly orchestrated.
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Having listened
39
WRITING
Question
Facilities |1:SAMPLE
inCandidate
need
toPAPER
SCRIPTS
of funds
todays
B1 WITHradio
EXAMINER
programme
COMMENTS
about facilities that need financial he
lp, I are
public
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3Examiner
Content
Commentary
Mark
Subscale
All content
is a comments
goodis
health.
way
relevant
to increase
to thethetask and the target reader is on the whole inform
ed. The candidate
selection between thehas two
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WRITING
Question SAMPLE
Candidate
a recent
SCRIPTS
PAPER C1 WITH EXAMINER
discussion about the
COMMENTS
facilities, which are financially sup
portedabyfewlocal
write of myauthorities,
personal thoughts.
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like to we are talking about sports centres
that or public
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Examiner
5le.
Content
Commentary
Mark
Subscale
All contentcomments
is relevant to the task and the target reader would be fully informe
d. The candidate
options (sports centres
discusses andtwo
green
of spaces).
the Although the essay is slightly unbala
nced,isfocusing
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Thisjobreport
WRITING
Question
My at|2:the
SAMPLE
Candidate
is wolfcraft
about
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PAPER myD1new
company
WITHjobEXAMINER
as a product
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nd about
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experience.
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my conditions
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4Examiner
Content
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Mark
Subscale
Thereall
computer
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all,programme.
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WRITING
Question |3:SAMPLE
Candidate
like SCRIPTS
PAPER
to watch,
E1 WITHevenEXAMINER
from timeCOMMENTS
to time, an old movie starring an iconic
world?actorsMarylin
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eAllsuch
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5Examiner
Content
Commentary
Mark
Subscale
This content
review
a comments
interested
success.
is based
relevant
I recommend
in heraand
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Congratulations
WRITING
Question
Hi, Chris!
|4:SAMPLE
Candidate
onPAPER
SCRIPTS
getting
F1 WITH a new
EXAMINER
job! AndCOMMENTS
it is great you are finally getting a
chanceoftoall,
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2Part
WRITING
EXAM
There2| are
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an old and unused building in the town where you a
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WRITING
Question |1:SAMPLE
influence
Candidate
SCRIPTS
PAPER younger
A2 WITHpeople
EXAMINER
in aCOMMENTS
good way, but also in a bad way. There
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youngertopeople.
followBecause,
can be useful, but it also is pretty exhausting
pressure
for adultsas well.
and theyIn addition,
may have someits just an opportunity for younger people, becaus
e theyll
become
In my opinion,
likedecide
these
younger
rather
adultspeople
they
or not.
want
should
to try to learn how life works on their own. T
his will failing
opinion, lead to ismorenormal
failures,
and necessary.
but in my Of course this way of influencing is m
ore exhausting
guess
Failures theyll
are crucial
figure
for younger
out learning
for howpeople,
to doandbutfor
things
I success,
on their therefore
own. I think that adults
that justthey
shouldbelieve
offerinadvices
them. Thats
and showgoing
them,to encourage younger people and they will
try to why
Thats learnI think,
and believe
that offering
in themselves.
advices is the better way how adults can influen
ce
5Examiner
Content
Commentary
Mark
Subscale
The Allyounger
content
candidate
comments
people.
ischooses
relevanttwoandofthethetarget
ways adults
readercan
is influence
fully informed.
how younger people be
ahave goodfrom
example
the input
and offering
materialadvice).
(settingThese are discussed in turn and the reasons
withfor both
choosing
positive
each and
one negative
are explained
aspects highlighted (younger people will be able
thinking;
The to candidate
see thebutadults
it alsobehaviours
states clearly
is prettywhich
and
exhausting
waysthey
way of for
think
adults).
is better (offering advices se
ems tothat
think be theadults
better
justwayshould
for me;offer
therefore
advicesIand show them), which fulfils the co
3ntent
Achievement
Communicative
The essay
criteria
is written
of theusing
question.
the conventions of the communicative task effectively
. The essay phrases
appropriate has a neutral
to introduce
tone andanduses
connect ideas through the text (On the one
hand;essay
The On thetopic
other
is clearly
hand; Incommunicated
my opinion).in the first paragraph and the main poin
ts are
The candidate
developed justifies
in separatehis opinions
paragraphs.
clearly and straightforward ideas are commu
nicated to However,
attention. the reader, there
holding
are atheir
couple of slips in register (I guess theyll figur
e out;
The conclusion
pretty exhausting).
restates the candidates own opinion about which way is better, aft
er
3their
Organisation
Thegiving
text
view.
issome
wellexamples
organised to and
support
coherent. The structure of the essay is logical a
nd cohesive
the ideas within
devices
andare across
usedsentences
to connect(decide to become like them; or at least t
o try; can be useful,
Organisational patternsbutareitused
alsotois;generally
In addition).
good effect. In the latter part of
opinion,
the essay,failing
failure
is normal
is discussed
and necessary)
(in my and then the effects of failure on you
ng peopleinaretheexplored.
repeated final paragraph
The idea(Failures
of failingareiscrucial) to support the candidates
2There is a range of vocabulary used appropriately, but there is some awkwardness
Language
conclusion.
word
of expression
choice or word
at times,
ordereither
(thereduearetovarious possibilities how this can happen;
a quite
decide
Some grammatical
rather
usefulthey
way;
forms
want;
advices;
areadults
used
butwith
just
it also
should).
control,
is; theyll
such as present tenses and modals
but thereforms
complex are or
errors
expressions
when moreare attempted. However, the errors do not impede co
mmunication.
