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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/JSAC.2016.2600139, IEEE
Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

Orthogonal Power Division Multiple Access: A


Green Communication Perspective
Weijia Han,Yan Zhang, Xijun Wang, Jiandong Li, Min Sheng, and Xiao Ma

AbstractIn cellular networks, since MAC layer plays a key To cope with the massive data and various traffics in the
role in every access equipment, it fascinates that little progress near future, it is highly demanded for new access techniques
on multiple access protocol could save considerable energy. which can provide more flexible resource allocation, higher
Accordingly, this paper studies a novel MAC protocol, i.e.,
the power division multiple access (PDMA) protocol, with the throughput, and lower energy cost per bit [7], [8]. With such
purpose of green communication. As a fundamental study of objectives, this paper focuses on the power division multiple
PDMA, we firstly propose a power division multiplexing (PDM) access (PDMA) protocol which could be a potential direction
scheme, analogous to the time division multiplexing (TDM) and for green communications [9][17].
frequency division multiplexing (FDM). It is proved that the
transmit power could be divided into multiple regular power
segments (PSs) to simultaneously transmit multiple independent A. Related Work
information/data streams in peer to peer communications. Based
on our fundamental studies of PDM, an orthogonal power The term PDMA was first proposed in [18], which is
division multiple access (OPDMA) protocol is proposed to utilize an initiative work using different transmit powers for mul-
multiplexing and degraded channel gains for energy saving. By tiuser access. Recently, since such a protocol can utilize
adopting the orthogonal PSs proposed in OPDMA, multiple the broadcasting channel to save more transmit power than
information streams in different channels could be transmitted
TDMA, CDMA, and FDMA/OFDMA, it is well recognized
efficiently and concurrently with quality of service guarantee.
This paper shows that the proposed OPDMA not only has low as one of 5G techniques in terms of non-orthogonal multiple
computational complexity as the conventional TDMA and FDMA access (NOMA) protocol [19]. Essentially, the conventional
protocols but also gains better energy efficiency, which consists PDMA/NOMA protocol is an application of superposition
with the energy saving requirement in green communications. coding (SPC) proposed in the field of information theory [20]
Index TermsPower division multiplexing, orthogonal power [24]. The core objective of SPC is to communicate multiple
division multiple access, non-orthogonal multiple access, super- messages simultaneously by encoding them into a single signal
position coding. with multiple layers at a low bit-cost level [22]. Briefly, on the
one hand, for wireless one-to-many (multicast and broadcast)
I. I NTRODUCTION and many-to-one communications, SPC utilizes the degraded
According to Cisco research [1], by the near time 2017, channel, existing in common broadcasting case [25], [26], to
TVs, tablets, mobile phones, and machine-to-machine (M2M) gain high system throughput. On the other hand, for peer to
modules will undergo traffic growth rates of 24%, 104%, 79%, peer communication, SPC uses multiple level modulation for
and 82%, respectively. It has been predicted that the mobile approaching the ergodic channel capacity. In contrast to SPC,
data volumes will grow up to 1000-fold by 2020 [2], [3]. PDMA/NOMA [9][18] pays more attention on the cellular
With massive mobile traffic growing, the energy consumption based multiuser access mechanism, which is also the major
of the information and communications technology (ICT) focus in this paper.
industry takes approximately 3 percent of the global annual Distinguishing from the fundamental TDMA, FDMA, and
electricity bill. Moreover, such percentage is rising at the CDMA, the NOMA protocols provide the method of power
speed of 15-20 percent per year [4], [5]. Actually, the energy division to enable multiuser access.1 In [9], NOMA is pro-
consumption of wireless communications has become not only posed to achieve high spectral efficiency by power division. As
an important economic issue for operators but also a challenge an implementation, the proposed NOMA jointly uses SPC at
for sustainable development [6]. the transmitter and successive interference cancellation (SIC)
at the receivers. Subsequently, [10] shows that NOMA can
Funding acknowledgement: The work was supported in part by National
Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 61401320, 61501285, achieve more than 30% system-level performance gain when
61231008, 61301176, and 61401354, by the Natural Science Foundation of compared with OFDMA. Since the merit of high resource
Shaanxi Province 2014JQ2-6032, and by the Fundamental Research Funds efficiency really matches the green communication, NOMA
for the Central Universities GK201503018 and JB160115. (The corresponding
author is Xiao Ma.) has attracted wide attentions [10][17].
W. Han and X. Ma are with School of Physics & Information Technology, In NOMA, the transmit power control plays a key role in
Shaanxi Normal University, Xian, P. R. China (Email: alfret@gmail.com and determining the overall system performance, due to the prin-
xma@snnu.edu.cn).
Y. Zhang, X. Wang, M. Sheng, and J. Li are with Broadband Wire- ciple of SPC. However, the optimum power control in current
less Communications Lab. & State Key Lab. (ISN), Information Science
1
Institute, Xidian University, Xian, Shaanxi, 710071, P. R. China (Emails: CDMA and PDMA/NOMA belong to the non-orthogonal access termed
yanzhangpcn@126.com, xjwang22@gmail.com, msheng@mail.xidian.edu.cn, in [27]. However, CDMA needs the orthogonality in code domain, and has
and jdli@pcn.xidian.edu.cn). not sufficiently exploit the resource in the power domain.

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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/JSAC.2016.2600139, IEEE
Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

