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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/JSAC.2016.2600139, IEEE

Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

Green Communication Perspective

Weijia Han,Yan Zhang, Xijun Wang, Jiandong Li, Min Sheng, and Xiao Ma

AbstractIn cellular networks, since MAC layer plays a key To cope with the massive data and various traffics in the

role in every access equipment, it fascinates that little progress near future, it is highly demanded for new access techniques

on multiple access protocol could save considerable energy. which can provide more flexible resource allocation, higher

Accordingly, this paper studies a novel MAC protocol, i.e.,

the power division multiple access (PDMA) protocol, with the throughput, and lower energy cost per bit [7], [8]. With such

purpose of green communication. As a fundamental study of objectives, this paper focuses on the power division multiple

PDMA, we firstly propose a power division multiplexing (PDM) access (PDMA) protocol which could be a potential direction

scheme, analogous to the time division multiplexing (TDM) and for green communications [9][17].

frequency division multiplexing (FDM). It is proved that the

transmit power could be divided into multiple regular power

segments (PSs) to simultaneously transmit multiple independent A. Related Work

information/data streams in peer to peer communications. Based

on our fundamental studies of PDM, an orthogonal power The term PDMA was first proposed in [18], which is

division multiple access (OPDMA) protocol is proposed to utilize an initiative work using different transmit powers for mul-

multiplexing and degraded channel gains for energy saving. By tiuser access. Recently, since such a protocol can utilize

adopting the orthogonal PSs proposed in OPDMA, multiple the broadcasting channel to save more transmit power than

information streams in different channels could be transmitted

TDMA, CDMA, and FDMA/OFDMA, it is well recognized

efficiently and concurrently with quality of service guarantee.

This paper shows that the proposed OPDMA not only has low as one of 5G techniques in terms of non-orthogonal multiple

computational complexity as the conventional TDMA and FDMA access (NOMA) protocol [19]. Essentially, the conventional

protocols but also gains better energy efficiency, which consists PDMA/NOMA protocol is an application of superposition

with the energy saving requirement in green communications. coding (SPC) proposed in the field of information theory [20]

Index TermsPower division multiplexing, orthogonal power [24]. The core objective of SPC is to communicate multiple

division multiple access, non-orthogonal multiple access, super- messages simultaneously by encoding them into a single signal

position coding. with multiple layers at a low bit-cost level [22]. Briefly, on the

one hand, for wireless one-to-many (multicast and broadcast)

I. I NTRODUCTION and many-to-one communications, SPC utilizes the degraded

According to Cisco research [1], by the near time 2017, channel, existing in common broadcasting case [25], [26], to

TVs, tablets, mobile phones, and machine-to-machine (M2M) gain high system throughput. On the other hand, for peer to

modules will undergo traffic growth rates of 24%, 104%, 79%, peer communication, SPC uses multiple level modulation for

and 82%, respectively. It has been predicted that the mobile approaching the ergodic channel capacity. In contrast to SPC,

data volumes will grow up to 1000-fold by 2020 [2], [3]. PDMA/NOMA [9][18] pays more attention on the cellular

With massive mobile traffic growing, the energy consumption based multiuser access mechanism, which is also the major

of the information and communications technology (ICT) focus in this paper.

industry takes approximately 3 percent of the global annual Distinguishing from the fundamental TDMA, FDMA, and

electricity bill. Moreover, such percentage is rising at the CDMA, the NOMA protocols provide the method of power

speed of 15-20 percent per year [4], [5]. Actually, the energy division to enable multiuser access.1 In [9], NOMA is pro-

consumption of wireless communications has become not only posed to achieve high spectral efficiency by power division. As

an important economic issue for operators but also a challenge an implementation, the proposed NOMA jointly uses SPC at

for sustainable development [6]. the transmitter and successive interference cancellation (SIC)

at the receivers. Subsequently, [10] shows that NOMA can

Funding acknowledgement: The work was supported in part by National

Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 61401320, 61501285, achieve more than 30% system-level performance gain when

61231008, 61301176, and 61401354, by the Natural Science Foundation of compared with OFDMA. Since the merit of high resource

Shaanxi Province 2014JQ2-6032, and by the Fundamental Research Funds efficiency really matches the green communication, NOMA

for the Central Universities GK201503018 and JB160115. (The corresponding

author is Xiao Ma.) has attracted wide attentions [10][17].

W. Han and X. Ma are with School of Physics & Information Technology, In NOMA, the transmit power control plays a key role in

Shaanxi Normal University, Xian, P. R. China (Email: alfret@gmail.com and determining the overall system performance, due to the prin-

xma@snnu.edu.cn).

Y. Zhang, X. Wang, M. Sheng, and J. Li are with Broadband Wire- ciple of SPC. However, the optimum power control in current

less Communications Lab. & State Key Lab. (ISN), Information Science

1

Institute, Xidian University, Xian, Shaanxi, 710071, P. R. China (Emails: CDMA and PDMA/NOMA belong to the non-orthogonal access termed

yanzhangpcn@126.com, xjwang22@gmail.com, msheng@mail.xidian.edu.cn, in [27]. However, CDMA needs the orthogonality in code domain, and has

and jdli@pcn.xidian.edu.cn). not sufficiently exploit the resource in the power domain.

0733-8716 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/JSAC.2016.2600139, IEEE

Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

NOMA protocols can only be obtained by exhaustive search efficiently transmitting multiple information streams in peer to

[9], [10], which does not suit for practical systems. According peer communications. For wireless one-to-many/many-to-one

to SPC, the transmit power control consists of two parts: i) communications, the OPDMA protocol ensures to efficiently

Power division and ii) power allocation, where the former one deliver multiple information streams in conditions of optimum

determines the transmit power of each information stream; the power division and allocation. Briefly, the main contributions

latter one decides the mapping between information streams of this paper are summarized as follows.

and signal layers.