Many people
WRITING
Question |1:SAMPLE
Candidate
are complaining
SCRIPTS
PAPER B2 WITHabout
EXAMINER
the younger
COMMENTSgeneration, because they dont behav
e the this
about righttopic,
way. Butin the
nobodyright
thinks
way. How should the younger generation know what
is right
they
The answer
knowandhow
iswhat
to behave
that isthey
wrong?
the right
need How
someshould
way? Without help they can not get it and not
help.
hing would
Through manychange.
satirical television programmes children and teenager get a wrong i
mpression
Most of theoftelevision
what is rightprogrammes
or wrong.are not helpful for the improvement of the beh
aveourteacher
should
Most of young
check whatpeople.
are looking
their children
But
after
adults
their
are pupils,
like. Theybutshould
there are
offeralways
them some who
advice.
dont.
I think
help
Beneath their
thatstudents
teachers
teacher
andand
should
parents
influence
bethere
ablethem.
are
to also other parts of the family which shou
ld be theretofor
important a child,
the child.
but even
It isolder
more people are doing it. You will always copy you
r parents,
people in your
family
life.
andSoother
everyimportant
person which is in your life, is an example for yo
u whether
All in allitI think
is a good
thatexample
it is more
or not.
effective and even more important to be a goo
d example
If you offerto some
follow.
advise to somebody, they will be shy at first, afterwards they
copy willyou,
be thankful
or behaveforlike
it.youButinthey
certain
will ways.
alwaysIt just happens and otherwise we w
ouldnt
4Examiner
Content
Commentary
Mark
Subscale
TheAll essay
the content
learn.
comments
discusses
is relevant
two of theandways
the in
target
whichreader
adultsiscan
on influence
the whole younger
informed.peoples
and behaviour
offering(setting
advice).a These
good example
are discussed and adults in different settings are u
sed to exemplify
television programmes;
certainteacher;
points parents;
(satiricalother parts of the family; important pe
ople in are
aspects yourdiscussed
life). Bothbutpositive
the secondandpoint
negative
(setting a good example), is not as c
learly
An opinion
expressed
is offered
as theasfirst.
to which way is best (I think that it is more effective
toandfollow)
even more
but this
important
is nottosupported
be a goodbyexample
clear positive reasons as to why the can
didateorthinks
you, behavethis
like(But
you in
theycertain
will always
ways. It
copyjust happens and otherwise we wouldnt
Bothlearn).
choices are mentioned in the conclusion, and the first seems to be more pos
itive andoftherefore
opinion the candidate.
contradicts
As a result
the of this, the reader would not be fully inf
ormed
2is
Achievement
Communicative
Themore
conventions
aseffective.
to whichofway thethe
communicative
candidate thinks
task are used to hold the readers attention.
some
The good
register
use of
is rhetorical
consistent questions
and there (How
is should the younger generation know ?)
in the
the
There reader
are
firstsome
with
paragraph
appropriate
the topic.
whichphrases
engagesused to introduce ideas and language of opini
on and explanation
communicate straightforward
is used toideas (The answer is; Through many; All in all). The
re
2not
Organisation
Theistext
many
someis
complex
repetition
generally
ideaswell
ofareinformation
expressed and
organised or attempted.
coherent and is structured with an intr
oduction,
main pointsmain
arebody
developed
and a through
conclusion.
the text
The using a variety of cohesive devices,
questions
and conjunctions
and answers,
(they;relative
their children;
pronounsthey should offer them; but there are al
ways some
There is some
who repetition
dont; thereofare keyalso;
ideasSo).
at the beginning (the right way) and subst
itution
2flow
Language
Thereofisthe
could
a range
text.
be of
usedeveryday
here tovocabulary
improve thewhich is used appropriately to express t
he main
the use of
ideas.
someThere
lexisare
(behave
some the
errors
right
in way; Beneath), but there is also some le
ss common lexis
complaining about;usedsatirical
appropriately
television
(are programmes; should be there for the chil
There is a range of simple and some complex grammatical forms used with a good d
d).
egreeerrors,
are of control
theseanddo not
although
impedethere
communication.
