Committee of Experts on Constitutional Review

Proposed Constitution of Kenya

MANUAL
for Civic Education

FACILITATORS

Proposed Constitution of Kenya

MANUAL
for Civic Education

FACILITATORS

Consultants Gideon Ochanda Ngari Gituku Clara Momanyi John Nyagah Lilian Ohayo Content Developer/Lead Consultant Message Developer Translation - English to Kiswahili Illustrations Graphic Design and Layout

© Committee of Experts 2010

Contents
Foreword About the Manual Acknowledgenemts Section One Institutional expectations Section Two Techniques Section Three Delivery Topics 4 6 8

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Foreword

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hen the Committee of Experts (CoE) was tasked to unlock the process that would ultimately pave way for a new constitution, its mandate by extension included bequeathing Kenyans a long-drawn dream. It is therefore incumbent upon every Kenyan to take note of the spirit and letter espoused in the Proposed Constitution.

To appreciate the shift from old to new and acknowledge the adjustments to the constitution Kenyans have hoped for over the years, it is necessary to make a quick comparison between the current and the proposed law. Whereas in the current Constitution sovereignty is placed on the Republic, thus limiting the rights of individuals, in the proposed law, sovereignty belongs to the people. The benefits of this shift guarantee that Kenyans will enjoy a wider range of rights once the new law becomes effective.

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The structures of governance in the Proposed Constitution will take power closer to the people and involve them in determining the course of their destiny whilst providing for transparency as well as better checks and balances in the conduct of public affairs. In addition, ownership of property, and the right to prosper and benefit from one’s efforts has been streamlined in the proposed law. This will mark the end of unfair distribution of wealth. Besides, both personal and communal property are protected in the proposed law. As opposed to the current Constitution, the proposed law provides for stronger political parties with a national character and capacity to unite Kenyans. The new law also contains provisions made for greater dialogue and participation of wananchi.

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About the Manual

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his manual is meant to aid educators who have already been trained on its use and are conversant with contents of the handbook and the Proposed Constitution, as well as the process. It is intended to guide educators in delivering civic education for the Proposed Constitution of Kenya, 2010.

The manual contains information on how to conduct civic education sessions. The sessions are fitted in one day 5-hour schedule. However, the educators are advised to use their discretion in managing time, especially when available time is more than the 5 hours recommended. In the event that time is limited, the educator must be able to repackage content to fit available time. The manual, therefore, has provided tips on how to maximize on opportunities. The manual provides preliminaries of what is expected of civic educators, particularly on standards and code of conduct. It also provides for standard principles applicable in adult learning situations, and communication techniques.

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The manual is organized into sections. Section one deals with: institutional expectations of educators i.e. standards, code of conduct. adult learning principles. communication techniques. planning and organization of civic education activities. methodology and delivery techniques. evaluation. Section two deals with techniques of handling call-ins and invitation on short notice. These techniques will equip educators who participate in fora a not necessarily organized by them. Section three contains delivery topics treated as sessions. The sessions correspond to the curriculum topics and sub-topics.

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Acknowledgement

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he Manual, Handbook and Curriculum on Civic Education on the Proposed Constitution are the handiwork of team effort. It has definitely taken quite some burning of midnight oil, thought and skill. The current look and tone of this Handbook is indeed a fine mosaic of valuable expertise. I am therefore confident that the content herein, will speak to all Kenyans, and inform them on the Proposed Constitution ahead of the referendum.

For a great job done within record time, I wish to thank the Committee of Experts, specifically Members Bobby Mkangi, Dr. Chaloka Beyani, Abdirashid Abdullahi and Prof. Christina Murray, for both setting the tempo of this document, and finding time to moderate the content thereof. Without the leadership and dedication of CoE’s Deputy Director in charge of Civic Education, Mobilization and Outreach department (CMO), Veronica Nduva; Programme Officer, Ida Rob; and all the CMO staff, this effort would not have borne such fruit. I applaud the technical support offered by the legal drafters, Gad Awuonda, Peter Musyimi and Gicheru Ndoria, who ensured the technical soundness and clarity of the document. Special gratitude goes to Maureen Mhando for her dedicated and meticulous editing of all the civic education reference materials.

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My special gratitude goes to the team of consultants who domesticated terms and kneaded technical data to give the Handbook a wider value in the public arena. This team of men and women worked tirelessly and in harmony, to bring to life CoE’s dream. I am also indebted to the development partners and the Government Ministries who have walked with the CoE and ultimately made it possible for the production of this Handbook. In particular, I am thankful to the Coordination Liaison Office team, under the leadership of Amb. Nana Effah-Apenteng, through which the various development partners contributed to the UNDP-Kenya basket fund and the Ministry of Justice, for their invaluable contribution. Thank you CoE members of staff, for without your dedicated efforts in your various designations, this Handbook would not have seen the light of day. A constitution is only made once in a lifetime! I urge Kenyans to participate with knowledge, in the making of their Constitution.

Katiba Mpya, Kenya Moja!

Dr. Ekuru Aukot, Director, Committee of Experts on Constitutional Review.

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Code of Conduct for Trainers and Facilitators
Professional training and facilitation operates on the understanding that: The undertaking is bound to a set of universal rules and regulations. Effective training and facilitation takes place within an atmosphere governed by a well defined code of ethics. Professional training and facilitation succeeds best when pursued in good taste and with noble intentions.

Below is a set of do’s and don’ts for trainers/facilitators.