NOMA protocols can only be obtained by exhaustive search efficiently transmitting multiple information streams in peer to
[9], [10], which does not suit for practical systems. According peer communications. For wireless one-to-many/many-to-one
to SPC, the transmit power control consists of two parts: i) communications, the OPDMA protocol ensures to efficiently
Power division and ii) power allocation, where the former one deliver multiple information streams in conditions of optimum
determines the transmit power of each information stream; the power division and allocation. Briefly, the main contributions
latter one decides the mapping between information streams of this paper are summarized as follows.
and signal layers.
1) Associating with TDM and FDM, we show that to guar-
To circumvent the optimization of power division, [11]
antee multiple information streams in a shared resource
compares three power division strategies: The full search
(like the time-slot/sub-band resource unit of TDM/FDM)
power division (FSPD), the proportional fairness based trans-
independent of each other, an eligible division multiplex-
mit power control (FTPC) [13], and the pre-defined fixed
ing scheme needs to keep that the corresponding bits,
power division (FPD). Among the three strategies, FTPC
mapped from the divided resources, are orthogonal in
and FPD have evidently lower computational complexity than
the bit domain. In view of such bit-orthogonality, we
FSPD, at the same time, FTPC gains more throughput than
propose a PDM scheme where the transmit power is
FPD. Hence, the NOMA with FTPC is preferred and further
divided into multiple regular PSs. Each one can support
studied in the condition of uplink transmission [12]. Although
one of the multiple information streams at a required
FTPC has low computational complexity, it cannot guarantee
transmission rate for a target QoS. Our study on PDM
the quality of service (QoS) of individual users, which is a
provides the theoretical fundamentals for designing a
strict requirement in a common cellular system. As proved in
multiple access protocol, and shows an approach to
[14], the outage performance of NOMA is mainly determined
transmit the multiple information streams under a same
by the users target transmission rate and the related power
channel gain, which have not been studied in the related
allocation. When the transmit powers are allocated unsuitably,
works of NOMA.
the multiusers QoS will never be met. For the optimization
2) From the perspective of bit-orthogonality, this pa-
of power allocation, although [11] and [12] have mentioned
per proves that when the transmit power is divided
the user scheduling in downlink and uplink channels, there
to ensure each PS could support c bits/sec/Hz in
has not exist a comprehensive research to show the optimum
PDM, a combination of b consecutive PSs offers bc
power allocation.
bits/sec/Hz transmission rate and the other ones keep the
In summary, the current PDMA/NOMA protocols [9][13],
c bits/sec/Hz capability. Such results not only validate
[15] cannot efficiently obtain the optimum power division and
that the PSs in PDM, analogous to the time-slots/sub-
allocation, at the same time, guarantee the QoS requirement,
bands in TDM/FDM, can support multiple independent
resulting in resource waste. In this paper, we concentrate on
information streams at the same time, but also show
simultaneously circumventing the above issues to propose a
that the linear combination of PSs could satisfy different
green MAC protocol.
requirements on QoS.
3) Based on the fundamental studies of PDM, we pro-
B. Main Results pose an OPDMA protocol which guarantees the bit-
orthogonality, at the same time, utilizes both the division
Essentially, NOMA belongs to PDMA where the total
multiplexing and the degraded channel gain [25], [26].
transmit power is divided into multiple power segments (PSs),
To minimize the transmit power of OPDMA for green
similar to the time-slots/sub-bands in TDMA/FDMA. Evi-
communications, we derive the optimum PS allocation
dently, as an eligible multiuser access protocol, PDMA has to
for the downlink and uplink transmissions, respectively.
jointly consider: i) The low complexity of power division and
At particular, our theoretical results show that the power
ii) the QoS (e.g., transmission rate) of each access user. How-
allocation in PDMA is completely different for downlink
ever, such restrictions have not been simultaneously satisfied
and uplink cases, which has not been well studied in the
in current PDMA/NOMA protocols, resulting in inefficient
related works [9][18]. Additionally, with regard to the
utilization of the transmit power resource. Additionally, by
QoS requirement, we derive the optimum PS division
referring to the development of TDMA, FDMA, and CDMA,
given by a closed-form expression, which ensures the
these mature access protocols in cellular networks are all
computational complexity of OPDMA is eligible.
based on the fundamental studies of time division multiplexing
4) Furthermore, in view of green communications, we
(TDM), frequency division multiplexing (FDM), and code di-
prove that the proposed OPDMAs energy efficiency
vision multiplexing (CDM), respectively. However, the power
(EE), whose metric is energy cost per bit per second per
division multiplexing (PDM) has not been well researched for
Hertz, outperforms the conventional TDMA/FDMAs.
PDMA, leading that the current power division based MAC
Besides, the proposed OPDMA does not suffer
protocols may have not utilize the power resource efficiently.
the estimation errors on timing/central frequency in
To address such issues for green communications, this paper
TDMA/FDMA.
provides a comprehensive research on the PDMA based proto-
col. We first study the PDM technique, and then extend it to an Consequently, the proposed OPDMA can not only effi-
orthogonal power division multiple access (OPDMA) protocol ciently guarantee the QoS requirement but also spend the
with regard to multiple access channels. Our PDM aims at minimum transmit power for green communications.

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

Base station Base station


M information streams M information streams

(a) M information streams in the resource division multiplexing case (b) M information streams in the multiple access protocol case

Fig. 1. Illustration of system model.

C. Organization III. F UNDAMENTALS OF PDM


The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section In this section, PDM is studied for the peer to peer com-
II introduces the system model. Section III studies PDM munication where multiple information streams are required
from the perspective of bit domain. Section IV proposes to transmit from a transmitter to a receiver. We first show
an OPDMA protocol with an optimum power division and that a reasonable PDM could be treated as a transform from
allocation strategy. Section V presents the simulation results to the power domain to the bit domain when compared with the
validate our studies. Finally, Section VI concludes this paper. classical TDM and FDM. Based on this result, the transmit
power could be efficiently divided into multiple PSs which
can be used to transmit independent information streams
II. S YSTEM M ODEL respectively.
This paper focuses on a single cell in a cellular network.
The cell consists of one base station and multiple access users A. Definition of PDM
which are equipped with an antenna respectively, as shown in At first, we use TDM and FDM to show that the essence
Fig. 1. of division multiplexing is to ensure the orthogonality and
When studying the resource division multiplexing in peer fairness in bit domain. This orthogonality guarantees the
to peer communication, we consider there are M different information stream in a time-slot/sub-band of TDM/FDM is
information streams between one transmitter and one independent of any others. For example, when two information
receiver. streams respectively have different time-slots in a TDM sys-
In the case of one-to-many and many-to-one communica- tem, their transmitted data is not mutually interfered whatever
tions, assume there are M different information streams the transmit powers and bandwidths are used. Based on such
required by the multiple access terminals. results, a PDM scheme is proposed from the perspective of
the bit-orthogonality and then extended to a multiple access
For each information stream, a constant transmission rate protocol in next section. To begin with simple conditions, we
c is required to guarantee the QoS requirement. In addition, have the following assumptions: i) In the condition of AWGN
we do not specify the duplexing, e.g., time division duplexing channel with noise power 2 = 1 and channel gain h = 1,
(TDD) and frequency division duplexing (FDD), since it does two information streams are required to deliver c1 and c2 ,
not impact on the study of the multiple access protocol in this respectively; ii) the corresponding equipments could use either
paper. two time-slots whose lengths are t1 and t2 , or two frequency
In our system, the wireless channels are independent and bands whose bandwidths are B1 and B2 to ensure c1 = c2 for
identically distributed (i.i.d.) block Rayleigh fading, which the information streams .
means the fading channel gain remains constant during a Based on Shannon capacity, the total quantity of the trans-
frame. Additionally, consider the channel estimation is perfect, mitted data is given by
which means that the channel state information (CSI) is known
at the transmitter for each frame. We impose a maximum trans- c = tB log(1 + s) (1)
mit power constrain at the transmitter and consider additive
white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at the receiver. Also, SPC and where t, B, and s denote transmit time, channel bandwidth,
SIC are employed in transmitter and receiver, respectively.2 and transmit power, respectively. For eligibly multiplexing a
certain kind of communication resource, TDM and FDM are
2 The SIC receivers have been widely used and are architecturally similar to based on the division of the transmit time t and the channel
traditional non-SIC receivers in terms of hardware complexity and cost [28]. bandwidth B in (1). Hence, when let t = t1 + t2 and B =

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

Time (second) Frequency (Hz) s1 s2 sM


Power (w) Power (w) h
1 1
PS
1 1
1bit 1bit 1bit 1bit division & allocation
0 1 2 Frequency (Hz) 0 1 2 Time (second)

(a) FDM/OFDM (b) TDM


sM s2 s1

01010100 Baseband x1
Frequency (Hz)
unit
Time (second)
01011110 Baseband x2
1 1 unit
1bit 1bit y
Sum
0 1 ? Power (w) Carrier

(c) PDM 01111010 Baseband


unit xM
Fig. 2. Illustration of TDM, FDM, and PDM from the perspective of bit-
orthogonality. Fig. 3. Illustration of PDM. x1 , x2 , , xM denote the modulated signals of
information stream-1, 2, , M , respectively.