Many parents,
WRITING
Question |1:SAMPLE
Candidate
struggle
SCRIPTS
PAPER Cwith
2 WITHbringing
EXAMINERupCOMMENTS
their child into be responsible adults a
nd are
are of course,
unsure how manytoways
influence
of influencing
them. Thereyoung adults, and I want to present and
discuss
and
First offering
oftwoall,ofyour
itthem:
has
children
giving
to be said
advice.
rulesthat
to advice
obey is easy to ignore, and that children
even especially
want advice,
in their andadolescent
will tell you years,
so,dont
too: I dont need your help, they will say t
o you or even they
misunderstood shoutthink
at you.
their
Kidsparents
often cant
feel understand them, because they are too
aold. problem,
If yourit issonimportant
or daughter to make
has him or her feel that you do understand and on
ly want their
offering some advice,
best andhoping
are, therefore,
it will help them. Then again, there are rules. Rul
es be
to canabestone-hard
placed differently,
barrier to your
they childs
dont need
freedom. Adolescents will often bend ru
les orneed
they utterly
this certain
break them feeling
all because
of rebellion and freedom. Rules also help the mat
uringtooffollow
need the conscience.
rules, itsIfconscience
a child doesnt
will never mature and it will not know wrong
and frompunishments
right. If,should howeverthey
younot
placebe followed,
rules, your son or daughter will learn not
because
to steal, he or
to she
be home
doesnt
on time
wantsimply
to be punished. Dont overdo it, though. Placing too
hard punishments
destruction of thecouldconscience
also leadyourtochild never being able to make its own decisio
I think that giving rules to obey is the best way of influencing young people. W
ns.
hereverrule
every youisgo,absolutely
you find sensible,
certain rules.but while
Not growing older, your child will lear
nAllbycandidate
follow
5Examiner
Content
Commentary
Mark
Subscale
The content
itself
them
comments
which
of
is chooses
freerules
relevant
choice.
twoand
should
ofthe
thebetarget
ways
followed
adults
reader
andcan
iswill
fully informed.
influence younger people (offer
ing advice
obey). Negative
and giving
aspectsthem
of both
ruleschoices
to are described and this is balanced with
a moreimportant
(its positive to aspect
makeofchildren
each option
feel someone does understand; rules help with mat
In the conclusion, the candidate offers their own opinion on which way is more e
urity).
ffective
way) and explains
(giving ruleswhy (Not
to obey
everyisrule
the is
bestabsolutely sensible, but while growing
older,
4should
Achievement
Communicative
Essay writing
yourfollowed).
be child
conventions
will learnarebyuseditself
effectively
which rulesto communicate ideas clearly. The
theregister
candidateis mostly
offering consistent
advice (Dont
despiteoverdo it, though). Overall the language of e
xplanation,
appropriate
There is a mix opinion
for ofthis
straightforward
and
essay
justification
and holdsandthe
is readers
complex ideasattention.
running through the paragrap
hs. The topic
introduced andunder
the main
discussion
points are
is clearly signposted throughout by using approp
riate phrases
discuss two of(Ithem; wantFirst
to present
of all;andThen again; If, however) and the conclusion o
4ffers
Organisation
The texta summary
is welloforganised
the candidates
and coherent
opinion.
and the candidate makes good use of a va
riety of cohesive
connections betweendevices
ideas across
to showsentences and paragraphs, including referencing
, punctuation,
(There are of course..;
and conjunctions
First of all, it has to be said that..; ..and are, there
fore,complex
More offeringorganisational
some advice).patterns are used to generally good effect, particul
arly whenaspects
negative presenting of one
positive
topic (If,
and however, you place rules, and punishmentsyour
son
4hard
Language
Thereorpunishments
isdaughter
a rangewill could
of vocabulary,
learn
alsonot
leadtoPlacing
including
to destruction).
too common lexis which is used effect
less
ivelytois
easy
There (struggle
ignore;
a rangebendwith
of simple
bringing
rules; and
feeling
up;
moreadvice
of rebellion;
complex
is grammatical
maturing
forms
of which
the conscience).
are used wit
h control
itself which
andrules
flexibility
should be
(will
followed
learn and
by will follow them of free choice). Ther
e are occasional
communication anderrors
are sometimes
but theseduedotonotambition
impede or are slips.
Introduction
WRITING
Question
To:
From:
ISubject:
come
Municipal
Matheus
through
|Municipal
2:SAMPLE
Candidate
council
Rezende
this
SCRIPTS
PAPER
Library
letter
D2 WITH
to make
EXAMINER
an appeal
COMMENTSfor the not destruction of the Muni
cipalofLibrarys
Historical
One the reasons
Interests
building.
why the building should be preserved is because of its touchi
ng past. of
material It best
was built
quality,
withand
onlyitimported
was the second library in the country. It was a
lso, forand
biggest moremore
thanluxuous
a hundred
publicyears,
building
the in the whole country. For its character
isticbuilding
its
Benefits
The importance
seventeenth
for is
Community
inlocated
century
the past,
right
building
itinisthe
still
andmiddle
for
studied
of theandtown,
visited
so it
by is
historians.
accessible for
biggest
the entire
building
population,
in town,andandititiscan
alsosurely
the support more books than any other bu
By destructing the building it would with absolutly no doubt be a huge loss of b
ilding.
ooks and
There
Improvements is no
culture.
point arguing that the building is quite old-fashioned and could use
some somepainting
improvements.
and repairing
It couldonreally
the wall
use and floor, however, the best would be ma
kingsumas
such
To
Conclusion some
up,
elevatiors,
technological
there arecomputers
plenty