Do:
uphold credibility and dignity that would enable you to command the respect of your audience. disseminate accurate information and correct any erroneous notions promptly. use simple and clear language ensuring you are audible to each of your trainees. be sensitive to cultural values and beliefs while engaging in fair and balanced communication activities that foster and encourage mutual understanding. observe ground rules e.g. keeping your phone away during training sessions. acknowledge effort and good work from your audience. This encourages participation. give every trainee equal attention and space; be impartial. engage trainees in an atmosphere where they will be comfortable.

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Do:
acknowledge sources and purposes of all information disseminated to the public. protect confidential information where disclosure of information may affect the welfare of others. keep time. end sessions with breaks and fun activities.

Don’t:
use confidential information gained as a result of professional activities for personal benefit and do not represent conflicting or competing interests. receive undisclosed gifts or payments for professional services from other than from your employer. guarantee results on issues beyond your capacity or authority. do guesswork; seek clarification whenever in doubt of the content of your references. dress provocatively or indecently. address trainees anonymously; memorize some of their names if not all. monopolize the show; make your sessions interactive. use indecent jokes and examples. personalize anything.

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Institutional expectations
Adult learning Communication Civic education activities Methodology Evaluation

Section One

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1

Section one
Standards and Code of Conduct
To facilitate sessions tailored to the needs of the participants, the educator needs to do the following: Read the entire Proposed Constitution, the Curriculum and the Handbook in advance. During the training sessions, explain the content to the participants without reading out, although you can make occassional reference and selective read outs to enhance your credibility. Read the suggestions for conducting education activities and group discussion question points.

Collect other reference materials that you may need for the session(s). If guest speakers are required, make sure they are invited well in advance and have been properly briefed. Take the participants through the objectives of each unit. The manual anticipates response from the participants. In the absence of feedback. The manual has possible responses that should come from participants. If those answers do not come from them, present responses to the learners for their consideration as directed. To conduct sessions, an educator requires pens, handouts, a board, chalk or newsprint, markers, manila cards, masking tape, extra paper, scissors, etc.

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Have a ‘Question Box’ available throughout. Encourage participants to write any questions they may have. Encourage them to ask all kinds of questions. Make sure you read the questions in the Question Box daily, and address their concerns promptly and appropriately.

Confidentiality

Personal information shared in the group shall not be discussed elsewhere.
Respect

Respect other people’s opinions and experiences.
Openness

The ground rules:
As you begin to conduct civic education, you will discover that the sessions often provoke discussions of sensitive or personal topics, which may derail the objective. Have a set of appropriate ground rules written on newsprint and hanged on the wall during the workshop. These rules include:

Be open and honest without exposing other people’s private lives; when using general situations as examples, avoid mentioning names.
Non-judgmental

Do not judge or criticize others even when you do not agree with their opinion.

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Anonymity

It is okay to ask questions anonymously if necessary.
Acceptance

Training and Communication Methods
Any educational activity is a communication exercise. While some methods of communication are effective, others are not. This section looks at some key components and techniques of communication and training methods that can aid civic educators in their work.

It is okay to feel uncomfortable when talking about sensitive topics. There may be other ground rules the group will want to develop. If possible, let the rules come from the group, perhaps after you have given an example of a ground rule. You can always add those not suggested by the participants.

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The Communication Process

Communication is a process of interaction, involving two or more parties through

which information is passed, received and responded to, using a variety of channels, both verbal and non-verbal.

The five integral components of a complete communication process are:

SOURCE

MESSAGE

MEDIUM

RECIPIENT

FEEDBACK

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The following model represents the various components: Source: Message/ Content: Medium: Recipient: Feedback: Civic educator. History of the current Constitution. Drama, lecture, and posters. Male and female participants. Discussions linking weaknesses in the current Constitution to challenges in governance.

Qualities of a Good Communicator
When communication fails in a training context, the buck stops with the trainer. In which case, the trainer needs to consciously think through and plan the communication process. For some, effective communication comes easily because of innate abilities. For others, it is a skill which has to be consciously developed. Whichever the case, an effective communicator exhibits some of the characteristics below.

No communication is complete without feedback

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Communication skills
Good listening skills Provision of feedback Audibility Confidence Tone variation Use of simple language Fluency Confirmation

Inter-personal skills
Use of body language Eye contact Rapport with the audience Sensitivity to gender, race, religion, culture, politics etc. Trust in other people’s abilities Friendliness (not threatening to audience) Patience

Personal presentation
Appropriate and respectable dressing Confidence and relaxation Clear hand writing and drawing skills

Methods of communication
Use of appropriate and varied channels Use of examples, illustrations and other visuals Use of proverbs, anecdotes, idiom etc. Use of humour but maintaining a balance with substance Use of drama

Content of communication
Brief and to the point Choice of words appropriate to the context Deep knowledge of the subject Clear message Attitude Openness to learning Interest in the subject and conviction Respect for participants’ ability

Organisation
Preparedness Proper time management Flexibility Planning for and allowing participation Creative use of local environment Ability to think on the feet

Remember that the greatest medium a communicator has is his/her own voice, face and body

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Principles of Adult Learning
In planning for adult learning, one has to bear in mind that adults are characteristically: sensitive. independent-minded. proud and averse to embarrassment. knowledgeable. experienced. opinionated. set in behavior patterns. embedded in certain attitudes. shaped by their cultural backgrounds.

Conditions Ideal for Adult Learning
In the above regard, it is implied that adults learn best when: involved and interested. training is beneficial. they are respected. there is good timing. challenged. not just lectured. they are comfortable and feel safe, learning activities are varied, and they have freedom.

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Participatory Methods
For adult learning to be effective and useful, the use of participatory methods of training is strongly advised. Such methods are characterized by: democratic treatment of all ideas. participant-centeredness. belief in people’s knowledge and abilities. collective memory. informality. flexibility. creation of group synergy. enhancement of interaction. learning by doing.