B1 + B2 be the medium division scheme in TDM and FDM


for transmitting two information streams {c1 , c2 } separately, Obviously, when s = s1 + s2 holds for (5) and (6), each
TDM and FDM can be formulated by PS can be treated as a transmission tunnel used to transmit


an information stream, which is similar to the time-slot/sub-
c1 = t1 B log(1 + s)

band in TDM/FDM. According to (4), it is shown that to

(2)

c2 = t2 B log(1 + s),
hold the bit-orthogonality and -fairness, the PSs in PDM
should not be equal for the related information streams. This


c1 = tB1 log(1 + s) outcome is contrary to our intuitive fairness which is the


(3)

c2 = tB2 log(1 + s).
equal division of available resource. Actually, if the multiple
information streams have a same priority, a reasonable division
By reviewing (2) and (3), we see that the information bits multiplexing technique requires the bit-fairness. Hence, we
c1 and c2 could be treated to be transformed from the divided propose a PDM scheme consisting of two procedures:
time/spectrum resource, and they are independent of each other i) Divide the whole transmit power into multiple unequal
in bit domain/space, illustrated in Fig. 2. Hence, the division PSs.
multiplexing could be interpreted as: A scheme divides and ii) Assign the divided PSs to the related information streams.
allocates the resource to ensure the total corresponding bits are To determine the multiple unequal PSs in PDM, we derive
fairly divided for information streams, which is termed as bit- the following Lemma 1 to show the PS division in a general
fairness. In addition, the divided bits c1 and c2 are orthogonal condition where B is the occupied channel bandwidth, h is
from the perspective of bit domain, which is termed as bit- the channel gain, 2 is the noise power, and c is the target
orthogonality. Therefore, we could conclude that the objective transmission rate required by the information streams.
of a general division multiplexing scheme is to guarantee Lemma 1: Under the bit-orthogonality and -fairness, the
not only the bit-orthogonality in bit domain but also the bit- optimum PS in PDM is given by

(2 B 1) 2
fairness for each information stream. (m1)c c

sm =
2 B
(7)
In (1)-(3), we have discussed the division of t and B in
the view of bit-domain. For the only residual parameter, does h
the transmit power support the concluded objective of medium where m {1, 2, , M }.
division for multiuser access? Similar to (2) and (3), we show Proof: For m = 1, 2, we have
s1 h = (2 B 1) 2 ,
the following functions for power division, c
(8)


c1 = tB log(1 + s1 ) s2 h = (2 2 ) 2 .

2c c
(9)

B B
(4)

c2 = tB log(1 + 1+s1 ).
s2
In turn, we could arrive at
Additionally, assume that: B = 1 and t = 1; s1 and s2 are
(2 B 1) 2
(m1)c c

sm =
2 B
(10)
two PSs for information stream-1 and information stream-2,
respectively. Then, for information stream-1, there exists h
where m {1, 2, , M }. Therefore, Lemma 1 is proved.
c1 = log(1 + s1 ) s1 = 2c1 1. (5) To illustrate the PSs assignment, the structure of PDM at
To ensure the bit-orthogonality, the transmit power for deliv- transmitter is presented in Fig. 3. At the receiver, the multiple
ering c1 and c2 is information streams could be obtained by SIC which has
been widely used in wireless communication system [28].
s1 + s2 = 2c1 +c2 1. (6) In PDM, the transmitted signal is an aggregation of multiple

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

generalized PAM (or QAM) whose bit error rate (BER) has Corollary 1: A combination of b consecutive PSs with c
been well investigated in [29], [30] and the reference therein. bits fairness offers bc bits/sec transmission rate, and the other
Similarly with the time-slot/sub-band in TDM/FDM, the as- PSs keep the c bits fairness.
signed PSs are independently used for completely different Proof: According to (12), the PS, which is generate by
parallel information streams without the time and frequency combining arbitrary b consecutive PSs, is given by

(2 B 1)2
divisions. Additionally, the derived transform guarantees both bc (n1)bc
2
sm =
B
the bit-orthogonality and -fairness. Hence, such a technique . (13)
is called as power division multiplexing. At particular, it m=(n1)b+1nb h
has two apparent advantages better than the multiplexing in
To prove Corollary 1, we only need to prove the c bits
fairness holds for the (nb + 1)-th and (n 1)b-th PSs which
conventional PDMA/NOMA that:
The multiplexing in conventional PDMA/NOMA requires are the two neighbors of the combined b consecutive PSs. For
that the channel gains of users are different, but the PDM the (nb + 1)-th and (n 1)b-th PSs, the related transmission
does not. rates are
The PSs in PDM are calculated in a closed-form expres-
cnb+1 = B log(1 + 2 ),
snb+1 h
+ h m=1nb sm
sion (7), which is evidently simpler than the methods used (14)
in the current related works.
c(n1)b = B log(1 + ),
s(n1)b h
+ h m=1(n1)b1 sm
(15)
2
B. Properties of the Orthogonal PSs
respectively.
By substituting (7)(13) into (14)(15), we have cnb+1 =
In practice, an access user may need to transmit multi-
c(n1)b = c. Hence, Corollary 1 is proved.
ple information streams simultaneously, and one information
stream may demand for multiple PSs to satisfy its requirement.
As the fundamentals of PDM, Proposition 1 and Corollary 1
Hence, PDM should have the capability of ensuring that the
validate that the PSs in PDM, analogous to the time-slots/sub-
combination of b consecutive PSs, where each one supports c
bands in TDM/FDM, can support multiple independent in-
bits/sec/Hz, could provide bc bits/sec/Hz transmission rate. To
formation streams with different requirements on QoS. Such
show the feasibility of the combination requirement, we firstly
results ensure the PS allocation unit in Fig. 3 can dynamically
prove the following proposition. For clarity, let c bits fairness
combine multiple PSs for the information streams. As widely
represent that a PS offers c bits/sec/Hz transmission rate.
known, a multiple access protocol is commonly based on a
Proposition 1: A sequence of PSs, which are generated by well studied multiplexing technique, e.g., TDMA is based
combining b consecutive PSs with c bits fairness, are of bc on TDM and carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) is based
bits fairness. on statistical multiplexing. Our fundamental studies of PDM
Proof: By letting bc instead of c in (7), the PS with bc facilitate to propose a reasonable PDMA protocol, which is
bits fairness is given by one of major works in next section.
(2 B 1)2
bc (n1)bc
2
sn =
B
. (11) IV. OPDMA P ROTOCOL
h
In this section, an OPDMA protocol is proposed to pro-
For the PS sm with c bits fairness, the combination of b vide bit-orthogonality and -fairness for multiple access users
consecutive PSs is formulated by by extending the proposed PDM. In contrast to PDM, the
sm OPDMA protocol solves the wireless one-to-many/many-to-
m=(n1)b+1nb one communications by using orthogonal PSs. The orthogo-
nal means that the PSs ensure the information streams can be
= (2 B 1)2
2

