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DEP5303 Microwave Device Chp 2

g. Flexible Waveguide

Figure 2.6 Flexible waveguide

A flexible waveguide consists of spiral-bound ribbons or brass or copper. The outside is covered
with a soft dielectric coating took keep the waveguide air-and watertight. Short piece or flexible waveguide
are used in microwave system when several transmitter and receivers are interconnected to a complex
combining or separating unit. A flexible waveguide is also used extensively in microwave test equipment.

2.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN WAVEGUIDE

2.2.1 Boundary Condition

It refers to the conditions that E-field and H-field within a waveguide must meet before energy
travels down the waveguide.

There are 2 conditions that must be meet:


a) For an electric field to exist at the surface of a conductor, it must be perpendicular to the
conductor. An electric field CANNOT exist parallel to a perfect conductor.
b) For a varying magnetic field to exist, it must form closed loops in parallel with the
conductors and be perpendicular to the electric field.

Figure 2.7 Boundary condition

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Energy travelling down a waveguide is similar to the electromagnetic waves travel in free space.
The difference is that the energy in a waveguide is confined to the physical limits of the guide.

Since E-field causes a current flow that in turn produces H-field, both fields always exist at the
same time in a waveguide.

If one field satisfies one of these boundary conditions, it must also satisfy the other since neither
field can exist alone.

2.2.2 Rectangular Waveguide Characteristic

Angle of incidence(A) Angle of reflection (B)


(A = B)
(a) At high frequency

(b) At medium frequency

( c ) At low frequency

(d) At cutoff frequency

Figure 2.8 Wave paths in waveguide at various frequencies

When a probe launches energy into the waveguide, the electromagnetic fields bounce off the side
walls of the waveguide as shown in the Figure 2.8.

The angles of incidence and reflection depend upon the operating frequency. At high frequencies,
the angles are large and therefore, the path between the opposite walls is relatively long as shown in
Fig2.8 (a).

At lower frequency, the angles decrease and the path between the sides shortens, Figure 2.8(c).

When the operating frequency is reaches the cutoff frequency of the waveguide, the signal simply
bounces back and forth directly between the side walls of the waveguide and has no forward
motion.

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a) Critical (cut-off) wavelength, c (meter):


The largest wavelength that can propagate in the waveguide without any / minimum attenuation (or
the smallest free space wavelength that is just unable to propagate in the waveguide).

2
c 2 2
m n

a b

b) Critical (cut-off) frequency, fc (Hz):


The lowest frequency for which a mode will propagate in a waveguide.

( ) ( )

c) Phase velocity, Vp (m/s):


Phase velocity is the apparent velocity of a particular phase of the wave (e.g. the crest or maximum
electric intensity point). Phase velocity is the velocity with which a wave changes phase in a
direction parallel to a conducting surface, such as the wall of a waveguide.

( )

d) Group velocity, Vg (m/s):


Group velocity is the velocity of a group of waves (i.e pulse).Group velocity is the velocity at
which information signals of any kind are propagated. It is also the velocity at which energy is
propagated.

e) Propagation wavelength in the waveguide, g (meter @ cm):


In a waveguide, the distance measured along the axis of the waveguide for a phase shift
of 2 radians is known as wavelength or the propagation wavelength inside the guide is
called the guide wavelength. Guide wavelength is donated by g.

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( )

f) Waveguide Characteristic Impedance


Waveguide Characteristic Impedance also known as wave impedance. Wave impedance is
defined as the ratio of transverse electric field to transverse magnetic field at any point in
the waveguide.

For TE wave in rectangular waveguide, ZTE (),

( ) ( )

For TM wave in rectangular waveguide, ZTM (),

( ) ( )

Here, m and n represent possible modes and it is designated as the TEmn mode ;
m denotes the number of half cycle variations of the fields in the x-direction
or
number of -wavelength variations of fields in the "a" direction
n denotes the number of half cycle variations of the fields in the y-direction.
or
number of -wavelength variations of fields in the "b" direction

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Example 1 : Calculation for Rectangular Waveguide

An air filled rectangular waveguide with outer dimension 7.4 cm x 3.6 cm and wall thickness 0.4cm
propagates using operational frequency of 6GHz in dominant mode.
Calculate :
(a) Cutoff frequency, fc
(b) Cutoff wavelength, c
(c) Phase velocity, Vp
(d) Group velocity, Vg
(e) Guide wavelength, g
(f) Characteristic impedance,Z TE

Solution :

(a) Cutoff frequency, fc


Width, a=7.4cm

Height or length,
b=3.6cm

Thickness = 0.4cm

wall thickness = 0.4cm , dominant mode = TEm,n = TE1,0


Inner wall thickness, a= 7.4 - (0.4+0.4) cm =6.6cm = 0.066m
Inner wall thickness, b=3.6 - (0.4+0.4) cm = 2.8cm = 0.028m

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

(b) Cutoff wavelength, c

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

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(c) Phase velocity, Vp

c 3x108
VP 324.09M m / s
2 2
f 2.27GHz
1 c 1
f 6GHz

(d) Group velocity, Vg

Vg
c2

3x108
2

277.70M m / s
VP 324.09 x106

(e) Guide wavelength, g

( ) ( )

(f) Characteristic impedance,Z TE

377 377
Z TE 407.27
2 2 2
f f 2.27GHz
1 c 1 c 1
f f 6GHz

2.2.3 Circular Waveguide Formula for TE Modes


'
xmn
kc
'
value for xmn can be obtained from the table below.
a
a = radius of circular waveguide

n xm' 1 xm' 2 xm' 3


0 3.832 7.016 10.174
1 1.842 5.331 8.536
2 3.054 6.706 9.970

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Cut-off frequency: Cut-off wavelength

Phase velocity: Group velocity:

( )

Guide wavelength:

( )

Characteristic Impedance:

( ) ( )

Circular Waveguide Formula for TM Modes


x np
ke value for x np can be obtained from the table below.
a
n xm1 xm 2 xm 3
0 2.405 5.520 8.654
1 3.832 7.016 10.174
2 5.135 8.417 11.620

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Cut-off frequency: Cut-off wavelength

Phase velocity: Group velocity:

( )

Guide wavelength:

( )

Characteristic Impedance:

( ) ( )

Example 2 ; Calculation for Circular Waveguide

Calculate cut-off frequency, fc for dominant mode propagates inside circular waveguide with area
25cm2 . Operation frequency 2GHz

Solution :
Dominant mode = TEmn = TE11

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'
c.xnp '
fc , refer to the table , x np for TE11 = 1.842
2a
3x108 1.842
fc
2 (0.05)
= 1.759GHz

2a 2 (0.05)
Cut-off wavelength, c 0.171m
x'np 1.842

c 3x10 8
Phase velocity, V P 630.387 M m / s
2 2
f 1.759G
1 c 1
f 2G

c2 (3x10 8 ) 2
Group velocity, V g 142.77 M m / s
V P 630.387 M

c 3x10 8
Operating wavelength , 0.15m
f 2 x10 9

0.15
Guide wavelength, g 0.315m
2
f
2
1.759G
1 c 1
f 2G

377 377
Characteristic Impedance, Z TE 792.19
2 2
f 1.759G
1 c 1
f 2G

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