Some obvious advantages of participatory methods are: there is an element of enjoyment in them. people’s knowledge and experiences are pooled. complicated topics are simplified they are illustrative. But they: are time consuming. can be disorderly if not structured. may fail if not properly chosen and used. can dilute and trivialize serious issues.

Participatory methods are also useful because they engage more than one of our senses.

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Remember people learn: 1% through taste, 2% through touch, and 3% through smell. 11% through hearing, 83% through sight, and what we remember. 10% of what we read, 20% of what we hear, and 30% of what we see. 50% of what we see and hear, 80% of what we say, and 90% of what we say and do.

The above revelations underscore two things, i.e: 1. a multi-media approach to communication is necessary, with emphasis being on hearing and seeing. 2. an experiential approach to training is indispensable, given that memory is best when the learner says and does things.

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Personality Types
In any learning environment, you are likely to encounter the following learner personality types: Reflectors-are not satisfied with one perspective and always look for alternatives. They can lead to generation of novel and creative ways of doing things. Activists-plunge into action for immediate results. They are driven to act and believe that the end justifies the means. Theorists-seek to fit everything into existing paradigms of knowledge. They provide the stuff that energize activists.

Pragmatists-are problem-solving, apply and experiment with ideas. They do not fear failure and take it as a learning experience. Jokers-do not take things seriously and are pre-occupied with creating mirth. Silent ones-are quiet and could easily be ignored since they do not volunteer information. Blockers-think their ideas are the best and will not allow others to share theirs. For them, there is nothing new anyway. Know-it-all-give all the answers all the time and dominate. Individuals are not either one or the other. The educator needs to be aware of the personality types, how they can affect a training event and how to utilize their approaches and capabilities.

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Experiment Learning
While your role as an educator is crucial, creating the learning experience is ultimately a group responsibility. To make this education successful, involve the participants in their own education. The fun of working together with people is learning how much you can learn from them! Here are some tips for conducting session activities: read the unit and activities in the manual thoroughly until you feel comfortable with them. if possible, do a ‘dry-run’ before starting a session.

consider the learning points of the activity or use questions to trigger discussion. arrange the room ahead of time to suit the session, so you do not waste time hanging signs, newsprint or moving chairs. keep an eye on the clock to ensure there is sufficient time for all the activities. remember, civic education is fun and it is in the process of this experience, that learning takes place.

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Pre-workshop questionnaire
Give the participants a pre-session questionnaire (or source expectations) to determine what they anticipate the education to be about. During the final evaluation of the workshop, find out if it has met the participants’ expectations. An example of a pre-workshop questionnaire is provided. Analyze the questionnaire during the workshop and share the feedback with the participants. Games and exercises are a part of civic education. These games and exercises speed up and enhance the amount and the quality of interaction in the group. They can be done just before the start of or during a session, or after a tea break or lunch, or just before the end of the day’s sessions.

Also, ask the participants for their ideas on games and exercises. Choose the games and exercises that the participants will be comfortable with.

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The following are short descriptions of some useful methods of conducting introductions:
Cobweb

Introductions
Introductions are geared towards increasing the participants’ knowledge of each other. This is important because a workshop is composed of people from different backgrounds. However, introductions are also useful when learners know each other but wish to probe deeper.

Participants form a circle. One is given a ball of string, yam or cord and is asked to say their name, occupation,workshop expectations and their likes or dislikes. Next, they hold the end of the string and throwor pass the ball to another participant. The receiver introduces themselves, then passes the ball to another person.This goes on until all participants are interwoven into a cobweb. The variation of this exercise involves disentangling the cobweb in the reverse order in which it was formed.

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Mutual interview

Divide the group into pairs of people who do not know each other well. Each person takes a sheet of newsprint and a marker. They ask spontaneous questions and write down information on each other for about 5 - 10 minutes. When each person has been interviewed, participants stand in pairs in front of the entire group and present each other, describing what they have learned about their partner, for less than three minutes per person. Encourage participants to further share their hobbies, experiences, vision or their experience in civic education.
Who am I?

two minutes to look around the circle and try to get everyone’s name. Then have them cover their nametags and ask one of them to try and name everyone in the circle. Give three or four volunteers a chance to do this. This is a good exercise for morning sessions.
The name game

Ask the participants to write their names on masking tape and stick it on their clothes. Tell participants to stand in a circle, with everyone wearing their nametag. Give them

At the beginning of a workshop, ask participants to stand in a circle and clap their hands. As they clap, call out the name of one person and continue clapping. When a person hears their name, they have to call out another person’s name. Continue to clap throughout. Do this until everyone has had a chance to have their name called out. This is a good game for the afternoon sessions, when the participants have heard several new names, but may still be unsure of who is who.

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Energizers

The purpose of energizers is to animate the participants and motivate them for the next session; reach a higher level of concentration for the next activity or when transiting from a purely intellectual activity to a more practical one. Energizers must be well prepared, instructions given clearly and quickly executed. Their use depends entirely on the kind of group, the setting and the mood of the group. An experienced facilitator should be able to decide when to apply each game.
Fishbowl

the people from the inner circle to face a partner from the outer circle. Each will tell the other their problems and give advice. This continues until all participants have listened to their partners. The technique is useful for stimulating an exchange of thoughts on a specific topic.
Life boat

Divide the participants into two equal groups, forming an outer and inner circle, with everyone facing the inside. Start to sing or clap and make the two circles move in opposite directions. Stop the music and get

The Participants stand and form a loose circle. Let them imagine they are in a sinking ship and have fewer lifeboats than their number. Ask them to form groups of 3,5 or 6 in 5 seconds. Those not part of a group will ‘drown’. Continue with this exercise until there is only one group left. This exercise allows people to interact with each other, make quick decisions and therefore become less inhibited.