c (m1)c
B
delivered independently under different channel gains. From
m=(n1)b+1nb h
the perspective of green communications, we prove that the
2 OPDMA protocol could utilize the degraded channel [25] to
=
mc (m1)c
(12)
m=(n1)b+1nb h
2 B 2 B
achieve better EE compared with TDMA and FDMA.
m=(n1)b+1nb

=(2 2 )
nbc (n1)bc 2
B B
A. Structure of OPDMA
h
(2 1)2
bc (n1)bc Based on our fundamental studies of PDM, we propose an
2
=
B B
OPDMA protocol whose structure is introduced as follows.
h 1) Downlink of OPDMA: In OPDMA, the structure of
Since (11) equals to (12), Proposition 1 is proved. downlink transmission is analogous to the one shown in
According to Proposition 1, we can generate a new sequence Fig. 3 except the input of PS division & allocation unit
of PSs by equally combining the existing PSs, and the trans- which is h1 , h2 , , hM here. For the different access users,
mission rate provided by the new PSs is proportional to the the related binary data is modulated in base station sepa-
number of the combined PSs. Based on Proposition 1, we have rately. The modulation unit could directly use the existing
the following corollary. QAM modulation scheme for each user. After the operation

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

of signal modulation, the output signals x1 , x2 , , xM are


hM, , h2 , h1 PS
multiplexed by s1 , s2 , , sM which are determined by division & allocation
the PS division & allocation unit. Here, s1 , s2 , , sM are
sM

s2 s1
the PSs with the bit-orthogonality and -fairness. Next, the
signals sm xm , m {1, 2, , M } for different users are y1
01010100 Baseband x1
added together to generate a superposition signal given by unit Carrier

M
y= sm xm , (16)
01011110 Baseband x2 y2
m=1 unit Carrier
and then up-converted to be a transmitted signal. As shown,
the superposition signal y consists of multiple signals with dif-
ferent transmit powers. Since each signal in the superposition
01111010 Baseband yM
signal has its own target, it is called as a signal layer [21]. unit
xM Carrier
In the introduced structure, the PS division & allocation
unit performs power division and allocation. During the power
Fig. 4. Illustration of PDMA uplink.
allocation, the signal layers are sorted in ascending order with
regard to the channel gains from the base station to access
users. In other words, a signal layer is considered the high exists
(2 B 1) 2
signal layer when it has the relative small channel gain, e.g., (n1)c c

when h1 h2 h3 , s1 , s2 , and s3 are regarded as the sn =


2 B

transmit powers of layer-1, layer-2, and layer-3, respectively. n=1m n=1m h


(2 B 1) 2 1 2 B
c mc
Such results are supported by Proposition 2 and Corollary 2 = (18)
1 2B
c
proved in Section IV-B. h
(2 B 1)
mc
2
=
During the power division, the transmit power is divided
,
into multiple PSs with the bit-orthogonality and -fairness, h
we have B log(1 + 2 +hs ) = c, which means the ideal
which is impacted by the transmission rate c, the channel m+1 h
bandwidth B, the number of users M , and the channel gain n=1m sn

h1M . At particular, the parameter c has the functionality that transmission rate is c for each signal layer.
is used to control the QoS of downlink transmission. In other According to Fig. 3 , the PS division and allocation do
words, when the demanded service is not satisfied for the not impact on the signal modulation, which means each data
access user, we can improve QoS by increasing c of the stream has its own transmission tunnel as TDMA and FDMA.
related signal layer. Additionally, the PS division & allocation Besides, we see that the information stream in the highest
unit needs to ensure that the sum of all PSs should follow layer does not need to know the existence of other signals.
a power constrain formulated by m=1M sm Smax where Hence, the proposed OPDMA can be downward compatible
Smax denotes the maximal transmit power. with the current medium division multiple access by allocating
After the power division and allocation, PSs are allocated the maximal PS to the user who cannot perform SIC.
to the target users directly. Since the PS division & allocation 2) Uplink of OPDMA: The structure of OPDMA uplink
plays a key role in OPDMA, its detailed procedures are is shown in Fig. 4. In contrast to the downlink structure, the
discussed in the sequential two subsections with regard to the PS division & allocation unit could be performed in either
operational complexity and the different channel gains. the base station or the individual access users. During the
At an arbitrary receiver m, the received signal ym is power allocation, the signal layer is considered as the high
signal layer when it has the relatively large channel gain,
M e.g., when h1 h2 h3 , s1 , s2 , and s3 are regarded as the
ym = hm sm xm . (17)
m=1 transmit powers of layer-3, layer-2 and layer-1, respectively.
Such results are supported by Proposition 2 and Corollary 2
To demodulate ym , the receiver could directly use SIC for proved in Section IV-B.
multiuser detection. Since SIC has been well studied in Since the PS division and allocation need the information
existing researches, we omit the detailed introduction here. of multiple channels, it is better to be performed in the
Briefly, when user-1 receives the superposition signal y1 with
M = 2 where user-1 and user-2 take up the low and high
base station. As a result, during the uplink transmission, the
base station collects the channel gains and the transmission
the user-1 first decodes the high
signal layers respectively, requirements of each information stream, and then performs

signal layer by treating h1 s1 x1 as noise, subtracts the user- the power division and allocation. In turn, the value of PS is
2s signal h1 s2 x2 from y1 and finally extracts its data x1 . For informed to the specified users respectively. Without consid-
the user-2, the receiver directly demodulates the superposition ering the carrier, the output signal of user m is

signal y2 ; at the same time, treats the other signal as the
interference. According to the theory of SIC, the maximal ym = sm xm . (19)
transmission rate of the signal layer-m + 1 under the AWGN
channel is calculated by B log(1 + 2 +hsm+1 h
sn
). Since there At the base station, the received superposition signal is given
n=1m

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by Oi to determine the transmit rate ci , and the size of Oi is also