1) Associating with TDM and FDM, we show that to guar-

To circumvent the optimization of power division, [11]

antee multiple information streams in a shared resource

compares three power division strategies: The full search

(like the time-slot/sub-band resource unit of TDM/FDM)

power division (FSPD), the proportional fairness based trans-

independent of each other, an eligible division multiplex-

mit power control (FTPC) [13], and the pre-defined fixed

ing scheme needs to keep that the corresponding bits,

power division (FPD). Among the three strategies, FTPC

mapped from the divided resources, are orthogonal in

and FPD have evidently lower computational complexity than

the bit domain. In view of such bit-orthogonality, we

FSPD, at the same time, FTPC gains more throughput than

propose a PDM scheme where the transmit power is

FPD. Hence, the NOMA with FTPC is preferred and further

divided into multiple regular PSs. Each one can support

studied in the condition of uplink transmission [12]. Although

one of the multiple information streams at a required

FTPC has low computational complexity, it cannot guarantee

transmission rate for a target QoS. Our study on PDM

the quality of service (QoS) of individual users, which is a

provides the theoretical fundamentals for designing a

strict requirement in a common cellular system. As proved in

multiple access protocol, and shows an approach to

[14], the outage performance of NOMA is mainly determined

transmit the multiple information streams under a same

by the users target transmission rate and the related power

channel gain, which have not been studied in the related

allocation. When the transmit powers are allocated unsuitably,

works of NOMA.

the multiusers QoS will never be met. For the optimization

2) From the perspective of bit-orthogonality, this pa-

of power allocation, although [11] and [12] have mentioned

per proves that when the transmit power is divided

the user scheduling in downlink and uplink channels, there

to ensure each PS could support c bits/sec/Hz in

has not exist a comprehensive research to show the optimum

PDM, a combination of b consecutive PSs offers bc

power allocation.

bits/sec/Hz transmission rate and the other ones keep the

In summary, the current PDMA/NOMA protocols [9][13],

c bits/sec/Hz capability. Such results not only validate

[15] cannot efficiently obtain the optimum power division and

that the PSs in PDM, analogous to the time-slots/sub-

allocation, at the same time, guarantee the QoS requirement,

bands in TDM/FDM, can support multiple independent

resulting in resource waste. In this paper, we concentrate on

information streams at the same time, but also show

simultaneously circumventing the above issues to propose a

that the linear combination of PSs could satisfy different

green MAC protocol.

requirements on QoS.

3) Based on the fundamental studies of PDM, we pro-

B. Main Results pose an OPDMA protocol which guarantees the bit-

orthogonality, at the same time, utilizes both the division

Essentially, NOMA belongs to PDMA where the total

multiplexing and the degraded channel gain [25], [26].

transmit power is divided into multiple power segments (PSs),

To minimize the transmit power of OPDMA for green

similar to the time-slots/sub-bands in TDMA/FDMA. Evi-

communications, we derive the optimum PS allocation

dently, as an eligible multiuser access protocol, PDMA has to

for the downlink and uplink transmissions, respectively.

jointly consider: i) The low complexity of power division and

At particular, our theoretical results show that the power

ii) the QoS (e.g., transmission rate) of each access user. How-

allocation in PDMA is completely different for downlink

ever, such restrictions have not been simultaneously satisfied

and uplink cases, which has not been well studied in the

in current PDMA/NOMA protocols, resulting in inefficient

related works [9][18]. Additionally, with regard to the

utilization of the transmit power resource. Additionally, by

QoS requirement, we derive the optimum PS division

referring to the development of TDMA, FDMA, and CDMA,

given by a closed-form expression, which ensures the

these mature access protocols in cellular networks are all

computational complexity of OPDMA is eligible.

based on the fundamental studies of time division multiplexing

4) Furthermore, in view of green communications, we

(TDM), frequency division multiplexing (FDM), and code di-

prove that the proposed OPDMAs energy efficiency

vision multiplexing (CDM), respectively. However, the power

(EE), whose metric is energy cost per bit per second per

division multiplexing (PDM) has not been well researched for

Hertz, outperforms the conventional TDMA/FDMAs.

PDMA, leading that the current power division based MAC

Besides, the proposed OPDMA does not suffer

protocols may have not utilize the power resource efficiently.

the estimation errors on timing/central frequency in

To address such issues for green communications, this paper

TDMA/FDMA.

provides a comprehensive research on the PDMA based proto-

col. We first study the PDM technique, and then extend it to an Consequently, the proposed OPDMA can not only effi-

orthogonal power division multiple access (OPDMA) protocol ciently guarantee the QoS requirement but also spend the

with regard to multiple access channels. Our PDM aims at minimum transmit power for green communications.

0733-8716 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/JSAC.2016.2600139, IEEE

Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

M information streams M information streams

(a) M information streams in the resource division multiplexing case (b) M information streams in the multiple access protocol case

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section In this section, PDM is studied for the peer to peer com-

II introduces the system model. Section III studies PDM munication where multiple information streams are required

from the perspective of bit domain. Section IV proposes to transmit from a transmitter to a receiver. We first show

an OPDMA protocol with an optimum power division and that a reasonable PDM could be treated as a transform from

allocation strategy. Section V presents the simulation results to the power domain to the bit domain when compared with the

validate our studies. Finally, Section VI concludes this paper. classical TDM and FDM. Based on this result, the transmit

power could be efficiently divided into multiple PSs which

can be used to transmit independent information streams

II. S YSTEM M ODEL respectively.

This paper focuses on a single cell in a cellular network.

The cell consists of one base station and multiple access users A. Definition of PDM

which are equipped with an antenna respectively, as shown in At first, we use TDM and FDM to show that the essence

Fig. 1. of division multiplexing is to ensure the orthogonality and

When studying the resource division multiplexing in peer fairness in bit domain. This orthogonality guarantees the

to peer communication, we consider there are M different information stream in a time-slot/sub-band of TDM/FDM is

information streams between one transmitter and one independent of any others. For example, when two information

receiver. streams respectively have different time-slots in a TDM sys-

In the case of one-to-many and many-to-one communica- tem, their transmitted data is not mutually interfered whatever

tions, assume there are M different information streams the transmit powers and bandwidths are used. Based on such

required by the multiple access terminals. results, a PDM scheme is proposed from the perspective of

the bit-orthogonality and then extended to a multiple access

For each information stream, a constant transmission rate protocol in next section. To begin with simple conditions, we

c is required to guarantee the QoS requirement. In addition, have the following assumptions: i) In the condition of AWGN

we do not specify the duplexing, e.g., time division duplexing channel with noise power 2 = 1 and channel gain h = 1,

(TDD) and frequency division duplexing (FDD), since it does two information streams are required to deliver c1 and c2 ,

not impact on the study of the multiple access protocol in this respectively; ii) the corresponding equipments could use either

paper. two time-slots whose lengths are t1 and t2 , or two frequency

In our system, the wireless channels are independent and bands whose bandwidths are B1 and B2 to ensure c1 = c2 for

identically distributed (i.i.d.) block Rayleigh fading, which the information streams .

means the fading channel gain remains constant during a Based on Shannon capacity, the total quantity of the trans-

frame. Additionally, consider the channel estimation is perfect, mitted data is given by

which means that the channel state information (CSI) is known

at the transmitter for each frame. We impose a maximum trans- c = tB log(1 + s) (1)

mit power constrain at the transmitter and consider additive

white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at the receiver. Also, SPC and where t, B, and s denote transmit time, channel bandwidth,