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The mail

Bang

Participants and facilitators sit in a circle on an exact number of chairs minus one. A person (perhaps you, to begin with) stands and announces - for example - that they have a letter for all those wearing black shoes. Participants wearing black shoes will then change seats and the person ‘with the letter’ will rush to any empty seat. The one who is left without a seat will then stand in the middle and repeat the exercise. This exercise forces people to observe and discover things about fellow learners.

The participants stand in a circle and each person calls out a number in numerical order. However, every time they come to a number divisible by 3, e.g 12, the next person says ‘bang’-instead of the number. If they fail to do so, they are eliminated. This exercise stimulates concentration.

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Key Principles
In summary, the key principles to observe as an educator are: Know the audience. What is their background? What are they bringing into the learning situation? Know factors that can affect learning. Establish rapport. Choose appropriate and effective methods. Proceed from the known to the unknown. Prepare well and be ready to trouble-shoot. Expect the unexpected. Think on your feet. Exercise respect all the time.

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Techniques
Specific Techniques Activities Short Notice/Limited Time Content Delivery

Section Two

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2

Section Two
Specific techniques
Read the following and make proper interpretation(s). Ensure you try out some of the techniques so that they become common knowledge to you.

In the end, the educator will be able to determine the most appropriate method for different audiences. Transmission Methods: usually, a one way passage of information through lecture, dictation, narration, text reading etc. Experiential Methods: they expose the participant to a process out of which behavioral lessons and conclusions are drawn without predictability of results e.g. games, role plays, case studies, field surveys etc. Heuristic Methods: also called Discovery Methods, where the learner finds information through library research, field visits, individual projects etc.

Civic education employs a variety of techniques, some of which you may not be familiar with. Do not be afraid to try new techniques. This section focuses on different training techniques, their definition, illustration, advantages, disadvantages and application.

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Creative Methods: facilitate generation of new designs, insights, and perceptions and explore individual potential through drama, drawing, sculpturing, creative writing etc. Critical Methods: require analysis, evaluation, re-arrangement, application of criteria and distinctions through debates, diagrams, critical discussions, essays etc. The following techniques, sampled below, belong to more than one method.

Lecture is the delivery of verbal information from the source to the receiver without much interaction. The Lecture method is an orderly presentation of information delivered by an individual (resource person). A lecture can be used to impart knowledge or introduce skills. To be effective, a lecture allows for an exchange between the facilitator and the learners. It is a traditional and popular method of relaying information.

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Steps in Using the lecture

Strengths

1. Preparation This includes: • Choice of topic • Research and note making. • Organization of the information. • Preparation of handouts and other learning aids • Budgeting of the time. 2. Delivery of the lecture • • • Introduction of topic: highlight major issues to be covered. Present lecture. Conclude by: - Summarizing main points of the lecture - Providing references to audience for more information. Indicating topic for next lecture. - Issuing handouts.

It is time saving; information is disseminated fast. Provides more information within a short period of time. It is structured. It is appropriate for cross-cultural groups. I is appropriate for large groups. It allows for individual note taking. The learner does not feel invaded. The presenter maintains control. There is scope for use of visual and audio-visual aids. It enables the use of one specialist to reach a larger group of people.

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It is cost-effective i.e. not many resources required. It is good for introduction of new information and presenting facts. It is more appropriate for adults than children because of attention span.
Limitations

It can be monotonous and boring because of dependence on the oral medium only. Participants have no say and control (apart from walking out). It depends on audience’s attention span. if too long, concentration fades. It can be diversionary and petty. It can intimidate the learner into submissiveness. The lecturer does not benefit from the learners.
How to Improve the Lecture:

It is teacher-centered. There is no individual attention given to the learner. There is limited interaction. There is little time given for discussion. It is sometimes difficult to know if the audience is following. There is limited feedback to trainer from audience.

Thorough preparation. Proper time budgeting for content to be covered.

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Regulate speed of delivery to allow note taking. Include visual aids to highlight key points. Assign participants some short tasks. Break down into smaller presentations. Be friendly. Use humor.

Divide topic between/among more than one lecturer. Back up lecture with handouts.

Allow time for questions and answers

Observe audience to gauge reaction and act on feedback being given.

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Visuals refer to items that appeal to our sense of sight. They can be projected (e.g. overhead transparencies and slides) or non-projected (e.g. pictures, slides, posters).
Steps in Using Visuals

Advantages

It is time saving on explanations. It stimulates discussion. It is often captivating. It enhances creativity It enhances critical thinking and analysis. It reinforces oral communication. It is decorative of training space. It is memorable. It enhances concentration, attention and comprehension.
Disadvantages

Secure or prepare well in advance. Choose relevant topic to use with. Set up in an appropriate place. Use aids at appropriate times making sure you give participants time to see and understand them. Explain or discuss the content of the aid. Summarise. Remove and keep safely.

It may not be appropriate for all groups; It can be misinterpreted. Materials are not always easy to find.

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It can be expensive if many materials are required. It demands creativity to make ones own. It can be time-consuming especially in the selection and making of materials.
How to Improve

Audio-visuals refer to electronic equipment to transmit information through a combination of image and sound e.g. films, videos, video conferencing etc.
Steps in Using Audio-visuals

Ensure that the visual aids are appropriate. Encourage participants to practice what they have seen. Use locally available materials to make the aids.