M
y = hm sm xm .
unique. It is obvious that the optimization of NOMA/PDMA
(20)
protocols needs to adjust the transmit power si and sort the
information streams to obtain Oi . Since (22), which is an
m=1

To demodulate the signal y, the base station could also employ


integer combinatorial programming problem, is generally NP-
the SIC method.
hard, it is difficult to achieve the optimum solution. As a
In OPDMA, the compound signals in the downlink channel
result, the FTPC strategy is widely preferred for power division
are in complete accord with the superposition signal in a
in NOMA/PDMA [9][13]. However, such a strategy cannot
broadcasting channel. In information theory, it has been proven
guarantee the QoS of users.
that such a transmission scheme can utilize the degraded
In MAC layer, there commonly exists a target transmission
channel to achieve better capacity than TDMA and FDMA,
rate which is determined by upper layers according to both
which confirms the advantage of OPDMA. To distinguish QoS and generation rate of mobile traffic. Once the target
from the focus in information theory which is the capacity
rate is achieved, the mobile data in buffer keeps decreasing or
of broadcasting channel, this paper concentrates on studying
stable. Hence, with regard to the target rate, it is not necessary
how to efficiently divide and allocate the PSs with both the bit- to maximize the transmission rate in a MAC protocol. Ac-
orthogonality and -fairness, which is also our novelty differing
cordingly, the optimization objective in our OPDMA protocol
from NOMA and introduced in the following subsections. is changed to minimize the total transmit power towards
green communications. Accordingly, the OPDMA protocol is
B. PS Division & Allocation Strategy formulated by
In this subsection, an optimum PS division & allocation min si
strategy is proposed for OPDMA in a multiuser access system. s1M R+ ,O1M M iM

ci = log(1 + )c
The proposed strategy owns distinct merits on both the energy si hi
+ hi nOi /{i} sn
st.
and executional efficiencies, when compared with NOMA and 2
TDMA/FDMA. (23a)
si Smax
1) MAC Protocol Formulation: The NOMA/PDMA based
(23b)
protocols need to sort information streams into different signal
layer [9][17]. For a realization of sorting results, let Oi be a
iM
j, k M, j kj,kOi (23c)
Oi Oj i,jM,O
set containing the identification number of every information
stream whose signal layer is lower or equal to the information (23d)
i <Oj

stream-i, e.g., there exists O3 = {3}, O1 = {1, 3}, and O2 = Oi /Oj = {i}i,jM,Oi Oj =1 . (23e)
{1, 2, 3} when the information streams-1, -2, and -3 belong to
where (23a) shows the QoS constraint. Next, we show the
the second, third, and first signal layers, respectively. Given a
realization of Oi , the transmit rate of information stream-i is
optimum solution of (23).
2) Optimum PS Division & Allocation Strategy: According
ci = log(1 + ).
si hi to (23), the optimum solution could be achieved by two steps:
2 + hi nOi /{i} sn
(21)
i) Sort the information streams to obtain the optimum sets
O1M . ii) And then calculate the optimum transmit pow-
ers/power segments s1M . Since the essence of sorting Oi in
For the current NOMA/PDMA protocols, their common
objective is to maximize the system throughput with a transmit
(23) is to let the information streams match the different signal
layers, we sort the channel gain h1M instead of O1M . For
power constraint [9][17]. Thus, such protocols could be
clarity of expression, let hi hj denote the signal layer of hi
formulated as
max ci is lower than or equal to the one of hj . To minimize the total
s1M R+ ,O1M M iM
transmit power in (23), we first show the optimum PSs s1M
ci = log(1 + )
si hi under given h1M , by extending Lemma 1.
2 + hi nOi /{i} sn
st. (22a)
Proposition 2: Given the channel gains h1 h2 hM
si Smax (22b) and target rate c, the optimum PSs are given by
iM m1
j, k M, j kj,kOi sm =(2 B 1) 2 [ + (2 1)
c 1 1 Bc
(22c)
hm i=1 hi
Oi Oj i,jM,O
m l i + 1 Bc
(22d) m1 ml
(24)
+ (2 1)l ].
i <Oj

Oi /Oj = {i}i,jM,Oi Oj =1 , (22e) hi


l=2 i=1
where M = {1, 2, , M }, O denotes the size of set O, X/Y Proof: See Appendix A.
means that set X excludes all elements in set Y , R+ denotes a According to Proposition 2, the PSs with bit-orthogonality
set of all nonnegative real number, and xy means that x holds and -fairness could be efficiently obtained by a closed-form
when y is true. In (22), (22a) shows the transmission rate of expression. Based on Proposition 2, we have the following
information stream-i; (22b) means the total transmit power of corollary to show the optimum channel ordering.
information streams is constrained to the maximal transmit Corollary 2: When h1 h2 hM and h1 h2
power Smax ; (22c)-(22e) express that there is an unique set hM hold for downlink and uplink respectively, the optimum

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

utilization of degraded channel in OPDMA is achieved by optimum PSs in OPDMA are obtained more efficiently than
letting h1 h2 hM . the related works in NOMA [10][13].
Proof: See Appendix B.
Corollary 2 shows that, for achieving the minimal transmit
power, PDMA is required to reasonably sort the channel gains
in order, which may have not been studied in the related works C. Analysis of EE
[9][18].
This subsection analyzes EE to show OPDMA can save
Evidently, when the channel gains are sorted according to
more energy than TDMA/FDMA. Consider a general mul-
Corollary 2 and then the transmit power is divided based on
tiuser case: i) There are M access users; ii) each one demands
Proposition 2, we obtain the optimum solution of (23). In
for the transmission rate c; iii) the related channel gains are
hg1 , hg2 , , hgM with hg1 hg2 hgM , g {u, d}, where u
other words, based on Corollary 2 and Proposition 2, OPDMA
could achieve the optimum performance in the view of green
and d denote the uplink and downlink channels, respectively.
communications.
Additionally, let eOP S , eT DMA , eF DMA , S g , and S denote
When implementing OPDMA, the base station may not the EE of OPDMA with OPS, the EE of TDMA, the EE of
know the accurate channel gains h1M because of the ran- FDMA, the sum of optimum PSs in OPDMA, and the total
domness of wireless channel. In this condition, it requires the transmit power in TDMA/FDMA, respectively. For OPDMA,
related PSs are set larger to ensure the transmission rate c. we have the following corollary.
Moreover, sometimes we would like to adjust the resource
Corollary 3: In OPDMA, the sum of optimum PSs of M
allocation for a specified user. To address these issues, m hm
information streams is
is employed to replace hm in (24). By adjusting the factor m
between 0 and 1, PS could be increased for a specified user. M
S g = (2 B 1) 2 2
c (M m)c 1
Based on above outcomes, we propose an optimum PS B (25)
division & allocation (OPS) strategy of OPDMA, of which m=1 hgm
the procedures are presented as follows,
in conditions of target rate c.
Algorithm 1 Procedures of the OPS strategy Proof: See Appendix C.
Step i) Sort M channel gains in descending order
According to Corollary 3, when the transmission rate c is
for downlink transmission,
h1 h2 , , hM .
guaranteed for each information stream, the energy costs per
bit per second per Hertz of OPDMA is given by
Sort M channel gains in ascending order
for uplink transmission,
h1 h2 , , hM . (2 B 1) 2 M 2 B
c (M m)c