SIC are employed in transmitter and receiver, respectively.2 and transmit power, respectively. For eligibly multiplexing a

certain kind of communication resource, TDM and FDM are

2 The SIC receivers have been widely used and are architecturally similar to based on the division of the transmit time t and the channel

traditional non-SIC receivers in terms of hardware complexity and cost [28]. bandwidth B in (1). Hence, when let t = t1 + t2 and B =

0733-8716 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

Power (w) Power (w) h

1 1

PS

1 1

1bit 1bit 1bit 1bit division & allocation

0 1 2 Frequency (Hz) 0 1 2 Time (second)

sM s2 s1

01010100 Baseband x1

Frequency (Hz)

unit

Time (second)

01011110 Baseband x2

1 1 unit

1bit 1bit y

Sum

0 1 ? Power (w) Carrier

unit xM

Fig. 2. Illustration of TDM, FDM, and PDM from the perspective of bit-

orthogonality. Fig. 3. Illustration of PDM. x1 , x2 , , xM denote the modulated signals of

information stream-1, 2, , M , respectively.

for transmitting two information streams {c1 , c2 } separately, Obviously, when s = s1 + s2 holds for (5) and (6), each

TDM and FDM can be formulated by PS can be treated as a transmission tunnel used to transmit

an information stream, which is similar to the time-slot/sub-

c1 = t1 B log(1 + s)

band in TDM/FDM. According to (4), it is shown that to

(2)

c2 = t2 B log(1 + s),

hold the bit-orthogonality and -fairness, the PSs in PDM

should not be equal for the related information streams. This

c1 = tB1 log(1 + s) outcome is contrary to our intuitive fairness which is the

(3)

c2 = tB2 log(1 + s).

equal division of available resource. Actually, if the multiple

information streams have a same priority, a reasonable division

By reviewing (2) and (3), we see that the information bits multiplexing technique requires the bit-fairness. Hence, we

c1 and c2 could be treated to be transformed from the divided propose a PDM scheme consisting of two procedures:

time/spectrum resource, and they are independent of each other i) Divide the whole transmit power into multiple unequal

in bit domain/space, illustrated in Fig. 2. Hence, the division PSs.

multiplexing could be interpreted as: A scheme divides and ii) Assign the divided PSs to the related information streams.

allocates the resource to ensure the total corresponding bits are To determine the multiple unequal PSs in PDM, we derive

fairly divided for information streams, which is termed as bit- the following Lemma 1 to show the PS division in a general

fairness. In addition, the divided bits c1 and c2 are orthogonal condition where B is the occupied channel bandwidth, h is

from the perspective of bit domain, which is termed as bit- the channel gain, 2 is the noise power, and c is the target

orthogonality. Therefore, we could conclude that the objective transmission rate required by the information streams.

of a general division multiplexing scheme is to guarantee Lemma 1: Under the bit-orthogonality and -fairness, the

not only the bit-orthogonality in bit domain but also the bit- optimum PS in PDM is given by

(2 B 1) 2

fairness for each information stream. (m1)c c

sm =

2 B

(7)

In (1)-(3), we have discussed the division of t and B in

the view of bit-domain. For the only residual parameter, does h

the transmit power support the concluded objective of medium where m {1, 2, , M }.

division for multiuser access? Similar to (2) and (3), we show Proof: For m = 1, 2, we have

s1 h = (2 B 1) 2 ,

the following functions for power division, c

(8)

c1 = tB log(1 + s1 ) s2 h = (2 2 ) 2 .

2c c

(9)

B B

(4)

c2 = tB log(1 + 1+s1 ).

s2

In turn, we could arrive at

Additionally, assume that: B = 1 and t = 1; s1 and s2 are

(2 B 1) 2

(m1)c c

sm =

2 B

(10)

two PSs for information stream-1 and information stream-2,

respectively. Then, for information stream-1, there exists h

where m {1, 2, , M }. Therefore, Lemma 1 is proved.

c1 = log(1 + s1 ) s1 = 2c1 1. (5) To illustrate the PSs assignment, the structure of PDM at

To ensure the bit-orthogonality, the transmit power for deliv- transmitter is presented in Fig. 3. At the receiver, the multiple

ering c1 and c2 is information streams could be obtained by SIC which has

been widely used in wireless communication system [28].

s1 + s2 = 2c1 +c2 1. (6) In PDM, the transmitted signal is an aggregation of multiple

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

generalized PAM (or QAM) whose bit error rate (BER) has Corollary 1: A combination of b consecutive PSs with c

been well investigated in [29], [30] and the reference therein. bits fairness offers bc bits/sec transmission rate, and the other

Similarly with the time-slot/sub-band in TDM/FDM, the as- PSs keep the c bits fairness.

signed PSs are independently used for completely different Proof: According to (12), the PS, which is generate by

parallel information streams without the time and frequency combining arbitrary b consecutive PSs, is given by

(2 B 1)2

divisions. Additionally, the derived transform guarantees both bc (n1)bc

2

sm =

B

the bit-orthogonality and -fairness. Hence, such a technique . (13)

is called as power division multiplexing. At particular, it m=(n1)b+1nb h

has two apparent advantages better than the multiplexing in

To prove Corollary 1, we only need to prove the c bits

fairness holds for the (nb + 1)-th and (n 1)b-th PSs which

conventional PDMA/NOMA that:

The multiplexing in conventional PDMA/NOMA requires are the two neighbors of the combined b consecutive PSs. For

that the channel gains of users are different, but the PDM the (nb + 1)-th and (n 1)b-th PSs, the related transmission

does not. rates are

The PSs in PDM are calculated in a closed-form expres-

cnb+1 = B log(1 + 2 ),

snb+1 h

+ h m=1nb sm

sion (7), which is evidently simpler than the methods used (14)

in the current related works.

c(n1)b = B log(1 + ),

s(n1)b h

+ h m=1(n1)b1 sm

(15)

2

B. Properties of the Orthogonal PSs

respectively.

By substituting (7)(13) into (14)(15), we have cnb+1 =

In practice, an access user may need to transmit multi-

c(n1)b = c. Hence, Corollary 1 is proved.

ple information streams simultaneously, and one information

stream may demand for multiple PSs to satisfy its requirement.

As the fundamentals of PDM, Proposition 1 and Corollary 1

Hence, PDM should have the capability of ensuring that the

validate that the PSs in PDM, analogous to the time-slots/sub-

combination of b consecutive PSs, where each one supports c

bands in TDM/FDM, can support multiple independent in-

bits/sec/Hz, could provide bc bits/sec/Hz transmission rate. To

formation streams with different requirements on QoS. Such

show the feasibility of the combination requirement, we firstly

results ensure the PS allocation unit in Fig. 3 can dynamically

prove the following proposition. For clarity, let c bits fairness

combine multiple PSs for the information streams. As widely

represent that a PS offers c bits/sec/Hz transmission rate.

known, a multiple access protocol is commonly based on a

Proposition 1: A sequence of PSs, which are generated by well studied multiplexing technique, e.g., TDMA is based

combining b consecutive PSs with c bits fairness, are of bc on TDM and carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) is based

bits fairness. on statistical multiplexing. Our fundamental studies of PDM

Proof: By letting bc instead of c in (7), the PS with bc facilitate to propose a reasonable PDMA protocol, which is

bits fairness is given by one of major works in next section.