Determine topic and the need to use audio-visual aids. Select, secure and prepare equipment well in advance. Test the materials in training site and layout. Study the materials thoroughly before use. Design objectives to be achieved and tasks for participants. Brief participants on topic.

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Give participants time to see and understand them. Explain or discuss the content of the aid. Summarise. Pack up and store safely.
Advantages

It simulates reality and therefore it is convincing and good for sensitization.
Disadvantages

It is time consuming to set up. It can distract and be mistaken for fun. It is difficult to use in settings where electricity is not available. It may require special equipment not easily available. It may not be effective because of language difficulties among participants. It can be difficult to transport if bulky, sensitive or fragile. It’s initial costs can be prohibitive. It may require expertise to operate and repair.

It arouses interest and stimulates discussion. It breaks monotony and appeals to more than one sense and to emotions as well. It reinforces theoretical learning. It brings the field into the classroom. It can lead to group discussion. It can be used with different groups e.g. literate as well as illiterate. It is memorable.

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How to Improve

Set a task for participants to focus their attention as they watch. Ensure it is culturally sensitive. Provide a structure for feedback. Update the information with additional input. Provide handouts that summarizethe information. Examples of these are: practical demonstrations, field work, case studies and individual or group projects.

A case is a real life situation to illustrate certain facts, analyse problems and their consequences, examine relationships among variables, open room for debate and lead to logical conclusions.

A case can be presented in different forms namely: oral (narration, drama), written, visual (pictures, slides) and audio-visual (video, film).
Steps in Using a Case

Choose a case that is relevant to the subject matter. Understand the case thoroughly. Design objectives of using the case e.g what lessons do you want your trainees to draw?

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Design tasks for participants on the case. Allow participants to go through the case individually and/or in groups. Guide plenary discussion of issues from the case. Summarise and de-brief.
Strengths of the Case Study Method

It can be presented in different forms. It is useful for discussing things about ourselves in a non-threatening way. It can be created/composed.
Limitations of the Case Study Method

It may not be representative of all the relevant variables. It can be misinterpreted. It can be personalized. It is time consuming if long and complicated. It can lead to speculation if some information is missing. Getting good cases is not easy.

It is easy to relate to. It is illustrative of reality. It triggers critical thinking. It contains lessons to learn. It is problem-solving in nature. It allows for diverse views. It is memorable.

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Characteristics of a Good Case

It should: be relevant and applicable, short and to the point. contain lessons i.e. is didactic. present variables. lead to discussion. be easy to present in different forms. offer sufficient information. be interesting. not be too technical.

Demonstrations refer to the use of a real life and practical illustrations e.g. the voting process in a polling station.
Steps in Using Demonstrations

Choose a relevant topic. Use budget time. Consider size of your group. Secure required materials. Set up a demonstration site and test all necessary appliances. Rehearse the demonstration. Briefly explain to participants the topic, materials, process and expected results. Demonstrate. Assign participants tasks to practice.

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Monitor as participants practice. Draw conclusions with the involvement of participants. Dismantle and pack up.
Advantages

Disadvantages

It requires a lot of time and is costly. It may humiliate and embarrass if it fails it might be mistaken for fun. It could require a lot of space.
How to Improve

It builds confidence through practice and can be fun and participatory. It shows actual difficulties. It uses available materials. It is memorable. It can allow creativity. It arouses interest. It breaks monotony of theory and is challenging and motivating.

Ensure participants are in manageable groups; the smaller the better. Ask participants to read on topic earlier. Instruct carefully and clearly. Assign group leaders. Back-up with handouts.

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Examples of creative methods are: drama; song and dance; drawing; sculptures and models; games; stories and role play.

Role play refers to the use of short illustrative dramatic scenes exploring a specific element.
Steps in Using a Role Play

Choose relevant topic or theme. Discuss the topic and develop a story line and a short script. Divide roles among group members. Rehearse the play. The role play should not last more than 10 minutes. De-role and de-brief to return characters to their real identities and draw lessons.

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Advantages of Using the Role Play

Disadvantages of Using the Role Play

It enhances memory. It enhances participation. It is cheap. It explores people’s creativity and imagination. It enhances understanding. It focuses on specific problems. It combines learning with fun hence breaks monotony. It is useful for exploring complicated, controversial and sensitive issues. It enhances team work. It can be used with any group-literate or otherwise, adults, children etc.

It is time consuming. It may sometimes fail to convey the message if poorly planned and executed. People are initially inhibited and unwilling to play, which can affect success. It may be taken for fun value only. Players run the risk of sticking with their playacting labels and characters unless proper de-roling is done. It can be misinterpreted. It is prone to trivialize issues. It may be irrelevant and diversionary.

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How to Improve

Allocate enough time for development, rehearsal, presentation and discussion. De-role participants to avoid stigma. De-brief to draw relevant lessons.

Debates refer to situations where participants are required to articulate opposing viewpoints. This can be in the form of pro-contra debates, trial scenes, value clarification etc.

Steps in Using Debates

Choose a relevant motion and word it carefully. Divide participants into groups. Give clear instructions. Allow groups time to generate points. Hold debate and collect ideas. De-brief and summarise.

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Advantages

It can be superficial. It may not be conclusive. It can lead to feelings of humiliation or may be personalised.
How to Improve

It generates many ideas. It is participatory. It is lively, interesting and breaks monotony. It is challenging and constructive. It is memorable. It enhances critical abilities. It can improve oral communication skills and reduce inhibitions. Its spontaneous responses reveal participants’ true-self. It enhances team building.
Disadvantages

Ensure careful choice and wording of motion. Provide motion in advance, for participants to research on if necessary. In de-briefing, distinguish between fact and opinion. Structure carefully.