=
Let h[1 M ] = 1M h1M .
OP S (26)
e .
Mc hgm
Step ii) For m = 1 1 M
m=1

s[m] = (2 B 1)( h[m]


2
+ s1 )
c

For TDMA/FDMA, we derive the following corollary to


If s1 > Smax show the required transmit power when the target rate is c.
let s[l] = 0, Corollary 4: In TDMA/FDMA, the total transmit power of
Goto Step ii), M information streams is given by
End

(2 1) 2 M 1
End Mc

S= g
B
Step iii) Allocate the PSs to access users according (27)
to s. M m=1 hm

where the bold symbol denotes column vector, s1 means the


sum of every entry of s, and l is a control parameter explained in conditions of target rate c.
in next paragraph. Proof: Corollary 4 can be obtained by following the
In Step i), the sorting of channel gains is to ensure the pro- derivation of (24), and thus its proof is omitted here for brevity.
posed strategy could sufficiently utilize the degraded channel.
In Step ii), based on the sorted channel gains, the calculated Accordingly, the energy costs per bit per second per Hertz
PSs are optimum with regard to i . Thus, when the channel of TDMA/FDMA is given by
gains h1M are available, the proposed OPS strategy could
achieve the optimum EE with regard to the bit-orthogonality (2 1) 2 M 1
Mc

and -fairness. In Step iii), s1 > Smax is used to control the eT DMA = eF DMA = g .
B
(28)
M 2c m=1 hm
calculated PSs satisfying the transmit power constraint. The
user l is preferred to follow a certain rule, e.g., choose the
last access user from the perspective of first-in-first-out (FIFO) Next, we employ the EE ratio, which is the ratio of eT DMA
rule, or choose the user with the smallest channel gain in to eOP S , to compare the performance between TDMA and
the view of maximizing the overall EE. It is obvious that the OPDMA. By (26)(28), the related EE ratio is given by

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

log(1 + s2 h2
)
1,
1+(1p)s1 h2
(32)
log(1 + 1+s )
T DMA
to =
e s2 h2
1 h2
eOP S
m=1
Mc
2 B 1 M 1 respectively. (31) and (32) mean that the variance of estimation
=
M hgm
inside the logarithm leads to less negative impact on the system
(2 B 1) M
c (M m)c
1
m=1 2
B
hgm throughput when compared with TDMA and FDMA. Addi-
tionally, the smaller PS (1 p)s1 only reduces the throughput
m=1
Mc
2 B 1 M 1 (29)
=
c
M(2 B 1) hgm in layer-1.
m=1 2
(M m)c
M B
1 In the case of CSI underestimation, there is
hgm

( M 2 B )(M m=1 hgm )


log(1 + (1 + p)s1 h1 )
M m=1
(M m)c

1
1 1
= . log(1 + s1 h1 )
(33)
m=1 2
(M m)c
M B
1
hgm
for layer-1, which means the throughput is not reduced.
For FDMA, since eT DMA = eF DMA , the ratio of eF DMA to According to Proposition 2, we only focus on layer-2, since
OP S
e , denoted by f o , equals to to . According to Jensens the impact of imperfect CSI on the higher layer decreases
inequality, there exists to = f o 1. Hence, the proposed exponentially. For layer-2, we have
OPDMA can achieve better EE than TDMA and FDMA.
As well known, the path loss increases exponentially with log(1 + s2 h2
)
1 p,
1+(1+p)s1 h2
(34)
log(1 + 1+s1 h2 )
distance. Hence, when there are only two access users with
c = 2, the EE ratio could be up to 2.5. Therefore, the proposed
s2 h2

OPDMA could save a large amount of energy for green where inequality can be proved by using s1 = 2cs1 2
1,
communications. of which the details are omitted here for brevity. By the
qualitative analysis (31)-(34), we can see that OPDMA maybe
D. Qualitative Analysis on Imperfect CSI not sensitive to the estimation error of CSI, because of the
In practice, TDMA and FDMA protocols both require guard logarithm relationship. In fact, TDMA/FDMA suffers the
zone to avoid the interference caused by the offset of time-slot estimation errors on not only the timing/central frequency
and sub-band with regard to the multiple access users. Hence, but also the channel gain. Hence, OPDMA could outperform
to reduce the impact of CSI estimation error on the system, it TDMA and FDMA. Actually, to strictly compare OPDMA,
is also viable to set a guard zone for the PS, which could be TDMA, and FDMA with regard to the CSI estimation error,
realized by adjusting 1M in the proposed Algorithms 1 and it needs a substantial research with considering many specific
2. practical factors and application backgrounds, which is our
As a beginning research on OPDMA, this paper focuses future work.
on the fundamental study in the condition of perfect channel
estimation. To complement our research, this subsection shows
E. Computational Complexity
a qualitative analysis on the imperfect CSI. For ideal TDMA,
FDMA, and OPDMA with full buffer, assume the estimation When OPDMA needs to achieve the optimum performance,
errors of the timing in TDMA, the central frequency in FDMA, PSs should be determined with regard to the multiple CSIs,
and the channel gain in OPDMA cause that the estimated which intuitively may cause frequent power control and high
offset takes p percent of the time-slot, sub-band, and PS, computational complexity. Actually, such a power control
respectively. In such conditions, the delivered traffic during a case commonly exists in current cellular networks. In a
time-slot/sub-band in TDMA/FDMA is reduced by p percent, TDMA/FDMA system, the optimum power control is achieved
which is expressed by by water-filling algorithm which also requires the multiple
(1 p)t log(1 + sh) (1 p)B log(1 + sh) CSIs, resulting in the same frequency of power control as
= =1p
t log(1 + sh) B log(1 + sh)
(30) OPDMA.
For the TDMA/FDMA system with water-filling algorithm,
where the definition of symbols is consistent with the decla- the computational complexity on obtaining the optimum trans-
ration in Section III-A. (30) shows that the estimation error mit power is O(M log M ) [31]. With regard to the proposed
has linear effect on the reduction of system performance in strategy, the computational complexity of OPDMA is O(M ).
TDMA/FDMA. Since the number of information streams are limited, such two
For the OPDMA protocol, we consider the layer-1 suffers computational complexities are approximately same.
the imperfect CSI. As a result, the layers, which are higher During implementation, the complexity of OPDMA is not
than one, are impacted by the imperfect CSI. Under overesti- critical for downlink transmission, since the multiple CSIs are
mation where the estimated channel gain is larger than the real available in a base station. As to the uplink transmission, the
one, the corresponding PS is set smaller. Hence, the related PS allocation could be determined by the base station at first,
changes of the traffic in layer-1 and layer-2 are expressed by and then is informed to access users via control plane/control
log(1 + (1 p)s1 h1 )
1 p,
channel. Therefore, the computational complexity of OPDMA
log(1 + s1 h1 )
(31) could match the practical requirement.