(2 B 1)2

bc (n1)bc

2

sn =

B

. (11) IV. OPDMA P ROTOCOL

h

In this section, an OPDMA protocol is proposed to pro-

For the PS sm with c bits fairness, the combination of b vide bit-orthogonality and -fairness for multiple access users

consecutive PSs is formulated by by extending the proposed PDM. In contrast to PDM, the

sm OPDMA protocol solves the wireless one-to-many/many-to-

m=(n1)b+1nb one communications by using orthogonal PSs. The orthogo-

nal means that the PSs ensure the information streams can be

= (2 B 1)2

2

c (m1)c

B

delivered independently under different channel gains. From

m=(n1)b+1nb h

the perspective of green communications, we prove that the

2 OPDMA protocol could utilize the degraded channel [25] to

=

mc (m1)c

(12)

m=(n1)b+1nb h

2 B 2 B

achieve better EE compared with TDMA and FDMA.

m=(n1)b+1nb

=(2 2 )

nbc (n1)bc 2

B B

A. Structure of OPDMA

h

(2 1)2

bc (n1)bc Based on our fundamental studies of PDM, we propose an

2

=

B B

OPDMA protocol whose structure is introduced as follows.

h 1) Downlink of OPDMA: In OPDMA, the structure of

Since (11) equals to (12), Proposition 1 is proved. downlink transmission is analogous to the one shown in

According to Proposition 1, we can generate a new sequence Fig. 3 except the input of PS division & allocation unit

of PSs by equally combining the existing PSs, and the trans- which is h1 , h2 , , hM here. For the different access users,

mission rate provided by the new PSs is proportional to the the related binary data is modulated in base station sepa-

number of the combined PSs. Based on Proposition 1, we have rately. The modulation unit could directly use the existing

the following corollary. QAM modulation scheme for each user. After the operation

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Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

hM, , h2 , h1 PS

multiplexed by s1 , s2 , , sM which are determined by division & allocation

the PS division & allocation unit. Here, s1 , s2 , , sM are

sM

s2 s1

the PSs with the bit-orthogonality and -fairness. Next, the

signals sm xm , m {1, 2, , M } for different users are y1

01010100 Baseband x1

added together to generate a superposition signal given by unit Carrier

M

y= sm xm , (16)

01011110 Baseband x2 y2

m=1 unit Carrier

and then up-converted to be a transmitted signal. As shown,

the superposition signal y consists of multiple signals with dif-

ferent transmit powers. Since each signal in the superposition

01111010 Baseband yM

signal has its own target, it is called as a signal layer [21]. unit

xM Carrier

In the introduced structure, the PS division & allocation

unit performs power division and allocation. During the power

Fig. 4. Illustration of PDMA uplink.

allocation, the signal layers are sorted in ascending order with

regard to the channel gains from the base station to access

users. In other words, a signal layer is considered the high exists

(2 B 1) 2

signal layer when it has the relative small channel gain, e.g., (n1)c c

2 B

(2 B 1) 2 1 2 B

c mc

Such results are supported by Proposition 2 and Corollary 2 = (18)

1 2B

c

proved in Section IV-B. h

(2 B 1)

mc

2

=

During the power division, the transmit power is divided

,

into multiple PSs with the bit-orthogonality and -fairness, h

we have B log(1 + 2 +hs ) = c, which means the ideal

which is impacted by the transmission rate c, the channel m+1 h

bandwidth B, the number of users M , and the channel gain n=1m sn

h1M . At particular, the parameter c has the functionality that transmission rate is c for each signal layer.

is used to control the QoS of downlink transmission. In other According to Fig. 3 , the PS division and allocation do

words, when the demanded service is not satisfied for the not impact on the signal modulation, which means each data

access user, we can improve QoS by increasing c of the stream has its own transmission tunnel as TDMA and FDMA.

related signal layer. Additionally, the PS division & allocation Besides, we see that the information stream in the highest

unit needs to ensure that the sum of all PSs should follow layer does not need to know the existence of other signals.

a power constrain formulated by m=1M sm Smax where Hence, the proposed OPDMA can be downward compatible

Smax denotes the maximal transmit power. with the current medium division multiple access by allocating

After the power division and allocation, PSs are allocated the maximal PS to the user who cannot perform SIC.

to the target users directly. Since the PS division & allocation 2) Uplink of OPDMA: The structure of OPDMA uplink

plays a key role in OPDMA, its detailed procedures are is shown in Fig. 4. In contrast to the downlink structure, the

discussed in the sequential two subsections with regard to the PS division & allocation unit could be performed in either

operational complexity and the different channel gains. the base station or the individual access users. During the

At an arbitrary receiver m, the received signal ym is power allocation, the signal layer is considered as the high

signal layer when it has the relatively large channel gain,

M e.g., when h1 h2 h3 , s1 , s2 , and s3 are regarded as the

ym = hm sm xm . (17)

m=1 transmit powers of layer-3, layer-2 and layer-1, respectively.

Such results are supported by Proposition 2 and Corollary 2

To demodulate ym , the receiver could directly use SIC for proved in Section IV-B.

multiuser detection. Since SIC has been well studied in Since the PS division and allocation need the information

existing researches, we omit the detailed introduction here. of multiple channels, it is better to be performed in the

Briefly, when user-1 receives the superposition signal y1 with

M = 2 where user-1 and user-2 take up the low and high

base station. As a result, during the uplink transmission, the

base station collects the channel gains and the transmission

the user-1 first decodes the high

signal layers respectively, requirements of each information stream, and then performs

signal layer by treating h1 s1 x1 as noise, subtracts the user- the power division and allocation. In turn, the value of PS is

2s signal h1 s2 x2 from y1 and finally extracts its data x1 . For informed to the specified users respectively. Without consid-

the user-2, the receiver directly demodulates the superposition ering the carrier, the output signal of user m is

signal y2 ; at the same time, treats the other signal as the

interference. According to the theory of SIC, the maximal ym = sm xm . (19)

transmission rate of the signal layer-m + 1 under the AWGN

channel is calculated by B log(1 + 2 +hsm+1 h

sn

). Since there At the base station, the received superposition signal is given

n=1m

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M

y = hm sm xm .