It can lead to conflict. It can be misleading if not well debriefed and is time consuming.

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Group work refers to the involvement of participants organised in small groups to discuss and prepare presentations based on their discussion.

groups will present their results to the plenary and allow for reporting back. Allow responses from the plenary Summarise the ideas presented.
Advantages

Steps in Using Group Work

Enhances participation. Allows the quieter participants to share. Allows participants opportunity to practice and apply new knowledge. Enables gathering of a cross-section of ideas. Contributes to team building support from others and ice breaking. Has element of fun and is motivating. Enables coverage of different topics simultaneously hence time saving.

Determine tasks for each group and instruct carefully. Divide participants into manageable groups (about 5-8 members is optimal). Ensure appropriate spatial arrangements for the group work and presentation. Give groups ample time to go through tasks. Monitor the progress of groups and adjust time if necessary. Clarify how

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Reduces domination by individuals and devolves responsibility from facilitator.
Disadvantages

How to Improve

Clearly specify task and time. Differentiate group tasks i.e. not all groups are doing the same thing. Regulate group sizes. During presentations, allow for input of ideas that may have been missed by the group.

It is time consuming. Consensus is not always easy to reach in a group with diverse views. Participation of some is limited if information is too technical. Some group members take a back seat especially when it comes to presentation. It does not work well when the group is too large and can suppress individual creativity. May not necessarily lead to participation and team building.

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Discussion points
This means talking with learners about what they experienced during the session. A review allows you to assess and reinforce learning. It also allows learners to ask questions. It may include summarizing what was said and drawing the groups’ attention to key points and issues. Ensure you review any session that may seem to cause conflict.

The following questions are useful: What did we just do? What was the objective? How did you feel about this session? What did you learn? Do you still have any questions? Did you learn to do anything new? What can we do to improve this session?

You will find some specific questions for discussion points under each unit in this manual.

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Team Facilitation
Civic education is often more fun and less stressful when more than one person conducts the training sessions. Advantages of team training: It enhances learning. It increases the positive impact of trainers. It balances process and content. The trainers complement each other. It breaks monotony. When training in a team, the following are important guidelines: Broadly agree on topics, programme and methodology.

Discuss what you expect of the target group. Divide tasks by day and session. Share beforehand your lesson plans to strengthen one another. Discuss how to evaluate the day and the whole training event. Discuss how to intervene in each other’s sessions. Discuss how to ensure participation, group control etc. Agree on how to overcome teething problems in the course. Alternate to create breathing space. Touch base all the time. Support one another all the time and do not try to overshadow each other.

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Meet at the end of the day to review progress and plan ahead. Appreciate each other’s views. Respect one another. Agree to disagree positively. Do not undermine co-trainers. Develop each other’s skills. Listen to the unsaid messages. Evaluate and de-brief together. Give feedback to one another after sessions. Share your feelings. Be open to co-trainers.

Actual Training Event
The training event falls into three major phases namely: The introductory sessions (getting started), The substantive sessions (getting going) and The evaluation (getting finished). A few points on each of the stages:

Getting Started
Depending on the availability of time, a complete introductory session should: introduce participants & facilitators. state the objectives of training. outline and harmonize participants’ expectations fears, and objectives.

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explain the methodology to be used. familiarise participants with one another by including ice-breaking exercises. distribute workshop resources to participants and assign them responsibilities. explain and establish the boundaries and norms.

varied training events shows the following are critical for the success of a session:
Content

Have thorough knowledge of the subject. Deliver in a logical sequence.
Preparation

Have resource materials ready.

The Session
In the active execution of a session, there is interaction between and among the following key elements: participants, facilitator, information, time and space (indoor and outdoor and all that it contains). The delivery must therefore systematically balance this interaction for achievement of the session objectives. Experience from

Carefully plan the introduction. Budget the time so the session is not overloaded or under-loaded. Plan participation. Plan time for questions and answers.

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Attitude

Communication skills

Be ready to learn from participants. Be patient.
Approaches

Be aware of inappropriate mannerisms. Talk to people not at people. Use visual and other learning aids appropriately. Clarify abbreviations used. A void vague questions.
Games and Exercises

Use real life examples to reinforce learning. Ensure proper use and management of space. Understand the participants. Be creative and flexible. Write down important content. Take advantage of experienced participants and those with specialised knowledge and skills.

In doing participatory training, the use of games and exercises is very important. There are various games and exercises that can be used. The educator can learn these games and exercises from participating in different group events and from manuals. The games and exercises can be categorized as:

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Ice -breakers: to break barriers and make participants feel comfortable with one another. Warm-ups: undertaken in the morning to get participants prepared mentally and physically. Energizers: done as interludes to sustain energy levels and break monotony. Communication games: to illustrate aspects of communication. Games for creativity: to bring out participants’ potentialities. Team building exercises: to create a sense of togetherness and eliminate unhealthy competition and conflict. Gender sensitization games and exercises: to make participants aware

of gender dimensions and how they affect our lives. Games for fun. Problem-solving games: to demonstrate approaches to tackling problems and what happens when a group tries to do it together. Games for relaxation and meditation. Perception games and exercises: to show how and why people look at and interpret things the way they do. Games for conflict management: to reduce tensions and resolve disagreements. Games for evaluation: to provide feedback on the value of the training.

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Games for ending an event: to reemphasize the purpose of the event and create a sense of continuity.
A good game or exercise bears the following qualities:

Is adaptable to different socio-cultural contexts. Usable with a wide variety of groups. Is gender-sensitive. Is culturally appropriate Breaks monotony.