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10

V. S IMULATION R ESULTS
2
In this section, we evaluate the proposed OPDMA protocol 10
to , c 2
through simulations. To consist with the system model, we to , c 4
have the following simulation configuration [11]: The radius to , c 6
of cell is R = 250 m, the total transmission power of base to , c 2
station is 46 dBm, the antenna gain of base station is 14 dBi, ,c4
to
the user antenna gain is 0 dBi, the user equipment noise figure to , c 6
is 9 dB, the white noise density is -174 dBm/Hz, the system

EE Ratio
bandwidth is 10 MHz, the channel is block Rayleigh-fading,
the path loss is evaluated by 128.1 + 37.6 log10 (r) dB where
1
10

r denotes the distance between transmitter and receiver, and


the decay factor in FTPC is set to be 0.4. For brevity, NOMA
and OPS are short for NOMA with FTPC and OPDMA with
OPS, respectively.

A. Two-user Case 0
10
In this case, we show the numerical results of EE with 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
respect to the location relationship between a base sta- Normalized radial distance, r/R
tion and two access users: User-1 is fixed 25 m from
the base station; user-2 is respectively located at r =
+
Fig. 5. Performance comparison between OPDMA and TDMA/FDMA. to

[0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9] 250 m where r denotes
denotes the upper bound of EE ratio.

the distance between the base station and the user-2. With
regard to the target rate and the transmit power constraint
m=12 sm 46 dBm, the PSs in OPS are computed by the 108
no, c 2
proposed OPS strategy; while, the PSs in FTPC are obtained no, c 4
107
by exhaustive search. With such PSs, the transmission rate is no, c 6
evaluated by Shannon capacity, at the same time, restricted
106
to the required one.3 Except the transmission rate, the other
parameters are based on simulations. Additionally, let no and 105
to denote the EE ratio of FTPC to OPS and the EE ratio of
EE Ratio

TDMA to OPS, respectively. 104


The performance comparisons among OPDMA, TDMA,
and FTPC are presented in Figs. 5-7, with considering different 103
normalized distance and QoS requirements. Fig. 5 shows
the EE ratio to under different normalized radial distance 102
r/R. It is obvious that the EE ratio to increases as r/R
increasing whatever the target rate is, which validates our study 101
in Section IV-C. Generally, the simulation outcomes confirm
the theoretical results: i) By jointly utilizing the multiplexing 100
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
and degraded channel gains, OPDMA saves more energy than Normalized radial distance, r/R
TDMA/FDMA whatever the user location is. ii) When the
distance between two users increases, OPDMA could gain Fig. 6. Performance comparison between OPDMA and FTPC.
better EE from the degraded channel.
Fig. 6 presents the EE ratio no in conditions of different
normalized distance r/R. As shown, the EE ratio no is larger For FTPC, the transmission rates of user-1 and user-2 are
than one, which means the EE of OPDMA is better than the shown in Fig. 7. It is obvious that FTPC cannot ensure the
one of FTPC. Additionally, we see that the EE of FTPC is transmission rate achieves the target one, which means the
impacted by the target rate and the user location. Particularly, QoS requirement is not satisfied. It is because FTPC divides
the EE ratio no is really large when the normalized distance the transmit power only based on the ratio of two channel
r/R approximates to the one between the base station and gains, so that each divided PS does not have a distinct value
user-1. Since the larger EE ratio means the better EE of OPS, when the path losses of the two channels do not have enough
the proposed OPS achieves distinctly better performance than gap. Such an outcome should be strictly avoided in a common
TDMA and FTPC from the perspective of green communica- access protocol with regard to both the user fairness and
tions. the QoS requirement. Hence, FTPC is out of work when
3
considering QoS. In addition, we need to emphasize that the
Once the target rate is achieved, the QoS requirement is satisfied and the
mobile data in buffer keeps decreasing or stable. Hence, it is ineligible that transmit power in FTPC is obtained by searching in contrast to
the transmission rate is larger than the required one. the PSs in OPDMA calculated by the closed-form expression.

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

11

7 20
,c2
18 to
6 fo , c 2
16
,c4
to
5 14
Rate, (bits/second/Hz)

,c4
fo
12
4

EE ratio
10
3
8

FTPC, user 1, c 2 6
2 FTPC, user 2, c 2
FTPC, user 1, c 4
FTPC, user 2, c 4
4
1 FTPC, user 1, c 6
FTPC, user 2, c 6 2

0 0
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 2 3 4 5 6 7
Normalized radial distance, r/R M

Fig. 7. Transmission rate of each user in FTPC. Fig. 9. Comparison of EE between OPS and TDMA/FDMA with different
target rates. Marks present the numerical results; curves are obtained by (29).

5
ensure the QoS of each user. Since QoS cannot be guaranteed
FTPC
4.5 OPDMA in FTPC, it is unfair to compare FTPC with the proposed OPS
Target even it may achieve better EE.
4 To compare EE between OPS and TDMA/FDMA, we
3.5 present the EE ratios to and f o in Fig. 9. It is shown that
Rate, (bits/second/Hz)

the EE ratios to and f o increase fast as the number of


3 users increasing with different target rates. At particular, the
2.5
energy cost per bit in OPS approximates a half of the one in
TDMA/FDMA, when there are only two access users. Under
2 the condition of seven access users, the EE of OPS is evidently
larger than the one of TDMA/FDMA. Such outcomes validate
1.5
our EE analysis in Section IV-C, and hence confirm the merit
1 of the OPDMA. Additionally, it is obvious that TDMA and
FDMA have a similar performance, matching the theoretical
0.5
analysis in Section IV.
0 Next, we show a comparison among TDMA, FDMA, and
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
OPS with regard to the imperfect CSI in the following
M
simulations. To evaluate the influence of imperfect CSI, we
use the expectation of channel gain h, obtained by the path
loss function 128.1 + 37.6 log10 (r), to decide the transmit
Fig. 8. Transmission rate under different number of access users. In this
figure, each mark denotes a transmission rate of an individual user, e.g. when
M = 2, two blue crosses present the transmission rates of user-1 and -2 power/PSs in TDMA, FDMA, and OPS, and then employ the
respectively. Note that the purple diamonds overlap under different M . instantaneous CSI which is generated by following Rayleigh
distribution to determine the received signal power. Since the
random CSI h deviates from its expectation, the simulated
B. Multiuser Case
results suffer the impact of imperfect CSI. For each infor-
In this case, M access users respectively transmit an in- mation stream, the M-PSK modulation scheme is adopted
formation stream. And their locations follow rm = m/M R with a gray-coded constellation mapper, and the order M is
where m {1, , M } to correctly reflect system performance adaptively adjusted to achieve the target rate c = 2 with a
under the spatial uniform distribution of user positions. At low BER [23]. In OPS, the M-PSK signals of M information
first, OPS is compared with FTPC in terms of QoS guarantee. flows are transmitted at the same time as shown in Fig. 3. Thus,
In Fig. 8, we show the transmission rate of each access user in the base station, there are M modulated signals in parallel
based on analytical results. It is indicated that only the QoS and the related amplitudes are determined by the decided PSs.
of user-1, who has the shortest distance from the base station, After the modulation and power assignment, the M parallel
is satisfied in FTPC. Such results mean FTPC is still out of signals are added together to generate a superposition signal.
work in multiuser case. Contrastingly, the proposed OPS can For each receiver, the received superposition signal suffers