unique. It is obvious that the optimization of NOMA/PDMA

(20)

protocols needs to adjust the transmit power si and sort the

information streams to obtain Oi . Since (22), which is an

m=1

integer combinatorial programming problem, is generally NP-

the SIC method.

hard, it is difficult to achieve the optimum solution. As a

In OPDMA, the compound signals in the downlink channel

result, the FTPC strategy is widely preferred for power division

are in complete accord with the superposition signal in a

in NOMA/PDMA [9][13]. However, such a strategy cannot

broadcasting channel. In information theory, it has been proven

guarantee the QoS of users.

that such a transmission scheme can utilize the degraded

In MAC layer, there commonly exists a target transmission

channel to achieve better capacity than TDMA and FDMA,

rate which is determined by upper layers according to both

which confirms the advantage of OPDMA. To distinguish QoS and generation rate of mobile traffic. Once the target

from the focus in information theory which is the capacity

rate is achieved, the mobile data in buffer keeps decreasing or

of broadcasting channel, this paper concentrates on studying

stable. Hence, with regard to the target rate, it is not necessary

how to efficiently divide and allocate the PSs with both the bit- to maximize the transmission rate in a MAC protocol. Ac-

orthogonality and -fairness, which is also our novelty differing

cordingly, the optimization objective in our OPDMA protocol

from NOMA and introduced in the following subsections. is changed to minimize the total transmit power towards

green communications. Accordingly, the OPDMA protocol is

B. PS Division & Allocation Strategy formulated by

In this subsection, an optimum PS division & allocation min si

strategy is proposed for OPDMA in a multiuser access system. s1M R+ ,O1M M iM

ci = log(1 + )c

The proposed strategy owns distinct merits on both the energy si hi

+ hi nOi /{i} sn

st.

and executional efficiencies, when compared with NOMA and 2

TDMA/FDMA. (23a)

si Smax

1) MAC Protocol Formulation: The NOMA/PDMA based

(23b)

protocols need to sort information streams into different signal

layer [9][17]. For a realization of sorting results, let Oi be a

iM

j, k M, j kj,kOi (23c)

Oi Oj i,jM,O

set containing the identification number of every information

stream whose signal layer is lower or equal to the information (23d)

i <Oj

stream-i, e.g., there exists O3 = {3}, O1 = {1, 3}, and O2 = Oi /Oj = {i}i,jM,Oi Oj =1 . (23e)

{1, 2, 3} when the information streams-1, -2, and -3 belong to

where (23a) shows the QoS constraint. Next, we show the

the second, third, and first signal layers, respectively. Given a

realization of Oi , the transmit rate of information stream-i is

optimum solution of (23).

2) Optimum PS Division & Allocation Strategy: According

ci = log(1 + ).

si hi to (23), the optimum solution could be achieved by two steps:

2 + hi nOi /{i} sn

(21)

i) Sort the information streams to obtain the optimum sets

O1M . ii) And then calculate the optimum transmit pow-

ers/power segments s1M . Since the essence of sorting Oi in

For the current NOMA/PDMA protocols, their common

objective is to maximize the system throughput with a transmit

(23) is to let the information streams match the different signal

layers, we sort the channel gain h1M instead of O1M . For

power constraint [9][17]. Thus, such protocols could be

clarity of expression, let hi hj denote the signal layer of hi

formulated as

max ci is lower than or equal to the one of hj . To minimize the total

s1M R+ ,O1M M iM

transmit power in (23), we first show the optimum PSs s1M

ci = log(1 + )

si hi under given h1M , by extending Lemma 1.

2 + hi nOi /{i} sn

st. (22a)

Proposition 2: Given the channel gains h1 h2 hM

si Smax (22b) and target rate c, the optimum PSs are given by

iM m1

j, k M, j kj,kOi sm =(2 B 1) 2 [ + (2 1)

c 1 1 Bc

(22c)

hm i=1 hi

Oi Oj i,jM,O

m l i + 1 Bc

(22d) m1 ml

(24)

+ (2 1)l ].

i <Oj

l=2 i=1

where M = {1, 2, , M }, O denotes the size of set O, X/Y Proof: See Appendix A.

means that set X excludes all elements in set Y , R+ denotes a According to Proposition 2, the PSs with bit-orthogonality

set of all nonnegative real number, and xy means that x holds and -fairness could be efficiently obtained by a closed-form

when y is true. In (22), (22a) shows the transmission rate of expression. Based on Proposition 2, we have the following

information stream-i; (22b) means the total transmit power of corollary to show the optimum channel ordering.

information streams is constrained to the maximal transmit Corollary 2: When h1 h2 hM and h1 h2

power Smax ; (22c)-(22e) express that there is an unique set hM hold for downlink and uplink respectively, the optimum

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utilization of degraded channel in OPDMA is achieved by optimum PSs in OPDMA are obtained more efficiently than

letting h1 h2 hM . the related works in NOMA [10][13].

Proof: See Appendix B.

Corollary 2 shows that, for achieving the minimal transmit

power, PDMA is required to reasonably sort the channel gains

in order, which may have not been studied in the related works C. Analysis of EE

[9][18].

This subsection analyzes EE to show OPDMA can save

Evidently, when the channel gains are sorted according to

more energy than TDMA/FDMA. Consider a general mul-

Corollary 2 and then the transmit power is divided based on

tiuser case: i) There are M access users; ii) each one demands

Proposition 2, we obtain the optimum solution of (23). In

for the transmission rate c; iii) the related channel gains are

hg1 , hg2 , , hgM with hg1 hg2 hgM , g {u, d}, where u

other words, based on Corollary 2 and Proposition 2, OPDMA

could achieve the optimum performance in the view of green

and d denote the uplink and downlink channels, respectively.

communications.

Additionally, let eOP S , eT DMA , eF DMA , S g , and S denote

When implementing OPDMA, the base station may not the EE of OPDMA with OPS, the EE of TDMA, the EE of

know the accurate channel gains h1M because of the ran- FDMA, the sum of optimum PSs in OPDMA, and the total

domness of wireless channel. In this condition, it requires the transmit power in TDMA/FDMA, respectively. For OPDMA,

related PSs are set larger to ensure the transmission rate c. we have the following corollary.

Moreover, sometimes we would like to adjust the resource

Corollary 3: In OPDMA, the sum of optimum PSs of M

allocation for a specified user. To address these issues, m hm

information streams is

is employed to replace hm in (24). By adjusting the factor m

between 0 and 1, PS could be increased for a specified user. M

S g = (2 B 1) 2 2

c (M m)c 1

Based on above outcomes, we propose an optimum PS B (25)

division & allocation (OPS) strategy of OPDMA, of which m=1 hgm

the procedures are presented as follows,

in conditions of target rate c.