Involves everyone in the group. Helps advance the group process. Creates group synergy. Creates a conducive atmosphere for participation and learning. Provides a common ground for group experience. Enhances the democratic spirit of participatory processes. Reduces monopolization. Has elements of fun, surprise and novelty.

Caution
When using games and exercises:

they should not take precedence over the serious business of the workshop. they should be slotted in judiciously,bearing in mind the time of the day and the intended effect. there should be a purpose in using them. instructions should be clearly stated.

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Ending
During and at the end of every training event, evaluation should be conducted. The evaluation can focus on different aspects and can be done using different methods. Some key areas of focus in evaluation include: extent to which objectives have been achieved. what participants liked most or least in the content and process. the appropriateness of methods used. facilitation skills. duration of the event. level of participation. overall usefulness.

competencies developed i.e. what can participants do as a result of the training. overall organization and logistics e.g. accommodation, food, venue, time management, adequacy of learning resources used, transportation etc.
Some popular methods of evaluation are:

Mood meter-a visualized chart with faces expressing different emotions against which participants mark their level of satisfaction at the end of each day’s work. It helps to gauge the atmosphere of the workshop. Rating-achievement of objectives, realization of expectations and reduction of fears on a scale.

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The flash-a one word/phrase expression on the event. Pre-test and post-tests- gauge what changes have occurred in participants’ knowledge, skills and attitudes as a result of the training event. Self critiques-participants assess themselves against a set criteria. Daily evaluation-committee which collects views and suggestions from other participants. Feedback board-participants post their comments in the course of the training. Written questionnaire.

Whatever the method used, the evaluation needs to:
have specific objectives and indicate exactly what is to be evaluated; be participatory; be simple and straightforward for ease of administration and synthesis of results; be creative; be open and honest; produce instant results; and capture information quantitatively and qualitatively.

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Short Notice/Limited Time Content Delivery
The delivery of the Proposed Constitution content will often be done in situations that educators will be invited to make presentations. Many of these situations are characterised by limited time, little knowledge of the audience, the event purpose, and the audience expectations. An event of this nature requires the educator to be extremely sensitive and careful about many things.

Preparation

Have the entire content information at your finger tips. Prepare talking points and have them in different small cards. The cards should be numbered, or use different colours for each talking point card. Time each talking point to help you fit in all talking points in the overall time frame. Always have with you all the resource material i.e. the Proposed Constitution, the Hand Book, Manual and Curriculum. Catalogue the frequently asked questions and cumulate responses. In fact, the short presentations can easily be shaped along the frequently asked questions.

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Use your presentations during your self made-long time trainings as experiments, to help you in timing, content catch up, interest of participants, etc. Do ‘dry-runs’ as part of practice. Mind your body and physical frame. Get to the venue a little bit earlier than the actual time. It helps you to acclimatize, build confidence, tidy up, and makes the organizers at ease.
Presentation

Introduce yourself very well. Who you are. Where you are from i.e. the appointing organization and what the organization does. Acknowledge the invitation. Explain the purpose of your presence Present a summary of what you want to present. This helps to raise anxiety and expectations of the audience. You can use titles of the talking points to do this. Get back to the talking points one after the other. Check on the time after every talking point.

Know the amount of time given. Quickly fill your mind frame/talking notes to the time frame.

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A Summary Guide

The Proposed Constitution i. Initial first five chapters as a basis for the rest of the Constitution. The place of the individual and peoples sovereignty. ii. The structures. Functions of the national government. Functions of devolved governments. The referendum and after.

Statement on what a constitution is and why it is important. Statement on where we got our constitution from and what has happened to it over time. The current Constitution, its weaknesses and the justification for a new one. Past attempts to review the Constitution up to where we are now.

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Delivery Topics
Introduction Sessions

Section Three

3

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3

Section Three
Session 1: Introduction and Background Information
iii. Relate what you are doing with what is happening countrywide.
Session Objectives

Objectives

To enable the participants warm up to the session (s). To enable the educator build up participants’ expectations. To enable the educator present the background to the core presentations.

Introduce yourself and your intention. i. Give your name and title. ii. State why you are there.

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To enable the participants appreciate and understand what a constitution is and why it is necessary. To help participants understand how constitutions are made. To help participants understand what has gone into the constitution making process.

To enable the participants understand what is required of them at the end of all the sessions. To let the educator(s) adequately introduce themselves and their intention. To enable the participants warm up to the session.

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Session 1: Introduction and Background Information
Objective
Identify the organs and describe the process of the Proposed Constitution. Connect the need for change to the constitutional history. Indicate the weaknesses in the current Constitution. Outline what the process expects of them. - Conferences - Commissions/committees - Parliament, etc. Constitution making in Kenya – main elements/landmarks (pre- colonial and colonial). Independence Constitution - Background - Main features/Provisions. - Amendments. The current Constitution - Main provisions - Challenges - Need for change. Attempted reform processes. The current position - The Proposed Constitution. The purpose of this civic education.

Content
The organs and their roles in the review process. Meaning and importance of Constitutions. Constitution making processes i.e. through - Constituent Assemblies

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Session 2: The Proposed Constitution
Objective
Explain the foundation and the overall framework of the Proposed Constitution. Explain the extent to which the Proposed Constitution departs from the current Constitution. Identify the potential benefits the Proposed Constitution has for the people.

Content
The foundation of the Proposed Constitution. The set principles and what it proposes to achieve. The preamble, sovereignty, supremacy of the Constitution, National Values. The Republic.

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Session 3: Citizenship
Objective
Explain citizenship and ways of becoming a Kenyan citizen. Explain how citizenship can be lost. State the rights and obligations of citizens.