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

12

the proposed OPS gains better performance than TDMA.


20 It is because OPDMA could utilize the signal space more
to sufficiently when employing a same modulation in OPDMA
18
fo and TDMA, which is a merit inherited from SPC.
16 By above simulations, we could conclude that: i) OPS could
gain evidently better EE than TDMA and FDMA to save more
14
energy. ii) FTPC cannot ensure the QoS of access users, but
12 the proposed OPS can. Consequently, the proposed OPDMA
EE ratio

with OPS is an efficient green protocol for multiuser access


10
in cellular networks.
8
VI. C ONCLUSION
6
From the perspective of green communications, this paper
4 studies PDMA for efficiently saving energy in MAC layer.
2
Associating with TDM and FDM, we propose a PDM scheme
which can ensure the bit-orthogonality and -fairness for each
0 information stream. Based on our theoretical studies of PDM,
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
M an OPDMA protocol is proposed to simultaneously utilize the
multiplexing and degraded channel gain for maximal energy
Fig. 10. Comparison of EE between OPS and TDMA/FDMA under imperfect saving. Under QoS requirement, we derive the optimum power
CSI. division and allocation to ensure that OPDMA achieves the
optimum performance with low complexity. In addition, it is
proved that the proposed OPDMA outperforms TDMA/FDMA
2 in the aspect of EE. As outlined above, this paper studies the
fundamentals of OPDMA which can efficiently save transmit
1.8
power for green communications.
1.6
A PPENDIX A
1.4
P ROOF OF Proposition 2
Rate, (bits/second/Hz)

1.2 Proof: Consider the channel gains have the following


1
TDMA relationship h1 h2 hM . For the first PS in the signal
OPS
layer-1, there is
0.8
s1 = (2 B 1) 2
c 1
. (35)
0.6 h1
0.4 Substituting s1 into B log(1 + 2s+s
2 h2
1 h2
) = c yields the PS in
the signal layer-2,
0.2
s2 = (2 B 1) 2 [ + (2 B 1)] .
c 1 1 c

0 (36)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 h2 h1
Next, substituting s1 and s2 into B log(1 + 2 +hs23h3 si ) =
User-m
i=12
c yields s3 . In turn, we can obtain the following expression
Fig. 11. Comparison of Transmission Rate among OPS and TDMA/FDMA
under imperfect CSI. for sm ,
m1
sm =(2 B 1) 2 [ + (2 1)
c 1 1 Bc
hm i=1 hi
different Rayleigh fading impact, and is demodulated by the m1 ml k
. (37)
+ (2 1)l ]
SIC method. The simulations are performed with 20000 trials. 1 Bc
Fig. 10 shows the EE ratios under imperfect CSI. It is l=2 h
k=1 i=1 i
obvious that the EE ratios increase fast as the number of access l=2 k=1 i=1 h1i (2 B 1)l , we arrive at
m1 ml k c
By simplifying
users increasing, similar to the results in Fig. 9. Such outcomes
m1
sm =(2 B 1) 2 [ + (2 1)
double confirm the EE analysis in Section IV-C. Furthermore, c 1 1 Bc
as indicated, the EE ratios in Fig. 10 are slightly higher than hm i=1 hi
m l i + 1 Bc
the ones in Fig. 9. It is because the transmission rate in TDMA m1 ml
(38)
is less than it in OPS, which is shown in Fig. 11. + (2 1)l ].
l=2 i=1 hi
Fig. 11 indicates that the transmission rate of each access
user in TDMA and OPS when c = 2. As shown, the imperfect As shown, the derivation of each PS considers the bit-
CSI reduces the transmission rate in each scheme. However, orthogonality and -fairness at the same time. Consequently,

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

13

(38) shows the optimum PSs for the multiple access users For 1 , 2 , , M , let um denote the sum of all the terms
when the signal layers have been determined, which means which contain hdm . According to (42), we have
Proposition 2 is proved. Mm1
w2
um = + (w + 1) .
w n
(43)
hdm hdm n=0
A PPENDIX B
Substituting w = (2 B 1) into (43) yields
c
P ROOF OF Corollary 2
Proof: Let H = {h1 , h2 , , hM } and h1 h2 w2 Mm1 nc
um = + d 2B
w
hM hold for downlink case. When hi , hj H and hi hj , d
hm hm n=0 (44)
consider hi and hj are in layer-1 and layer-2 respectively.
= d 2 B .
w (M m)c
Then the corresponding throughput Ci is
hm
Ci = log(1 + si hi ) + log(1 + )
sj hj
1 + si hj m=1 m = m=1 um , there exists
In addition, since M
(39) M

M M
m =
where si and sj are the transmit power in layer-1 and layer-2 w (M m)c
d
2 B
respectively. When considering hi and hj are in layer-2 and m=1 m=1 hm
(45)
layer-1 respectively, the corresponding throughput Cj is M
=w 2 B
(M m)c 1

hdm
Cj = log(1 + sj hj ) + log(1 + ).
si hi m=1

1 + sj hi
(40)
Thus, we have
Hence, there exists M M
S d = 2 m = (2 B 1) 2 2
c (M m)c 1
B . (46)
hdm
Ci Cj = log(1 + si hi ) + log(1 + ) log(1 + sj hj )
sj hj m=1 m=1
1 + si hj Similarly, we can derive the sum of optimum PSs of M
log(1 + )
si hi information streams for uplink channel, given by
1 + sj hi
1 + (si + sj )hi + si sj h2i 1 + (si + sj )hi
M M
S u = 2 m = (2 B 1) 2 2
c (M m)c 1
= log( )
B . (47)
1 + (si + sj )hj + si sj h2j 1 + (si + sj )hj m=1 m=1 hum

1 + (si + sj )hi 1 + (si + sj )hi


log( )=0
1 + (si + sj )hj 1 + (si + sj )hj Consequently, Corollary 3 is proved.
(41)
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