Algorithm 1 Procedures of the OPS strategy Proof: See Appendix C.

Step i) Sort M channel gains in descending order

According to Corollary 3, when the transmission rate c is

for downlink transmission,

h1 h2 , , hM .

guaranteed for each information stream, the energy costs per

bit per second per Hertz of OPDMA is given by

Sort M channel gains in ascending order

for uplink transmission,

h1 h2 , , hM . (2 B 1) 2 M 2 B

c (M m)c

=

Let h[1 M ] = 1M h1M .

OP S (26)

e .

Mc hgm

Step ii) For m = 1 1 M

m=1

2

+ s1 )

c

If s1 > Smax show the required transmit power when the target rate is c.

let s[l] = 0, Corollary 4: In TDMA/FDMA, the total transmit power of

Goto Step ii), M information streams is given by

End

(2 1) 2 M 1

End Mc

S= g

B

Step iii) Allocate the PSs to access users according (27)

to s. M m=1 hm

sum of every entry of s, and l is a control parameter explained in conditions of target rate c.

in next paragraph. Proof: Corollary 4 can be obtained by following the

In Step i), the sorting of channel gains is to ensure the pro- derivation of (24), and thus its proof is omitted here for brevity.

posed strategy could sufficiently utilize the degraded channel.

In Step ii), based on the sorted channel gains, the calculated Accordingly, the energy costs per bit per second per Hertz

PSs are optimum with regard to i . Thus, when the channel of TDMA/FDMA is given by

gains h1M are available, the proposed OPS strategy could

achieve the optimum EE with regard to the bit-orthogonality (2 1) 2 M 1

Mc

and -fairness. In Step iii), s1 > Smax is used to control the eT DMA = eF DMA = g .

B

(28)

M 2c m=1 hm

calculated PSs satisfying the transmit power constraint. The

user l is preferred to follow a certain rule, e.g., choose the

last access user from the perspective of first-in-first-out (FIFO) Next, we employ the EE ratio, which is the ratio of eT DMA

rule, or choose the user with the smallest channel gain in to eOP S , to compare the performance between TDMA and

the view of maximizing the overall EE. It is obvious that the OPDMA. By (26)(28), the related EE ratio is given by

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log(1 + s2 h2

)

1,

1+(1p)s1 h2

(32)

log(1 + 1+s )

T DMA

to =

e s2 h2

1 h2

eOP S

m=1

Mc

2 B 1 M 1 respectively. (31) and (32) mean that the variance of estimation

=

M hgm

inside the logarithm leads to less negative impact on the system

(2 B 1) M

c (M m)c

1

m=1 2

B

hgm throughput when compared with TDMA and FDMA. Addi-

tionally, the smaller PS (1 p)s1 only reduces the throughput

m=1

Mc

2 B 1 M 1 (29)

=

c

M(2 B 1) hgm in layer-1.

m=1 2

(M m)c

M B

1 In the case of CSI underestimation, there is

hgm

log(1 + (1 + p)s1 h1 )

M m=1

(M m)c

1

1 1

= . log(1 + s1 h1 )

(33)

m=1 2

(M m)c

M B

1

hgm

for layer-1, which means the throughput is not reduced.

For FDMA, since eT DMA = eF DMA , the ratio of eF DMA to According to Proposition 2, we only focus on layer-2, since

OP S

e , denoted by f o , equals to to . According to Jensens the impact of imperfect CSI on the higher layer decreases

inequality, there exists to = f o 1. Hence, the proposed exponentially. For layer-2, we have

OPDMA can achieve better EE than TDMA and FDMA.

As well known, the path loss increases exponentially with log(1 + s2 h2

)

1 p,

1+(1+p)s1 h2

(34)

log(1 + 1+s1 h2 )

distance. Hence, when there are only two access users with

c = 2, the EE ratio could be up to 2.5. Therefore, the proposed

s2 h2

OPDMA could save a large amount of energy for green where inequality can be proved by using s1 = 2cs1 2

1,

communications. of which the details are omitted here for brevity. By the

qualitative analysis (31)-(34), we can see that OPDMA maybe

D. Qualitative Analysis on Imperfect CSI not sensitive to the estimation error of CSI, because of the

In practice, TDMA and FDMA protocols both require guard logarithm relationship. In fact, TDMA/FDMA suffers the

zone to avoid the interference caused by the offset of time-slot estimation errors on not only the timing/central frequency

and sub-band with regard to the multiple access users. Hence, but also the channel gain. Hence, OPDMA could outperform

to reduce the impact of CSI estimation error on the system, it TDMA and FDMA. Actually, to strictly compare OPDMA,

is also viable to set a guard zone for the PS, which could be TDMA, and FDMA with regard to the CSI estimation error,

realized by adjusting 1M in the proposed Algorithms 1 and it needs a substantial research with considering many specific

2. practical factors and application backgrounds, which is our

As a beginning research on OPDMA, this paper focuses future work.

on the fundamental study in the condition of perfect channel

estimation. To complement our research, this subsection shows

E. Computational Complexity

a qualitative analysis on the imperfect CSI. For ideal TDMA,

FDMA, and OPDMA with full buffer, assume the estimation When OPDMA needs to achieve the optimum performance,

errors of the timing in TDMA, the central frequency in FDMA, PSs should be determined with regard to the multiple CSIs,

and the channel gain in OPDMA cause that the estimated which intuitively may cause frequent power control and high

offset takes p percent of the time-slot, sub-band, and PS, computational complexity. Actually, such a power control

respectively. In such conditions, the delivered traffic during a case commonly exists in current cellular networks. In a

time-slot/sub-band in TDMA/FDMA is reduced by p percent, TDMA/FDMA system, the optimum power control is achieved

which is expressed by by water-filling algorithm which also requires the multiple

(1 p)t log(1 + sh) (1 p)B log(1 + sh) CSIs, resulting in the same frequency of power control as

= =1p

t log(1 + sh) B log(1 + sh)

(30) OPDMA.

For the TDMA/FDMA system with water-filling algorithm,

where the definition of symbols is consistent with the decla- the computational complexity on obtaining the optimum trans-

ration in Section III-A. (30) shows that the estimation error mit power is O(M log M ) [31]. With regard to the proposed

has linear effect on the reduction of system performance in strategy, the computational complexity of OPDMA is O(M ).

TDMA/FDMA. Since the number of information streams are limited, such two

For the OPDMA protocol, we consider the layer-1 suffers computational complexities are approximately same.

the imperfect CSI. As a result, the layers, which are higher During implementation, the complexity of OPDMA is not

than one, are impacted by the imperfect CSI. Under overesti- critical for downlink transmission, since the multiple CSIs are

mation where the estimated channel gain is larger than the real available in a base station. As to the uplink transmission, the

one, the corresponding PS is set smaller. Hence, the related PS allocation could be determined by the base station at first,

changes of the traffic in layer-1 and layer-2 are expressed by and then is informed to access users via control plane/control

log(1 + (1 p)s1 h1 )

1 p,

channel. Therefore, the computational complexity of OPDMA

log(1 + s1 h1 )

(31) could match the practical requirement.