Session 4: Bill of Rights
Objective
Explain and describe what human rights are. State why human rights are important. Explain how the bill of rights is applied, implemented and enforced. Show the limitations to rights. List the rights and fundamental freedoms provided in the Proposed Constitution.

Content
Prior citizenship status Birth - Born of both or either of the parents who are citizens by birth. - 8 year child of unknown parentage found in Kenya. Registration and criteria. Dual citizenship. Rights of citizens. Obligations and responsibilities of citizens.

Content
Definition of human rights. Importance of recognition of human rights. Application. Implementation and enforcement. Limitations. Rights and fundamental freedoms citations. National Human Rights Commission.

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Session 5: Land
Objective
Appreciate land as property and subject to property rights. Identify different land tenure/ownership arrangements. Appreciate that additional legislation will be done to take care of land use questions.

Session 6: Elections
Objective
define need and purpose of elections. know election schedules. know voter requirements.

Content
General elections and what they involve. - Timing of general elections. - All offices to be filled through elections. Voter registration. Voter eligibility. IEBC.

Content
Land belongs to the people collectively. Interest on land classified as: - Public land - Community land - Private land. Subsequent land legislations. - To be done by Parliament - To look at issues of land use. National Land Commission.

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Session 7: Political Parties
Objective
Explain what political parties are. Outline the role of political parties. Explain what is required of political parties. Explain how political parties are funded.

Session 8: The National Government
Objective
Describe and appreciate the overall system of government, functions and structure. Describe the role of national government and its structures. Explain the relationship between the structures and the people. Discuss the relationship, checks and balances between the structures.

Content
Definition of political parties. Formation and registration of political parties. Role of political parties. Funding of political parties. IEBC role with regards to political parties.

Content
Principles of governance. Role of Government. Overall structures of Government. The national government structures. Role of the national government.

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Session 9: Parliament
Objective
Explain the purpose and need for two chambers of Parliament. Identify the number, the processes and the need for various categories and Players in the two Houses. Illustrate the processes used by the two chambers of Parliament.

Session 10: Executive
Objective
Explain and appreciate the composition and functions of the Executive. Explain and discuss the roles and occupancy of individual offices under the Executive.

Content
Offices within the Executive. Roles, occupancy and exit. The President - functions - election - eligibility - assumption of office - vacancy and/or removal. The Deputy President. The Cabinet. The Cabinet Secretaries. Principal Secretaries.

Content
The two Houses. Composition. Eligibility. Electoral boundary/qualification criteria. Role of each House. Relationship between the two Houses. Conduct of business in each House.

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Session 11: Judiciary
Objective
Explain and discuss the principles of the judicial system. Describe the court system. identify court Levels.

Session 12: Public Service
Objective
Discuss and explain the role of national public service. explain the values and principles of public service.

Content
Judicial functions/authority. Structure/levels of courts. Functions of each level. Relationship between the levels. The tribunals. The trial processes. Rights of the accused. Judicial staffing and recruitment of judges. Judicial Service Commission.

Content
Nature of public service. Application of values and principles. Leadership and integrity. Conduct of public officers.

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Session 13: National Finance
Objective
Identify the source of national government revenue. Explain the principles of Public Finance.

Session 14: Other Nat. Ins. Offices
Objective
Explain how constitutional and State offices are established and protected. Describe the functions of the Commissions and Independent Offices.

Content
Sources of national government revenue. The Consolidated Fund. National annual estimates and budget approval processes. Expenditure controls and audit.

Content
The Attorney General. Director of Public Prosecutions. National Security Services Controller of Budget. Auditor-General. Commissions - Kenya National Human Rights and Equality. - National Land. - Independent Electoral and Boundaries. - Parliamentary Service. Judicial Service. Revenue Allocation. Public Service. Salaries and Remuneration. - Teachers Service. - National Police Service.

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Session 15: Devolved Governments
Objective
Explain the principles of devolution. Explain the structures and functions of the counties. Explain election processes and how county positions are filled.

Session 16: County Assembly
Objective
Explain the establishment and nature of the county assembly.

Content
Composition of the assembly. Qualifications for election.

Content
The purpose and justification/rationale of county governments. Structure of counties. Functions of counties. Overlapping functions between the national government and counties The counties.

Role of the assembly. County legislation and national legislation.

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Session 17: County Executive
Objective
Explain the establishment of the county executive committee.

Session 18: Counties Public Serv.
Objective
Explain the role of county public service. Identify the sources of finance for counties.

Content
Composition. The county governor/deputy governor. i) role ii) election iii) vacancy/removal.

Content
County staffing. Sources of county revenue. Share of the national revenue. Management of county finance. Controls and audit.

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Session 19: Transition
Objective
Identify areas of transition. Explain transition processes and activities.

Session 20: Ammendments
Objective
Explain how the Constitution can be amended in future.

Content
Governance until 2012 elections. Legislation to be made. Judicial processes. Provincial Administration. Local Authorities.

Content
Meaning of amendments. Sources for amending the Constitution. - Parliament - Popular initiative - Referendum

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Session 21: Referendum
Objective
Explain the need for the people’s participation in Constitution making. Discuss the referendum question. Discuss the referendum process.

Content
Definition of a referendum. Difference between a referendum and elections. Conduct of the referendum. Date of the referendum. The polling process. The promulgation of the Constitution if ‘Yes’.

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Notes
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COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS ON CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW Delta House Waiyaki Way, Westlands P.O. Box 8703 00200 Nairobi Tel: 020 444 32 14/15/16, 252 7152; Fax: 020 444 32 11/ 252 6959 info@coekenya.go.ke

www.coekenya.go.ke

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