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10

V. S IMULATION R ESULTS

2

In this section, we evaluate the proposed OPDMA protocol 10

to , c 2

through simulations. To consist with the system model, we to , c 4

have the following simulation configuration [11]: The radius to , c 6

of cell is R = 250 m, the total transmission power of base to , c 2

station is 46 dBm, the antenna gain of base station is 14 dBi, ,c4

to

the user antenna gain is 0 dBi, the user equipment noise figure to , c 6

is 9 dB, the white noise density is -174 dBm/Hz, the system

EE Ratio

bandwidth is 10 MHz, the channel is block Rayleigh-fading,

the path loss is evaluated by 128.1 + 37.6 log10 (r) dB where

1

10

the decay factor in FTPC is set to be 0.4. For brevity, NOMA

and OPS are short for NOMA with FTPC and OPDMA with

OPS, respectively.

A. Two-user Case 0

10

In this case, we show the numerical results of EE with 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

respect to the location relationship between a base sta- Normalized radial distance, r/R

tion and two access users: User-1 is fixed 25 m from

the base station; user-2 is respectively located at r =

+

Fig. 5. Performance comparison between OPDMA and TDMA/FDMA. to

[0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9] 250 m where r denotes

denotes the upper bound of EE ratio.

the distance between the base station and the user-2. With

regard to the target rate and the transmit power constraint

m=12 sm 46 dBm, the PSs in OPS are computed by the 108

no, c 2

proposed OPS strategy; while, the PSs in FTPC are obtained no, c 4

107

by exhaustive search. With such PSs, the transmission rate is no, c 6

evaluated by Shannon capacity, at the same time, restricted

106

to the required one.3 Except the transmission rate, the other

parameters are based on simulations. Additionally, let no and 105

to denote the EE ratio of FTPC to OPS and the EE ratio of

EE Ratio

The performance comparisons among OPDMA, TDMA,

and FTPC are presented in Figs. 5-7, with considering different 103

normalized distance and QoS requirements. Fig. 5 shows

the EE ratio to under different normalized radial distance 102

r/R. It is obvious that the EE ratio to increases as r/R

increasing whatever the target rate is, which validates our study 101

in Section IV-C. Generally, the simulation outcomes confirm

the theoretical results: i) By jointly utilizing the multiplexing 100

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

and degraded channel gains, OPDMA saves more energy than Normalized radial distance, r/R

TDMA/FDMA whatever the user location is. ii) When the

distance between two users increases, OPDMA could gain Fig. 6. Performance comparison between OPDMA and FTPC.

better EE from the degraded channel.

Fig. 6 presents the EE ratio no in conditions of different

normalized distance r/R. As shown, the EE ratio no is larger For FTPC, the transmission rates of user-1 and user-2 are

than one, which means the EE of OPDMA is better than the shown in Fig. 7. It is obvious that FTPC cannot ensure the

one of FTPC. Additionally, we see that the EE of FTPC is transmission rate achieves the target one, which means the

impacted by the target rate and the user location. Particularly, QoS requirement is not satisfied. It is because FTPC divides

the EE ratio no is really large when the normalized distance the transmit power only based on the ratio of two channel

r/R approximates to the one between the base station and gains, so that each divided PS does not have a distinct value

user-1. Since the larger EE ratio means the better EE of OPS, when the path losses of the two channels do not have enough

the proposed OPS achieves distinctly better performance than gap. Such an outcome should be strictly avoided in a common

TDMA and FTPC from the perspective of green communica- access protocol with regard to both the user fairness and

tions. the QoS requirement. Hence, FTPC is out of work when

3

considering QoS. In addition, we need to emphasize that the

Once the target rate is achieved, the QoS requirement is satisfied and the

mobile data in buffer keeps decreasing or stable. Hence, it is ineligible that transmit power in FTPC is obtained by searching in contrast to

the transmission rate is larger than the required one. the PSs in OPDMA calculated by the closed-form expression.

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11

7 20

,c2

18 to

6 fo , c 2

16

,c4

to

5 14

Rate, (bits/second/Hz)

,c4

fo

12

4

EE ratio

10

3

8

FTPC, user 1, c 2 6

2 FTPC, user 2, c 2

FTPC, user 1, c 4

FTPC, user 2, c 4

4

1 FTPC, user 1, c 6

FTPC, user 2, c 6 2

0 0

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 2 3 4 5 6 7

Normalized radial distance, r/R M

Fig. 7. Transmission rate of each user in FTPC. Fig. 9. Comparison of EE between OPS and TDMA/FDMA with different

target rates. Marks present the numerical results; curves are obtained by (29).

5

ensure the QoS of each user. Since QoS cannot be guaranteed

FTPC

4.5 OPDMA in FTPC, it is unfair to compare FTPC with the proposed OPS

Target even it may achieve better EE.

4 To compare EE between OPS and TDMA/FDMA, we

3.5 present the EE ratios to and f o in Fig. 9. It is shown that

Rate, (bits/second/Hz)

3 users increasing with different target rates. At particular, the

2.5

energy cost per bit in OPS approximates a half of the one in

TDMA/FDMA, when there are only two access users. Under

2 the condition of seven access users, the EE of OPS is evidently

larger than the one of TDMA/FDMA. Such outcomes validate

1.5

our EE analysis in Section IV-C, and hence confirm the merit

1 of the OPDMA. Additionally, it is obvious that TDMA and

FDMA have a similar performance, matching the theoretical

0.5

analysis in Section IV.

0 Next, we show a comparison among TDMA, FDMA, and

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

OPS with regard to the imperfect CSI in the following

M

simulations. To evaluate the influence of imperfect CSI, we

use the expectation of channel gain h, obtained by the path

loss function 128.1 + 37.6 log10 (r), to decide the transmit

Fig. 8. Transmission rate under different number of access users. In this

figure, each mark denotes a transmission rate of an individual user, e.g. when

M = 2, two blue crosses present the transmission rates of user-1 and -2 power/PSs in TDMA, FDMA, and OPS, and then employ the

respectively. Note that the purple diamonds overlap under different M . instantaneous CSI which is generated by following Rayleigh

distribution to determine the received signal power. Since the

random CSI h deviates from its expectation, the simulated

B. Multiuser Case

results suffer the impact of imperfect CSI. For each infor-

In this case, M access users respectively transmit an in- mation stream, the M-PSK modulation scheme is adopted

formation stream. And their locations follow rm = m/M R with a gray-coded constellation mapper, and the order M is

where m {1, , M } to correctly reflect system performance adaptively adjusted to achieve the target rate c = 2 with a

under the spatial uniform distribution of user positions. At low BER [23]. In OPS, the M-PSK signals of M information

first, OPS is compared with FTPC in terms of QoS guarantee. flows are transmitted at the same time as shown in Fig. 3. Thus,

In Fig. 8, we show the transmission rate of each access user in the base station, there are M modulated signals in parallel

based on analytical results. It is indicated that only the QoS and the related amplitudes are determined by the decided PSs.

of user-1, who has the shortest distance from the base station, After the modulation and power assignment, the M parallel

is satisfied in FTPC. Such results mean FTPC is still out of signals are added together to generate a superposition signal.

work in multiuser case. Contrastingly, the proposed OPS can For each receiver, the received superposition signal suffers

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12

20 It is because OPDMA could utilize the signal space more

to sufficiently when employing a same modulation in OPDMA

18

fo and TDMA, which is a merit inherited from SPC.

16 By above simulations, we could conclude that: i) OPS could

gain evidently better EE than TDMA and FDMA to save more

14

energy. ii) FTPC cannot ensure the QoS of access users, but

12 the proposed OPS can. Consequently, the proposed OPDMA

EE ratio

10

in cellular networks.

8

VI. C ONCLUSION

6

From the perspective of green communications, this paper

4 studies PDMA for efficiently saving energy in MAC layer.

2

Associating with TDM and FDM, we propose a PDM scheme

which can ensure the bit-orthogonality and -fairness for each

0 information stream. Based on our theoretical studies of PDM,

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

M an OPDMA protocol is proposed to simultaneously utilize the

multiplexing and degraded channel gain for maximal energy

Fig. 10. Comparison of EE between OPS and TDMA/FDMA under imperfect saving. Under QoS requirement, we derive the optimum power

CSI. division and allocation to ensure that OPDMA achieves the

optimum performance with low complexity. In addition, it is

proved that the proposed OPDMA outperforms TDMA/FDMA

2 in the aspect of EE. As outlined above, this paper studies the

fundamentals of OPDMA which can efficiently save transmit

1.8

power for green communications.

1.6

A PPENDIX A

1.4

P ROOF OF Proposition 2

Rate, (bits/second/Hz)

1

TDMA relationship h1 h2 hM . For the first PS in the signal

OPS

layer-1, there is

0.8

s1 = (2 B 1) 2

c 1

. (35)

0.6 h1

0.4 Substituting s1 into B log(1 + 2s+s

2 h2

1 h2

) = c yields the PS in

the signal layer-2,

0.2

s2 = (2 B 1) 2 [ + (2 B 1)] .

c 1 1 c

0 (36)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 h2 h1

Next, substituting s1 and s2 into B log(1 + 2 +hs23h3 si ) =

User-m

i=12

c yields s3 . In turn, we can obtain the following expression

Fig. 11. Comparison of Transmission Rate among OPS and TDMA/FDMA

under imperfect CSI. for sm ,

m1

sm =(2 B 1) 2 [ + (2 1)

c 1 1 Bc

hm i=1 hi

different Rayleigh fading impact, and is demodulated by the m1 ml k

. (37)

+ (2 1)l ]

SIC method. The simulations are performed with 20000 trials. 1 Bc

Fig. 10 shows the EE ratios under imperfect CSI. It is l=2 h

k=1 i=1 i

obvious that the EE ratios increase fast as the number of access l=2 k=1 i=1 h1i (2 B 1)l , we arrive at

m1 ml k c

By simplifying

users increasing, similar to the results in Fig. 9. Such outcomes

m1

sm =(2 B 1) 2 [ + (2 1)

double confirm the EE analysis in Section IV-C. Furthermore, c 1 1 Bc

as indicated, the EE ratios in Fig. 10 are slightly higher than hm i=1 hi

m l i + 1 Bc

the ones in Fig. 9. It is because the transmission rate in TDMA m1 ml

(38)

is less than it in OPS, which is shown in Fig. 11. + (2 1)l ].

l=2 i=1 hi

Fig. 11 indicates that the transmission rate of each access

user in TDMA and OPS when c = 2. As shown, the imperfect As shown, the derivation of each PS considers the bit-

CSI reduces the transmission rate in each scheme. However, orthogonality and -fairness at the same time. Consequently,

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/JSAC.2016.2600139, IEEE

Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

13

(38) shows the optimum PSs for the multiple access users For 1 , 2 , , M , let um denote the sum of all the terms

when the signal layers have been determined, which means which contain hdm . According to (42), we have

Proposition 2 is proved. Mm1

w2

um = + (w + 1) .

w n

(43)

hdm hdm n=0

A PPENDIX B

Substituting w = (2 B 1) into (43) yields

c

P ROOF OF Corollary 2

Proof: Let H = {h1 , h2 , , hM } and h1 h2 w2 Mm1 nc

um = + d 2B

w

hM hold for downlink case. When hi , hj H and hi hj , d

hm hm n=0 (44)

consider hi and hj are in layer-1 and layer-2 respectively.

= d 2 B .

w (M m)c

Then the corresponding throughput Ci is

hm

Ci = log(1 + si hi ) + log(1 + )

sj hj

1 + si hj m=1 m = m=1 um , there exists

In addition, since M

(39) M

M M

m =

where si and sj are the transmit power in layer-1 and layer-2 w (M m)c

d

2 B

respectively. When considering hi and hj are in layer-2 and m=1 m=1 hm

(45)

layer-1 respectively, the corresponding throughput Cj is M

=w 2 B

(M m)c 1

hdm

Cj = log(1 + sj hj ) + log(1 + ).

si hi m=1

1 + sj hi

(40)

Thus, we have

Hence, there exists M M

S d = 2 m = (2 B 1) 2 2

c (M m)c 1

B . (46)

hdm

Ci Cj = log(1 + si hi ) + log(1 + ) log(1 + sj hj )

sj hj m=1 m=1

1 + si hj Similarly, we can derive the sum of optimum PSs of M

log(1 + )

si hi information streams for uplink channel, given by

1 + sj hi

1 + (si + sj )hi + si sj h2i 1 + (si + sj )hi

M M

S u = 2 m = (2 B 1) 2 2

c (M m)c 1

= log( )

B . (47)

1 + (si + sj )hj + si sj h2j 1 + (si + sj )hj m=1 m=1 hum

log( )=0

1 + (si + sj )hj 1 + (si + sj )hj Consequently, Corollary 3 is proved.

(41)

which means the throughput under hi hj is larger than or R EFERENCES

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